Article

Preliminary nutritional evaluation of Mucuna seed meal (Mucuna pruriens var. utilis) in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.): An assessment by growth performance and feed utilisation

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Abstract

Two feeding trials were conducted in a warmwater recirculating system to assess the potential nutritive value of mucuna seed meal as a dietary replacement for fish meal in practical diets of common carp. For experiment I and II, raw and autoclaved mucuna seed meals, respectively, were used in the diets to replace 10%, 20%, 30% and 40% of the total dietary protein and the performance of fish fed these diets was compared to fish fed a fish meal based control diet which contained 40% protein. All diets were prepared to be isonitrogenous and isoenergetic. For experiment I, each treatment had two replicates using five fish per aquarium with mean initial body weight of 11.65±0.23 g, whereas seven fish per replicate with mean initial body weight of 3.93±0.02 g were used for experiment II. Daily fish ration was fed five times their maintenance level [(3.2 g feed kg0.8/day)×5]. No fish died during the experimental phase I and II. The growth rate, feed conversion ratio, apparent net protein utilisation and energy retention of diets 1 and 2 in both experiments appeared to be similar and significantly higher than the other dietary groups in both experiments. The higher inclusion of raw and autoclaved mucuna meals in diets 3, 4 and 5, respectively, showed a significantly reduced growth performance when compared to diets 1 and 2. Fish fed diets containing higher levels (>13%) of raw mucuna meal had significantly higher carcass moisture, lower levels of protein (except in fish fed diet 3) and lipid contents. Even though fish were fed with autoclaved mucuna meal in experiment II, the higher inclusion rate of mucuna seed meal significantly reduced the growth parameters. However, no significant differences were observed regarding the whole body moisture, protein, ash and lipid contents among fish fed the control and diets 2, 3 and 4, except for the lipid content of fish fed diet 5. The lower growth performance of fish fed diets containing higher levels of both raw and autoclaved mucuna meal might be due to the presence of the higher levels of heat stable antinutrients coupled with non-starch polysaccharide fractions rather than the thermolabile antinutrients.

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... In the recent years M. pruriens is gaining importance because of its potential as a dietary protein source for animal feeds. This less expensive plant protein source can replace the conventional fish meal to augment the nutritional quality of fish feed [12]. The incorporation of whole plant or parts (leaf, root or seed) or extract compounds with animal feeds significantly enhances the growth performance, innate immune response, and disease resistance in several finfish and shellfish [13][14][15][16]. ...
... Mackerel meal 55 55 55 55 55 Dehulled soybean meal 12 ...
... Recently [35], has been reported that the M. pruriens seed meal significantly enhances growth performance, metabolic activity, and immune response in Labeo rohita. At the same time [12], stated that the higher inclusion rate of M. pruriens seed meal significantly reduced the growth parameters in Cyprinus carpio because most of the plant-based feed stuffs have a wide variety of anti-nutritional factors such as phytin, non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and protease inhibitors, which may impair nutrient utilization, as well as impair fish growth performance and health [36]. Enhancement of the immune system is the most promising strategy in preventing fish diseases. ...
... Recently, Ojha et al. [39] reported that the M. pruriens seed meal significantly enhances growth performance, metabolic activity, and immune response of freshwater fish, Labeo rohita. At the same time, Siddhuraj and Becker [40] stated that the higher inclusion rate of mucuna seed meal significantly reduced the growth parameters in the freshwater fish, Cyprinus carpio because most of the plant-based feed stuffs have a wide variety of anti-nutritional factors such as phytin, non-starch polysaccharides (NSP), and protease inhibitors, which may impair nutrient utilization, as well as impair fish performance and health [41]. Lakshmi Bai and Kumar Reddy [42] stated that, 30% of cottonseed meal diet showed satisfactory results regarding the growth performance of red bellied Pacu, Piaractus brachypomus. ...
... It is crucial for phagocytes recruitment, clearance of invading pathogens, and elimination of altered cells. It serves as a bridge between innate immunity and adaptive immunity [35,40]. In the present study the complement activity was significantly enhanced on fish groups fed 4 g kg −1 and 6 g kg −1 of C. mixta supplementation diets. ...
... Lysozyme is a cationic protein that is present in mucus, lymphoid tissue, plasma as well as in other fluids and is also expressed in a wide variety of tissues [48]. In fish, lysozyme is synthesized in both liver and extra hepatic sites [35] and involved in a broad range of defense mechanisms such as bacteriolysis, opsonisation, immune response, antimicrobial as well as restricted antiviral and antineoplastic activity as found in higher vertebrates [40,43,45]. In the present study, infected O. mosambicus fed with 4 g kg −1 and 6 g kg −1 of C. mixta supplementation diet groups were able to significantly enhance the lysosome activity. ...
... More than simple thermal processing, hydro-thermal treatments appear to improve the nutritional value of some feedstuffs. Sensitivity of carps to the heat-stable antimetabolic factors contained in the 'autoclaved' mucuna seed meal was demonstrated by Siddhuraju and Becker (2001). When the mucuna seeds were soaked and then autoclaved, that is hydro-thermal treatment, there was significant improvement in nutrient utilization (Siddhuraju & Becker 2001). ...
... Sensitivity of carps to the heat-stable antimetabolic factors contained in the 'autoclaved' mucuna seed meal was demonstrated by Siddhuraju and Becker (2001). When the mucuna seeds were soaked and then autoclaved, that is hydro-thermal treatment, there was significant improvement in nutrient utilization (Siddhuraju & Becker 2001). The presence of free amino acids or peptides can also improve protein utilization, as was found with silage-based (acid hydrolysed) diets (Ramasubburayan et al. 2013). ...
... Our preliminary data suggest that freshly defecated carp faeces (fed on compound dry diet; 4-8 h water residence) Stankovic et al. (2015), Davies and Gouveia (2010), Kumar et al. (2010Kumar et al. ( , 2011a, , Nwanna et al. ( , 2008Nwanna et al. ( , 2010, Niesar et al. (2004), Keshavanath et al. (2002), Jahan et al. (2001Jahan et al. ( , 2003, Siddhuraju and Becker (2001), Hasan et al. (1997), Watanabe (1991, 1993), Yamamoto et al. (1996), Kim et al. (1995a,b), Nandeesha et al. (1995Nandeesha et al. ( , 2002, Kim and Ahn (1993), Takeuchi et al. (1979aTakeuchi et al. ( , 1989 and Kaushik et al. (1983a). ...
Article
Metadata from 70 research articles on Cyprinus carpio digestibility published between 1973 and 2017, covering 71 feed ingredients, were analysed. Interquartile range (IR) of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) content in feedstuffs was 5–8% and 0.7–1.2% of dry matter, respectively, with digestible N:P 7.2:1–44.1:1. IR of N digestibility (79–99%) was high, whereas IR of P digestibility (27–47%) was rather poor. Dietary energy digestibility (gross energy and non‐protein energy) was >76%. Higher P in feedstuffs caused significant negative interferences for N digestibility. IR of nutrient content in carp faeces was estimated at 0.5–1.7% N and 0.4–0.9% P. Considering the metabolic losses, the carp excreta have an ‘eutrophic’ N:P ratio (2.1:1–5.8:1). Eutrophication potential from feeding seems linked to P digestibility followed by bad protein profile of diets. While brewery wastes, microbial protein and natural prey offer high P digestibility (75–90%), large knowledge gaps still exist in P digestibility of various ingredients. Thermal processing does not always improve P digestibility; acidic pre‐incubation with phytases (optimum: 1500–2000 IU kg−1 feed) is worth exploring. Under semi‐intensive system, digestible ‘supplementary’ nutrients (N: 3.3–4.9%, P: 0.2–0.5%; even lower) can support at least 0.6–1.2 thermal growth coefficient (reasonable growth) and be ecologically relevant. We further considered validity of data within experimental conditions; effects on N/P utilization; non‐faecal losses (IRs 17–59% of N intake; 9–18% of P intake); and controversies over eutrophication. Recent eutrophication of carp fishponds might have been rather ‘management‐driven’ than carp's biological limitations. Ameliorative measures are outlined.
... Finally, there is generally an inverse relationship between the moisture and lipid content in fish (e.g., Shearer, 1994;Siddhuraju & Becker, 2001), and in the current study, these were significantly higher and lower, respectively, in the FKSM 340 treatment. This is in agreement with studies evaluating plant proteins in the diets of C. carpio and tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Siddhuraju & Becker, 2001, 2003. ...
... Finally, there is generally an inverse relationship between the moisture and lipid content in fish (e.g., Shearer, 1994;Siddhuraju & Becker, 2001), and in the current study, these were significantly higher and lower, respectively, in the FKSM 340 treatment. This is in agreement with studies evaluating plant proteins in the diets of C. carpio and tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus (Siddhuraju & Becker, 2001, 2003. In contrast, other studies have shown that dietary plant proteins increased the lipid content in some fish (Kumar et al., 2010;Mazurkiewicz, 2009), including C. gariepinus (Goda et al., 2007). ...
Article
An 8‐week feeding trial was conducted to assess the suitability of fenugreek seed meal (FKSM; Trigonella foenum‐graecum) to replace fishmeal (FM) in diets of African catfish Clarias gariepinus. Five isonitrogenous and iso‐energetic diets were formulated with increasing amounts of FKSM, at the expense of FM, at 0 (Control), 100 (FKSM100), 180 (FKSM180), 260 (FKSM260) or 340 g/kg (FKSM340). Each treatment was triplicated, with 30 fish in each replicate (initial mean ± SD of 9.3 ± 0.5 g). Growth performance, haematology, serum biochemistry, carcass and fillet proximate composition, some innate immunological parameters and hepatic insulin‐like growth factor (IGF) I and II were measured. Growth, feeding efficiencies and hepatic IGF‐I and IGF‐II gene expression were unchanged in the dietary FKSM100 or FKSM180 treatments, compared to the control. In the FKSM180 treatment, blood haemoglobin, haematocrit, red blood cell counts, respiratory burst activity and lysozyme activity of catfish significantly increased. Carcass crude protein, ash and hepatic IGF‐I gene expression were significantly lower in the FKSM260 and FKSM340 treatments. Results show that up to 180 g/kg FKSM can replace FM at 350 g/kg, on a total protein basis in the diets of C. gariepinus.
... Fish fed D4 exhibited the highest value (12.2) of ash content and the lowest value (16.3) of lipid content. The same results were observed on Nile tilapia and common carp respectively when fish fed diets contained plant-based proteins (Pouomogene et al., 1997;Siddhuraju and Becker, 2001;Afuang et al., 2003). The significant differences in blood components of fish fed the experimental diets were observed (Table 4). ...
