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Exercise dependence: A systematic review

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Background and Purpose: The purpose of this paper was to review the equivocal literature examining exercise dependence and deprivation.Method: A comprehensive literature search yielded 77 exercise dependence and 11 exercise deprivation studies, spanning 29 years (range=1970 to 1999), were reviewed.Results and conclusions: The research was characterized by three general approaches: (a) comparing exercisers to eating disorder patients, (b) comparing “excessive” to “less excessive” exercisers, and (c) comparing exercisers to nonexercisers. Study results have been inconclusive due, in part, to a lack of experimental research, inconsistent or nonexistent control groups, discrepant operational criteria for exercise dependence, and/or invalidated or inappropriate measures of exercise dependence. More systematic theory based research is required to understand the precipitating and perpetuating factors associated with exercise dependence, as well as effective treatment regimens.

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... More specifically, EA refers to a multidimensional maladaptive pattern of exercise that is associated with significant distress and impairment and characterized by the following (Hausenblas & Symons Downs, 2002a): (1) tolerance to increased exercise amounts, (2) withdrawal effects when exercise is not undertaken, (3) intention effects resulting in recurrent and longer involvement, (4) lack of control in engaging or reducing behavior, (5) excessive time spent in exercising or related behaviors, (6) reductions in other activities because of exercise, and (7) the continuance of exercise despite recurrent physical or psychological problems. Hausenblas and Symons Downs (2002a) proposed that the presence of at least three of the previous symptoms evidenced exercise dependence. ...
... More specifically, EA refers to a multidimensional maladaptive pattern of exercise that is associated with significant distress and impairment and characterized by the following (Hausenblas & Symons Downs, 2002a): (1) tolerance to increased exercise amounts, (2) withdrawal effects when exercise is not undertaken, (3) intention effects resulting in recurrent and longer involvement, (4) lack of control in engaging or reducing behavior, (5) excessive time spent in exercising or related behaviors, (6) reductions in other activities because of exercise, and (7) the continuance of exercise despite recurrent physical or psychological problems. Hausenblas and Symons Downs (2002a) proposed that the presence of at least three of the previous symptoms evidenced exercise dependence. ...
... Research on EA started in the 1970s, grew in the 1980s to the 2000s, and exploded until recently; it is currently a well-recognized although poorly understood and controversial phenomenon for which investigation is still inconsistent (e.g., Adams, 2009;Adams & Kirkby, 1998;Allegre et al., 2006;Berczik et al., 2012;Cook et al., 2014;Davis, 2000;Freimuth et al., 2011;Gonçalves et al., 2019;Hausenblas & Symons Downs, 2002a;Kerr et al., 2007;Lichtenstein et al., 2017;Petit & Lejoyeux, 2013;Szabo et al., 2018;Veale, 1987;Weinstein & Weinstein, 2014). However, knowledge has been based on a lack of well-controlled empirical evidence (Gonçalves et al., 2019;Hausenblas & Symons Downs, 2002a;Szabo, 2009;Szabo et al., 2015) and, more importantly, the absence of a consensus on the nomination, definition, operationalization, identification, and measurement of EA manifestations and etiological and outcome correlates, along with issues on evidence-guided diagnosis and clinical practice. ...
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Exercise addiction (EA) involves excessive concerns for exercise routines, an abusive practice, and the inability to control one’s own behavior, as well as the presence of psychological processes that are typical of behavioral addictions such as abstinence. EA is further associated with an alteration of the individual’s personal, social, and professional functioning and a higher risk for several pathologies, including physical injury, psychological distress, and eating disorders. The present work presents a narrative scoping review of the state of the art and the main findings of the research on EA, with a focus in the athletic population. The prevalence of EA risk, between 1 and 52% and up to 80% when co-occurring with eating disturbances, is also reviewed. Additionally, some of the explanatory models proposed to date and their power and limitations in terms of their capacity for a consensual operationalization and characterization of EA, and thus for the optimal exploration and management of this condition, are discussed. Finally, some deficiencies in the research on EA are noted which are to be addressed to successfully respond to the intervention and prevention needs that occur both in the general context of exercise-sports practice and the specific context of competitive athletes.
... case that the over-training individual has problems such as anxiety, depression, bad temper and insomnia when he/she does not have the opportunity to do exercise [13] and as the positive addiction which is the case that the person over-training in order to cope with difficulties experienced throughout life [14]. In the literature, it is asserted that exercise addiction was associated with factors such as personal characteristics, psychological factors, physiological factors, type of exercise, gender and annual amount of exercise [13,15]. ...
... case that the over-training individual has problems such as anxiety, depression, bad temper and insomnia when he/she does not have the opportunity to do exercise [13] and as the positive addiction which is the case that the person over-training in order to cope with difficulties experienced throughout life [14]. In the literature, it is asserted that exercise addiction was associated with factors such as personal characteristics, psychological factors, physiological factors, type of exercise, gender and annual amount of exercise [13,15]. However, in order for someone to be classified as an exercise addict, they must show 3 or more of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria. ...
... Exercise Dependency Scale-21 (EDS) which was developed by Hausenblas and Downs [13] and transformed into Turkish by Yeltepe and İkizler [21] was used as a data collection tool. It was developed in five stages with a sample composed of 2420 participants. ...
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This study was conducted for identifying the factors that affect exercise dependency levels of healthy adults who do exercise and undertake sports activities on a regular basis. A total of 410 healthy participants who exercised in fitness centers and/or gyms for at least two years participated in the study voluntarily. Mean age of the participants was 27.8±9.1 years, 150 of whom were females and 260 of whom were males. Exercise Dependency Scale-21 which was developed by Hausenblas and Downs and transformed into Turkish by Yeltepe and İkizler was used as a data collection tool. While the findings of the study showed that there was no significant difference in exercise dependency levels of the participants according to gender variable, there were significant differences in exercise dependency levels according to annual amount of exercise, weekly exercise duration, social media usage time and type of exercise variables. As a result, 6.8% of the participants in the study were addicted to exercise, in addition to being loved, socially accepted and beautiful by others, they do sports and exercise to improve their performance and health, the group with the highest level of addiction is engaged in fitness/ bodybuilding, and it was concluded that those with the least exercise addiction level were engaged in team sports. As a conclusion, it was determined that annual amount of exercise and weekly exercise duration were the most important factors affecting the level of exercise dependence.
... The combination of increased fear (Schimmenti, Billieux, & Starcevic, 2020) and performing exercise specifically to alleviate such negative affect (Castellini et al., 2020) raises concerns that individuals with exercise pathology would be at a particularly increased risk of symptom escalation during a pandemic. Exercise dependence (ExDep) is a proposed condition in which individuals engage in pathological patterns of exercise (Hausenblas & Symons Downs, 2002). Ecological momentary assessment studies have demonstrated that individuals with pathological exercise attitudes may regulate mood and affect through exercise behavior (Cook et al., 2013;Le Page, Price, O'Neil, & Crowther, 2012). ...
... Our observation of associations among mood and ExDep is in line with initial observations of exercise deprivation effects on habitual exercisers (Hausenblas & Symons Downs, 2002) and the etiological role of affect regulation in ExDep (Cook, Hausenblas, & Freimuth, 2014). In general, participants were most likely to maintain their habitual exercise behavior during the lockdown. ...
... In addition, the use of the FESA as our measurement of ExDep may be viewed as a limitation of the current study because this measure was validated on endurance athletes. However, the FESA is not contraindicated in non-endurance samples because it assesses core aspects of ExDep (Cook et al., 2014;Hausenblas & Symons Downs, 2002). Specifically, all factors in the FESA correspond to definitions of behavioral addiction and reflect factors assessed in other measures of ExDep that have been used in population-based research. ...
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The effects of COVID-19-related lockdowns on deterioration of mental health and use of exercise to remediate such effects has been well documented in numerous populations. However, it remains unknown how lockdown restrictions impacted individuals differently and who was more likely to change their exercise behavior and experience negative well-being. The current study examined exercise dependence as a risk factor and its impact on exercise behavior and mood during the initial COVID-19 lockdowns on a global scale in 11,898 participants from 17 countries. Mixed effects models revealed that reducing exercise behavior was associated with a stronger decrease in mood for individuals at risk of exercise dependence compared to individuals at low risk of exercise dependence. Participants at high risk and exercising more prior to the pandemic reported the most exercise during lockdown. Effects of lowered mood were most pronounced in participants with high risk of exercise dependence who reported greater reduction in exercise frequency during lockdown. These results support recent etiological evidence for exercise dependence and add to a growing body of literature documenting mental health effects related to COVID-19.
... Exercise Dependence Scale-21 Questionnaire was used to determine the exercise habits and attitudes of the students. The Exercise Dependence Scale-21 was developed by Hausenblas & Downs, (2002) of the Exercise Laboratory, Department of Exercise and Sport Sciences, University of ...
... Florida, and Daniel Symons Downs, Pennsylvania State University (Hausenblas & Downs, 2002). The reason we used this scale in our study was created recently. ...
... The scale is based on 7 addiction criteria: tolerance, effects of cessation of exercise, intention effect, loss of control, time, reduction of other activities, and continuity. If 3 or more of these criteria (each criterion consists of 3 questions) get an average of 5-6 points, exercise addicts are classified as symptomatic if they get 3-4 points and asymptomatic if they get 1-2 points (Hausenblas & Downs, 2002). The Turkish validity and reliability study of the Exercise Dependence Scale was conducted by Yeltepe, and the Cronbach alpha coefficient was calculated as 0.97 as a result of the reliability analysis (Yeltepe, 2005). ...
... Binge-spectrum eating disorders (EDs, i.e., bulimia nervosa and binge eating disorder) affect approximately 2% of adults [1], and are characterized by a subjective sense of loss of control over eating and may include engagement in inappropriate compensatory behaviors such as purging or maladaptive exercise. For those with EDs, engagement in maladaptive exercise may be described as 'compensatory' (i.e., designed to "compensate for" calories consumed) and/ or 'driven' (i.e., feeling compelled to exercise to avoid negative consequences associated with not exercising such as increases in negative affect) [2,3]. Approximately 40-60% of individuals with binge eating engage in maladaptive exercise [4]; however, the proportion of episodes that are maladaptive may vary. ...
... Additionally, exercise may also serve to maintain FOWG. Current theories posit that positive and negative reinforcement systems maintain maladaptive exercise by decreasing negative affect and, to a lesser extent, increasing positive affect [2,3]. Further, exercise has been theorized to help individuals with EDs regulate other cognitive-affective experiences such as body dissatisfaction. ...
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Purpose Maladaptive exercise (i.e., exercise that is either driven or compensatory) is thought to momentarily down-regulate elevated fear of weight gain (FOWG). However, little research has examined associations between FOWG and exercise, and no research has measured FOWG at a momentary level or considered exercise type (i.e., maladaptive vs. adaptive). Thus, we examined both within- and between-subject associations between FOWG and exercise among individuals with trans-diagnostic binge eating. Methods We recruited treatment-seeking adults (N = 58, 82.9% female) to complete a 7–14-day ecological momentary assessment protocol which assessed levels of FOWG and exercise engagement and type. Mixed models and generalized estimating equations assessed within-subject associations, and linear regression assessed between-subject associations. Results There was no main effect of FOWG on exercise engagement at the next survey. However, unexpectedly, exercise type moderated this relationship such that the relationship between FOWG and exercise was strongest for episodes of adaptive exercise. Overall exercise frequency accounted for 10.4% of the variance in FOWG and exercise type explained an additional 1.7% of the variance in FOWG. Conclusion The findings of the current study indicate that momentary levels of FOWG are associated with subsequent adaptive exercise episodes, while higher overall levels of maladaptive exercise were associated with higher levels of FOWG. Future treatments should place a greater emphasis on reducing the frequency of maladaptive exercise by providing strategies for reducing FOWG. Level of evidence Level IV: Evidence obtained from multiple time series analysis such as case studies.
