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A comparison of early childhood and elementary education students’ beliefs about primary classroom teaching practices

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Abstract

Two professional preparation paths lead to teaching positions in the lower primary grades; their different histories and emphasis result in potentially conflicting paradigms. We examined the viewpoints of 119 pre-service teachers who were either at the beginning or near the end of their programs in early childhood (ECED) or elementary education (ELED). They completed a survey of their beliefs about primary classroom practices. ECED students, compared to ELED students, favored practices more consistent with the constructivist nature of National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) guidelines in several areas, including teaching strategies, expectations of the children, assessment strategies, and teacher- and child-directed activities. One significant difference was found between beginning students and student teachers, with student teachers favoring more frequent use of less developmentally appropriate behavior management strategies.

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... Support for the claim that there are substantial differences between teachers prepared in ELED versus ECED programs has been reported by File and Gullo (2002), who conducted survey research with 119 preservice teachers at the beginning and near the end of their early and elementary preparation programs. They found that ECED students were more likely than ELED students to endorse teaching practices consonant with the teaching strategies articulated in the position statement of the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) on Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP), including "teaching strategies, expectations of children, assessment strategies, and teacher-and child-directed activities" (p. ...
... By contrast, the ACEI used specific curricular terms six times more frequently than the NAEYC. The preceding results support the claim that the ECED paradigm is more likely to focus on the child and be informed by developmental theory, while the elementary paradigm is more likely to focus on discrete content areas and be informed by curriculum theory (File & Gullo, 2002). ...
... Accordingly, it is important for researchers to further investigate this question: Is there a difference in the quality of early instruction delivered by teachers prepared in ECED as opposed to ELED programs? While some research suggests that graduates of ECED programs are more likely than ELED graduates to ascribe to and use teaching strategies consistent with DAP (File & Gullo, 2002;Vartuli, 1999), this research is by no means conclusive. ...
Two related questions are investigated regarding programs accredited by the National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE). First, to what extent do NCATE-recognized elementary teacher preparation programs, which have been approved by the Association for Child Education International (ACEI), prepare candidates to teach in grades PreK–3, grades that the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC) considers part of early childhood education? The current results indicate extensive grade-level overlap: 10% of ACEI-accredited elementary programs have grade spans that begin in preschool (or below), 53% begin in kindergarten, 30% in first grade, and 6% in second grade. The second investigation employed a content analysis to compare ACEI’s national standards for elementary teacher preparation with NAEYC’s national standards for early childhood teacher preparation. This analysis indicates that ACEI’s standards include far fewer references to terms that capture essential features of early instruction (e.g., family, community, and observation). Further, while the NAEYC’s standards refer to “self-regulation” four times and “play” eight times, the elementary standards mention neither term. When referring to learners, the NAEYC almost always used “child” or “children,” but the ACEI mostly used “student” or “students.” These results support calls for both stand-alone early licensure and PreK–3 alignment. © 2016 National Association of Early Childhood Teacher Educators.
... While this study suggests that programs can have an influence on PSECEs' beliefs, this shift occurred over the course of their program. Other researchers, however, have reported limited changes in PSECEs' beliefs over the course of a program (Decker & Rimm-Kaufman, 2008;File & Gullo, 2002;La Paro et al., 2009;Smith, 1997). La Paro et al. (2009) administered the Teacher Beliefs Q-Sort (TBQ) to two groups of PSECEs-one group in their first year and one group in the final year of their program, which also included their practicum course. ...
... Behavior guidance "may be one of the areas of teaching that is greatly influenced by beliefs, attitudes, and values" (La Paro et al., 2009, p. 30). Researchers have examined beliefs with respect to behavior guidance in various ways; some examine beliefs in relation to developmentally appropriate or effective practices (Decker & Rimm-Kaufman, 2008;File & Gullo, 2002;Sakellariou & Rentzou, 2011), while others examine beliefs in relation to discipline models (Polat, Kaya, & Akdag, 2013). While multiple studies have examined PSECEs' and/or preservice teachers' behavior guidance beliefs (Atici, 2007;Kaya, Lundeen, & Wolfgang, 2010;Main & Hammond, 2008;Rimm-Kaufman et al., 2006;Rosas & West, 2009), fewer studies have focused on PSECEs' beliefs (File & Gullo, 2002;La Paro et al., 2009;Polat et al., 2013;Sakellariou & Rentzou, 2011). ...
... Researchers have examined beliefs with respect to behavior guidance in various ways; some examine beliefs in relation to developmentally appropriate or effective practices (Decker & Rimm-Kaufman, 2008;File & Gullo, 2002;Sakellariou & Rentzou, 2011), while others examine beliefs in relation to discipline models (Polat, Kaya, & Akdag, 2013). While multiple studies have examined PSECEs' and/or preservice teachers' behavior guidance beliefs (Atici, 2007;Kaya, Lundeen, & Wolfgang, 2010;Main & Hammond, 2008;Rimm-Kaufman et al., 2006;Rosas & West, 2009), fewer studies have focused on PSECEs' beliefs (File & Gullo, 2002;La Paro et al., 2009;Polat et al., 2013;Sakellariou & Rentzou, 2011). ...