... Favier et al. (1997) stated that the reduction in blood cholesterol level after consuming plant protein diets may be related to the binding or trapping of bile salts in the gut due to a relatively high viscosity. These results are in accordance with (Hossain et al., 2001;Siddhuraju and Becker, 2001). No histopathological effect of moringa leaves meal supplemented diets on fish body tissues (liver, gonads and intestine) (Figure 2; Figure 3; and Figure 4). ...
Article
A twelve- week feeding study was conducted to define the influence of adding different levels moringa leaves powder 0, 2, 4 or 6 g kg -1 to the basal diet on Nile tilapia fingerlings performance. Fish were distributed randomly at a rate of 15 fish each in 12 aquaria with average 2.1 ± 0.1 g initial weight. Each diet was provided to fish in triplicate at a level of 5% of biomass. The growth performance did not differ significantly (P > 0.05) among all treatments. There were significant differences in protein, lipid and ash content (P < 0.05). A reduction was observed in the lipid values with increasing the level of moringa leaves meal in the experimental diets. The inclusion of moringa leaves meal reduced the glucose, cholesterol and triglycerides in the blood plasma content significantly. No specific neurotic changes were observed in the liver, intestine or ovary of tested Nile tilapia fed the experimental diets. It was concluded that moringa leaves meal can be added to the diets for Nile tilapia without any antagonistic properties.
... Considerable attention has been devoted to the replacement of fish meal with plant protein sources such as soy-bean meal (Oliva-Teles et al., 1994); Refstie et al., 1998), mucuna seed meal (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2001) Globally, the food research emphasis on the production of high quality food and feeds of plant origin as the green plants are recognized as excellent source of protein, fats and pharmacological active and secondary metabolism. Recent studies reveals that the aquatic plants are good source of primary and secondary metabolism. ...
... Duckweed, as a natural protein source, has a better array of essential amino acids than most other vegetable proteins and more closely resembles animal protein (Hillman and Culley, 1978). Duckweed grown on nutrient-rich water no essential amino acid (EAA) deficiencies (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2001). Similar results were obtained in another study, in which feeding common carp diets containing more than 12% sesbania meal produced significantly poorer growth and feed utilization compared to fish fed a= control diet, despite good feed acceptability and no EAA deficiencies. ...
Article
Using of dried aquatic plants as daily protein to animal and fish was the topic of investigation in this study. Analyses of different plants (water hyacinth, duckweed and lotus) in Laboratory. This is to evaluate their potentials in animal and feed composition. The proximate analysis shows that the moisture content ranged from 6.25% in the plant to 32.5% for the crude lipids, the least value of 2.5 to 5.4 in the whole plant while the percentage crude fiber ranged from 4.5 to 11.1% in the whole plant. The percentage crude protein ranged from 8.55% to 14.2 %. In the whole plant duckweed plant is conceder the prefer plant can used as nutritive source of animal and fish feed then water hyacinth and lotus. Total amino acid are large amount in water hyacinth than lotus and duckweed (397.638, 175.98 and 95.915 mg/g).
... In recent research, it has been shown that many plant protein sources has potential protein source in fish feed and was utilized successfully in many experimental aquaculture diets [3]. Therefore, concerning the more common usage and usability of the fish meal for fish feed is restricted by increasing demand for human consumption and by other animal feed industries [4]. This phenomenon has support the requirement search for cheaper alternative protein source for the improving of low-cost feed that can replace traditional feedstuff without reducing the nutritional quality of the diets [5]. ...
... Due to increases in cost and global demand of fish meal and soybean meal, the usage of other vegetable proteins in fish diets has become more widespread in recent years [3]. Therefore, the use of less expensive and easily available plant protein sources are needed to reduce dependence on fish meal and soybean meal as the fundamental protein sources for aquatic animal diets without reducing the nutritional quality of feeds [4,11]. ...
Article
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This study was conducted to evaluate the partial replacement of soybean meal by sesame seed and peanut meals in practical diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Four isonitrogenous (44% protein) and isolipidic (19% lipid) diets were formulated. The trial diets were prepared to include 10% sesame seed meal (S10), 10% peanut meal (P10), 5% sesame seed meal+5% peanut meal mix (SP10) and a control (C) with no replacement of soybean meal. There were four dietary treatments, with three replicates for each treatment. The fish (initial average weight; 79.86±0.14 g) were hand-fed twice a day to apparent satiety under a natural light regime for 65 days. At the end of experiment, the best growth was determined in SP10 group (p<0.05). The growth performance of S10 and P10 groups was significantly lower than control and SP10 groups (p<0.05). The hepatosomatic index (HSI) and viscerosomatic index (VSI) values were not affected from the protein sources in the diets (p>0.05). Comparing to the initial sample, the moisture, protein, lipid and ash contents in the body composition of the fish increased in all experimental groups and were not significantly differed among the groups (p>0.05). In the crude protein digestibility was no differences in among groups (p>0.05), but the highest apparent protein digestibility coefficients were determined for C (91.26%) and SP10 (91.93%) groups. The present results demonstrated that 10% sesame seed meal and peanut meal could be used in diets of rainbow trout without any negative effects on growth. The results showed that using these protein sources together may provide better results rather than using them alone.
... For this reason, many studies have been conducted on the replacement of expensive marine proteins with lowercost ingredients. Considerable attention has been devoted to the replacement of fish meal with plant protein sources such as soybean meal (Oliva-Teles et al., 1994;Refstie et al., 1998), mucuna seed meal (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2001), winged bean (Fagbenro, 1999), and various legumes (Hossain et al., 2001;Gouveia and Davies, 1998). ...
... E:P ratio: energy to protein ratio in kcal gross energy g -1 protein NFE, nitrogen free extract calculated as 100 -%(crude protein+crude fiber+ash+lipid) were fed a control diet. The diminished growth was attributed to the effects of various antinutrients (tannins, phytates, saponins, L-DOPA, trypsin inhibitor, chymotrypsin inhibitor, phytohaemagglutinating activity) in mucuna seed meal, because the experimental diets used had relatively good acceptability and no essential amino acid (EAA) deficiencies (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2001). Similar results were obtained in another study, in which feeding common carp diets containing more than 12% sesbania meal produced significantly poorer growth and feed utilization compared to fish fed a control diet, despite good feed acceptability and no EAA deficiencies. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract The use of dried duckweed, Lemna minor, as a dietary protein source for Cyprinus carpio common carp fry reared in baskets was the topic of investigation in this study. Five diets with similar E: P ratios were fed to common carp fry with an average initial weight of 0.29 g for 90 days. A diet containing 5%, 10%, 15%, or 20% duckweed was substituted for the commercial 32% protein control-group diet, fed in normal rations to common carp. There was no significant difference between the growth performance of fish that were fed diets ...
... Statistical analysis (SPSS vers. 16. IBM ® , New York, USA) was carried out using Tukey's test after one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) to determine differences among treatment groups which were deemed significant at P<0.05. ...
... The level of whole-body moisture as shown in Table 3 was higher in fish fed with MLM 10, MLM 20 and MLM 30 diets compared to the control MLM 0 group. This agreed with results of a reported study which had similar lose in whole body lipid content and energy of common carp fed with plant-based protein, Mucuna 16) . Furthermore, another study that studied factors affecting the proximate composition of cultured fishes observed that body moisture and body lipid were inversely related 17) , which was the case in this experiment. ...
Article
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Juveniles of Nile tilapia were stocked (4.47 ± 0.26 g, eight fish per tank) and fed with test diets containing different inclusion levels of boiled Moringa oleifera leaf meal powder (0-30%: MLM 0, MLM 10, MLM 20, MLM 30), at 6% body weight for a total for six weeks. MLM 10 recorded the best average weight gain, specific growth rate, food conversion rate and protein efficiency ratio but there were no significance differences in all parameters with the MLM 30 diet which had the highest MLM inclusion. As there were no differences in fish growth and feed utilization between MLM 0 diet and MLM 10-30 diet, it would be possible to replace fish meal as a main dietary protein source by MLM up to 30% from 40% without any negative influence on the growth of juvenile Nile tilapia and is applicable as a practical rearing diet.
... This causes a decrease in trypsin in the intestine and subsequently indigestibility of dietary protein, thus leading to slower animal growth [6]. In this study, trypsin inhibitor recorded from raw Mucuna pruriens (16.30%) was higher than the range reported by [49] i.e. 13.7-14.2%. Although, all methods applied in this study proved effective in reducing trypsin inhibitor content of Mucuna pruriens, however, the use of Tronain fermenting medium eliminated the antinutrient to the barest minimum of 0.91%. ...
Article
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Aims: To investigate the impact of Trona and woodash (alkaline tenderizers) on aniti-nutrient and nutrient content of Mucuna pruriens during fermentation. Study Design: Natural fermentation and fermentation using additives (4% Trona, GWA-Gmelina wood ash) was implored. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Microbiology, Federal University of Akure, Ondo State between November 2014 and March 2015 Methodology: Microbial analysis was carried out using Sabouraud dextrose agar, nutrient agar and De man Rogosa agar. pHand total titratable acidity analysis were carried out. Proximate, mineral composition, antinutrient analysis and in-vitro protein digestibility was also carried out on the fermented samples. Results: A total of eighteen (18) microorganisms were isolated during fermentation; eleven (11) bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus licheniformis, Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Arthrobacter sp., Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus fermentum, Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactococcu scremoris), two (2) yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Geotrichum candidum) and five (5) molds, (Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium oxysporium and Eurotium rubrum). pH values obtained reduced with increase in fermentation period, Total Titratable acidity (TTA) increased with fermentation. The antinutrient content of the samples decreased significantly with fermentation. A total of 78%, 94%, 74% and 77% reductions in phenol, trypsin, phytate, and tannin were recorded respectively in trona fermented samples. On the other hand, GWA samples recorded most improvement in the proximate analysis results (ash-4.2%, moisture-12.36%, fat-17.63%, and protein-39.51% contents). Furthermore, the highest IVPD (In-vitro protein digestibility) was recorded after the beans were cooked and autoclaved but IVPD drop drastically by 27.6% with Trona fermentation. Results obtained indicate samples fermented with Trona (TR) recorded the highest reduction in antinutrient content of the beans. On the other hand, GWA samples recorded most improvement in the proximate analysis results (ash-4.2%, moisture-12.36%, fat-17.63%, and protein-39.51% contents). Furthermore, the highest IVPD (In vitro protein digestibility) was recorded after the beans were cooked and autoclaved but IVPD drop drastically by 27.6% with Trona fermentation.
... Oxidation of choline to betaine is considered a one-way reaction in vertebrates and there is no evidence that tilapia is able to synthesize choline from betaine, and then we might speculate that methionine contributed to choline biosynthesis in our study Similar to the present results, Liener (1994 a & b) stated that protein inhibitors include both Trypsin and Chemotrypsin addition, Makkar and Becker (1999) added that there were no significant differences between the growth performance of common carp fed diets containing raw and heated Jalropha meal (25%) in diets with high level of trypsin inhibitor. Significant growth reduction in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) was observed by Siddhuraju and Becker (2001)) and phytohaemaglutinins particularly in legumes, are considered as potential antinuntrients and are known to decrease the growth performance of animals. Even though the mucuna samples (raw and autoclaved) plant source used contained a sufficient quantity of essential amino acids, the complex formation in the oxidized product of phenolic non-protein amino acid, 3, 4dihydroxyphenylalanine, with peptide sulphur amino acids (Siddhuraju et al., 2000) may reduce the availability of cystein and methionine in the diets. ...