... Most experts agree that maladaptive, abusive exercising is a multidimensional phenomenon involving unique qualitative features regarding the relevance conceded to the activity (i.e., attitudes toward exercise or training, obsessive aspects, preoccupation), control of the behavior (i.e., loss of control, compulsion, drive or compelling aspects, rigidity), conditions of the practice (e.g., even when fatigue, illness or injury is present), centrality of the behavior (e.g., priority, interferences with personal and social life, conflicts with responsibilities), harmful consequences (e.g., exhaustion, illness, injury, subjective ill-being, social conflict), and withdrawal symptoms (e.g., negative mood when exercise is impeded, guilt when a training session is missed), rather than exclusively quantitative features of excessive volume (i.e., type, duration, frequency and intensity of physical activity) which can hardly be judged as pathologic without considering, among other factors, the individuals' physical condition, health status, age, and regular level of training (e.g., Adams 2009;Adams and Kirkby 1998;Allegre et al. 2006;Berczik et al. 2012;Cook et al. 2014;Davis 2000;De Coverley Veale 1987;Freimuth et al. 2011;Gonçalves et al. 2019;Hausenblas and Symons Downs 2002a;Kerr et al. 2007;Lichtenstein et al. 2017;Petit and Lejoyeux 2013;Szabo 2009;Szabo and Egorov 2015;Szabo et al. 2018;Weinstein and Weinstein 2014). ...
... In addition, a plethora of terms have been used to name this problematic engagement in exercise (e.g., exercise addiction/dependence, obligatory/excessive/abusive/compulsive exercise, exercise misuse/abuse), making the agreement in operationalization and the interpretation of the literature challenging; although each term has its specific features and connotations, it has been proposed that exercise addiction (EA) is preferable, as it includes all the abovementioned meanings (e.g., Berczik et al. 2012;Cook et al. 2014;Freimuth et al. 2011;Hausenblas and Symons Downs 2002a;Lichtenstein et al. 2017;Petit and Lejoyeux 2013;Szabo et al. , 2018Weinstein and Weinstein 2014). Thus, following this perspective, the affected individual behaves compulsively, exhibits withdrawal symptoms when exercise is not possible, anddue to extreme volumes of exerciseexperiences conflict as well as negative life consequences (Szabo et al. 2016). ...
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Exercise addiction (EA) affects a considerable number of individuals who regularly perform exercise-sport activities. The co-occurrence of EA manifestations and the continuum of disordered eating-eating disorders (EDs) is so common in sports that a deeper understanding of them as comorbidities is warranted. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date overview and synthesis of the research on the relationship between maladaptive exercise and dysfunctional eating in the sport context. A systematic review was conducted following the PRISMA guidelines. A total of 22 empirical studies (23 articles) with young and adult female and male athletes from several sports and competition levels was included. EA in conjunction with eating disturbances is frequent among athletes, yet the prevalence rates are inconsistent. Existing evidence suggests that EA is a relevant outcome of ED pathology among athletes, supporting the classical secondary type of EA. However, research also reveals that excessive exercising plays a central role in the psychopathology of disordered eating. There is a need for further quantitative research addressing the features and correlates of the EA-EDs dyad, qualitative research on the subjective experiences of athletes with disordered exercise and eating, longitudinal and experimental research to establish possible causal paths and attempts to develop comprehensive conceptual models of EA and its co-occurrence with EDs, in order to improve the identification, prevention, and management of this dyadic condition in the sport context.
... Auch Sport kann sich von einer gesunden Gewohnheit zu einer exzessiv betriebenen, grenzenlosen, sich trotz Schwierigkeiten wiederholenden Sucht nach körperlicher Aktivität entwickeln. In Bezug auf die klinische Einordnung soll die Sportsucht (alternativ auch Sport-oder Bewegungsabhängigkeit) dabei als eine nicht-substanzbezogene Verhaltenssucht klassifiziert werden (Colledge et al., 2020;Griffiths, 1997;Hausenblas & Downs, 2002). Angelehnt an die Suchtdefinition werden folgende Kriterien für Sportsucht vorgeschlagen: Entzugssymptome (der Verzicht auf Sport hat emotionale und somatische Folgen wie depressive Verstimmung, Ruhelosigkeit und Schlafprobleme), Kontrollverlust (selbständiger Trainingsabbruch oder -reduktion nicht möglich), Toleranzentwicklung (Intensitäts-und Umfangsteigerung, die nicht auf die normale Trainingsadaptionen zurückzuführen sind), Intentionalität (das Verhalten wird als nicht mehr beabsichtigt oder sogar fremdbestimmt beschrieben), Aufwand (aufwändiges Planungs-oder Vorbereitungsverhalten, auch im "sportfreien" Alltag), Konflikte (in außersportlichen Lebensbereichen wie Beruf, Familie, Freunde) und Kontinuität (Ignorieren oder Bagatellisieren von Verletzungen oder fehlende notwendige Erholungs-und Regenerationsphasen). Wie das Phänomen der Orthorexia nervosa ist auch die Sportsucht bisher nicht in die aktuellen Klassifikationssysteme aufgenommen. ...
... Der Umstand, dass bei bis zu 50% der Essstörungspatient*innen exzessives Sporttreiben ebenfalls eine Rolle spielt (Dalle Grave, Calugi & Marchesini, 2008), heizt immer wieder auch die Debatte an, ob es die primäre Sportsucht überhaupt gibt. Wie auch bei der Orthorexia nervosa schwanken Angaben zur Prävalenz zumindest einzelner Symptome der Sportsucht stark (je nach Untersuchungsmethode und Sportart) zwischen 3 bis mehr als 20% (Hausenblas & Downs, 2002). Vor allem bei Ausdauersportarten wie Laufen, Radsport, Schwimmen oder Triathlon findet sich eine höhere Gefährdung (Breuer & Kleinert, 2009 ...
Article
Zusammenfassung: Orthorexia nervosa beschreibt ein Verhalten, bei dem Personen eine zwang-hafte Beschäftigung mit und obsessives Interesse für gesunde Ernährung zeigen. Diese Beses-senheit, nur gesunde Lebensmittel zu essen, überschneidet sich dabei zumindest teilweise mit sportsüchtigen Verhaltensweisen. Es wird angenommen, dass diesem Zusammenhang bestimm-te soziodemografische Merkmale (Alter, Geschlecht, Bildung) sowie bestimmte psychologische Merkmale (Motive, Perfektionismus, Ängstlichkeit) zugrunde liegen. Ob jedoch auch Sporttrei-bende generell gefährdeter sind, orthorektisches Verhalten zu entwickeln, ist aktuell unklar. Hauptziele dieses Artikels sind es, die Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede zwischen Orthorexia nervosa und Sportsucht darzustellen, das Gefährdungspotential für orthorektische Tendenzen unter Sporttreibenden herauszuarbeiten und daraus Handlungsempfehlungen für die sportpsy-chologische Praxis abzuleiten. Journal: Bewegung & Sport (Verlag Brüder Hollinek)
... Urges to move, especially at night, are a defining characteristic of Restless Leg Syndrome, which may affect other parts of the body as well (Garcia-Borreguero et al., 2011;Jung et al., 2017;Ruppert, 2019). Exercise dependence/addiction is a "craving for leisure-time physical activity, resulting in uncontrollable excessive exercise behavior" and showing a variety of physical and psychological symptoms (Hausenblas and Downs, 2002). Long-term use of anti-psychotic medication can result in psychogenic movement disorders, such as tardive dyskinesia and akathisia, the latter of which results in a pressing need to constantly fidget and move about (Iqbal et al., 2007). ...
... The WANT model predicts that desires/wants for movement might even reach levels of strong urges or cravings (Stults-Kolehmainen et al., 2020a). Such cravings are known to exist, in cases of psychiatric illness (Iqbal et al., 2007), neuromuscular disorders (Garcia-Borreguero et al., 2011;Zhu et al., 2019), or exercise addiction/dependence, in particular (Hausenblas and Downs, 2002). Those who "crave activity" likely have rewards systems that activate in response to physical activity and exercise (de Geus and de Moor, 2011;Bauman et al., 2012). ...
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Physical activity, and likely the motivation for it, varies throughout the day. The aim of this investigation was to create a short assessment (CRAVE: Cravings for Rest and Volitional Energy Expenditure) to measure motivation states (wants, desires, urges) for physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Five studies were conducted to develop and evaluate the construct validity and reliability of the scale, with 1,035 participants completing the scale a total of 1,697 times. In Study 1, 402 university students completed a questionnaire inquiring about the want or desire to perform behaviors “at the present moment (right now).” Items related to physical activity (e.g., “move my body”) and sedentary behaviors (e.g., “do nothing active”). An exploratory structural equation model (ESEM) revealed that 10 items should be retained, loading onto two factors (5 each for Move and Rest). In Study 2, an independent sample ( n = 444) confirmed these results and found that Move and Rest desires were associated with stage-of-change for exercise behavior. In Study 3, 127 community-residing participants completed the CRAVE at 6-month intervals over two years- two times each session. Across-session interclass correlations (ICC) for Move (ICC = 0.72–0.95) and Rest (ICC = 0.69–0.88) were higher than when they were measured across 24-months (Move: ICC = 0.53; Rest: ICC = 0.49), indicating wants/desires have state-like qualities. In Study 4, a maximal treadmill test was completed by 21 university students. The CRAVE was completed immediately pre and post. Move desires decreased 26% and Rest increased 74%. Changes in Move and Rest desires were moderately associated with changes in perceived physical fatigue and energy. In Study 5, 41 university students sat quietly during a 50-min lecture. They completed the CRAVE at 3 time points. Move increased 19.6% and Rest decreased 16.7%. Small correlations were detected between move and both perceived energy and tiredness, but not calmness or tension. In conclusion, the CRAVE scale has good psychometric properties. These data also support tenets of the WANT model of motivation states for movement and rest ( Stults-Kolehmainen et al., 2020a ). Future studies need to explore how desires to move/rest relate to dynamic changes in physical activity and sedentarism.
... The relationship between problematic exercise and gender has been inconsistent. Some studies show higher exercise dependence among males (42)(43)(44), and others suggest the opposite (45,46). The association between problematic exercise and age has also been contradictory. ...
... This percentage was smaller than the proportion found among gym users before the COVID-19 pandemic (11.7%) (23) or among the exercise practitioners of Spanish-speaking countries (15.2%) in the recent study that was carried out during the COVID-19 lockdown period-in April of 2020 (65). Our results further showed that more male than female respondents displayed a risk of problematic exercising, which is consistent with previous studies [e.g., (23,(42)(43)(44)]. ...