Preservice early childhood educators begin postsecondary programs with established beliefs about children, children’s learning, and their roles as future educators. The present study examined 26 first-year students’ beliefs about children, classroom practice, and guiding children’s behavior. Participants completed the Teacher Beliefs Q-Sort (Rimm-Kaufman, Storm, Sawyer, Pianta, & La Paro, 2006) at three time points over the course of their first year of studies. We compared responses across the three time points to explore whether the students’ beliefs changed over time. Findings are presented under three main themes: 1) beliefs about children; 2) beliefs about classroom practice; and 3) beliefs about behavior management. Overall, findings reveal that for all three themes, at each time point, practices that are most characteristic of the participants’ beliefs are child-centered, whereas beliefs that are least characteristic of their beliefs are teacher-directed. To support students’ application of theory to practice, they should be given opportunities during their studies to voice, explore, and critically examine their beliefs in relation to philosophies and teaching approaches.
... Research indicates that, at the beginning of their programs, pre-service ECED and ELED teachers have comparable beliefs about developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) (File & Gullo, 2002). However, as aspiring ECED teachers progress through their program, they develop stronger beliefs in DAP (Scott-Little, La Paro, & Weisner, 2006) and in learner-centered pedagogy (Vartuli & Rohs, 2009). ...
... However, as aspiring ECED teachers progress through their program, they develop stronger beliefs in DAP (Scott-Little, La Paro, & Weisner, 2006) and in learner-centered pedagogy (Vartuli & Rohs, 2009). At the end of their programs, they have stronger beliefs in instructional practices consistent with DAP than ELED program completers (File & Gullo, 2002;Scott-Little et al., 2006;Smith, 1997). Based on their research with 119 pre-service teachers, File and Gullo concluded that graduates of ECED and ELED programs "are 'primed' through their beliefs to shape their classrooms in somewhat different ways" (2002, p. 136). ...
... In order to accelerate progress on this front, proponents of such measures will surely need to produce evidence of the benefits of restricting these grades to teachers with ECED licenses only. Although there is evidence that students in and graduates of ECED preparation programs ascribe to and adopt teaching practices that are consonant with DAP, and that teachers who implement these practices have positive student outcomes, some of this evidence is nearly 20 years old (e.g., Buchanan et al., 1998;File & Gullo, 2002;Smith, 1997;Vartuli, 1999). It would be more persuasive to offer research results that are both more current and more targeted, such as research that looks at the capacity of ECED-versus ELED-certified teachers to work with families, implement kindergarten transition strategies, promote social-emotional learning, form positive teacher/child relationships, and foster self-regulation. ...
Article
This study investigates the claim that in states where elementary education (ELED) and early childhood education (ECED) licenses share the same grades, the preponderance of generalist teachers in the early grades hold ELED rather than ECED licenses. We investigated this question by sending information requests to 43 states where stand-alone, generalist ECED and ELED licenses overlap in Grades K, 1, 2, and/or 3. Responses from the 25 states that supplied this information indicate that a high percentage of teachers in overlapping grades in these states hold ELED licenses only in kindergarten (77%), 1st grade (76%), 2nd grade (79%), and 3rd grade (82%). Further, states with overlaps in grades 1–2 and 1–3 had substantially higher percentages of teachers with ECED licenses than states with K-3 overlaps: 32% more in 1st grade and 28% more in 2nd grade. The current results support calls for states to restrict the early grades to teachers with ECED licenses only and to base their credentialing standards on developmental science.
... This knowledge can influence their perception about their practices in the classroom. In short, pre-service teachers' perception about DAP will influence their future teaching that will certainly influence children's development in all domains (Akin, 2013;File & Gullo, 2002;Kim, 2011;Maxwell, McWilliam, Hemmeter, Ault, & Schuster, 2001;McMullen et al., 2006;Rentzou & Sakellariou, 2011). ...
... Moreover, teachers' perception about DAP is reflected on their teaching style and strategy. Likewise, it will probably reflect their perception about child development, especially social and cognitive development (Akin, 2013;File & Gullo, 2002;Kim, 2011;Maxwell et al., 2001;McMullen et al., 2006). This is because teachers' perception about DAP constitute a basic component of their values and their educational belief system that plays a major part in teachers' cognition about what they do in class to help children develop (Raftery,2016). ...
Article
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This study examined perceptions of pre-service teachers at the university of Jordan towards Developmentally Appropriate Practices DAP. It also examined the influence of the demographic characteristics on their perceptions of DAP or DIP. A total of 189 pre-service teachers completed a survey questionnaire describing their demographic information and perceptions regarding their DAP using the TBS scale. Results indicated that pre-service teachers have high perception of DAP on the TBS scale. In addition, there was a statistical significance in DAP due to pre-service teachers’ practicum experience in favor to students with less experience. On the other hand, there was no statistical significance in DAP due to pre-service teachers’ age, college year, GPA nor academic major. Final result indicated that there was a significant difference in DIP due to pre-service teachers’ college year in favour of freshmen year. In the light of the findings of this study, some recommendations are presented.