... The shortage and rising cost of commercial fish meal has prompted researchers to investigate the production of cost effective feed formulations for cultured fish species [6,7]. Several plant protein sources/agricultural by-products have been tested as replacement for fish meal in fish diets [8][9][10][11][12][13][14] with a view to achieve cost reduction in fish production. However, studies with passion fruit seed cake are lacking. ...
Article
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Abstract Passion fruit seed cake was evaluated as a fish feed ingredient at graded levels (0,5,10,15,20%), employing jaraqui and tambaqui fingerlings. Jaraqui of av. length 3.12-3.21 cm and av. wt. 2.59-2.76 g when fed on these diets attained a final av. length of 9.80-10.51 cm and av. wt. of 22.75- 26.11g at the end of 120 days, while tambaqui of initial av. length 5.06-5.16 cm and av. wt. 4.65-4.74 g grew to a final av. length of 15.28-16.76 cm and av. wt. of 81.22-118.34 g. A progressive decline in protein and an increase in lipid contents were noticed in the formulated diets with increasing passion fruit seed cake incorporation. Replacement of fishmeal with passion fruit seed cake in the test diets did not affect jaraqui growth at all the levels tested, whereas tambaqui growth was affected at higher levels (15 and 20%). The apparent digestibility values of dry matter, protein and lipid in the diets did not differ significantly. Diets affected fish carcass composition. The highest protein and lipid values were recorded with T0 and T5 diets that had 30.15% protein and 5.33% lipid respectively. While FCR did not vary significantly between treatments, PER of fish receiving diet T5 was significantly higher with both the species of fish. The results show that the diets developed using passion fruit seed cake can be used in the culture of jaraqui and tambaqui with economic advantage.
... Similarly, soybean meal has always been the principal plant protein source used in animal feeds as a replacement for fishmeal owing to its high protein content and relatively well balanced amino acid profile (Sintayehu et al., 1996). However, s oy b e a n m e a l h a s b e e n i n c r e a s i n g l y commercialised and variously used in human, livestock and poultry dietary formulations, hence its extensive utilisation as the main protein source in fish feeds may longer be economically viable (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2001). Therefore, less competitive and locally available plant protein sources such as sunflower seed meal should be considered as an alternative to replace soybean meal without reducing the nutritional quality of the feed. ...
... Nutritional importance of Mucuna seeds as a rich source of protein supplement in food and feed has been well documented (Siddhuraju et al., 2000, Siddhuraju and Becker 2001a, Bressani 2002. Mucuna seeds constitute excellent raw material for indigenous Ayurvedic drugs and medicines due to the presence of 3, 4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA), which provides symptomatic relief in Parkinson's disease (Shaw andBera 1993, Prakash andTewari 1999). ...
Article
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In recent years there has been a shift in the focus of biotechnological progress to find new approaches in food fermentation and develop multifunctional microorganisms to improve the nutritional and health benefit of food. In the present study, rice-mucuna blends of different formulation, (100:0, 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, and 50:50) respectively, were subjected to solid state fermentation for 72 hours using pure strain of lactobacillus plantarum and investigated the effect of fermentation on the рH, titratable acidity, and the proximate and anti-nutrient content of the blend. We observed that the рH decreased with fermentation period while increase in the titratable acidity was noted after fermentation. The percentage protein, fat, and moisture content increased with fermentation period while carbohydrate and crude fiber decreased after fermentation. The anti-nutrient composition showed a decreased in the value with fermentation. Crude fiber recorded the lowest percentage of all the proximate content in the samples, the value ranged from 3.00±0.00 to 2.65±0.00 while carbohydrate recorded the highest value which ranged from 45.29±0.01 to 43.74±0.14. We hypothesized from our findings that prolong fermentation of rice-mucuna blends for 72 hours can increase the nutritional composition and reduce the anti-nutritional composition of the sample. However, the result obtained from this study revealed that using a pure strain of lactobacillus coupled with fermentation can enhance the nutritional benefits of rice-mucuna blends when fermented.
... Many varieties and accessions of the wild legume, Mucuna are in great demand in food and pharmaceutical industries. Nutritional importance of Mucuna seeds as a rich source of protein supplement in food and feed has been well documented [1], [2]. Mucuna seeds constitute excellent raw material for indigenous Ayurvedic drugs and medicines due to the presence of 3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA), which provides symptomatic relief in Parkinson's disease [3], and are in high demand in international market after the discovery of L-DOPA, which serves as a potential drug as anti-Parkinson's disease [4] and provides symptomatic relief [5] Mucuna seeds produce hypoglycemic effect and the fruits possess a weak neuromuscular blocking effect in rats but not in alloxan-treated rats [6]. ...
Article
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The standard procedures were followed to analyze the proximate composition and mineral analysis of Mucuna utilis. The caloric value was calculated from crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, carbohydrate, moisture and ash content. The iron (Fe), zinc (Zn), calcium (Ca), manganese (Mn) and magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), potassium (K) and phosphorus (P) were determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results showed that Mucuna utilis contained ash (6.0%), crude protein (22.94%), crude fat (2.94%), crude fiber (12.50%), moisture (12.50%) and carbohydrate (43.11%). The energy calculated gave 290.75Kcal/100g. The mineral determination gave the data that Mucuna utilis contained calcium (5.25 mg/g), phosphorus (0.02 mg/g), magnesium (1.63 mg/g), manganese (0.0mg/g), iron (0.95 mg/g), sodium (1.17 mg/g), potassium (0.13 mg/g) and zinc (0.21 mg/g). This study concluded that the tested Mucuna utilis contained highest amount of carbohydrate and lowest amount of crude fibre. Similarly, among minerals tested, Mucuna utilis contained highest amount of calcium and no manganese at all.
... Guardiola et al. (2016) demonstrated that the addition of aqueous palm fruit (Phoenix dactylifera) extracts without seeds at 10% in iod (60 days), resulting in a lower growth performance in fish. A similar retardation in growth rate was found by Siddhuraju and Becker (2001) who fed common carp with Mucuna pruriens seed over a long period of time. Sotolu et al. (2014), however, reported that the addition of date palm seed (Phoenix dactylifera) of an unknown variety at concentrations of 0.5% to 2% to the diet improved the growth performance, compared to fish fed a control diet. ...
Article
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This study aimed to assess the effect of date palm (Phoenix dactylifera) seed (DPS) extract at 0.5%, 1%, 2% and 4% as a dietary supplement over 60 days, on the growth and immune‐physiology of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. The weight gain in fish fed with 0.5% DPS was significantly greater than other treatments and fish fed a control diet with no DPS (p < 0.05). With increasing DPS dosage above 0.5%, weight gain and growth rate gradually declined. Feed conversion ratio in fish fed 0.5% DPS was lower than other treatments, but not significantly so, except for the highest DPS concentration (4%). With respect to immunophysiological variables, fish treated with 0.5% DPS leucocyte, neutrophil, lymphocyte and monocyte counts that were generally equivalent to fish on a control diet, but significantly lower than fish treated with greater concentrations of DPS (p < 0.05). Chemilumincene response and lysozyme activity, as well as levels of total protein and albumin, were higher in all treated groups than the control. The highest levels of iron and high density lipoprotein (HDL) were observed in fish fed with 0.5% DPS, while the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), glucose, cholesterol, triglyceride, low density lipoprotein (LDH), thyrotropin, thyroxine and triiodothyronine were lower level in fish fed with 0.5% DPS than in all other treatments. In aquaculture practice, use of 0.5% DPS in commercial carp feed can improve the growth rate and condition of fish.
... Nutritional importance of Mucuna seeds as a rich source of protein supplement in food and feed has been well documented (Siddhuraju et al., 2000, Siddhuraju and Becker 2001a, Bressani 2002. Mucuna seeds constitute excellent raw material for indigenous Ayurvedic drugs and medicines due to the presence of 3, 4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine (L-DOPA), which provides symptomatic relief in Parkinson's disease (Shaw andBera 1993, Prakash andTewari 1999). ...
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In recent years there has been a shift in the focus of biotechnological progress to find new approaches in food fermentation and develop multifunctional microorganisms to improve the nutritional and health benefit of food. In the present study, rice-mucuna blends of different formulation, (100:0, 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40, and 50:50) respectively, were subjected to solid state fermentation for 72 hours using pure strain of lactobacillus plantarum and investigated the effect of fermentation on the рH, titratable acidity, and the proximate and anti-nutrient content of the blend. We observed that the рH decreased with fermentation period while increase in the titratable acidity was noted after fermentation. The percentage protein, fat, and moisture content increased with fermentation period while carbohydrate and crude fiber decreased after fermentation. The anti-nutrient composition showed a decreased in the value with fermentation. Crude fiber recorded the lowest percentage of all the proximate content in the samples, the value ranged from 3.00±0.00 to 2.65±0.00 while carbohydrate recorded the highest value which ranged from 45.29±0.01 to 43.74±0.14. We hypothesized from our findings that prolong fermentation of rice-mucuna blends for 72 hours can increase the nutritional composition and reduce the anti-nutritional composition of the sample. However, the result obtained from this study revealed that using a pure strain of lactobacillus coupled with fermentation can enhance the nutritional benefits of rice-mucuna blends when fermented.
... Penurunan kandungan fitat selama proses perebusan kemungkinan disebabkan oleh terlarutnya fitat ke dalam air sebagai media perebusan. Kemungkinan lain adalah terjadinya degradasi dari kompleks fitat-protein dan atau fitatmineral oleh panas pada proses perebusan (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2001). Proses perebusan tersebut juga akan mengakibatkankerusakan komponen nutrisi yang lain seperti protein dan vitamin. ...
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In countries with high plant biodiversity such as Indonesia, the availability of food of plant origin is very diverse. The presence of anti-nutrients in plants would potentially cause problems in cattle if not managed properly. phytic acid is one anti nutritional factor that have a role in disrupting the health and productivity The term phytate refers to the molecule phytic acid, which generally acts as a chelate to Mg, Ca, Na, and K, and in some cases protein and carbohydrates. Seeds of cereals, legumes and oilseed plant which is used as animal feed usually contains a lot of phytic acid which can cause a decline in nutritional value. However, with a variety of processing methods, levels of phytic acid in animal feed can be reduced or even eliminated. In addition to the processing method, the method of adding phytase enzyme may also be done to improve the nutritional value of the animal feed ingredients. Keywords:anti-nutrients.phytic acid. processingmethods.phytase
... Lim and Akiyama (1992) reported that soybean products have been used to replace a significant portion of fish meal in fish feed with nutritional, environmental and economic benefits. However, wider utilization and availability of this conventional source for fish feed is limited by increasing demand for human consumption and by other animal feed industries (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2001), This phenomenon, according to Balogun (1988), has hindered the expansion and profitability of aquaculture enterprises in many developing countries. This has encouraged the need to look for cheaper alternative protein sources for the development of low-cost feeds that can replace the conventional ones without reducing the nutritional quality of the diets. ...