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Introduction: Little is known about the impact of restrictive measures during the COVID-19 pandemic on self-image and engagement in exercise and other coping strategies alongside the use of image and performance-enhancing drugs (IPEDs) to boost performance and appearance. Objectives: To assess the role of anxiety about appearance and self-compassion on the practice of physical exercise and use of IPEDs during lockdown. Methods: An international online questionnaire was carried out using the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), the Appearance Anxiety Inventory (AAI), and the Self-Compassion Scale (SCS) in addition to questions on the use of IPEDs. Results: The sample consisted of 3,161 (65% female) adults from Italy (41.1%), Spain (15.7%), the United Kingdom (UK) (12.0%), Lithuania (11.6%), Portugal (10.5%), Japan (5.5%), and Hungary (3.5%). The mean age was 35.05 years ( SD = 12.10). Overall, 4.3% of the participants were found to engage in excessive or problematic exercise with peaks registered in the UK (11.0%) and Spain (5.4%). The sample reported the use of a wide range of drugs and medicines to boost image and performance (28%) and maintained use during the lockdown, mostly in Hungary (56.6%), Japan (46.8%), and the UK (33.8%), with 6.4% who started to use a new drug. Significant appearance anxiety levels were found across the sample, with 18.1% in Italy, 16.9% in Japan, and 16.7% in Portugal. Logistic regression models revealed a strong association between physical exercise and IPED use. Anxiety about appearance also significantly increased the probability of using IPEDs. However, self-compassion did not significantly predict such behavior. Anxiety about appearance and self-compassion were non-significant predictors associated with engaging in physical exercise. Discussion and Conclusion: This study identified risks of problematic exercising and appearance anxiety among the general population during the COVID-19 lockdown period across all the participating countries with significant gender differences. Such behaviors were positively associated with the unsupervised use of IPEDs, although no interaction between physical exercise and appearance anxiety was observed. Further considerations are needed to explore the impact of socially restrictive measures among vulnerable groups, and the implementation of more targeted responses.
... However this type of activity is already beyond the ordinary recreation and it raises the assumption of some other motivating factors. Taking into account the new phenomenon of exercise addiction (EA), which has detrimental impacts on individuals who are engaged excessively in physical activities (Hausenblas and Downs, 2002a), we suggest long-distance hikers may border on it. Individuals with this behavioral addiction usually lose control over their physical habits and undertake physical activity regardless of injury, weather, time demands, leading to deterioration of health (Szabo, 2010). ...
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Hikers performing long distances (1000–5500 kms a year) were analyzed using quantitative and qualitative methods to evaluate their mental well-being and to find their motivation as well as to analyze the excessive physical activity. 112 hikers completed a questionnaire (M(age) = 40.28, SD = 8.77, 57.1% male) and 25 individuals were interviewed. Distance had association only with perceived health status. There were no differences between males and females, as well as between age groups and educational attainments regarding distance. 33.3% of hikers indicated symptoms of loneliness and 4.5% were involved excessively in hiking that was significantly regressed by distress. Hikers had mainly intrinsic motivations to complete long distances including overcoming new challenges, finding the physical boundaries, experiencing a state outside the comfort zone, belonging to a special group with similar interest and attracted by the beauty of nature. Overcoming all these embodied in a flow experience that took them further to perform the new long-distance trails.
... In addition, there is evidence for the personality trait impulsivity and addictive behaviors to share underlying neurobiological mechanisms (Grant, Potenza, Weinstein, & Gorelick, 2010). Main dimensions of personality, such as extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, agreeableness, have been linked to exercise addiction (Hausenblas & Downs, 2002) and other behavioral addictions (Andreassen et al., 2013). Associations were, however, not always unequivocally (Bircher, Griffiths, Kasos, Demetrovics, & Szabo, 2017). ...
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Objective Symptoms of exercise addiction, a state of compulsively engaging in intense exercise, and orthorexic eating attitudes, the obsession with eating only healthy foods, often occur together. It is assumed that some more general psychological traits underlie this association. Main aim of this report was to examine similarities and differences between orthorexic eating and addictive exercising. Method Six hundred and eight individuals completed an online survey (mean age: 27.5, SD = 11.0 years; 76.5% women) measuring exercise addiction (Exercise Addiction inventory, EAI), orthorexic eating (Düsseldorfer Orthorexie Skala, DOS), personality domains (Big‐Five Inventory‐10), anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Results Correlations between the DOS and EAI were .43 in women and .62 in men. Structural equation models identified gender‐specific as well as behavior‐specific psychological correlates. Among women, anxiety correlated with both EAI and DOS. In addition, the DOS correlated with depression and neuroticism while the EAI correlated with conscientiousness. In men, both scales were associated with conscientiousness and the EAI also correlated with extraversion. Clusterability analysis provided no evidence for clusters based on DOS and EAI. Discussion Present results showed a substantial correlation between addictive exercising and orthorexic eating, however, coefficients were smaller than expected and appeared higher in men. Both behaviors shared few psychological traits (anxiety in women, conscientiousness in men) thereby questioning the assumption of a similar origin. Additionally, gender‐specific psychological correlates point to the need for different disease management approaches in women and men.
... The variety of perspectives and theoretical models explaining problematic exercise has resulted in a broad set of terms used to refer to and assess this phenomenon. Terms used include commitment to exercise (Corbin, Nielsen, Borsdorf, & Laurie, 1987;Davis, Brewer, & Ratusny, 1993), exercise addiction (Szabo, Pinto, Griffiths, Kov acsik, & Demetrovics, 2019;Terry, Szabo, & Griffiths, 2004), compulsive exercise (Meyer et al., 2016;Taranis, Touyz, & Meyer, 2011), obligatory exercise (Duncan et al., 2012;Pasman & Thompson, 1988), excessive exercise (McCabe & Vincent, 2002), problematic exercise (Chamberlain & Grant, 2020;Kotbagi, Kern, Romo, & Pathare, 2015), exercise dependence (Hausenblas & Symons-Downs, 2002a, 2002b, and morbid exercise (Alcaraz-Ib añez, Paterna, Sicilia, & Griffiths, 2020;Szabo et al., 2018). In this paper, we use the term 'problematic exercise' for two main reasons. ...
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Background and aims: The aim of the present systematic review was to identify psychometric tools developed to assess problematic exercise in order to identify and compare their theoretical conceptualisations on which they are based. Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in the electronic databases Web of Science, Scielo, PsychINFO, PsycTEST and SCOPUS from their inception to January 2020. Results: Seventeen assessment instruments met the eligibility criteria to be included in the present review. The instruments were classified according to their conceptualisation into five groups: (i) problematic exercise as an end of an exercise continuum, (ii) problematic exercise as a means of regulating body size and weight, (iii) problematic exercise as dependence, (iv) problematic exercise as a behavioural addiction and (v) no clear conceptualisation. Discussion: The results suggest that the conceptualisations of the assessment instruments have resulted in a strong dichotomy in relation to the primary or secondary character of the problematic exercise that might be limiting the capacity of the instruments to adequately capture the multidimensionality of this construct. Conclusions: Given the interest in understanding the complexity surrounding the problematic exercise, future research should develop more comprehensive definitions of this construct. This would allow a greater conceptual consensus to be reached that would allow progress to be made in the study of the problematic exercise.
... Exercise addiction is defined as an individual's inability to control himself and exercise excessively despite obstacles and adverse situations (Adams, 2009). Increasing exercise duration, intensity and frequency, not spending time for family and friends to exercise, perceiving and planning their life around exercise are important symptoms of exercise addiction (Hausenblas & Downs, 2002). It is stated that exercise addiction is associated with factors such as personality traits, psychological factors, physiological factors, exercise type, gender and year of participation in exercise (Bavlı et al., 2011). ...
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Depending on the developing technology, individuals started to pursue a less active lifestyle. The sedentary lifestyle has brought along many health problems. One of these health problems is obesity. Awareness of obesity is important for individual health. One of the applications that can be implemented to cope with obesity is exercise. This study aims to analyze the relationship between university students’ exercise addiction and obesity awareness. Therefore, 249 university students (132 males, 117 females) participated in the study. In the study, the “Exercise Addiction Scale” developed by Tekkurşun-Demir, Hazar and Cicioğlu (2018) and the “Obesity Awareness” scale developed by Allen (2011) and adapted to Turkish culture by Kafkas and Özen (2014) were used as data collection tools. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods, t-test for independent groups and one-way variance (ANOVA). Correlation test was employed to determine the relationship between exercise addiction and obesity awareness. As a result of the research, it was determined that students’ awareness of exercise addiction and obesity was at a moderate level. It was determined that exercise addiction had a significant effect on average the number of steps taken per day. Besides, it was determined that there was a low level of a positive relationship between exercise addiction and obesity awareness.
... Although participants reported a wide range of pastyear frequencies of body-focused self-damaging behaviors in both samples, the extent to which these results would generalize to clinical populations and/or individuals with more extensive functional impairment as a result of these behaviors (e.g., psychiatric inpatients) is unclear. That said, it is important to note that, although not a clinical population, college students have been found to exhibit clinicallyrelevant levels of many self-damaging behaviors, including those examined here (Claes et al., 2010;Gratz, 2001;Hansen et al., 1990;Hausenblas & Downs, 2002;Whitlock et al., 2011). Nonetheless, it will be important for future studies to evaluate the psychometric properties of the BSBEQ in clinical populations. ...
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Direct and indirect body-focused self-damaging behaviors are highly prevalent and associated with negative outcomes. Despite progress in understanding the expected consequences (i.e., expectancies) that motivate individuals to engage in these behaviors, less is known about the co-occurrence of, and specific expectancies for, body-focused self-damaging behaviors. The goal of this study was to develop a self-report measure to assess the frequency and co-occurrence of, and individuals’ average expectancies for, body-focused self-damaging behaviors. An initial draft of the Body-focused Self-damaging Behavior Expectancies Questionnaire (BSBEQ) was developed and refined through expert feedback and pilot testing in a student sample (n = 11). The specific body-focused self-damaging behaviors selected for assessment included nonsuicidal self-injury, disordered eating behavior, body-focused repetitive behaviors, and problematic exercise. The factor structure of the BSBEQ was examined initially through exploratory factor analysis in a student sample (n = 349) and then through confirmatory factor analysis in a community sample (n = 443). The final BSBEQ was comprised of 17 items across five subscales: Control, Self-Improvement, Coping with Emotional Pain, Positive Emotion Down-regulation, and Interpersonal Influence. The internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent and divergent validity of the subscales were generally supported. The BSBEQ represents a flexible tool for assessing the frequency of and average expectancies for body-focused self-damaging behaviors, and can be used for assessment and/or treatment planning by researchers and clinicians working with individuals with a variety of self-damaging behaviors that have a direct or indirect physical effect on the body.
... Considering the harmful influence of EXD on a person's physical and mental health (de Coverley Veale, 1987;Hausenblas & Symons Downs, 2002;Lichtenstein et al., 2014;Lichtenstein et al., 2018), it is important to determine reliable psychosocial predictors of EXD to formulate corresponding prevention strategies and intervention measures to reduce EXD. Evidence from extensive studies suggests that stress may be one of the psychosocial factors affecting the onset and development of EXD (Lichtenstein et al., 2018). ...
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Although regular physical exercise has multiple positive benefits for the general population, excessive exercise may lead to exercise dependence (EXD), which is harmful to one's physical and mental health. Increasing evidence suggests that stress is a potential risk factor for the onset and development of EXD. However, little is known about the neural substrates of EXD and the underlying neuropsychological mechanism by which stress affects EXD. Herein, we investigate these issues in 86 individuals who exercise regularly by estimating their cortical gray matter volume (GMV) utilizing a voxel-based morphometry method based on structural magnetic resonance imaging. Whole-brain correlation analyses and prediction analyses showed negative relationships between EXD and GMV of the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), left subgenual cingulate gyrus (sgCG), and left inferior parietal lobe (IPL). Furthermore, mediation analyses found that the GMV of the right OFC was an important mediator between stress and EXD. Importantly, these results remained significant even when adjusting for sex, age, body mass index, family socioeconomic status, general intelligence and total intracranial volume, as well as depression and anxiety. Collectively, the results of the present study provide crucial evidence of the neuroanatomical basis of EXD and reveal a potential neuropsychological pathway in predicting EXD in which GMV mediates the relationship between stress and EXD.