... Early education advocates argue that teachers with specialized training in early childhood are better prepared to apply principles of child development through their teaching strategies (Isenberg, 2000), understand how young children's thinking differs from older children (Kamii & Ewing, 1996), and support the language development of young children (Dickinson & Neuman, 2006). Teachers completing early childhood preparation programmes compared to elementary education programmes may have beliefs that are more consistent with developmentally appropriate child expectations and teaching and assessment strategies (File & Gullo, 2002;Vartuli, 1999), and may be more likely to put these beliefs into practice (Vartuli, 1999), although this has not been widely studied. Specialized training in early childhood may benefit both children's math and reading skills. ...
... While ECE teacher certification seems to benefit children's outcomes, at least for kindergarten students, future research could consider which aspects of certification seem to most benefit children's learning. For example, it could be that ECE certified teachers have a stronger knowledge of child development, or it could be that they have a stronger belief in developmentally appropriate practice (File & Gullo, 2002;Vartuli, 1999). It is also possible that teachers with certain characteristics are more likely to pursue ECE certification; such teachers have more child-centred beliefs. ...
Article
There is considerable variation in state policies related to the certification required for teachers in kindergarten and first grade, and relatively little is known about these policies’ effects on student learning. This study considers whether children who have kindergarten and first-grade teachers with certification in early childhood education (ECE) experience greater gains in reading and math compared to children whose teachers have only elementary education certification, using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Kindergarten cohort (ECLS-K). Results suggest that the ECE certification of the kindergarten has a small, positive effect on children’s academic gains. Implications and future directions for research and policy are discussed based on the findings.
... In one study, teachers who completed an ELED program with an ECED endorsement were more likely to endorse practices consistent with the NAEYC's position statement on Developmentally Appropriate Practice (DAP) (Bredekamp & Copple, 1987) than individuals who completed an ELED program only (Smith, 1997). Another study with preservice teachers (File & Gullo, 2002) found that ECED students were more likely than ELED students to favor a variety of constructivist teaching practices (including assessment and teaching strategies, expectations of children, and beliefs about teacher-versus child-directed activities) that were consistent with DAP. ...
... Currently, the research base in this area, as cited earlier in this paper, is outdated in two ways. First, all of the research cited earlier (Buchanan et al., 1998;File & Gullo, 2002;Smith, 1997;Vartuli, 1999) was conducted over 10 years ago. Second, all of these studies relied, in part, on the first iteration of DAP (Bredekamp & Copple, 1987), which advocated an either/or approach to adult-vs. ...
This study explores the relationship between grade-level overlap between elementary education (ELED) and early childhood education (ECED) licenses and ECED teacher output. Analysis of Title 2 data indicates that ECED/ELED overlap is extensive, as evidenced by the number of states with grade-level overlaps of 5 (n = 2), 4 (n = 24), 3 (n = 10), and 2 years (n = 7). In the 47 states with both types of credentials, ELED licensees may teach preschool in two states, kindergarten in 30, first grade in 41, second grade in 42, and third grade in 43. The percentage of ECED (relative to ELED) teacher licensure program completers is low in states where elementary licenses begin in preschool (5%), kindergarten (14%), and Grade 1 (23%), but higher in states where elementary licenses begin in Grades 2 (45%), 3 (44%), and 4 (70%).
... Disconnect has been reported between the teachers' beliefs and teachers' practices in implementing the DAPs in preschools (File & Gullo, 2002;Nelson, 2000;Pelander, 1997;McMullen,1999). In a study, early childhood teachers (n=58) self-reported their beliefs about the use of child-centred teaching practices but the observations revealed them using high frequency of teacher-directed practices (Wen et al., 2011). ...
... There is uncertainty in the capability of teacher education to impact teachers' beliefs (Brookhart & Freeman, 1992). Some studies have reported only slight impact of teachers' education on altering the teachers' beliefs (Clift & Brady, 2005;File & Gullo, 2002). ...