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The study investigated the effects of replacing soybean meal with Luffa cylindrical seed meal on the growth performance of Clarias gariepinus fingerlings. Five isonitrogenous diets containing soybean meal which was replaced by Luffa cylindrica at a rate of 15, 30, 45 and 60% levels were formulated. The diets without Luffa cylindrical seed meal served as the control. Experimental diets were assigned randomly to the fish in tanks and each group of fish was fed at 5% of body weight in equal proportions twice daily. There were significant (P,0.05) decreases in growth and nutrient utilization parameters of fish fed different dietary treatments containing 30 to 60 % levels of Luffa cylindrical seed meal. However, there were no significant (P>0.05) variations in growth and nutrient utilization parameters of fish fed the control diet and those fed diet containing 15% Luffah cylindrica.
... Olasunkanmi et al. (2014) had earlier reported that inclusion of raw M. utilis seed meal in the diet of African catfish significantly affected growth performance of the fish negatively. Similarly, Siddhuraju and Becker (2001) concluded that replacement of 20%-40% of total dietary protein by raw M. utilis seed in the diet of Common carp Cyprinus carpio Linnaeus 1758 led to poor performance of the fish. This is in line with the observations made in fish fed the diet containing raw M. utilis (200 g kg −1 ) in the present study. ...
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The value of toasted Mucuna utilis seed meals was investigated in this study by evaluating the nutritional profile and the utilization of the processed seeds in isonitrogenous (35% CP) and isocaloric diets (17 kJ g−1) for African catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell 1822). Toasting the M. utilis seed significantly reduced the levels of tannins, phytate, trypsin, and hemagglutinin in the seeds. However, protein, gross energy, arginine, histidine, and valine were increased (P ≤ 0.05). The processed seed was then used to formulate five experimental diets by progressively increasing its inclusion (by 50 g kg−1) from zero up to 200 g kg−1. A sixth diet was also formulated with raw M. utilis included at 200 g kg−1 to determine the efficacy of the processing method applied in this study. Fifty fingerlings of C. gariepinus (2.02 g ± 0.08) stocked in 18 hapas measuring 1 × 1 × 1 m3 were then fed the diets for 56 days. The growth of C. gariepinus fingerlings was significantly improved by the addition of the toasted M. utilis seed meal. However, fish fed the diet containing 200 g kg−1 of raw M. utilis had poor growth with higher mortality (35%). Estimation of the feeding cost using the diets revealed reduction in production cost of fish with the inclusion of toasted M. utilis seed meal. It was concluded that toasting significantly improved the nutritional quality of this unconventional feedstuff, allowing better utilization at up to 200 g kg−1 inclusion level in the diet of African catfish C. gariepinus.
... The increased incorporation ratio of mucuna seed meal (Mucuna puriens var. utilis) with different percentage (10, 20, 30 and 40%) brought a decline in the growth rate in carp (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2001). ...
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A 60-day feeding trial was conducted to asses the potential nutritive value of sesame seed meal as a dietary replacement for soybean meal in the diets of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss Walbaum, 1792). All diets were prepared to be isonitrogenous (49% protein), isolipidic (19% lipid) and isoenergetic (22 kJ g-1). Four different diets containing 0% (C), 10% (10SSM), 15% (15SSM) and 20% (20SSM) sesame seed meal were formulated for rainbow trout with a mean weight of 81.02±0.02 g and fish were hand fed feed twice a day to apparent satiety under a natural light regime. At the end of study, significant differences were found in final body weight, weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR, %) between control group (C) and the experimental groups (p0.05), Apparent Net Protein Retention (ANPR) differed significant between C and 10SSM and 15SSM and 20SSM groups (p0.05) but protein contents of fish in 15SSM and 20SSM groups was significantly higher than fish in control and 10SSM groups (p0.05). Comparable performance in growth, nutrient utilization and crude protein deposition of rainbow trout fed by diet containing 15% sesame seed meal showed that these meals could be used as this rate.
... It is limited and expensive source in fish feeds after fish meal [16] . As the cost for conventional protein sources including SBM is increasing [17] search to find out non-conventional, locally available, cheap feed ingredients as alternative energy source for fish feed is inevitable [5] . ...
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With the increasing human population, fish will be cheapest protein food source which considerably contribute to human sector for the minimization of hunger and malnutrition. This situation to take place, it is essential to produce fish with minimum cost, so that it will reach poor people; need significant input from aquaculture. Feed accounts 50 to 60% of total expenditure in the aquaculture. The reduction of feed cost will improve the economic status of aquaculture business. At present, conventional ingredients utilised in fish feeds are costly, which increases the feed cost in turn raises the cost of fish for production. Therefore, it is a need for switch over to cost less non-conventional feed ingredients to produce fish with low costs and neem seed cake has great potential in this context. The scope and limitations to place NSC as one of the major ingredients during diet formulation was discussed in this technical review. Keywords: Need seed cake, fish, feed, ingredient, aquaculture.
... This makes them unaffordable, unsustainable and sometimes even conflicts with food security interests, particularly among resource-poor farmers (Atteh, 1995). Therefore, in order to attain a more economically sustainable, environmentally friendly and viable production, research interest has been redirected towards the evaluation and use of unconventional protein sources, particularly from plant products such as seeds, leave and other agricultural by-products (Olvera-Novoa et al., 1988;El-sayed, 1999;Siddhuraju and Becker, 2001;Ogunji, 2004;Bake et al., 2009 and2013). ...
... This could probably be a result of persistent consumption of Mucuna pruriens extract which could retard animal growth rate. Siddhuraju and Becker [36] found similar results in common carp fed with Mucuna pruriens. They observed no significant difference in fish growth as compared to control and concluded that the sensitivity of common carp, to the antinutritional factors contained in the mucuna seed meal produced low growth performance at higher inclusion levels. ...
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The effect of dietary ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens on growth, metabolism and haemato-immunological parameters of an Indian Major Carp, Labeo rohita fingerlings were studied. Fishes were fed with a diet containing four graded levels (0.0, 0.06, 0.08 and 0.1 g/100 g diet) of Mucuna pruriens. Net weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR) and food conversion ratio varied significantly (p < 0.05) improved in Mucuna pruriens fed fish. Still the highest weight gain and specific growth rate (SGR) were recorded in 0.06 g/100 gm Mucuna pruriens supplemented diet. The increase in digestive enzymes like protease, amylase and lipase supported the results of increase in growth at treatment level 0.06g/100gm.The metabolic enzymes like LDH, MDH and G6PDH levels were decreased in herbal extract supplemented groups. Whereas, the enzymes of protein metabolism were found increased in herbal extract supplemented group in comparison to control. Further, the haematological parameters such as packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb) and erythrocytes (RBC) were not significantly different in Mucuna pruriens supplemented diets as compared to control. A significant (P < 0.05) proliferation of the leukocytes (WBC) and improvement in respiratory burst activity. The results of this study proved the significant role of ethanolic extract of Mucuna pruriens in growth, metabolism and immunity defence mechanism of Labeo rohita fingerlings.
... Fish meal is a major ingredient in aquafeed to meet up high protein requirement of fish. Because of high cost and uncertainty in supply of good quality fish meal, present research is more focused to find out some alternative plant protein sources for replacing it in fish diets [2,3] to minimize the dependency on fishmeal and reduce the cost of formulated feeds. Notable emphasis was put on the use of different plant protein sources which are not directly usable for human consumption [4]. ...
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An experiment was conducted to evaluate utilization of fermented ingredients for replacing fish meal and examine the efficacy of live bacterial supplement in diets of Mugil cephalus juveniles. The experiment had six treatment groups (I, II, III, IV, V and VI) of M. cephalus juveniles (0.12 ± 0.001 g) with triplicate. A control diet (group I) was prepared with plant feedstuffs (wheat flour, rice bran, mustard cake) and fish meal. For other diets, plant feedstuffs (rice bran, mustard cake, sunflower cake, sesame cake, azolla meal, leucaena leaf meal) were fermented with two gut bacteria i.e., Bacillus sp. DDKRC1., Bacillus subtilis DDKRC5., isolated from Lates calcarifer and Chanos Chanos, respectively. Diets for groups II, III, IV and V were formulated with fermented ingredients replacing 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% of fish meal by weight. Diet for group VI was prepared by supplementing the control feed with mixture of Bacillus subtilis DDKRC5 and Bacillus sp. DDKRC1, (1:1) at 1% (v/w) of feed. The Diets were offered twice daily for a period of six weeks. Supplementation of live bacterial mixture with control diet could improve (P<0.01) nutrient digestibility, growth rate, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER),body protein and lipid content and immune response and fermented ingredients could replace 75% of fish meal in diet of M. cephalus without affecting growth rate, FCR, PER, survival, body protein and lipid content and hematological indices.
... The results of previous studies show that replacing fish meal with pea seed meal (as a protein source) may lead to poor growth and lower protein assimilation efficiency in omnivorous fish, e.g. Tilapia (El-Saidy and Saad, 2008) and Carp (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2001). However, adding vegetables to the fish food may improve disease resilience by restoring the gut microbiome in carnivorous fish (Piazzon et al., 2017). ...
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Human–animal interactions can generate a variety of benefits for the psychological and physiological wellbeing of humans. Therefore, more people may prefer to keep pets (such as aquatic animals) during stressful events, like the COVID-19 pandemic. In this study, an international survey of aquarium keepers was conducted to assess their attitudes toward home aquariums during the COVID-19 pandemic. Over 80% of the respondents, irrespective of gender, age, employment status, number of owned aquariums, or aquarium maintenance experience, confirmed that aquariums have produced stress-relieving benefits during the COVID-19 pandemic. Approximately, one-quarter of home aquarium owners claimed to have bought more than 15 fish and 15 aquatic invertebrates since the beginning of the stay-at-home restrictions. The majority of the respondents confirmed that their aquarium(s) was/were properly maintained during these regulations, particularly compared to the years prior to the COVID-19 pandemic. To some extent, a shortage of supply of live foods affected the maintenance performance of home aquariums.
... Soybean meal Storebakken et al., 2000) hence, the main dietary plant protein ingredients in fish feeds. However, soybean is expensive because of its wider utilization and limited availability stemming from increasing demand for human consumption and by other animal feed industries (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2001). Hence, the need to look for cheaper alternative protein source for the development of low-cost feed that can replace this conventional feedstuff, without reducing the nutritional quality of the diets, Barros et al., 2002 Watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) belongs to the family Curcubitaceae. ...