... Sin embargo, en algunos casos esta práctica puede llegar a ser excesiva y descontrolada y puede, incluso, desencadenar síntomas comportamentales, cognitivos y emocionales propios de una adicción tal y como está conceptualizada en el DSM-5. Cuando esto ocurre, se presenta un fenómeno que ha recibido varias denominaciones: ejercicio obligatorio (Pasman & Thompson, 1988), abuso del ejercicio (Davis, 2000), ejercicio compulsivo (Lichtenstein, Hinze, Emborg, Thomsen & Hemmingsen, 2017), adicción al ejercicio físico (Berczik et al., 2012) y dependencia al ejercicio físico (Hausenblas & Downs, 2002a). Las personas que se ejercitan frecuentemente, como los deportistas, los usuarios de gimnasios o centros deportivos son una población de interés (Sancho, Ruiz-Juan & Arufe, 2018) Se ha sugerido que la denominación «adicción al ejercicio físico» es la más acertada puesto que incluye tanto la compulsión como la dependencia, aunque la denominación «dependencia al ejercicio físico» parecería ser la de uso más frecuente (Berczik et al., 2012). ...
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Resumen: el artículo presenta un estudio psicométrico de la Escala de Dependencia al Ejercicio Físico-Revisada (EDS-R) en usuarios de gimnasios colombianos con el objetivo de analizar su estructura factorial, consistencia interna, confiabilidad de constructo y su validez convergente, discriminante y de criterio. Se realizó una investigación instrumental en la que participaron 515 usuarios de gimnasios (44.3 % hombres y 55.7 % mujeres) con edades entre los 18 y los 58 años (Md = 25; RIQ = 21-30) de la ciudad de Medellín. Se analizó la versión en español (Sicilia & González-Cutre, 2011) de la Escala de Dependencia al Ejercicio Físico-Revisada (EDS-R) (Downs, Hausenblas & Nigg, 2004). Se ejecutaron análisis factoriales confirmatorios y exploratorios. Resultados: la estructura original de la EDS-R mostró una adecuada consistencia interna y validez factorial, confirmada a través de los índices de bondad de ajuste para el modelo de siete dimensiones. El alfa de Cronbach fue de .917 y el coeficiente de dos mitades de Guttman fue de .924. Los índices de bondad de ajuste para la versión original fueron: PCMIN/DF = 2.291; RMR = .091; GFI = .917; AGFI = .886; CFI = .951; RMSEA = .056 (90% CI = .049-.063); PCLOSE = .093. Sin embargo, los valores de la varianza media extraída, la máxima varianza compartida y la fiabilidad máxima pusieron en evidencia dificultades con la confiabilidad de constructo, la validez convergente y validez discriminante. Tampoco hubo buenos resultados al analizar la validez de criterio. Para analizar si los datos en la muestra se ajustaban mejor a una estructura factorial diferente, se realizó un análisis factorial exploratorio complementario que llegó a un modelo de cinco factores, con los mismos 21 ítems. Sin embargo, la evaluación de la fiabilidad compuesta, validez convergente y validez discriminante arrojó mejores resultados que el modelo de siete factores. Palabras clave: validez, confiabilidad, medición, dependencia al ejercicio físico. Abstract: The article presents a psychometric study of the Physical Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R) in Colombian gym users with the aim of analyzing its factorial structure, internal consistency, construct reliability and its convergent, discriminant and criterion validity. An instrumental research was carried out with the participation of 515 gym users (44.3 % men and 55.7 % women) aged between 18 and 58 years (Md = 25; RIQ = 21-30) from the city of Medellín. The Spanish version (Sicilia & González-Cutre, 2011) of the Physical Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R) (Downs, Hausenblas & Nigg, 2004) was analyzed. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses were performed. Results: The original structure of the EDS-R showed adequate internal consistency and factorial validity, confirmed through the goodness-of-fit indices for the seven-dimensional model. Cronbach's alpha was .917 and the Guttman two-half coefficient was .924. The goodness-of-fit indices for the original version were: PCMIN/DF = 2.291; RMR = .091; GFI = .917; AGFI = .886; CFI = .951; RMSEA = .056 (90% CI = .049-.063); PCLOSE = .093. However, the values for mean variance extracted, maximum shared variance and maximum reliability revealed difficulties with construct reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity. There were also no-good results when analyzing criterion validity. To analyze whether the data in the sample fit better to a different factor structure, a complementary exploratory factor analysis was performed that arrived at a five-factor model, with the same 21 items. However, the assessment of composite reliability, convergent validity and discriminant validity yielded better results than the seven-factor model. Introducción Las adicciones conductuales son un campo de estu-dios en desarrollo. En la actualidad, solo el juego patoló-gico está incluido en el DSM-5 como un trastorno no relacionado con sustancias dentro de la categoría de Tras-tornos relacionados con sustancias y trastornos adictivos. Aunque no están incluidos en esta clasificación, diversos comportamientos compulsivos tienen características psicopatológicas muy similares a las de las adicciones a sustancias, como la adicción a internet, la adicción al sexo, la adicción a los video juegos, entre otras (Grant, Potenza, Weinstein & Gorelick, 2010). Practicar ejercicio frecuentemente es en la actuali-dad, y en la cultura occidental, un comportamiento co-mún. En condiciones normales, es una actividad saluda-ble y se llegó a considerar como una adicción positiva (Glasser, 1976). Sin embargo, en algunos casos esta prác-tica puede llegar a ser excesiva y descontrolada y pue-de, incluso, desencadenar síntomas comportamentales, cognitivos y emocionales propios de una adicción tal y como está conceptualizada en el DSM-5. Cuando esto
... Finally, substance-related addiction or other behavioral addiction comorbidities were not controlled in the current study because no other potentially addictive behaviors were asked about apart from gaming and exercise. It has been found that addicted individuals are likely to have multiple addictions (Hausenblas & Symons Downs, 2002a;Sussman et al., 2011), although as mentioned above, the co-occurrence of exercise addictions with heavy gaming or psychoactive substances is likely to be minimal. Future studies including overlapping addictions may give more comprehensive information about initiating and maintaining factors of these addictions. ...
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The aim of the present study was to examine the mediating roles of negative beliefs about emotions (NBAEs) and avoidance on the relationship between emotional maltreatment (i.e., emotional abuse and emotional neglect) and two kinds of behavioral addiction (i.e., gaming addiction and exercise addiction). The study comprised 731 participants (431 videogame players; 300 exercisers) who completed a survey comprising the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form, Leahy’s Emotional Schemas Scale, Cognitive Behavioral Avoidance Scale, Game Addiction Scale, and Exercise Dependence Scale-21. The findings indicated that emotionally abused gamers had more NBAEs and was associated with greater behavioral social avoidance and cognitive nonsocial avoidance. These greater types of avoidance reflected in higher gaming addiction scores. However, exercisers who had suffered emotional abuse and neglect had more NBAEs and were associated with greater behavioral nonsocial avoidance. These greater types of behavioral nonsocial avoidance reflected in lower exercise dependence scores.
... One of these benefits is related to the mood, which improves after training in both active and nonactive people (Bonet et al., 2017). However, despite these benefits, some people can train without limits, in unhealthy and compulsive degrees, to make exercise in some cases harmful (Glass et al., 2004;Hausenblas, & Symons, 2002;Ruiz-Juan et al., 2016;Szabo, 2000) and addictive. ...
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To analyze how mood status of veteran endurance athletes is modified in training and resting days, accor-ding to addiction level toward endurance running. 30 veteran endurance athletes participated in this study (age=40.53±8.20 years). The Negative Addiction Scale (NAS) and the Profile of Mood Status (POMS) were used. Participants were classified like an addicted when obtai-ned a score ≥5 in NAS. Athletes performed the POMS in non-successive days, 4 training days and 4 resting days. The addicted athletes significantly increased (p<.05) the scores in tension, depression and anger in resting days. In non-addicted group, the tension is significantly increased (p=.015) in resting days, Non-addicted group showed in resting days, significant lower values (p<.05) in tension, depression, fatigue and anger than addicted group. Non-addicted athletes showed an iceberg profi-le in training and resting days, while addicted athletes only in training days. Significant correlations (p<.05) were found between NAS and tension, depression, fa-tigue and anger in resting days. The veteran endurance athletes with negative addiction to running modify the mood state in resting days, even when the rest is plan-ned, and an increase in tension, depression, and anger values is produced.
... Several proposed theoretical approaches define and assess exercise addiction, most resembling those applied in assessing substance use disorders (i.e., Hausenblas & Downs, 2002). While such approaches are valid, the underlying assumption that exercise, as an object of addiction, is analogous to drugs or alcohol in substance use disorders (SUDs) raises some questions. ...
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Background and aims Cited in over 100 articles, the interactional model of exercise addiction (Egorov & Szabo, 2013) forms the theoretical foundation of many studies on the risk of exercise addiction. Still, the inclusion of previously omitted determinants could make it more useful. Therefore, this review presents the expanded version of the original model. Method We added ‘ self-concept’ as another determinant in the ‘personal factors’ domain and ‘ attractive alternatives’ to the ‘situational factors’ domain. Further, we doubled the reasons for exercise in the ‘incentives for exercise domain.’ Last, we added a new domain, the ‘ exercise-related stressors ,’ to illustrate that exercise itself might be a source of stress. Results The expanded model is more inclusive and accounts for a greater combination of interactions playing roles in exercise addiction. Overlooking the eventuality that stress resulting from exercise might also fuel the dysfunction was a significant omission from the original model, rectified in the current update. Finally, the new expansions make the model more applicable to competitive situations too Conclusion The expanded interactional model of exercise addiction is more comprehensive than its original version. It also accounts for the exercise or sport-related stress as possible fuel in addictive exercise behavior.
... Exercise addiction may also be accepted as a requisite, compulsive, fanatic, or addictive exercise, it is defined as a situation in which moderate to high level physical activity becomes a compulsory behavior, and this situation may differ individually. This finding is supported by many scientific studies (18)(19)(20). ...
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and One-way ANOVA were used. Results: There was a moderately significant positive correlation between the participants' mean scores of behavioral regulations in exercise and their mean scores of successful aging (r = 0.486). Examination of the relationship between Behavioral Regulations in Exercise and the sub-dimensions of the Successful Aging Scale showed a moderate positive relationship with all sub-dimensions. On the other hand, there was no significant relationship between physical activity level and successful aging. According to the results of multiple regression analysis, behavioral regulations in exercise significantly predict successful aging. In addition, participants' physical activity levels and successful aging scale scores differ in terms of gender and income status. Conclusion: Exercising causes older individuals to have a healthier body and the chance of living with a better outlook. In addition, individuals can develop more positive emotions in coping with life and problems, which explains the effect of exercise on successful aging.