Thesis
Teachers’ beliefs are an integral part of teachers’ classroom behaviour. They are defined as teachers’ thought processes that use past memories, experiences, affective and evaluative characteristics of mind for making choices, planning and decision making in their teaching processes. They impact their teaching practices and child outcomes. Teachers’ beliefs are influenced by various factors. These factors establish a bi-directional relationship with teachers’ behaviour and affects teachers beliefs. It is important to understand the factors affecting teachers’ beliefs in preschools of Singapore in order to help teachers in delivering developmentally appropriate practices and improve child outcomes. The research objective of the present study are 1) To identify the factors affecting teachers’ beliefs in diverse classrooms of the preschools of Singapore, 2) To examine how the culturally responsive teaching efficacy is related to culturally responsive teaching outcome expectancy of teachers in the preschools of Singapore 3) To understand how factors affecting teachers’ belief affects teachers’ practices in diverse classrooms of the preschools of Singapore and 4) To develop a model to study factors affecting teachers’ beliefs in the preschools of Singapore. A mixed method study has been used by taking explanatory sequential research design for this investigation where Phase I of the study is the quantitative phase of data collection from the teachers (n=100) and it is aimed to define the criteria for the purposive selection of data source for the Phase II of the study. The Phase II of the study is the core qualitative phase of this study which involves observations and interviews of the teachers (n=22) for the in-depth understanding of their beliefs and also answering the research questions. This phase answers the research questions and is guided by the Bandura’s Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 2001). The results of the study show that in Singapore preschools factors that affected teachers’ beliefs include teacher education, multicultural education, ethnicity between teacher and children, perception of teacher-child relationships by teachers, enacting experiences of the teachers, socioeconomic status of the children, culturally relevant teaching self-efficacy, culturally relevant teaching outcome expectancy, age of teacher and teacher-child ratio. These factors were also found to interact with each other. After studying these factors and their interrelation to each other, a model of factors affecting teachers’ belief is presented in this study to understand the role of teachers’ beliefs in Singapore preschools. This study has implications for the pre-service and in-service teachers, their professional development, child outcomes and research. Keywords: Teacher beliefs, teacher education, ethnicity, socioeconomic status of the children, culturally responsive teacher efficacy
... Therefore, preservice teachers' teaching beliefs can be considered as the reflection of their sense of teacher efficacy in teaching children in education settings. Teachers' practices are differentiated according to their degree program and their perspectives on learning and teaching (Buchanan, Burts, Bidner, White, & Charlesworth, 1998;File & Gullo, 2002;Smith, 1997). It is evident that early childhood preservice teachers' sense of efficacy has a meaningful implication for their practices and application of subject knowledge in early learning and development (Fives, Hamman, & Olivarez, 2007;Woolfolk & Hoy, 1990). ...
Article
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This study examined whether passion for teaching and teaching beliefs predicts preservice teachers’ sense of teacher efficacy. A total of 212 pre-service teachers enrolled in early childhood teacher education programs in the Seoul metro area of South Korea participated in this study. The results of multiple hierarchical regression analyses revealed that across all sub-areas of teacher efficacy and overall teacher efficacy, preservice teachers’ constructivist teaching belief was the most significant predictor, followed by harmonious passion. Obsessive passion was a significant predictor of preservice teachers’ sense of teacher efficacy except for efficacy in instructional strategies. Traditional belief was not a positive predictor of preservice teachers’ adaptive outcome, teacher efficacy. This study discussed educational implications for cultivating preservice teachers’ harmonious passion for teaching and the teaching profession, along with the benefits of constructivist teaching belief and practice for preservice teachers with a high level of obsessive passion in order to enhance early childhood preservice teachers’ sense of teacher efficacy and reduce the possible negative interaction effects of traditional teaching belief.
... Bassok, Latham, and Rorem (2016) recently documented the changes evident in kindergarten classrooms between 1996 and 2008, noting a 25% increase in the time teachers spent on literacy each week, a doubling in the number of kindergarten teachers who taught spelling each day (from 18% to 36%), and 15 min or less spent in gross motor time per day. Researchers continue to investigate the impact of these changes on kindergarten students, with some stating that time on advanced content is positively associated with student learning (Engel, Claessens, Watts, & Farkas, 2015) and others cautioning that focusing heavily on academic content is not developmentally appropriate (Datar & Sturm, 2004;Raver & Knitzer, 2002;Shonkoff & Phillips, 2000;D. Stipek, 2006). ...
Article
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Political and societal pressures are influencing kindergarten teachers and their classroom practices on a national level. Teachers’ receptivity to reforms depends to a large degree on their buy-in to the change effort. Drawing on analyses of interviews with kindergarten teachers across school and districts, this study examined teacher buy-in to an increased academic focus in kindergarten and in turn the factors that influence buy-in. Research Findings: Analyses revealed that kindergarten teachers in the same schools and districts had qualitatively different responses to the increased academic focus in kindergarten. Teachers’ professional identity, sense of control, and interactions with school leaders emerged as factors influencing teacher buy-in. Practice or Policy: The role of teacher buy-in as a crucial component in times of change is discussed. Specifically, situating reforms in the context of implementation science and teacher well-being is discussed.
... In this study, teachers in 1st-3rd grade classrooms did not rate developmentally appropriate practices as highly or use these approaches as much as preschool and kindergarten teachers. Other research has replicated these, or similar, findings of grade level differences, with teachers at preschool and lower elementary grade levels showing significantly higher ratings and practice of developmentally appropriate beliefs as compared to teachers of upper elementary grade levels (Buchanan, Burts, Bidner & White, 1998;File & Gullo, 2002). ...
Article
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As special education enrollment for children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has increased, school-based programs and providers have been challenged to expand the scope and quality of services. Researchers and school-based providers are aligned in the goal of providing high-quality services to students with ASD, however current literature does not address how training and implementation needs may differ by the age of children served. The current study evaluates variability in teacher fidelity of Classroom Pivotal Response Teaching (CPRT), an evidence-based naturalistic behavioral intervention based on the principals of applied behavior analysis. Data included 479 individual video units collected from 101 teacher and 221 student participants. Videos were coded using behavioral coding definitions and student demographic information was collected from parents of participating children. Analyses explored differences in fidelity of CPRT by age of students. Results indicate a significant relationship between classroom type (preschool/elementary) and teachers’ fidelity of CPRT, suggesting the possibility of targeted training based on student age.