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The nutritive potential of watermelon (Citrullus lanatus) seedmeal as dietary protein source in the diet of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using economics was evaluated in a 56 day feeding trial. One hundred and fifty tilapia fingerlings of 6.12±0.05g average weight were acclimatized for a week, weighed and allotted into five dietary treatments; containing 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60% Citrullus lanatus replacement levels with soybean meal. The diets were isonitrogenous and isolipidic. Each treatment was replicated three times with ten fish per replicate. Fish were fed 5% body weight on two equal proportion per day. Economic analysis was carried out using incidence of cost, profit index, profitability ratio, cost and return analysis as analytical tools. The results of the study indicated the profitability of using watermelon seedmeal with positive gross margin and net returns. The average gross ratio, benefit cost ratio, return on investment (ROI) and the Rate of Return (ROR) values on capital invested on producing O. niloticus with diets containing watermelon seedmeals across the different dietary treatment groups were 0.57, 1.76, 0.77 and 0.55 respectively. It can be concluded from this study that it is economically viable to produce Nile tilapia with diets containing watermelon seedmeal.
... Soybean meal (SBM) is characterized by a greater amount of qualified protein than that contained in other plant protein sources used in fish feeds (Lim and Akiyama 1992). However, SBM utilization and availability for fish feed are currently limited by increasing consumption by humans and terrestrial animals (Siddhuraju and Becker 2001) and depletion in global production. Accordingly, alternative, less expensive protein sources are needed for the development of low-cost feed that can serve as a substitute for this conventional feedstuff without negatively affecting the nutritional quality of feeds (Reigh 2008). ...
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An 87-day feeding trial was carried out to assess the use of dehulled and defatted sesame seed meal (SM) as a partial dietary replacement for soybean meal (SBM) at 0%, 15%, 30% and 45% (SM0, SM1, SM2 and SM3, respectively) in juvenile sea bass stocked in 12 tanks (0.5 m3) and with an initial weight of 24 ± 0.50 g. All diets were isonitrogenous (~ 47% crude protein), isoenergetic (~ 22 MJ/kg) and tested in triplicate. The lowest growth and feed utilization efficacy were detected in fish fed the SM3 diet; moreover, diets with a lower SM content did not have significant effects relative to the CTR diet. Fish biochemical analysis indicated a gradual decrease in carcass protein content coinciding with an increase in lipid deposition and viscerosomatic index values as the SM level in the diet increased. The macroelements' (P, Na and K) fish contents did not differ significantly among groups. The SM3 group had the lowest Ca and highest Mg contents among the experimental groups. The fish amino acid profile indicated slight alterations in essential amino acid percentages among groups. Haematological analysis and serum biochemistry indicated that using SM at a content of up to 30% had limited negative impacts on fish health. Liver histological inspection indicated that higher levels of SM led to severe hepatocyte infiltration with slight signs of necrosis in fish fed SM3 diet. Intestinal histological examinations indicated that the distal portion of the intestine was the portion most affected by SBM replacement with SM with signs of intestinal inflammation in SM3 group.
... Efforts to have alternative fish feed to the imported ones have been vigorously pursued by some concerned individuals, fish nutritionist, zoologist and aqua culturists [5][6][7][8][9]. Their efforts have yielded positive results which have led to the formulation of different meal for fish feed locally in most developing nations. ...
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Growth performance of Clarias gariepinus was assessed using locally formulated soybean and a commercially available imported fish meal. The locally formulated feed was processed from locally available raw materials following standard methods. Feeding was for four weeks during which the length, weight gained and specific growth rate were measured. Difference in weekly weight gained and specific growth rate were not significant (p >0.05). The result suggested that the locally formulated soybean fish meal could be used as an alternative in the feeding of Clarias gariepinus.
... The recent increase in aquaculture development in Nigeria and world at large is accompanied by the need to incorporate plant materials in fish feed (Hardy, 2010) so as to dispense total reliance on conventional legumes that have successfully replaced fishmeal. Soybean that could replace not less than 50% of the fishmeal in the diet of fish species is not so much available in the market and commands a high price because of its competitive use as food by man and feed ingredients by other livestock feed producers (Siddhuraju and Becker, 2001). There is therefore, a need to shift priority to searching for alternative plant protein feed ingredient of little or no use and cheaper in terms of cost to replace these conventional legumes. ...
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Purpose : Apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients in Jatropha curcas based diets were evaluated for Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) using AIA as marker or indicator. Research Method : A total of 225tilapia were acclimatized for a week, weighed and allotted into five dietary treatments; containing 20 and 40% of 5-and 10-minute toasted Jatropha curcas replacing soybean meal in control diets. The diets were isonitrogenous and isolipidic. Each treatment was replicated three times with fifteen fish per replicate. Fish were fed 5% body weight on two equal proportions per day. Acid insoluble ash and digestibility coefficient determinations followed standard established procedures. Findings : The results from the study indicated that the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients in control diets were significantly (p<0.05) higher than that test diets containing Jatropha curcas seedmeal. There was a reduction in the apparent digestibility coefficients of nutrients in the diet with increase replacement levels which were significant (p<0.05) at a 10-minute processing time. However, no significant difference (p>0.05) was observed in the apparent digestibility coefficient of nutrients in 5-minute toasted Jatropha up to 40% soybean replacement among the fish fed the diet. So also, the apparent carbohydrate digestibility coefficient of the different test dietary treatments was not statistically different (p>0.05). Originality / Value : It is evident from this study that diets containing Jatropha curcas seedmeal were relatively well digested by Oreochromis niloticus compared with soybean-based diets.
... Nearly all researchers (Bairagi et al. 2002;Yilmaz et al. 2004;Sadique et al. 2018) are of the opinion that an alternate protein source should be utilized in the aquatic feed industry to replace fish meal, which has low supply and high demand. For the same reason, various studies have been carried out on the substitution of costlier proteins of marine origin with inexpensive plant protein such as Mucuna pruriens seed meal (Siddhuraju & Becker 2001); Glycine max (Refstie et al. 1998); Psophocarpus tetragonolobus (Fagbenro, 1999); Morus indica leaf meal (Mondal et al. 2012); Leucaena leucocephala (Bairagi et al. 2004); tuber meal and leaf meal of Manihot esculenta (Lukuyu et al. 2014); Cynodon dactylon (Kaleeswaran et al. 2011); leaf protein concentrate and leaf meal of Medicago sativa (Olevera-Novoa et al. 1990); and various legumes (Hossain et al. 2001) like Vigna ungiculata and V. radiate . Among the macrophytes, Azolla (Quattrocchi 2000; Abou et al. 2007;Gangadhar et al. 2014;Gangadhar et al. 2015), Salvinia, Ipomoea, Trapa, Lemna (Kalita et al. 2008), Pistia (Nisha & Geetha 2017;Adedokun et al. 2017) and duckweed (Bairagi et al. 2002;Yilmaz et al. 2004) have been assayed as potential components in aquafeeds (Tables 1-3). ...
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Aquaculture activity supplies high‐quality protein at affordable cost. A global call for foods of aquatic origin has heightened not only due to the zooming population growth, but also because of a choice of healthier foods for human beings. As the industry expands, it is facing the high cost of feeding because the key ingredients, that is fishmeal and fish oil, of aquadiet are very expensive. Identification of alternate foodstuffs that will remarkably minimize the expense of productivity of animal protein becomes a priority with due regard to environmental footprint. Alternative feed components are vital in partially or completely substituting unsustainable but high‐value components or constituents that will otherwise have direct competition with human use. Utilization of aquatic plants as a substitute for fish meal has the potential to revolutionize aquaculture in meeting global protein demand. A lot of money is spent on aquatic weed management, so this research idea tries to integrate both economic aspects and the environmental concerns. Macrophyte‐based feed ingredients have promising nutrient profile: crude protein ranges between 11% and 32%; lipid, 2.90% and 16.81%; and ash, 8% and 31%, a good array of amino acids; and a good amount of micro‐ and macronutrients that make them prosperous substituents for fish feed.
... Nutritional cost in aquaculture represents about 30 to 60% of production cost, depending on the type of culture and intensity system (De Silva and Aderson, 1995). In order to attain a more economically sustainable and environmentally friendly production, researchers have been more interest directed towards the evaluation and using unconventional substances and particularly plant products such as seeds, leaves and other agricultural by-products to reduce the fish nutrition cost (Olvera-Novoa et al., 1988, Makkar and Becker, 1996, El-Sayed, 1999;Hossain et al., 2001, Siddhuraju and Becker, 2001, Afuang et al., 2003and Richter et al., 2003. Extensive studies on moringa plant, which widely distributed in many tropics and sub-tropics area, were carried out (Foidl et al., 2001). ...
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The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding moringa petiole meal (MPM) on growth performance, feed utilization and economic efficiency of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Four experimental diets were prepared by four levels of MPM, T1 (control, 0%), T2 (2.5%), T3 (5%) and T4 (7.5%). Fish were fed at 3% of live body weight daily for 60 days. The obtained results revealed that growth performance parameters were increased significantly (P<0.05) at fish fed diet (T3) containing (5%) MPM, compared with T2 (2.5%) and control diet (0%).The best value of feed conversion ratio (FCR) was obtained in fish fed T3 (5%) (2.82) which, followed by T4 (7.5%) (3.17) compared with T2 (2.5%)(3.33) and T1 (0%)(3.65). Also, feed utilization parameters were higher significantly (P<0.05) with fish fed T3 (5%) and T4 (7.5%) than those fed T2 (2.5%) and control diets (0%). Results showed that, feed cost/Kg body weight gain were lower for fish feed diets T3 (19.10 L.E./kg) and T4 (21.21 L.E./kg) than those in control (25.25 L. E./kg). Total feed cost during the whole feeding trial to produce one Kg body weight gain decreased with increase MPM levels in Nile tilapia diets. It could be concluded that the possibility of using moringa petiole meal (MPM) as a growth promoter in Nile tilapia diets, whereas improved body weight gain, feed utilization and economic efficiency without any adverse effect. © 2018 ISISnet: Innovative Scientific Information Services Network. All rights reserved.
... Obviously, diet containing antinutrients could reduce food conversion efficiency and consequently decrease growth and health. Vadivel & Pugalenthi (2008) reported that soaking and autoclaving could remove 73 to 87% of antinutrients in MB. Siddhuraju & Becker (2001;2003) found that autoclaving could effectively remove trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors or lectin activity, resulting in better growth performance of tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). However, cooking beans beforehand seems to not be feasible and practical in farm conditions. ...