... Hence, it is clinically relevant to use valid tools detecting, or at least screening, exercise addiction among competitive athletes, to have a broader picture of their sport attitude and their resistances to stop or reduce it. To date, the most widely used questionnaires to measure exercise addiction are the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI; Terry et al., 2004) and the Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R: Costa et al., 2012;Hausenblas & Symons Downs, 2002a, 2002c. These tools have been extensively validated and the psychometric properties tested, especially during the last decade. ...
Article
Exercise is overwhelmingly beneficial for physical and mental health, but for some people exercise addiction (EA) can develop and negatively impact an individual. This study sought to (a) compare the latent structure of two instruments assessing EA and (b) examine differences in attitudes toward stopping exercise, if required to on medical grounds, among exercise-addicted and non-addicted athletes. In a cross-sectional study, 1,011 athletes competing at different levels completed an anonymous on-line survey. The survey contained Exercise Dependence Scale-Revised (EDS-R), Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI), and questions on adherence to medical prescriptions to stop exercise. We tested the latent structure of EDS-R and EAI with multigroup confirmatory factor analyses (CFA), across gender and competition level. Finally, we measured the difference of athletes' attitudes toward stopping exercise, if prescribed by a physician. Both instruments showed good fit indexes, even across gender. CFAs on EAI scores showed some violations of measurement invariance across competition level (ΔCFI = .03; ΔRMSEA = .02). On the contrary, CFAs on EDS-R scores did not show invariance violations across competition level (ΔCFI = <.01; ΔRMSEA = <.01). Finally, athletes who reached thresholds for exercise addiction, by means of EDS-R, were more prone to not follow medical prescriptions to cease exercise, independently of the competition level. These results suggest that athletes' answers on the EDS-R seem to be less affected by competition level, compared to EAI. Moreover, EDS-R outcomes could be used to identify individuals who may be unlikely to cease exercise for medical reasons, independently of their competition level. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
... There are no existing, standardized questions to prove the criteria of "excessive sports" [19] described in DSM-5 as a specific purging method of bulimia nervosa defined by a) "colliding with other important activities or" b) "performed at inappropriate times and places or" c) "continued despite injuries or medical complications" [5, page 546]. Therefore, we used selected items from the Exercise Dependence Scale (EDS-21) [20,21] and the Exercise Addiction Inventory (EAI) [22,23] since the whole instruments assessed subscales that were not of interest for our analysis. The instruments aim to assess maladaptive patterns of exercising based on 21 and 6, respectively, items to describe subscales such as "tolerance", "withdrawal", "intention effect", "lack of control" "time", "reduction in other activities", "continuance" with six-point Likert response options including 1 = never till 6 = always. ...
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Purpose To assess eating behavior and associated factors in male fitness-center attendees. Methods An anonymous questionnaire was administered to male fitness center members of Innsbruck (Austria), aged 18–80 years to assess socio-demographic features, weight history, sports activity, eating behavior including disordered eating based on the Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire (EDE-Q) and DSM-5 key symptoms for eating disorders (anorexia nervosa, binge eating, bulimia nervosa, purging disorder) and body image. Three age groups (younger—middle-aged—older men) were compared regarding the variables described above. Results A total of 307 men included displayed high rates of disordered eating as described by EDE-Q cutoff scores (5–11%) as well as by DSM-5 eating disorder symptoms (10%). While EDE-Q cutoff scores did not differentiate between the groups, the prevalences of DSM-5 eating disorder symptoms yielded significant differences indicating a clear decrease with increasing age. Binge eating and bulimic symptoms with excessive exercising as the purging method were the most often reported symptoms. Conclusion Although described as typically female, disordered eating does occur in male fitness-gym attendees across all ages. The older the men, the less prevalent are the symptoms. Awareness of disordered eating and possible negative effects need to be addressed for attendees and trainers of the gym. Level of evidence V—descriptive survey study.
... [ Downloaded from jrsm.khu.ac.ir on 2021-[12][13][14][15][16][17] ...
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The aim of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of Persian version of exercise dependence scale, prevalence of exercise dependence and some related factors in male and female athletes clubs of Urmia. Subjects of this research were 325 athletes in the sample (206 males; 119 females, mean age 28.06±8 years) various team and individual sports (team sports N= 195, individual sports N=130) in the form of voluntary and available attend in this study. Hausenblas and Downs (2002) exercise dependence scale 21 with seven subscale was the instruments of the study. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis was used to determine validity of questionnaire, and Cronbach's alpha coefficient was used to determine internal consistency. The results showed that the validity of exercise dependence scale 21 is desirable. Also the results showed that in this study the prevalence of exercise dependence between men and women population is not very different from each other and exercise dependence in individual sports is twice to team sports. Since exercise dependence may exist among a wide range of athletes, therefore, in order to address the adverse effects of this factor, it is necessary to examine the underlying causes and trying to modify it. Key words: exercise dependence, indexes of fitness, gender differences, individual and team athletes
... Adams (2009) noted that exercise addiction had the potential to negatively impact the individual's physical as well as psychological well-being. Hausenblas and Downs (2002) described exercise addiction as a behavioral disorder having both physiological symptoms (e.g., tolerance, and withdrawal) and psychological symptoms (e.g., anxiety, and depression). Exercise addiction has also been referred to as the "dark face" of exercise and has been shown to negatively impact human health (Tekkurşun Demir and Türkeli 2019). ...
Article
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Exercise addiction (EA) has been described as a condition of psychological dysfunction characterized by excessive and obsessive exercise patterns, show withdrawal symptoms when unable to exercise, and experience numerous conflicts and other negative consequences in their social and professional lives, due to the extremely high volumes of exercise. The main objective of the present study was to assess the risk of exercise addiction among a Saudi Arabian sample of regular exercisers and to investigate possible associations between their inability to exercise during the COVID-19 pandemic lockdown (due to the closure of public gyms, swimming pools, and health clubs) and depression, anxiety, and loneliness. A total of 388 regular-exercising Saudis participated in an online cross-sectional survey over three months (December to February 2021). The study sample comprised 89.9% (males) and 10.1% (females), with a mean age of 28.59 years (SD ± 6.69). A 36-item online self-report survey was used for data collection. The prevalence of being at risk of exercise addiction among participants of the present study was 13.1%. Positive significant associations were noted between risk of exercise addiction and depression (r = .41; p < .01), risk of exercise addiction and anxiety (r = .20; p < .01), and risk of exercise addiction and loneliness (r = .17; p < .01). The findings of the present study suggest that those individuals at risk of exercise addiction might also be at an elevated risk of developing negative psychological impact owing to the disruption of the amount of exercise engaged in due to COVID-19 pandemic-related restrictions and therefore these high-risk individuals should receive appropriate psychological support to help them overcome the negative impact of the ongoing pandemic. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s12144-022-02892-8.
... Ayrıca aşırı fiziksel aktivitenin aşırı antrenman sendromuna ve bununla birlikte depresyonu taklit eden psikolojik semptomlara da neden olabileceği saptanmıştır (Paluska ve Schwenk 2012). Egzersiz bağımlılığı tanımı ise ilk olarak 1970 yılında Baekeland tarafından bir aylık süre ile egzersizden uzak kalma ve bu uzak kalmanın uyku üzerindeki etkilerini incelemek için yapılmış bir çalışmada incelendi (Hausenblas ve Downs 2002). Egzersizin psikolojik ve fizyolojik faydalar sağladığı düşünülürken ayrıca bu durumun pozitif bir bağımlılık olarak tanımlandığı bilinmektedir (Allegre vd. ...
... Physical activity and exercise have been standardized and diffused as the most adequate for the good development of the body and the maintenance of health (Pedersen & Saltin, 2015). Nevertheless, it is important to emphasize that excessive preoccupation with physical exercises may represent a risk factor for exercise dependence, which is a pattern of a maladaptive and unadjusted exercise, characterized by tolerance, abstinence, exaggeration, loss of control, high expenditure of time, conflicts, continuity even in the midst of physical, social and psychological damages (Astorino et al., 2019;Divine et al., 2018;Hausenblas & Downs, 2002). Moreover, although less frequent in men, the risk of developing eating disorders should be considered, with the adoption of strategies for weight and body fat control, such as dietary restrictions, purging practices and use of weight loss substances (Brosof, Williams, & Levinson, 2020). ...
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This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between reasons for exercising, the body mass index and concerns about exercise routine, food and appearance among male college student from Argentina, Brazil, France and the USA. Five hundred sixty nine male college students (18-30 years old) answered an online questionnaire composed of sociodemographic questions, nutritional status, physical exercise data and eating attitudes. The effect of the country, type of exercise and reasons for exercising over other variables were evaluated by generalized linear models; and the evaluation of categorical variables associations was done by Pearson Chi-square Test. The interaction’s effect of the country and the main reasons for exercising over the concerns about food and appearance was greater than the effect of each variable individually (r² = .051; p < .05), and it was also observed with regard to BMI (r² = .073; p < .05). Our results showed that there were some similarities in the relationship between college students and physical exercise. However, the differences observed were related to the interactions of the country with the main reasons for exercising (or the main type of exercise) that showed the greatest effects over BMI and concerns about exercise routine, food and appearance.
... The results suggest that the contrast between the enhanced motivation network integrity under attentional demands and those attenuated during rest may underlie the abilities of instantaneous concentration in KPs, which are presumably cultivated by the continuous habitual training of Kendo. Finally, although the result of the study by Fujiwara et al. (54) supports the favourable effects of Kendo on motivation, excessive sports training, including Kendo, may lead to negative mental health consequences, typically as represented by "overtraining syndrome" (55) or sports addiction (56). Considering the potential negative and positive effects of exercise on mental health, further studies should be conducted to determine the appropriate quantity, quality, frequency, and intensity of training. ...
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In this review, the underlying mechanisms of health benefits and the risk of habitual behaviours such as internet use and media multitasking were explored, considering their associations with the reward/motivation system. The review highlights that several routines that are beneficial when undertaken normally may evolve into excessive behaviour and have a negative impact, as represented by “the inverted U-curve model”. This is especially critical in the current era, where technology like the internet has become mainstream despite the enormous addictive risk. The understanding of underlying mechanisms of behavioural addiction and optimal level of habitual behaviours for mental health benefits are deepened by shedding light on some findings of neuroimaging studies to have hints to facilitate better management and prevention strategies of addictive problems. With the evolution of the world, and the inevitable use of some technologies that carry the risk of addiction, more effective strategies for preventing and managing addiction are in more demand than before, and the insights of this study are also valuable foundations for future research.
Article
Purpose: It has been determined that exercise identity is a key component of the self-concept and is a strong determinant of exercise behaviors. The purpose of the present study was to examine exercise identity's relationship with three key self-presentational variables: self-presentational efficacy, social physique anxiety, and impression motivation. Methods: We looked at how exercise identity contributed uniquely to predicting exercise behavior over and above these self-presentational concerns for both males 10 (n = 140) and females (n = 234) recruited from two university communities. Participant's age ranged from 18-68 years, the majority identified as students, and as Caucasian. Results: The analyses demonstrated that exercise identity was positively correlated with self-presentational efficacy and unrelated to social physique anxiety in both genders. Further analyses revealed that exercise identity contributes a significant amount of variance toward exercise behavior over and above what is accounted for by self-presentational efficacy, social physique anxiety, and impression motivation. Lastly, exercise identity did not moderate the social physique anxiety-exercise relationship in either gender. Conclusion: These findings advance our knowledge of exercise identity and its relationship with various important constructs has been determined that exercise identity is a key component of the self-concept and is a strong determinant of exercise behaviors.