... While teacher decisions have been found to be based upon personal and practical knowledge rather than technical knowledge of child development and learning (Vartuli, 1999), teachers with early childhood education training are more likely to engage in developmentally appropriate practice (Breffni, 2011;File & Gullo, 2002;Han, 2009;Vartuli, 1999;Wilcox-Herzog, 2002). Teachers need specialized knowledge and qualifications to teach young children. ...
Article
This paper considers perceptions of children’s learning and classroom practice to support learning in the Pakistani early years educational context. In Pakistan, there is a growing focus on quality provision of early childhood education and building early childhood education teacher capacity. Over the course of one academic year, data were collected from kindergarten teachers in a Pakistani urban school through interviews and classroom observations as part of a larger study. Findings presented in this paper are based on the interview data of two teachers in the sample, a novice and an experienced teacher. Data analysis examined their perceptions of kindergarten children’s learning and of their practice to support kindergarten children’s learning, taking into consideration the gender perspective. The results showed tensions in the teachers’ perceptions which contrasted between a constructivist approach and a teacher-directed skills approach. Perceptions of their practice reflected a formal, teacher-directed approach rather than a constructivist approach and a teacher-directed skills approach to teaching. Several factors, including deep-rooted perceptions as well as curriculum structure, time, number of staff and resources, contributed to this.
... Some advocates of teacher preparation argued that teachers should be certified in improved university programs, while critics of university-based teacher education suggested alternate programs that include close mentoring and continued study during the first years in schools (Cochran-Smith and Power 2010). Concerning early childhood education (ECE) in particular, research evidence found that initial training programs specializing in ECE have a positive influence on teachers' beliefs and practices (e.g., Al-Hassan and Al-Barakat 2013; Cassidy et al. 1995;File and Gullo 2002;Mueller and File 2015; National Association for the Education of Young Children 2009;Smith 1997;Vartuli 1999). Some studies have also revealed that teachers' education level affects their beliefs and practices, suggesting the importance of providing early childhood teachers with effective educational opportunities such as specialized courses in child development, early childhood education, child care, learning environments, literacy, play, assessment of learning and development, and direct hands-on experience with children (e.g., Abbot-Shim et al. 2000;Brownlee et al. 2000;McMullen and Alat 2002). ...
Article
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This paper introduces a study that examined the difficulties faced in an early childhood teacher education program at one of the universities in Jordan. A qualitative research approach has been opted utilizing the in-depth interviewing and grounded theory methodology. The study revealed that the students faced different types of difficulties in academic and financial matters, status of early childhood education, and field training. Based on the study findings, there are some suggestions to policy makers and teacher educators and specialists that could contribute to the improvement and development of early childhood teacher education. It has been recommended that further research on teacher preparation, particularly concerning early childhood education programs, is essential. Moreover, cooperation and cross-cultural studies between early childhood education specialists from different countries are required to enhance the status and quality of early childhood education.
... Education and major has been associated with early childhood teacher beliefs about other types of best practice recommendations in the field, such as developmentally appropriate practices (e.g. File & Gullo, 2002;McMullen and Alat (2002), and data on predictors of favorable beliefs about bilingualism in K-12 settings underscore the importance of specific university preparation in helping teachers effectively serve children whose first language is not English (Byrnes et al., 1997;Coady et al., 2011;Faltis & Valdés, 2016;Flores, 2001;Flores & Smith, 2009;García-Nevarez et al., 2005;Karathanos 2009;Lucas, Villegas, & Freedson-Gonzales 2008;Lucas & Villegas 2011). Similarly, Bernstein et al. (2018) reported that teachers with a bachelor's degree or higher held significantly more favorable views of multilingualism than teachers with less education. ...
Article
This study employed survey methodology to examine the beliefs of Head Start educators about bilingualism, dual language development, and bilingual education and explored relationships between demographic variables and beliefs. Participants came from two large cities in California, a state that until very recently had a restrictive language policy banning bilingual education. Results indicate that while participants exhibited overall favorable views of bilingualism, responses to several questions related to dual language development and bilingual education were more variable and reflect shifting ideologies regarding bilingualism. Participants who spoke more than one language, were born outside of the United States, and reported an ethnicity other than white, demonstrated more favorable views of bilingual education. Education and major, which have been identified as predictors of favorable beliefs about bilingualism in K-12 settings, were not related to the beliefs of Head Start educators in our sample. The exploration of beliefs about bilingualism and bilingual education is particularly timely given recent research and policy recommendations regarding the long term benefits of bilingualism and the Head Start performance standard requirement that teachers support the development of children’s home language and engage in teaching practices that support both bilingualism and biliteracy.
... According to File and Gullo (2002), students from child development-related programs also have a stronger and more consistent preference towards developmentally appropriate practices than those in other education programs. Teachers with a BA or tertiary-level specialized ECEC/child development-related qualification often display more sensitive and less harsh and detached behaviours (Howes, Whitebook, & Phillips, 1992). ...