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Crisp fish, a kind of tough firmness fish, is produced by using Vicia faba bean (VB) by many Asian countries including Vietnam. However, the production is depending strongly on the source of VB from China, which has a relatively high price and is unstable. The current experiment was conducted to examine the possibility of replacing VB with Muncuna pruriens bean (MB), which are an available and cheap bean source in Vietnam. 90 common carps (Cyprinus carpio) (1 kg fish-1) were divided into 3 feeding groups, in triplicates: control (industrial feed), VB and MB. Feed was administered twice a day, at a rate of 2% of body weight for 90 days. The growth rate, survival rate, feed conversion ratio and flesh quality were determined. Results showed that fish fed control feed showed the highest growth rate, followed by those fed VB and MB diets. However, the firmness of fish fed with the MB diet was similar to those fed with the VB diet and significantly higher than that of control group. The yellow color and lipid content of fish fed with MB diet were lower than those from other groups, but other differences were not found. The results demonstrated that MB based diets can completely replace VB in crisp carp production.
... Oxidation of choline to betaine is considered a one-way reaction in vertebrates and there is no evidence that tilapia is able to synthesize choline from betaine, and then we might speculate that methionine contributed to choline biosynthesis in our study Similar to the present results, Liener (1994 a & b) stated that protein inhibitors include both Trypsin and Chemotrypsin addition, Makkar and Becker (1999) added that there were no significant differences between the growth performance of common carp fed diets containing raw and heated Jalropha meal (25%) in diets with high level of trypsin inhibitor. Significant growth reduction in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) was observed by Siddhuraju and Becker (2001)) and phytohaemaglutinins particularly in legumes, are considered as potential antinuntrients and are known to decrease the growth performance of animals. Even though the mucuna samples (raw and autoclaved) plant source used contained a sufficient quantity of essential amino acids, the complex formation in the oxidized product of phenolic non-protein amino acid, 3, 4dihydroxyphenylalanine, with peptide sulphur amino acids (Siddhuraju et al., 2000) may reduce the availability of cystein and methionine in the diets. ...
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Effect of replacement of fish meal protein with boiled full fat soybean seeds and dried algae on growth performance, nutrient utilization and some blood parameters of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) ABSTRACT ixture of boiled full fat soybean seeds and dried algae (Dunaliella spp.) at mixing level of 1:1 was tested to replace fish meal protein at 50% (soybean); 50% mixture ; 75% mixture ; 100% mixture and 100% soybean, on Nile tilapia fry of initial weight 1.2 ± 0.05 g. Results obtained are summarized as follows : 1-Incorporation of the mixture of soybean seeds with dried algae in diets of Nile tilapia fry at 50 and 75% levels released no significant effects on final weight average weight gain, daily gain and survival rates, compared to the control groups, while the same parameters were decreased significantly in the other treatment groups. 2-Replacing fish meal protein with the mixture of soybean seeds plus dried algae (1:1) at 50% level had insignificant effects on feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios compared to the control groups, while the same parameters were negatively affected in the other group.
... Lim and Akiyama (1992) and Jimoh (2020) reported that soybean products have been used to replace a significant portion of fish meal in fish feed with nutritional, environmental, and economic benefits. However, the wider utilization and availability of this conventional source for fish feed is limited by the increasing demand for human consumption and by other animal feed industries (Jimoh et al., 2020b;Siddhuraju & Becker, 2001). The rapid expansion of fish culture in recent years requires the development and improvement of low-cost and nutritious fish feeds, mainly because increasing the feed cost may increase the cost of fish production by 50-80 % (Cavalheiro et al., 2007;Jimoh et al., 2019). ...
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p>The effects of replacing soybean meal with watermelon ( Citrullus lanatus ) seed meal (CLM) on growth, body composition, haematology and profit margin in catfish ( Clarias gariepinus ) breeding was evaluated. Juvenile catfish (n = 150) were acclimatised for a week, weighed and allotted into five dietary treatments; D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5 containing 0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 % replacement of soybean meal with watermelon seed meal, respectively. The diets were isonitrogenous and isolipidic. Each treatment was conducted in triplicate with ten fish per replicate. The results from the study indicate that there was no significant difference ( p > 0.05) in growth, carcass composition, and nutrient utilization. However, a significant variation ( p < 0.05) existed in the haematological parameters among the fish fed the different dietary treatments. The incidence of cost showed that the production of fish was cheaper when CLM was used as a replacement for soybean meal. The higher carcass yield and profit per kg of fish fed CLM justifies the use of CLM as a substitute for soybean meal in the diet of African catfish.</p
... Seeds of mucuna contain several anti-nutritional factors such as L-Dopa, total free phenolics, tannins, haemagglutinin, trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitors, anti-vitamins, protease inhibitors, phytic acid, flatulence factors, saponins and hydrogen cyanide Udedibie, 1998, Vadivel andJanardhanan, 2000). In addition, mucuna seeds are also known to possess inhibitory factors like lipoxygenase, goitrogen and oxalates (Balogun and Fetuga, 1989;Ologhobo, 1992 andOke et al., 1996), methylated and non-methylated tetrahydroisoquinolines (0.25 %) (Siddhuraju et al., 2001). ...
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Pure L-Dopa (LD) enhances muscular development, fat breakdown and suppresses Parkinson disease in humans. However, LD in mucuna seed, in the presence of antinutritional factors, causes nutritional disorders in monogastric animals. Information on the effect of LD on hydrolysis of triglycerides, growth hormone secretion and methionine utilisation in monogastric animals is scanty. Therefore, effect of LD on growth, DL-Methionine (DLM) utilisation and serum cholesterol in broiler chickens was investigated. Due to low quantity of LD from mucuna, synthetic form was used in the study. In a 42-day feeding trial, 240 one-day old chicks were allotted to six corn-soyabean based diet-groups: Standard Energy (SE)+0%-LD (T1), High Energy (HE)+0%-LD (T2), HE+0.1%-LD (T3), HE+0.2%-LD (T4), HE+0.3%-LD (T5) and HE+0.4%-LD (T6). In another 42-day study, 200 one-day old chicks were allotted to five SE diet-groups: 0%-LD (D1), 0.1%-LD (D2), 0.2%-LD (D3), 0.3%-LD (D4) and 0.4%-LD (D5). Also, 240 one-day old chicks were allotted to six corn-soyabean based diet-groups: 0%-LD+0%-DLM (R1), 0%-LD+100%-DLM (R2), 25%-LD+75%-DLM (R3), 50%-LD+50%-DLM (R4), 75%-LD+25%-DLM (R5), 100%-LD+0%-DLM (R6) in a completely randomised design. Feed Intake (FI), Body Weight Gain (BWG), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), Dressed Weight (DW), villus height and villus height:crypt depth were monitored using standard procedures. Blood (5 mL) was sampled from each bird to determine Serum Total Cholesterol (STC), triglyceride, High Density Lipoprotein (HDL), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL), Very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL), Serum Growth Hormone (SGH), Serum Methionine (SM) and methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) using standard procedures. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics, regression and ANOVA at α0.05. The highest FI (3231.5±117.2g) was recorded for birds fed T1. The BWG (g) of birds fed T1 (1791.0±61.8), T3 (1827.7±60.4) and T4 (1871.9±54.2) were higher than T2 (1679.8±40.2), T5 (1622.6±93.1) and T6 (1383.4±87.2). The STC (mg/dL): 125.0±15.9 (T1), 129.4±27.8 (T2) and 131.5±15.2 (T6) were higher than 120.8±16.9 (T3), 116.9±20.5(T4) and 115.9±9.1(T5) while LDL (mg/dL) of birds fed T1 (75.1±15.1) and T2 (75.7±19.6) were higher than T3 (66.5±14.8), T4 (61.2±8.1), T5 (62.4±15.2) and T6 (67.9±11.0). The VLDL (mg/dL): 19.8±3.2, 22.0±2.7, 22.3±2.8 and 22.7±6.9 for T3, T4, T5 and T6, respectively, were lower than 26.8±7.3 for T2 but higher than 15.7±4.5 for T1. The DW (g) of birds fed T3 (1375.0±178.3) and T4 (1357.1±137.8) were higher than those fed other diets. The FI, BWG, villus height and villus height:crypt depth of birds on D2 (1032.8±17.1g, 741.6±22.7g, 1329.0±147.4µm and 12.1±7.1, respectively) were higher than those on others diets. Also, the FI, BWG and DW of birds fed R2 (3491.2±258.8g, 2108.5±106.2g and 1372.0±120.6g, respectively) and R4 (3556.1±289.8g, 2097.3±82.2g and 1335.8±195.8g, respectively) were higher than other diets. The FCR of birds ranged from 1.7±0.1 (R2) to 1.9±0.0 (R1). The MAT of R4 (0.5 ±0.1ng/mL) was higher than others. Regression of BWG on L-Dopa level at starter phase indicated 40% as optimal replacement of methionine (R² = 0.50). Triglyceride, HDL, SGH and SM were not significantly different among treatments. The 0.4% L-Dopa dietary inclusion, reduced low density lipoprotein in the serum. However, 0.2% inclusion is recommended for improved performance and utilisation of available methionine. Keywords: Levodopa, Serum growth hormone, High density lipoprotein, Gut morphology. Word count: 499
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54 Synthèse Bibliographique sur des Paramètres Biologiques et Zootechniques du Poisson-chat Africain Clarias gariepinus Burchell, 1822 Edéa Olayèmi Géoffroy, Laboratoire de Biotechnologies et d’Amélioration (LaBAA) à l’Institut des Sciences Biomédicales Appliquées (ISBA) - Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques - Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Bénin Hinvi Lambert Cloud, Laboratoire d’Hydrologie et d’Aquaculture, Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques - Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Bénin Abou Youssouf, Laboratoire d’Hydrologie Appliquée, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Bénin Gbangboche Armand Bienvenu, Laboratoire de Biotechnologies et d’Amélioration Animale (LaBAA), Institut des Sciences Biomédicales Appliquées (ISBA), Faculté des Sciences Agronomiques- Université d’Abomey-Calavi, Cotonou, Bénin Ecole de Gestion et d’Exploitation des Systèmes d’Elevage Université Nationale d’Agriculture, République du Bénin Doi:10.19044/esj.2019.v15n27p54 URL:http://dx.doi.org/10.19044/esj.2019.v15n27p54 Résumé Le présent article de revue fait l’inventaire des différentes contributions scientifiques et techniques relatives aux paramètres biologiques et zootechniques du poisson-chat Clarias gariepinus. Plusieurs années d’efforts de recherches montrent que Clarias gariepinus revêt une grande importance en pêche et aquaculture en Afrique et dans le monde entier, si l’on en juge la masse des connaissances produites. Les informations fournies dans cette synthèse ont été recueillies à partir d’articles scientifiques, de livres et manuels, de rapports techniques, de thèses, de mémoires, puis de communications scientifiques. Les auteurs, au travers d’un inventaire des différentes contributions scientifiques et techniques de 1971 à 2017, ont rapporté les caractéristiques biologiques de C. gariepinus, son régime alimentaire et nutritionnel, sa reproduction, ses performances de croissance, les systèmes et dispositifs de son élevage et quelques maladies auxquelles ilEuropean Scientific Journal September 2019 edition Vol.15, No.27 ISSN: 1857 – 7881 (Print) e - ISSN 1857- 7431 55 est sujet. Les caractéristiques biologiques du poisson-chat africain ont été analysées à partir de sa description, sa classification taxonomique, son habitat, ses exigences écologiques et sa distribution géographique. Le régime alimentaire de l’espèce a été abordé dans le milieu naturel, en élevage et au travers des besoins nutritionnels et les contraintes afférentes. La reproduction de l’espèce quant à elle comporte, l’âge à la première maturité sexuelle, la durée d’incubation, l’indice gonado-somatique, la fécondité absolue, la fécondité relative et la fréquence de ponte. Les performances de croissance ont pris en compte le gain de poids et le taux de croissance spécifique. Enfin, les systèmes et dispositifs d’élevage et quelques maladies de C. gariepinus ont été passés en revue.