Chapter
This chapter considers the role of exercise and sport as it uniquely relates to eating disorders in boys and men. While engagement in sport and exercise has been reliably shown to protect against eating disorders, the performance-based pressures and physique-salient nature of these contexts may perpetuate disordered behaviors. This may be particularly pertinent for men, for whom exercise is central to the presentation of eating pathology, and among men athletes who often pursue weight restriction to gain a competitive advantage. Important considerations for the role of sport and exercise are warranted in the characterization, assessment, and intervention targets for eating disorders in men. However, the state of knowledge regarding the role of sport and exercise in eating pathology in boys and men relies almost exclusively on theoretical underpinnings and empirical evidence from samples of girls and women. As such, this chapter will discuss how exercise-specific assessment tools originate from clinical observations and empirical evidence in women, thereby not appropriately capturing the unique prevalence, characteristics, and consequences of eating disorders among men, including men athletes. Further, interventions aimed at prevention and treatment of co-occurring exercise and eating pathology have focused almost exclusively on elite women athletes, at the expense of adequate assessment and support of men. As such, this chapter will summarize and critically consider empirical gaps in prevalence rates, presentation, theoretical considerations, and interventions related to sport and exercise in the context of eating disorders in boys and men. Establishing these targets for improvement is critical to enhance knowledge of gender-specific needs and to improve clinical outcomes for this overlooked subset of the population.
Book
Boys and men with eating disorders remain a population that is under-recognized and underserved within both research and clinical contexts. It has been well documented that boys and men with eating disorders often exhibit distinct clinical presentations with regard to core cognitive (e.g., body image) and behavioral (e.g., pathological exercise) symptoms. Such differences, along with the greater likelihood of muscularity-oriented disordered eating among boys and men, emphasize the importance of understanding and recognizing unique factors of clinical relevance within this population. This book reviews the most up-to-date research findings on eating disorders among boys and men, with an emphasis on clinically salient information across multiple domains. Five sections are included, with the first focused on a historical overview and the unique nature and prevalence of specific forms of eating disorder symptoms and body image concerns in boys and men. The second section details population-specific considerations for the diagnosis and assessment of eating disorders, body image concerns, and muscle dysmorphia in boys and men. The third section identifies unique concerns regarding medical complications and care in this population, including medical complications of appearance and performance-enhancing substances. The fourth section reviews current findings and considerations for eating disorder prevention and intervention for boys and men. The fifth section of the book focuses on specific populations (e.g., sexual minorities, gender minorities) and addresses sociocultural factors of particular relevance for eating disorders in boys and men (e.g., racial and ethnic considerations, cross-cultural considerations). The book then concludes with a concise overview of key takeaways and a focused summary of current evidence gaps and unanswered questions, as well as directions for future research. Written by experts in the field, Eating Disorders in Boys and Men is a comprehensive guide to an under-reported topic. It is an excellent resource for primary care physicians, adolescent medicine physicians, pediatricians, psychologists, clinical social workers, and any other professional conducting research with or providing clinical care for boys and men with eating disorders. It is also an excellent resource for students, residents, fellows, and trainees across various disciplines.
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This study aims to investigate the acute effect of sparring training applied to elite boxers on serum levels of electrolytes such as Sodium, Potassium, Magnesium, Chlorine, Chromium, Calcium.Methods: The research group consists of 22 elite male boxers of the national team, who took part in the study voluntarily, with the age 18.36 ± 6.18, body weight 65.23 ± 11.75 kg, height 174.18 ± 8.67 cm. Sparring training model including free lower-body strikes to the liver was applied to the participants. For the detection of serum electrolyte levels, blood samples were taken from antecubital region of each athlete before and after the training. Serum samples obtained were centrifuged at 3000 rpm for 10 minutes in laboratory and analyzed at COBAS C 501 analyzer through photometric method. SPSS 22.0 statistical program was used for the analysis of the data obtained. The normality distribution of the data was tested by Shapiro-Wilk test, descriptive statistics and Paired t-test, one of the parametric tests, were used for statistical analysis of normally distributed data. Results: Comparing the electrolyte values of elite boxers before and after training, it was found that there is a statistically significant difference in magnesium, chlorine and chromium values (p <0.05) and there is no significant difference in sodium, potassium and calcium values (p> 0.05). Conclusion:As a result of the research, it was concluded that the effect of boxing training specifically based on strikes to lower body on the parameters examined in this study is similar to the literature findings, hence sparring training does not have a significant effect on the parameters tested.
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Üniversiteler her toplumda önemli eğitim merkezlerinden biridir ve öğrenciler üniversitelerde kilit bir rol oynamaktadır. Bu çalışma ile üniversitelerde derslere devam zorunluluğu olan öğrencilerin Covid-19 korku ve stres düzeylerinin tespit edilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Araştırma, betimsel bir araştırmadır. Araştırmaya 2020-2021 bahar döneminde Akdeniz bölgesindeki üniversitelerin Beden Eğitimi Spor Yüksek Okulu ve Spor Bilimleri Fakültelerinde ders devam zorunluluğu olan 204 öğrenci katılmıştır. Veri toplama yöntemi olarak online anket yöntemi kullanılmıştır. Katılımcılara 01-31 Mart 2021 tarihlerinde ulaşılmış ve anketler elektronik ortamda toplanmıştır. Çalışmamızda, İki ölçek (Covid-19 Korkusu ölçeği ve Algılanan Stres Ölçeği) kullanılmıştır. Araştırmada verilerin analizinde betimsel istatistikler ve korelasyon analizleri kullanılmıştır. Analizler öncesinde verilerin normal dağılma durumları çarpıklık ve basıklık (+1.0, -1.0) aralığındaki değerlerine göre incelenmiş ve verilerin normal dağılmadığı belirlenmiştir. Öğrencilerin Covid-19 korkusuna yönelik algı düzeylerinin korku toplam alt boyutunda düşük, Yetersiz Özerklik algısı ve Stres Rahatsızlık algısı orta düzeyde olduğu söylenebilir. Öğrencilerin korelasyon sonucunda korku düzeyleri ile stres rahatsızlık kaygısı (.r=.285, p<.000) arasında pozitif yönde düşük düzeyde bir ilişki tespit edilmiştir. Bu durumu ders devam zorunluluğu olan öğrencilerin, Covid-19 korkusu ve algıladıkları stres düzeylerinin orta düzeyde olduğu ve öğrencilerin bu süreçten çok etkilenmedikleri söylenebilir.
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Everyday physical activity plays an important part in health maintenance and disease prevention. Excess exercise, however, can cause detrimental effects on both physical and mental health. It can also hamper the quality of life to an extent that individual is unable to regulate this behavior. 'Addicted' exercisers are more likely to work out for intrinsic rewards and experience troubling feelings of deprivation. In comparison, 'committed' exercisers participate in physical activity for extrinsic benefits and, when they cannot exercise, do not experience extreme withdrawal symptoms. Sportspersons indulge themselves in long hours of training as a response of their quest to improve endurance and performance in the face of common setbacks. Recognizing the addiction to exercise is also a contentious idea and the aim of this article is to draw an attention towards the same. Exercise Addiction diagnosis needs employment of questionnaires such as Exercise Dependence Scale, Obligatory Exercise Questionnaire, and Exercise Addiction Inventory. They need to be employed in the pre-participation evaluation of an individual participating in any sports event. Physiotherapists are often the first to meet an individual with exercise addiction. Physiotherapists play an important role in diagnosis of exercise addiction as well as in prevention as they are aware of challenges of treating exercise addicted patients and develop specific approaches to deal with their issues. As if it goes unnoticed, the prognosis can even be fatal.
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Introduction: The consequences of exercise addiction have a physical, psychological and social impact on the sports men and women, similar to others addictions, which can cause serious health problems. In Mexico its incidence and relevance are unknown, and there is no instrument for its evaluation. This study aims to analyse the psychometric properties of the Exercise Addiction Inventory in a Mexican context and examine its relevance to different groups of people who practice sport. Method: Participants consisted of 487 people who practice physical exercise or competitive sport, aged between 18 and 52, with a mean age of 22.04. The EAI was used, and reliability analysis, confirmatory factor analysis and factorial invariance analysis were conducted. Differences between groups of participants were also tested. Results: The results demonstrated the unifactorial structure of instrument, with satisfactory goodness of fit indices, and its factorial invariance was confirmed. The reliability obtained was adequate. In addition, significant differences were found between men and women in relation to degree of addiction, there was a higher risk for athletes compared to regular exercise goers, and 26.5% of participants obtained scores that place them at a high risk of exercise addiction. Conclusions: It is concluded that EAI is an adequate and reliable instrument, with appropriate psychometric properties. In the studied population there is an excessively high rate of participants who present a high risk of addiction, and men and athletes are the most susceptible groups to develop an exercise addiction.
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Hay un número creciente de adicciones conductuales que aún no han sido incluidas en el DSM pero que están siendo abordadas científicamente, como la dependencia al ejercicio físico. Con el objetivo de contribuir al estudio de esta problemática, se analizó la posible contribución del uso adictivo de redes sociales, la insatisfacción con la imagen corporal y el riesgo de trastorno de conducta alimentaria, junto con otras variables sociodemográficas, en una muestra de 407 usuarios regulares de gimnasios. Se realizó el análisis de regresión lineal múltiple en función del sexo. Para los hombres, las variables incluidas en el modelo fueron, en orden del valor del coeficiente de regresión: las horas por día en el gimnasio (B = 5,347, p<0,0001), los días por semana en el gimnasio (B = 2,917, p = 0,001), la dependencia al ejercicio físico (B = 1,801, p<0,0001), las lesiones (B = 1,006, p = 0,036) y el uso excesivo de redes sociales (B = 0,431, p= 0,006). Para las mujeres, los días por semana en el gimnasio (B = 3,812, p<0,0001), el nivel socioeconómico (B = -2,874, p = 0,024), la edad (B = 0,797, p=0,001), el valor total de la prueba de actitudes alimentarias (B = 0,697, p<0,0001) y el valor total del cuestionario de adicción a las redes sociales (B = 0,406, p =0,0001). Se encontró también una elevada prevalencia
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Bu araştırmada, kadın futbolunun en önemli organizasyonlarından biri olan UEFA Kadınlar Şampiyonlar Ligi’nde (UWCL) oynanan müsabakalarının istatistiki yönden analiz edilmesi amaçlanmıştır. Güncel durumun ortaya konulabilmesi amacıyla çalışma 2018-2019, 2019-2020 ve 2020-2021 sezonları ile sınırlandırılmıştır. Verilerin toplanması aşamasında Union of European Football Associations (UEFA) resmi web sitesi kayıtları esas alınmıştır. Araştırmaya konu toplam 325 müsabakaya ilişkin resmi müsabaka raporları incelenmiş ve elde edilen veriler SPSS 25.0 programına aktarılmıştır. Analiz yöntemi olarak tanımlayıcı istatistikler kullanılmıştır. Araştırma bulguları ışığında öne çıkan önemli sonuçlar şöyledir; UEFA Kadınlar Şampiyonlar Ligi’nde ev sahibi takım olma avantajının kazanmaya olan etkisi %7,4’dür. Deplasman takımların ev sahibi takımlara oranla daha fazla sarı kart gördüğü, kırmızı kartlarda ise anlamlı bir farklılık bulunmadığı tespit edilmiştir. En sık rastlanılan skorlar ev sahibi takımların 2-0’lık ve deplasman takımlarının 1-0’lık galibiyetleridir. Oynanan hemen hemen her müsabakada gol atıldığı ve golsüz biten müsabakaların oranının sadece %1,2 olduğu saptanmıştır. Müsabaka başı gol ortalaması 3,94 olarak bulunmuştur. Gollerin önemli bir bölümünün son çeyrek saatlik dilim ve müsabaka sonuna eklenen ilave süre içerisinde atıldığı tespit edilmiştir. Neredeyse dört maçtan birinde takımların beş veya daha farklı galibiyetler elde ettiği izlenmektedir (%22,5). Yüksek farklı skorların sayıca fazla oluşunun, UEFA Kadınlar Şampiyonlar Ligi’nde takımlar arasındaki güç dengesizliğini gösterir nitelikte olduğu söylenebilir. Son yıllarda önemli kulüplerin kadın futbol takımlarını kurmasının, yakın gelecekte saha içi rekabeti arttıracağı ve güç dengesinin sağlanması yolunda önemli düzeyde katkı sağlayacağı öngörülmektedir.