... According to File and Gullo (2002), students from child development-related programs also have a stronger and more consistent preference towards developmentally appropriate practices than those in other education programs. Teachers with a BA or tertiary-level specialized ECCE/child development-related qualification often display more sensitive and less harsh and detached behaviours (Howes, Whitebook, & Phillips, 1992). ...
... What effect do these differences in preparation have on the teachers? While ECE and ELED preservice teachers begin their programs with similar beliefs about the value of developmentally appropriate practices -as identified by NAEYC (Bredekamp, 1987) -aspiring ECE teachers' beliefs in these practices grow stronger over the duration of their program, but ELED teachers' beliefs do not (File & Gullo, 2002). Once licensees start teaching, the differences in beliefs persist and are evident in their teaching (Vartuli, 1999). ...
Article
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In the United States, 48 states have recognized the educational importance of the early years by awarding stand-alone early childhood education (ECE) licenses that require specialized training in teaching young children. Yet, at the same time, teachers with elementary education (ELED) licenses are allowed to teach kindergarten in 34 states and 1st through 3 rd grade in more than 45 states. This means that teachers may be licensed to teach young children without receiving specialized early childhood training. R. Clarke Fowler explores the extent of the licensure overlap, the reasons for it, and the effects it has on early childhood education. He recommends moving toward a preK-3 license that requires teachers to learn developmentally appropriate practices for the education of young children.
... The use of scripted lessons may potentially attenuate teachers' implementation fidelity as well as child outcomes, as educators may feel that using scripted lessons precludes being responsive to children's needs or that their autonomy as professionals is undermined (Achinstein & Ogawa, 2006). On the other hand, educators may be reluctant to use wholegroup instruction in early education settings, as it may not be perceived as a developmentally appropriate practice (File & Gullo, 2002) and therefore may not readily fit within the educators' belief systems or their standard practice of education and care (McDonald, Keesler, Kauffman, & Schneider, 2006). In investigating group size as an important component of explicit language and literacy interventions, our interest is grouping as a structural variable that does not take into account the processes taking place. ...
Article
Identification of intervention program components most strongly associated with children's outcomes is essential for designing programs that can be taken to scale. In this effectiveness study, a population-representative sample of 5436 3-6-year-old Danish children from 154 daycare centers participated in a cluster-randomized evaluation of three variations of a language-literacy focused curriculum (LEAP) comprising 40 twice-weekly 30-min lessons. LEAP-LARGE and LEAP-SMALL conditions involved educators' implementation of a scope and sequence of objectives using scripted lessons provided to whole-class and small groups, respectively. In LEAP-OPEN, educators followed the scope and sequence but were allowed to determine the instructional activities for each of 40 lessons (i.e., they received no scripted lessons). A business-as-usual (BAU) condition served as the control. Overall, the largest effect sizes for children's language and emergent literacy outcomes were found for LEAP-OPEN, although the other two LEAP conditions had positive effects for literacy outcomes. Analysis of moderation effects showed no moderation effects for children's socioeconomic status or for non-Danish children. Finally, there was a significant association between children's amount of exposure to the program and both language and literacy outcomes, with higher exposure associated with better outcomes: specifically, non-Danish children benefitted more than native Danish children from higher exposure for language outcomes. This study indicated that an essential component in language and emerging literacy intervention at scale is an explicit sequence and scope of learning objectives, whereas group-size and provision of scripted lessons may be less important.
... Additionally, the overall classroom environment was simultaneously observed and rated. The problem: Notwithstanding research showing the unfavorable effects that highly teacher-centered classrooms have on young students' engagement and subsequent learning outcomes, didactic and ostensibly scripted teaching approaches continue to be standard in many early childhood environments (Alliance for Childhood 2009; File and Gullo 2002;LoCasale-Crouch et al. 2007;Ranz-Smith 2007;Vartuli 1999). ...
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Researchers observed pre-kindergarten through second-grade public school classrooms, specifically noting child-centered and teacher-directed pedagogical approaches, by simultaneously examining: (a) student behavior and activities, (b) teacher instructional orientation and rationale, and (c) overall classroom environment. Dissimilar to previous studies, researchers noted the nature of activity structure and various student demographic variables. Additionally, unlike prior classroom observation studies that included an overwhelming percentage of white students, the current study was comprised of a large percentage of Hispanic and African American students. The findings revealed: little to no variation existed in the activities in which young children were engaged in their classrooms, nor in the instructional practices utilized by their early childhood teachers; however, three statistically significant findings showed: (a) students taught by teachers rated as having a higher developmentally appropriate instructional practices (DAIP) scores were more likely to be on-task and less likely to be off-task; (b) students taught by teachers with a higher DAIP score were more likely to be working kinesthetically, answering teacher-posed questions, and freely exploring; and (c) students taught by teachers with a lower DAIP score were more likely to be distracted and/or not engaging in activity. The findings are important, since young children continue to be taught in a direct instructional manner that focuses on students’ test performance—despite research showing the unfavorable effects that highly teacher-centered, scripted classrooms have on young students’ engagement and learning outcomes.