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Some nutritional and anti-nutritional characteristics of mucuna (Mucuna utilis (Wight) Burck) bean seeds were studied. The mature seeds contained 264 g crude protein, 63 g crude fibre, 41 g crude fat, 37 g ash and 595 g carbohydrates kg−1 DM. The essential amino acid profile compared well with the FAO/WHO scoring pattern except for a deficiency of sulphur-containing amino acids. Mineral composition was similar to those reported for most tropical grain legumes. Raw mucuna seed samples contained moderately high levels of anti-tryptic activity (2170 trypsin units inhibited g−1 DM), but this was completely destroyed by cooking. The other anti-nutritional factors (phytate, cyanide and tannins) are probably of little nutritional significance provided that the beans are properly processed. The in-vitro protein digestibility of raw and cooked beans were 71·5 and 80·3 %, respectively. In view of the high L-DOPA contents reported in some mucuna cultivars, overconsumption of mucuna beans should be viewed with some caution until suitable processing methods are developed.
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Two trials were conducted with fingerling tilapia to ascertain the nutritive value of Sesbania grandiflora seed meal as a dietary replacement for fish meal in a practical ration. For the first experiment, autoclaved sesbania seed was used in the diets to replace 10, 15, 25 and 35% of the fish meal protein. In the second experiment the seed was used to replace 25% of the dietary protein after four aqueous treatments, designed to remove compounds toxic to tilapia. The survival, growth, and feed utilization efficiency were adversely affected as the level of heat-treated seed meal was increased in the food. The aqueous treatments improved the quality of the seed as food, but not to a level of performance obtained with fish meal. Apparently the seed contains non-thermolabile toxins that produce high mortality and severely reduce fish growth and feed utilization.
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Tilapia are widely cultured in the tropical and subtropical regions of the world and constitute the third largest group of farmed finfish, only after carps and salmonids, with an annual growth rate of about 11.5%. Global production of farmed tilapia has increased more than three-fold since 1984, from 186,544 m.t. to 659,000 m.t., representing about 4.48% of total farmed finfish in 1995, with a value of US$925 million. Feeding represents over 50% of the operational costs of aquaculture. The shortage in world production of fish meal (the main conventional protein source), coupled with increased demand for fish meal in feeds for livestock and poultry is likely to reduce the dependence on fish meal as a single protein source in aquafeeds. Therefore, fish nutritionists have made several attempts to partially or totally replace fish meal with less expensive, locally available protein sources. The present review presents alternative dietary protein sources for tilapia, with emphasis on fishery by-products, terrestrial animal by-products, oilseed plants, aquatic plants, single cell proteins, grain legumes, plant protein concentrates and cereal by-products. The nutritive values, inclusion levels, constraints and economic evaluation of these sources are discussed.
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Two different germplasms of a white variety and one germplasm of a black variety of Mucuna pruriens var. utilis were evaluated for their physicochemical properties as well as their nutritional and antinutritional characteristics. All germplasms had higher grain weight, density, hydration, and swelling capacity than other common legumes. The dehulled samples contained 303.2-335.5 g(-1) protein and 46.1-53.5 gkg(-1) lipid, and these values were higher than the respective whole seeds. The levels of macro- and microelements in both whole and dehulled seeds were comparable to those in common pulses. All germplasms had a high dietary fiber content (18-19.5%), made up of mainly insoluble dietary fiber (DF). Seed lipids were high in unsaturated fatty acids (64.7-66.9%), specifically linoleic acid (48-49%). Whole and dehulled seeds of the white variety from Salem were particularly rich in sulfur-containing amino acids with significantly higher levels of in vitro protein digestibility than the other two germplasms. All germplasms had high levels of total phenols and phytate, trypsin, and chymotrypsin inhibitor activities, but were low in tannins, saponins,and alpha -amylase inhibitor activity. Only weak hemagglutinating activity against cow erythrocytes and no hemagglutinating activity against human erythrocytes (O) was observed in all the samples. Dehulled seeds were higher in total starch, including resistant, starch and oligosaccharides (with verbascose as the major fraction! than the respective whole seeds. Both whole and dehulled samples of the white variety of Salem germplasm showed significantly lower concentrations of L-dopa, nonmethylated, and methylated tetrahydroisoquinolines than the respective whole and dehulled samples of other germplasms. In general, dehulling didn't affect the overall nutritional status in any of the presently investigated samples.
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The formation of protein-bound 5-S-cysteinyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (5-S-cysteinyldopa) and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa) as new cross-linkers in gluten was investigated. Gas-phase acid hydrolysis of gluten was carried out in the presence of 5% phenol. For identification of dopa and 5-S-cysteinyldopa, alumina extraction of catechols in the hydrolysates was performed. The presence of dopa and 5-S-cysteinyldopa in the hydrolysates of gluten was determined using HPLC equipped with an electrochemical detector. When mushroom tyrosinase, which has an oxidant-like effect on the physical properties of dough, was added to dough, the amount of protein-bound 5-S-cysteinyldopa increased. It is concluded that the oxidizing effect of tyrosinase is due to the formation of protein-bound 5-S-cysteinyldopa and dopa as cross-linkers of gluten. Keywords: 5-S-cysteinyl-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (5-S-cysteinyldopa); 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (dopa); gluten; tyrosinase
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Rainbow trout were fed for 150 days on four purified diets containing 0 and 0.5% phytic acid. These diets contained increasing increments of Ca (0.92–1.30%) and Mg (0.054–0.085%). The fish fed the diets containing phytic acid had 10% reduced growth and feed conversion. Increasing Ca and Mg content of the diet in the presence of phytic acid did not affect growth and feed conversion. Fish fed diets containing over 1% Ca without phytic acid had a 5% reduction in growth and feed conversion. The zinc and iron levels in the blood of the fish fed the diets containing phytic acid were not significantly different from the controls. The copper levels in the blood decreased in the fish diets with increasing increments of Ca ang Mg, but phytic acid did not influence this change. Increasing increments of Ca and Mg reduced the mean copper levels in the liver from 60 to 37 ppm. Similar reductions were found when phytic acid was included in the diet. Mean liver zinc levels did not significantly vary regardless of the diet fed. In vitro tests confirmed that phytic acid/protein (casein) complexes are only partially hydrolyzed by pepsin. In vivo tests with rainbow trout in which a casein/phytate complex was substituted for casein showed a 6.6% reduction in diet digestibility. It was concluded that the reduced growth in fish fed diets containing phytic acid was related to a reduction in protein availability rather than to an alteration in the bioavailability of Zn, Fe, or Cu.
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Total tract digestibility in Atlantic salmon and ileal digestibility in chicken were assessed from diets with different soyabean products (hulled, toasted, extracted, SBM; reduced oligosaccharide content, ROM; ethanol-extracted protein concentrate, SPC; isolated protein, ISP). The concentration of dietary fibre was highest in SBM and ROM, while it was low in ISP. In vitro viscosity was also higher in SBM than in the other soyabean products. The diets for the salmon and chickens were based on the same feed ingredients, with the exception that fish meal provided half the crude protein in the salmon diets. For each species, the diets were isonitrogenous, contained similar amounts of fat (fish oil), and were balanced with dextrin, thus substituting soyabean non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) and other non-proteinous components by dextrin.In the salmon, total tract digestibility of nitrogen and dry matter were lower (p
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Lectin activity in a toxic (Cape Verde) and non-toxic (Mexico) variety of Jatropha curcas seed meal was investigated using latex agglutination and haemagglutination assays. Lectin activity expressed as reciprocal of the minimum quantity (in mg) of Jatropha meal per ml of the assay mixture which produced agglutination with the latex beads was 2É88 ^ 0É57 and 1É71 ^ 0É00 (mean ^ SD, n \ 3) for the toxic and the non-toxic varieties, respectively, which did not di†er signi-cantly (P ( 0É05), while with the haemagglutination assay these values were 102 and 51, respectively, and di†ered signi-cantly (P \ 0É05). The lectins were inactivated by heating and moist heat was more e†ective than dry heat. The results suggest that lectins may not be responsible for short term toxicity caused by consumption of raw Jatropha meal. 1998 SCI. (
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Barley, oats, and wheat were stored anaerobically for three months after adjusting the dry matter content to 60%. The content of true protein was reduced when grains were high‐moisture stored, but the amino acid content was not affected to the same extent. High‐moisture storage decreased the soluble dietary fibre and soluble β‐glucan content in barley and oats, and simultaneously the extract viscosity of the grain was reduced to the same level as for wheat. In two experiments with two to five week old broiler chickens given diets with 70% dried or high‐moisture stored grain, feed:gain ratio was reduced (P < 0.05) to the same level as for the wheat diets when high‐moisture stored barley instead of dried barley was fed, and digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, fat, and minerals increased (P < 0.05). Weight gain and cleanness of cages also increased (P < 0.05), and the relative size of the digestive tract was reduced (P < 0.05). Digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, and minerals increased (P < 0.05) when highmoisture stored oats compared to dried oats were fed, and highmoisture storage of wheat increased (P < 0.05) P and Ca digestibility.
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Proteolysis by trypsin of the storage proteins of lupin seed is less extensive than that of bovine serum albumin or of casein, and the decrease is related to the amount of carbohydrate bound to the protein. Purified conglutin γ and vicilins 4 and 6, the three seed globulins having the highest sugar content, were first incubated with jack bean exoglycosidases, which removed 75, 81, and 80% of the carbohydrate, respectively. This increased the subsequent action of trypsin in liberating small trichloroacetic acid (TCA) soluble peptides and/or in forming large TCA-insoluble fragments evidenced only by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The increase was related to the amount of sugar detached. The effects observed may depend on the removal of a steric hindrance due to the bound carbohydrate and on other additional mechanisms that involve the relationship between the amount of bound sugar and extent of hydrophobic areas on the protein surface.