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Background: The purpose of this study is to determine the relationship between anxiety levels and exercise addiction of higher school students studying in the field of sports sciences during Covid-19 pandemic period. Aim: It is to determine relationship between anxiety levels and exercise addiction of higher school students studying in field of sports sciences during Covid-19 pandemic period. Methods: 184 students participated in the study. Gender, age, educational class, having regular exercise and exercise periods were learned as demographical information. In order to determine anxiety and exercise addiction levels of students, Corona virus anxiety scale and Exercise addiction scale survey were applied. In the analysis of study SPSS-24 statistical packet program was used. Results: When demographic information of students are reviewed, it is seen that gender of 51.1% of them was male and gender of 48.9% of them were female. It was determined that 44% of students were at the age of 22. 28.3% of educational class was 2nd class. While 62.5% of students did regular exercise and active sports, 37.5% of them did not deal with these. While 38% of those doing regular and active sports did not do exercises, 4.3% of them did regular exercise and active sports. When coronavirus anxiety scale applied to students is examined, it is seen that gender had impact of diziness, dullness, lose of appetite, and nausea and that situation of doing regular exercises and active sports had impact on lack of appetite and nausea. When exercise addiction scale applied to students is examined, it is seen that doing regular exercise and active sports and its period had impact on hyper focus and mood swings. When relationship between coronavirus anxiety and exercise addiction levels of students are reviewed, it was seen that postponement of individual social needs and conflict had negative impacts on the person's anxiety level, drowsiness, loss of appetite, and nausea. Conclusion: When coronavirus anxiety levels and exercise addiction of students during Covid-19 pandemic period are examined, the process they are in have had various negative impacts on the students. Gender of students studying in the field of sports sciences affects their anxiety status. At the same time, regular exercise students do and its period plays a role in relation to focusing and emotional changes. Keywords: Covid-19, Anxiety, Exercise Addiction, Sports Sciences
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Recognized challenges in promoting long-term physical activity maintenance may be due to inconsistencies in the conceptualization and operationalization of behavior maintenance terminology in physical activity research. The overall goal of this paper is to propose a framework and agenda for the development of a common set of terms, definitions, and measures for physical activity maintenance concepts that can be widely tested and evaluated. To initiate this effort, this paper (1) provides an overview of conceptual and operational definitions of physical activity maintenance used in the empirical literature; (2) evaluates whether behavior maintenance terms used in addiction science can be translated to physical activity, (3) recommends research directions for developing consensus definitions of physical activity maintenance; and (4) proposes a conceptual model of physical activity maintenance with inflection points that require operational definitions to be decided upon through consensus efforts in the field. Consensus over the conceptualization and operationalization of physical activity maintenance is needed to draw conclusions regarding which policies and programs are best able to promote long-term behavior change.
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Motivation ist ein zentrales Thema in Diskussionen über regelmäßiges Sporttreiben und über sportliche Leistung. In diesem Kapitel wird auf die verschiedenen Motive für das Sporttreiben eingegangen, nämlich Leistung, Macht und Anschluss sowie dargelegt, wie diese Motive erfasst werden können. Ferner werden motivationale Orientierungen, das motivationale Klima und wie dieses verändert werden kann, beschrieben. Abschließend wird auf die Unterscheidung zwischen intrinsischer und extrinsischer Motivation sowie den besonderen motivationalen Zustand des Flows eingegangen. Dieser Beitrag ist Teil der Sektion Sportpsychologie, herausgegeben vom Teilherausgeber Dieter Hackfort, innerhalb des Handbuchs Sport und Sportwissenschaft, herausgegeben von Arne Güllich und Michael Krüger.
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Objective Exercise dependence refers to excessive exercise accompanied by addiction-like symptoms such as craving, tolerance, withdrawal, impaired control, and disruption of life domains. The present study investigated whether personality traits linked to substance and behavioural addictions show similar associations with symptoms of exercise dependence. Method Alexithymia and two forms of impulsivity, rash impulsiveness and reward sensitivity, were assessed in relation to exercise dependence symptoms in a sample of 99 physically active young adult men and women. Results All three traits showed significant positive correlations with exercise dependence symptoms and were significant predictors of such symptoms in a hierarchical regression model. Alexithymia was the strongest predictor and fully mediated the contribution of rash impulsiveness according to bootstrapped mediation analysis. Conclusions Findings suggest similar associations of addiction-linked traits with symptoms of exercise dependence and are discussed in terms of potential mechanisms. KEY POINTS What is already known about this topic: (1) Exercise can become compulsive for some, with exercise dependence defined by addiction-like symptoms. (2) Alexithymia has been implicated as a risk factor for substance and behavioural addictions. (3) Two forms of impulsivity, rash impulsiveness and reward sensitivity, have been implicated as risk factors for substance and behavioural addictions. What this topic adds: (1) In physically active young adults, alexithymia was positively associated with symptoms of exercise dependence. (2) In physically active young adults, rash impulsiveness and reward sensitivity were positively associated with symptoms of exercise dependence. (3) Alexithymia fully explained the association of rash impulsiveness with exercise dependence symptoms.
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The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect that social media usage may have on social physique anxiety, and self-presentation in exercise. Specifically, the main research questions answered were whether overall social media usage (total time per week spent across individual social media platforms), online usage tendencies (observer or contributor), age cohort (18-24, 25-29, 30-34, 35-39), and/or physical activity levels (active or inactive), influenced perceptions of social physique anxiety and self-presentation in exercise among women. A total of 214 women between 18-39 years of age were recruited. A final usable sample of 155 women was retained who tracked their online social media usage tendencies for one week using a screen-time app (MyPhoneTime) and completed online surveys which measured social physique anxiety, self-presentation in exercise. Participants provided social media screen-time data tracking which indicated time and type of social media platforms used. Overall, Instagram was the most used platform for those 18-29 years old, while Facebook was the most used platform for those 30-39 years old, and Twitter was the least used platform across all age groups. Further breakdowns revealed Facebook was most used by those 30-34 years old, Instagram and Twitter were most used by those 25-29 years old, and TikTok and Snapchat were most used by those 18-24 years old. The findings revealed that there were no significant relationships between overall social media usage time, social physique anxiety, impression motivation, and impression construction dimensions of self-presentation in exercise. However, increased Twitter usage was related to increased scores in the impression motivation dimension of self-presentation. In addition, those who were more physically active also had increased impression motivation scores for self-presentation. This was most prevalent with those 18-24 years old.
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The Internet will soon became a fertile ground for cross-sectional research (Lesgold, 1991; Szabo & Frenkl, 1996). In this inquiry, the active readers of five activity news-groups, aerobic exercise, weight training, cross-training, fencing, and bowling, were studied. The relationships between negative affect at times of constrained inactivity, trait-anxiety, commitment, and reasons for starting and maintaining the adopted activities were examined in 130 volunteers. The results revealed that bowlers reported less negative affect when they could not bowl than subjects in the other groups. Respondents who started their activity for health reasons evinced lower trait-anxiety and more intense deprivation feelings than those who started for other reasons. Subjects who maintained their activity for health reasons displayed lesser commitment and trait-anxiety than subjects who continued their activity for other reasons. The internal consistencies of the adopted questionnaires were very good, suggesting that the data collection method did not shatter their reliability. These findings provide support for the feasibility of low-budget and time-efficient exploratory studies on the Internet.
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This note reflects on the principal motives behind the shortage of experimental studies examining the effects of exercise deprivation on psychological states of regular exercisers. Dilemmas in S recruitment are presented as the critical motives in junction with other factors such as the incentives for participation, duration of deprivation period, and season of the study. Based on data from 10 runners, it is conjectured that experimental scrutiny of exercise deprivation is difficult and that participants who volunteer for this form of research may have some distinctive characteristics that need to be examined in the future. In the interim, because only a minimal percentage of the eligible exercisers volunteer for experimental studies, the results gained from these studies should not be generalized.
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Analysis of commitment in long distance running has developed rapidly over the past decade. No attention has been devoted, however, to different commitment patterns of runners. This paper identifies the commitments of ‘professional level’, ‘semi-professional level’ and ‘amateur level’ long distance runners. Discriminant analysis reveals that those of amateur level have relatively weaker personal and structural commitment in comparison with the professional level runners. Semi-professional level runners are in a marginal position: while they have the same personal commitment as the more serious runners, they do not have the parallel structural commitment. The implications of this position are analysed. The preliminary formulation of a theoretical model of sport and leisure commitment is presented, in terms of ‘a circle of commitment’. This involves commitment profile, self-concept, activity levels and achievements.
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Most of our knowledge on the effects of exercise on anxiety and mood relies on two, pre-and post-treatment, measurements. In this study a simple question was raised: disregarding all but very stressful life events, are runners less anxious and/or in a better mood on their running days as opposed to their non-running days? Forty runners completed a set of questionnaires every evening, before bed, for 21 consecutive days. Average values for anxiety and mood were calculated for running and non-running days. The latter two were statistically different in measures of state anxiety, exhaustion, tranquillity, positive engagement and revitalization. However, when the effect sizes were examined the differences were small. It is concluded that on average, in lack of control for various life events, runners report lesser anxiety and better mood on the days when they run in contrast to their non-running days. These results, obtained via an in situ methodology, lend support to the positive implication of running in health.
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Objective: To determine the prevalence of eating-disordered cognitions and behaviors among adolescent obligatory exercisers. Methods: 250 adolescents (133 females) completed the Obligatory Exercise (OE) Questionnaire, the Eating Disorder Inventory, and a demographic survey. Results: Obligatory exercisers displayed more eating-disordered attitudes and traits than did nonobligatory exercisers (Drive for Thinness [r=.28, p<.001], Bulimia [r=.20, p<.002], Perfectionism [r=.18, p<.004]). Conclusion: Adolescent obligatory exercisers share several characteristics with those who have anorexia nervosa and bulimia. OE should be viewed, at least, as an occasional comorbid condition with serious eating disorders.
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The health benefits of exercise have been extolled by health professionals. The only concern about regular exercise has been the risk of overuse injuries. As more people have embraced regular exercise, a problem of habituation to the activity to the point of disruption of the normal conduct of daily life has occurred. A neurobiochemical explanation based on endorphins has been hypothesized as a rationale. This explanation seems unlikely based on current scientific understanding. Most likely, the addictive exercise behavior is a function of habit and entrapment in a spiral of exercise to avoid the unpleasantness of guilt and anxiety which occurs when an exercise bout is missed. There are a series of behaviors that characterize the dependent exerciser that assist the clinician in diagnosing the syndrome. Treatment of the obligatory exerciser centers around convincing the exerciser of the extremes of the exercise pattern and its associated destructive behavior. Once the behavior is identified, the exerciser may continue exercising on a controlled basis while relearning other coping techniques.