... In parallel with this result, Kloosterman & Cougan (1994) found that first grade pre-service teachers' beliefs about mathematical development were higher than students in other classes. However, unlike the results of this study, there are some studies that show that the beliefs of the fourth year teachers about mathematical development are higher than the scores of the teacher candidates (Aslan, 2013;File & Gullo, 2002;Taşkın & Tuğrul, 2014). In-service trainings can be organized to improve the beliefs about the mathematical development of teacher and teacher candidates. ...
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In this study, it was aimed to determine the similarities and differences between preschool teachers and teacher candidates' beliefs regarding of mathematical development. In this study, screening model was used which is one of the descriptive study models. As a data collecting tool, Mathematical Development Beliefs Scale (MDBS) was used which is developed by Platas (2015) and it is translated into Turkish. The sample of the study consisted of 200 teacher candidates and 200 teachers. Descriptive statistics were used in the analyzes such as personal information and beliefs of preschool teachers and teacher candidates. Bilateral comparisons of the beliefs of teacher and teacher candidates were analyzed through Mann Whitney U Test. Kruskal Wallis H Test was used to determine whether teachers' beliefs about mathematical development differ according to age, type of school they study, educational status, professional experience and whether teacher candidates' beliefs about mathematical development differ according to class level. As a result of the research, found that there is a statistically significant difference between the teachers' and teacher candidates' beliefs about mathematical development and the teacher candidates' beliefs about the sub-dimensions of the scale (Mathematical Development as Primary Goals of Preschool Education, Confidence in Mathematics Instruction and Age-Appropriateness of Mathematics Instruction) were higher than the teachers' beliefs. Teachers' beliefs about mathematical development were found to be slightly below the medium level in general; however, it was found that pre-service teachers' beliefs about mathematical development were above the middle level. However, it was found that teachers' beliefs did not show a significant difference according to their age, type of school they study, educational status and professional experience period, it was found that teacher candidates' beliefs differed significantly according to their class level.
... According to File and Gullo (2002), students from child development-related programs also have a stronger and more consistent preference towards developmentally appropriate practices than those in other education programs. Teachers with a BA or tertiary-level specialized ECEC/child development-related qualification often display more sensitive and less harsh and detached behaviours (Howes, Whitebook, & Phillips, 1992). ...
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This Campbell systematic review examines the current empirical evidence on the correlation between teacher qualifications and the quality of the early childhood learning environments. The review summarises findings from 48 studies with 82 independent samples. Studies included children from pre‐kindergarten and kindergarteners prior to elementary/primary school and centre‐based providers. The review shows a positive statistically significant association between teacher qualification and the quality of early childhood learning environment. This finding is not dependent on culture and context given that the evidence is from several countries. Mandating qualified teachers, i.e. with tertiary education, may lead to significant improvement for both process and structural quality within centre‐based and home‐based ECEC settings. However, the evidence is from correlational studies, so evidence is needed from studies with designs which can assess causal effects. Further research should also assess what specific knowledge and skills learnt by teachers with higher qualifications enable them to complete their roles effectively. Synopsis/plain language summary Higher teacher qualifications are associated with higher quality early childhood education and care This review examines the empirical evidence on the relationship between teacher qualifications and the quality of the early childhood learning environment. Higher teacher qualifications are significantly positively correlated with higher quality in early childhood education and care. What did the review study? Poor quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) can be detrimental to the development of children as it could lead to poor social, emotional, educational, health, economic and behavioural outcomes. The lack of consensus as to the strength of the relationship between teacher qualification and the quality of the early childhood learning environment has made it difficult for policy makers and educational practitioners alike to settle on strategies that would enhance the learning outcomes for children in their early stages of education. This review examines the current empirical evidence on the correlation between teacher qualifications and the quality of early childhood learning environments. What is the aim of this review? This Campbell systematic review examines the current empirical evidence on the correlation between teacher qualifications and the quality of the early childhood learning environments. The review summarises findings from 48 studies with 82 independent samples. Studies included children from pre‐kindergarten and kindergarteners prior to elementary/primary school and centre‐based providers. What studies are included? Included studies must have examined the relationship between teacher qualification and quality of the ECEC environment from 1980 to 2014, as well as permit the identification of the education program received by the lead teacher and provide a comparison between two or more groups of teachers with different educational qualifications. Furthermore, the studies had to have comparative designs and report either an overall quality scale or an environment rating scale. A total of 48 studies conducted with 82 independent samples were included in the review. What are the main results in this review? Overall, the results show that higher teacher qualifications are significantly correlated with higher quality early childhood education and care. The education level of the teachers or caregivers is positively correlated to overall ECEC qualities measured by the environment rating scale. There is also a positive correlation between teacher qualification and subscale ratings including program structure, language and reasoning. What do the findings in this review mean? The review shows a positive statistically significant association between teacher qualification and the quality of early childhood learning environment. This finding is not