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The kinetics of the activation of trypsinogen to trypsin has been investigated under different combinations of calcium(II) and phytic acid. The complexation of phytic acid and calcium increases (approximately 30-fold) the rate of formation of catalytically inactive protein. The stabilizing effect of calcium on the autocatalytic degradation of trypsin is also substantially reduced (approximately 100-fold). Activation of trypsinogen by enteropeptidase has a positive effect in that it rapidly activates trypsinogen and reduces the degradative impact of inactive protein formation. The data describing the integrated process of active trypsin generation, inert protein generation, and active trypsin stability have been analyzed in terms of two rate equations containing four rate constants. A numerical integration technique and nonlinear regression have been used to estimate the rate constants. The effect of phytic acid on these rate constants at 30-degrees-C and either pH 6.0 or pH 8.1 is given.
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A method for gravimetric determination of tannins based on binding with insoluble polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) is presented. The gravimetric method gives the absolute amount of tannins and avoids problems of standards associated with spectrophotometric methods. The method was applied to nine browse and tree leaves. The values obtained correlate significantly with tannins determined spectrophotometrically, protein precipitation capacities and protein precipitable phenotics. This method together with other tannin assays will be useful in nutritional studies. The present study also demonstrates the different behaviour of tannic acids from different commercial sources towards PVP suggesting the presence of different moieties in tannic acids from different commercial sources and even among batches from the same source thereby affecting the results obtained using the spectrophotometric methods. Use of well-defined tannic acid as a standard in spectrophotometric methods is suggested which will allow meaningful comparison of values obtained from different laboratories.
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A study was conducted to examine the influence of dietary inclusion of phytase and high levels of cholecalciferol on phytate phosphorus (P) utilization of rainbow trout. Triplicate groups of rainbow trout, initial weight 51.6 g, were fed in excess diets containing 0 or 1500 units phytase kg−1 and 2500, 250,000 or 2,500,000 IU cholecalciferol kg−1 for 12 weeks. The basal diet provided 5.8 and 3.2 g total and phytate P kg−1 dry matter, of which most was derived from soy protein concentrate. Weight gain of fish was increased by phytase supplementation but decreased by higher cholecalciferol concentrations. Inclusion of phytase improved P availability as indicated by significantly higher apparent availability of P and bone ash and plasma and body P concentrations. Dietary cholecalciferol content did not influence P utilization. An increase in dietary cholecalciferol concentration caused higher deposition of calcium, magnesium and zinc in the kidney. Both cholecalciferol and phytase supplementation significantly (P<0.05) increased the hepatic cholecalciferol concentration. In summary, dietary phytase supplementation was effective in reducing P load of rainbow trout fed soybean protein concentrate-based diet. High levels of cholecalciferol (250,000 and 2,500,000) had no beneficial effect on P utilization.
Article
Groups of rainbow trout (initial body weight 83 ± 1 g) were fed diets (crude protein (CP) 46%; gross energy 21 kJ/g DM; crude fat 12%) containing graded levels of either a soyflour (CP 52% DM) or a soy protein concentrate (CP 72% DM) supplemented with L-methionine as partial or total replacement of fish meal protein. A growth trial was conducted over 12 weeks at a water temperature of 18 °C. Digestibility of the dietary ingredients and of the complete diets was determined using an indirect method. At the end of the growth trial, in addition to body composition analyses, the following parameters were measured: plasma vitellogenin and cholesterol, antigenic activity (passive haemagglutination) in the soy sources and antisoya antibodies in serum, phytoestrogens in the soy sources and in the bile. Sensory and physical evaluations of fish flesh were also made. Replacement of fish meal with soy protein concentrate (33 to 100% replacement) did not affect growth performance or nutrient utilization. However, replacement of fish meal with soyflour (up to 50%) reduced the growth rate, as did complete replacement with either casein alone, or casein and soyflour in equal amounts. Plasma vitellogenin levels were not significantly affected by the dietary levels of protein from soybean. No antisoya antibodies were detected in the serum of fish fed soy-based diets. Few phytoestrogens were present in the ingredients but only trace amounts were detected in the bile of trout fed 100% soy protein. Plasma cholesterol levels were reduced in fish fed soybean protein in comparison to those fed 100% fish meal. Physical and sensory quality of fish flesh were little affected by dietary treatments.
Article
The use of vegetable protein sources in diets for freshwater fish has been studied in more detail than for marine fish species. Two experiments were conducted to compare the effect of the partial substitution of fish meal by two different vegetable protein sources, soybean and lupin seed meals. Mean feed intake and growth were not significantly influenced by type or level of plant protein in the diet. Feed utilization indexes such as feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and protein productive values were not significantly affected by the type of plant protein in the diet, although a general reduction of these values was observed with increased inclusion of soybean meal. Histological studies showed an increased deposition of lipid and decreased glycogen deposits in the liver with increased levels of dietary soybean meal. Protein digestibility coefficients for lupin seed meal diets were similar to the control and 10% higher than those for the soybean meal diets. A significant reduction in trypsin activity was observed in fish fed the lupin seed meal diets, and for soybean meal diets when the substitution level reached 30%. Diets including plant protein showed a higher peak of ammonia excretion rate, which appeared 2 h later than that of the fish meal diet. Highest values of dissolved ammonia were registered in fish fed a soybean meal-based diet. These results suggest that properly treated lupin meals could be an important alternative dietary protein source for gilthead seabream.
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Soybean meals, oil-extracted but not toasted, were heated for different lengths of time at 17% moisture and at 105° C. The degree of heating of these meals, of “Haypro” and of full-fat extruded soybeans was evaluated using several chemical procedures. Commercial soybean meal in rations for carp was replaced by these experimental products on the basis of equal protein and fat contents. Synthetic methionine was included in all experimental rations.Growth rates of carp were reduced by insufficiently heated meals. Growth rates were equal for properly heated and slightly overheated meals. Properly heated or slightly overheated meals were improved very significantly by the addition of lysine, but not by arginine. “Haypro” or full-fat soybeans did not show any advantage over commercial soybean meal with its oil content reconstituted to the level of undefatted meal.It was concluded that the limiting factor for the growth of carp in properly processed commercial soybean meals was not the residual antitrypsin, but inadequate lysine.
Article
Mature winged bean (Psophocarpus tetragonolobus) (cultivar Tpt26) seeds were roasted or autoclaved and their meals evaluated as a dietary protein source for the African catfish. Five dry practical diets (400 g protein/kg and 17.5 kJ gross energy/g dry diet) containing menhaden fish meal or each of the heat-processed winged bean meals as partial replacement (80%), (with or without 5 g dl-methionine/kg diet supplementation) for menhaden fish meal, were prepared and fed to triplicate groups of catfish fingerlings (5.8±1.2 g) to satiation for 70 days. No mortality occurred throughout the study and satisfactory diet acceptance was observed when the heat-processed winged bean meals replaced menhaden fish meal. Differences were found in weight gain, specific growth rate, feed and protein efficiency ratios, but were not significant (P>0.05). Digestibility of crude protein and gross energy content of the diets were high (>85%) and comparable to that of menhaden fish meal. Carcass composition of catfish did not vary significantly (P>0.05) between diet treatments. Results indicate that both autoclaved and roasted winged bean meals were acceptable as protein sources and can replace 80% of menhaden fish meal in catfish diets.
Article
Full-fat soybeans were treated thermally (118°C) or hydrothermally (90–95°C), either gently (0.5 or 15 min) or intensely (2.5 or 30 min). They were flaked and then ground in a hammer mill. The trypsin inhibitor of the soybeans was more sensitive to hydrothermal treatment than was the urease activity. The content of available lysine was not affected by the type of treatment. The oil extracted from heat-treated soybeans, particularly from those treated hydrothermally, proved to be more resistant to oxidation than the oil from untreated beans. The heat-treated soybean meals were tested as feed components (50%) and compared with a protein equivalent fishmeal control diet in feeding experiments with carp. For body weight gain and body protein retention of the fish, the most favourable results were obtained with the gently and intensely hydrothermally or the intensely thermally treated soybean meals. However, only 60–65% of the potential of the fishmeal control diet was attained and a relatively higher body fat deposition could be observed. The possibility of improving the nutritional value of full-fat soybeans by amino acid supplementation is shown and is discussed in view of the documented high amino acid and energy availabilities of properly heated beans.
Article
The structure, location in the seed and distribution of the storage protein of legume seeds are described. Methods which have been employed for the extraction, purification and characterisation of seed globulins are reviewed in relation to modern biochemical practice. The physical, chemical and immunological characteristics of the classical legumin and vicilin preparations from Pisum sativum are summarised and the distributions of proteins with sedimentation coefficients and/or immunological determinants similar to those of legumin and vicilin, are tabulated. The structure and composition of various purified legumin and vicilin-type proteins from a variety of legumes, are compared.
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The morphology of the proximal and distal intestine of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) was studied after prolonged feeding with diets containing full-fat soybean meal (FFSB) or soybean protein concentrate (SBPC) and compared with fish fed a standard herring meal (HM) diet. To avoid possible changes due to decreased food intake, dietary inclusions of FFSB and SBPC were chosen at such levels that weight gain, and protein and lipid digestibility values were similar for all three groups. The proximal intestine showed no differences among the groups, except for an increased number of goblet cells in the fish fed SBPC. In the distal intestine, the SBPC group showed no abnormalities and was identical to the HM group. In the FFSB group, the epithelium had an increased number of goblet cells and a marked decrease or even absence of absorptive vacuoles. The microvilli of the enterocytes were shortened, with increased microvillar vesicle formation.These changes may be due to the presence of antinutritional factors in the FFSB diet. The possible role of the various antinutritional factors in soybeans for the development of the intestinal lesions, and their effect on growth and performance are discussed.
Article
The effects of tannic acid (a hydrolysable tannin) and quebracho tannin (a condensed tannin) on common carp at a level of 2% in a soybean and fish meal-based diet containing about 40% crude protein have been studied. Quebracho tannin did not affect feed intake, body weight gain, average metabolic growth rate and oxygen consumption during the experimental period (84 days). The carp grew from an initial body weight of about 30 g to a final body weight of 150 g, and the carcass composition was also not affected by quebracho tannin. On the other hand, tannic acid produced adverse effects after day 28. The rejection of diet started on day 28 and a complete rejection of the diet was observed on day 40. The feeding of this diet was discontinued after day 42. The average metabolic growth rate for days 35–42 was significantly lower (P<0.05) in this group. The oxygen consumption of carp fed a diet containing tannic acid also decreased although non-significantly for this period. It is concluded that the toxicity of tannic acid is higher to carp compared to that of quebracho tannin, and that protein sources of plant origin containing high amounts of tannins and in particular hydrolysable tannins should be used with caution as fish meal substitutes in carp diets.