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Regular running or jogging has been promoted for improved health and well-being. The potential negative aspects of commitment or 'addiction' to the activity have received less attention. Moreover, there has been little investigation into the personal motives of the committed runner. The present study used established psychometric self-report scales to document the levels of 'addiction' to running, together with an analysis of personal incentives fora group of committed runners who were, on average, running over 40 miles per week. The scales confirmed that the majority (77%) were highly committed to levels of running which would be classified as moderately or highly 'addictive'. The predominant personal incentives for such runners were associated with 'mastery', 'competition' and weight regulation, although 'health concerns' and 'fitness' were also important motives. The commitment to running as measured by the scales was related to the frequency of running and distances run but not to the number of years of running. Regression analyses indicated that mastery and social recognition were important predictors of levels of running commitment. It is suggested that committed runners should be regarded as a heterogeneous population and that more information is required on the motives of a broader sample of runners. For those who initiate running as a means of promoting health, there is a potential danger of developing an obsessive commitment to running, and this may be more likely for those individuals who are prone to stress.
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A survey of 363 middle-aged non-elite runners who were attempting a first marathon was conducted to assess their reasons for attempting a marathon, the perceived outcomes from running a marathon, and their experiences while running. While most runners began running to improve physical fitness, personal challenge was the main reason for attempting a marathon. Running the marathon was a very positive experience producing feelings of deep personal awareness and satisfaction. Information was obtained relating to the concept of “positive addiction” and the cognitive strategies employed while running.
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A survey of 156 women runners varying greatly in age, experience, and ability was conducted to find out why these women were participating in what was once stereotyped as a masculine activity and what they perceived the psychological and behavioral effects of running to be. Statistical analyses indicated that almost all subjects had positive views of running, received support for running from others, and would encourage other women to run. They reported that running made them feel significantly stronger, happier, more relaxed, better about themselves, more attractive, more feminine, less masculine, and more energetic and also that stopping running made them feel guilty, fatter, depressed, tense, and less energetic. Other common changes with running were small weight losses, decreased quantity and improved quality of food eaten, reduced smoking and drinking, and lighter menstrual periods with less severe cramps. It appears that women runners view running as a positive experience which enhances their femininity rather than increasing masculinity or androgyny.
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From a sample of marathon (N = 57) and nonmarathon (N = 38) female runners physical, psychosocial, menstrual changes/risks and addictive behaviors were identified. There was a high incidence of knee injury in both groups of runners. Marathon runners had a significantly higher incidence of both heel pain and stress fractures. Psychosocial variables of anxiety, self‐esteem, family/spouse relationships and addictive behaviors did not differ significantly in the two groups. In addition, those reporting more addicitive behaviors did not report a significantly higher incidence of physical injury; however, there was an association between higher addiction scores and lower self‐esteem.
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The psychometric properties of the Exercise Salience Scale (ESS), an instrument designed to assess exercise dependence, were investigated by administering the scale to 74 university undergraduate students who also rated themselves as to exercise dependence. Indicative of the scale's construct validity, a high correlation between self-ratings and ESS scores was observed. Factoranalysis produced a 2 factor solution, instead of a 6 factor solution corresponding to the 6 a priori defined attributes of exercise dependence. The 2 factors were labeled “Response Omission Anxiety” and “Response Persistense”. These 2 factors are consistent with a free-operant avoidance model of exercise dependence.
Exercise dependence describes a condition in which moderate to intense physical activity becomes compulsive behaviour. An exercise‐dependent individual is not only more likely to suffer increased injury and illness, but is also more likely to ignore clinical advice and continue to exercise while injured or ill. Several theories, including the β‐endorphin theory of endogenous opioids, the sympathetic arousal hypothesis, and the opponent‐process model of addiction, have been suggested to explain exercise dependence. While investigators have linked exercise dependence to a wide range of pathology, including eating disorders, Type A personality and neuroticism, research in this area has been vulnerable to criticism, particularly in terms of the methods used to assess dependence. The absence of well‐controlled investigation into the condition, in particular the precise identification and measurement of dependent symptomology and its consequences, requires that further research be undertaken to study exercise dependence and its relationship to sports injury.
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This report is the first report of the Surgeon General on physical activity and health. For more than a century, the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service has focused the nation's attention on important public health issues. Reports from Surgeons General on the adverse health consequences of smoking triggered nationwide efforts to prevent tobacco use. Reports on nutrition, violence, and HIV/AlDS - to name but a few - have heightened America's awareness of important public health issues and have spawned major public health initiatives. This new report, which is a comprehensive review of the available scientific evidence about the relationship between physical activity and health status, follows in this notable tradition. Scientists and doctors have known for years that substantial benefits can be gained from regular physical activity. The expanding and strengthening evidence on the relationship between physical activity and health necessitates the focus this report brings to this important public health challenge. Although the science of physical activity is a complex and still-developing field, we have today strong evidence to indicate that regular physical activity will provide clear and substantial health gains. In this sense, the report is more than a summary of the science - it is a national call to action.
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Examined the psychological characteristics and behavioral tendencies of addicted vs nonaddicted exercisers. Questionnaires were administered to 30 male and 30 female members of a private health and fitness club, half of whom were classified as addicted to exercise. Among the results, based on 3 separate analyses of variance (ANOVAs), were that (1) addicted Ss revealed more pre- and postexercise restlessness and stress than nonaddicted Ss and (2) male addicts indicated higher levels of happiness, both prior to and following exercise, than addicted females. Addicted Ss were more depressed, anxious, and angry after missing a workout and tended to engage in exercise while feeling discomfort. Addicted Ss considered stress reduction a more important reason for being active. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This book contains the text of the consensus achieved during the 4-day [Second International Consensus Symposium on Physical Activity, Fitness, and Health], along with chapters of definitions and information about the organization and conduct of the event. The consensus also focuses on the relationships among physical activity, fitness, and health. The 70 chapters prepared by the invited experts detailing the evidence that forms the basis of the consensus are presented in extenso. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Conducted 2 exploratory studies on the response of competitive athletes to a layoff from training. In Exp I, 15 male and 16 female runners (aged 13–26 yrs) completed a mood scale and the State Anxiety Scale by C. D. Spielberger et al (1970) before, after, and during a 1-day layoff. In Exp II, 12 female and 8 male swimmers (aged 10–29 yrs) completed the same instruments before, after, and on the 2nd and 5th day of a layoff. There was no overall evidence for unpleasant effects of withdrawal from exercise. However, in both studies, males and athletes competing at higher levels exhibited more negative moods during layoff than did females and athletes competing at lower levels. Two opposing processes may affect competitive athletes' responses to layoff: negative effects of withdrawal from exercise, and positive effects related to dissipation of fatigue from overtraining. (French abstract) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
68 runners (mean age 31 yrs) completed a questionnaire assessing personal compulsivity, running injuries, and training style. Injured runners were more likely than noninjured runners to be Type A (coronary prone) personalities, to be highly committed or addicted to running, and to participate in races. It is concluded that compulsivity measures are a useful adjunct to training variables in predicting running injuries. (French abstract) (14 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
60 male volunteers (aged 13–60 yrs) who finished a 5 mile community-sponsored race were administered a negative addiction scale that assessed the psychological aspects of running. Ss were assigned to 1 of 3 groups on the basis of running history. Mean addiction scores linearly increased with length of running history, demonstrating progression through stages of the development of addiction. This scale is compared with previous methods of assessing addiction to exercise, and advantages and disadvantages of various approaches are discussed. (French abstract) (6 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated the motives for taking part in recreational running as reported by 530 18–65 yr old marathon runners. Factor analytic techniques revealed 6 motivational categories: well being, social, challenge, status, fitness/health, and addiction. The importance of the 6 factors identified was also assessed. Challenge, followed by health/fitness and well being, appeared to be the prime motivations for running. Sports researchers are encouraged to integrate their work into the wider field of leisure research to answer the question of why people take part in physical activity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
33 21–54 yr old Ss who had been running at least a year and ran at least 5 days/wk were randomly assigned to groups according to the Solomon 4-group design. Two groups ran and the other 2 did not on the day of the experiment. Pretests were given to 1 of the running and 1 of the nonrunning groups. Dependent variables were the Profile of Mood States scores and GSR. Overall multivariate analysis showed a significant running by pretest interaction. The nonpretested running group revealed significantly lower depression and GSR scores than the nonpretested nonrunning group. Results suggest that even slight variations from running schedules may have negative effect on habitual runners. (18 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Examined using the experience sampling method the effects of 1-wk exercise deprivation (ED) on the mood and subjectively perceived physical symptoms of 21 undergraduates highly committed to exercise. Ss completed questionnaires 4 random times a day in response to the tone of a pager for 35 days. 12 Ss who were randomly assigned to the experimental condition refrained from exercising between Days 15 and 21 of the procedure, while 9 controls maintained their regular levels of physical activity. Experimental Ss compared to controls reported more physical symptoms than at baseline and during and following the week of ED. ED had no pervasive effects on Ss' psychological well-being. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
It has been suggested that high-intensity exercise regimens in males bear a resemblance to the features of eating disorders and that male runners may resemble women with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa with regard to eating and weight attitudes, negative body image, and negative psychological adjustment. Twenty high-intensity male runners were compared with 20 sedentary-moderate exercising male controls and 20 women with bulimia nervosa. Compared with the bulimia nervosa subjects, the male runners were not anxious about eating, overly preoccupied with food, excessive in binge-eating or purging behavior, negatively preoccupied with their weight, intent on losing weight, high on personality traits presumed to underlie eating disorders, nor depressed or low in self-esteem. The male groups of high-intensity runners and controls were not significantly different on any measure. These results suggest that high-intensity exercising in males is not analogous to anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
Article
The current study evaluated body image and eating disturbance in obligatory runners, obligatory weightlifters, and sedentary controls. Thirty subjects comprised each group, evenly proportioned by gender. The results indicated that weightlifters were significantly more accurate in estimating body size than runners and controls, although the latter two groups did not differ from one another. All subjects overestimated waist and hips to a greater degree than thighs; this finding was also true for their estimates of the size of a department store mannequin. Females were more dissatisfied with their body than males, with the exception that male and female weightlifters were equivalent on body dissatisfaction indices. Runners and weightlifters had greater eating disturbance than controls; females evidenced greater eating psychopathology than males. These findings indicate that type of physical activity may be related to size estimation accuracy and body satisfaction. The results are discussed with regard to the need to further refine subtypes of both obligatory runners and weightlifters for future investigations.
Article
Young female subjects who engage in exercise to ‘work off’ food they have consumed (‘food related’ exercisers) were compared with other young female subjects who engage in exercise with other objectives (‘non-food related’ exercisers). Assessment of subjects' attitudes and behaviours indicated that the ‘food related’ exercisers exhibited more symptoms of obligatory exercise, eating disturbance, body dissatisfaction, and lower self-esteem, than did the ‘non-food related’ exercisers. A subset of women in the ‘food related’ group who reported exercising for the primary reason of working off food, losing weight, or changing their appearance (the ‘food related/body dissatisfied’ exercisers), indicated even greater disturbance on these measures. The role of exercise in relation to eating disorders is discussed. Copyright © 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.