Biotechnological conversion of bio-diesel derived waste glycerol into added-value compounds by higher fungi: Production of biomass, single cell oil and oxalic acid

Agricultural University of Athens, Department of Food Science and Technology, 75 Iera Odos, 11855 Athens, Greece
Industrial Crops and Products (Impact Factor: 2.84). 03/2010; 31(2):407-416. DOI: 10.1016/j.indcrop.2009.12.011


Waste bio-diesel derived glycerol was used as the sole carbon source by higher fungi; two Lentinula edodes strains were flask cultured in carbon-limited conditions and displayed satisfactory growth in media presenting weak agitation, pH 4.0 and temperature 25 °C. Maximum biomass of 5.2 g/l was produced. Mycelia were synthesized, containing around 0.1 g of fat per g of biomass, with linoleic acid (Δ9,12C18:2) being the principal cellular fatty acid produced. Two Aspergillus niger strains were grown in nitrogen-limited flask cultures with constant nitrogen and two different initial glycerol concentrations into the medium. In 250-ml flask cultures, large-sized pellets were developed, in contrast with the trials performed in 2-l flasks. Nitrogen limitation led to oxalic acid secretion and intra-cellular lipid accumulation; in any case, sequential production of lipid and oxalic acid was observed. Initially, nitrogen limitation led to lipid accumulation. Thereafter, accumulated lipid was re-consumed and oxalic acid, in significant quantities, was secreted into the medium. In large-sized pellets, higher quantities of intra-cellular total lipid and lower quantities of oxalic acid were produced and vice versa. Maximum quantities of oxalic acid up to 20.5–21.5 g/l and lipid up to 3.1–3.5 g/l (corresponding to 0.41–0.57 g of fat per g of biomass) were produced. Lipid was mainly composed of oleic (Δ9C18:1) and linoleic (Δ9,12C18:2) acids.

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Available from: Antonios Philippoussis
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    • "Thus, the additional approach of transforming crude glycerol to more valuable chemicals, such as propanediol [18] [19], synthesis gas [20e22], acrylonitrile [23] [24] or liquid fuels [25] [26], since it is a molecule rich in functionalities with three hydroxyl (eOH) groups [27], is of increasing interest. A diverse array of processes to transform glycerol into more valuable chemicals have been developed , such as pyrolysis [28] [29], gasification [30e32], selective oxidation [33e35], biological processes [36] [37], esterification and acetylation [38e40] and hydrolysis [41e45]. However, the conversion of crude glycerol to added-value compounds by electrochemical approach has not been sufficiently reported in the previous literature. "
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    • "A large group of microorganisms is capable of assimilating glycerol as a carbon source in the synthesis of many useful products, such as 1,3-PD, ethanol, hydrogen, polyhydroxyalkanoates, and organic acids (Amaral et al. 2009; da Silva et al. 2009; André et al. 2010; Chatzifragkou et al. 2011a, b, c). A number of microorganisms can grow on glycerol, including Actinobacillus succinogenes, Aspergillus niger, Blakeslea trispora, Burkholderia sp., Chlorella protothecoides, Citrobacter freundii, Clostridium buturicum, Clostridium pasteurianum, Cunninghamella echinulata, Cupriavidus necator, Enterobacter aerogenes, Escherichia coli, Gluconobacter sp., Klebsiella pneumoniae, Kluyvera cryocrescens, Lentinula edodes, Mortierella ramanniana, Mucor sp., Pseudomonas oleovorans, Rhodotorula glutinis, Schizochytrium limacinum, Staphylococcus caseolyticus, Yarrowia lipolytica, and Zobellella denitrificans (Petitdemange et al. 1995; González-Pajuelo et al. 2004; Hirschmann et al. 2005; Ito et al. 2005; Mu et al. 2006; Rymowicz et al. 2006, 2009; Fakas et al. 2008; Mantzouridou et al. 2008; Volpato et al. 2008; Cavalheiro et al. 2009; Habe et al. 2009; Rywińska et al. 2009; André et al. 2010; Andreeßen et al. 2010; Chatzifragkou et al. 2010; Chee et al. 2010; Ibrahim and Steinbüchel 2010; Liang et al. 2010; Ashby et al. 2011; Choi et al. 2011; O’Grady and Morgan 2011; Saenge et al. 2011; Vlysidis et al. 2011; Bellou et al. 2012; Metsoviti et al. 2012; Venkataramanan et al. 2012; Wilkens et al. 2012). Table 1 presents a number of the microorganisms that are able to convert crude glycerol to commercially useful metabolites as well as transform the main impurities of this raw material.. "
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