dependent on culture and context given that the evidence is from several countries. Mandating qualified teachers, i.e. with tertiary education, may lead to significant improvement for both process and structural quality within centre‐based and home‐based ECEC settings. However, the evidence is from correlational studies, so evidence is needed from studies with designs which can assess causal effects. Further research should also assess what specific knowledge and skills learnt by teachers with higher qualifications enable them to complete their roles effectively. How up to date is this review? The review authors searched for studies published until December 2014. This Campbell systematic review was published in January 2017. What is the Campbell Collaboration? The Campbell Collaboration is an international, voluntary, non‐profit research network that publishes systematic reviews. We summarise and evaluate the quality of evidence for social and economic policy, programmes and practice. Our aim is to help people make better choices and better policy decisions. About this summary This summary was prepared by Ada Chukwudozie and Howard White (Campbell Collaboration) based on the Campbell Systematic Review 2017:1 The relationship between teacher qualification and the quality of the early childhood education and care environment by Matthew Manning, Susanne Garvis, Christopher Fleming and Gabriel T.W. Wong. The summary was designed, edited and produced by Tanya Kristiansen (Campbell Collaboration). Executive summary/Abstract BACKGROUND The notion that a strong early childhood education and care (ECEC) knowledge base, which involves a set of professional competencies, abilities and specific teaching skills, can lead to high‐quality ECEC and positive child developmental outcomes is yet to be fully determined (Bowman, Donovan, & Burns, 2001; Vartuli, 1999). This is due, in some instances, to lack of good data, the quality of the method employed to measure the relationship between teacher qualification and the quality of the early childhood learning environment, and the methods used to aggregate the findings of individual empirical studies. The lack of consensus regarding the direction (positive in this case) and strength of the relationship between teacher qualification and the quality of the early childhood learning environment has made it difficult for policy makers and educational practitioners to form strategies that will ultimately enhance the early learning outcomes of children. OBJECTIVES The objective of this review is to synthesise the extant empirical evidence on the relationship of teacher qualifications to the quality of the early childhood learning environment. Specifically, we address the question: Is there a relationship between the level and type of education of the lead teacher, and the quality of the early childhood learning environment, as measured by the Early Childhood Environment Rating Scale, the Infant Toddler Environment Rating Scale and their revised versions? SEARCH METHODS Studies were identified by exploring a large number of relevant academic journals (e.g., Early Childhood Research Quarterly, Early Childhood Research and Practice, Contemporary Issues in Early Childhood, Child Development, Applied Developmental Science, and the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry) and electronic databases (e.g., Academic Search Premier; CBCA‐Education; Cochrane Controlled Trial Register; Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effectiveness (DARE); Dissertation Abstracts; EconLit; Education Full Text; Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC); Journal Storage Archive (JSTOR); Medline; Proquest Digital Dissertations; Proquest Direct; Project Muse; PsychInfo; Scopus; SocINDEX with Full Text; and SSRN eLibrary). We also searched the reference list of each eligible study, and reviewed the biographies and publication lists of influential authors in the field of early childhood development and education, to determine if there were any relevant studies not retrieved in the original search. SELECTION CRITERIA Selection criteria are based on both comparative and correlational studies that examine the relationship between teacher qualification and quality of the ECEC environment (as measured by ECERS/ECERS‐R/ITERS/ITERS‐R and any subscales) from 1980 (this was when the ECERS was introduced) to 2014. Eligible studies, therefore, report at least one of the following results: (1) the overall ERS ratings (main outcome); (2) ratings of the seven subscales – program structure (i.e. focusing on the schedule, time for free play, group time and provisions for children with disabilities), activities (i.e. focusing on the provision and quality of activities including fine motor, art, music, dramatic play and math/number), language and reasoning (i.e. focusing on the formal and informal use of language, development of reasoning skills and communication), parent and staff needs (i.e. focusing on the provisions for personal and professional needs of staff and parents, and staff interaction and cooperation), space and furnishing (i.e. focusing on the quality of items including indoor space, furniture for routine care, room arrangement and space for privacy), interactions (i.e. focusing on discipline as well as supervision and facilitation of proper interactions between children and staff and among children) and personal care routines (i.e. focusing on teaching and practice of routines including greeting/departing, meals/snacks, toileting/diapering, health and safety); and (3) the two subscales ‐ language and interactions, and provisions for learning. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS The systematic search identified 2,023 unique studies on the relationship of teacher qualifications to the quality of the early childhood learning environment, of which 80 were obtained. A final set of 48 studies was eligible for inclusion in our meta‐analysis. Data analysis was conducted using Comprehensive Meta‐Analysis 2.0 (CMA), a statistical meta‐analysis software package. Both correlation coefficients and mean standardized differences were converted to a common effect size ‐ in this study a correlation coefficient (r). We examined possible moderators of process quality in ECEC settings including: (1) teacher qualification; (2) baseline characteristics of teacher; (3) country in which the study was conducted; (4) duration of follow‐up; (5) outcome measure; and (6) dominant ethnicity of student group. Quality and accessibility of data limited us to exploring only the outcome measure (e.g., ECERS vs. ITERS) and dominant ethnicity of student group. We employ a random effects model for pooling intervention effects. An assumption is made that there are unexplained sources of heterogeneity across studies. The Q statistic, which was calculated in each fixed effect analysis, was used for the calculation of the τ². In addition, we employ the I² statistic (Higgins & Thompson, 2002) as an additional, albeit related, method of assessing heterogeneity. RESULTS In this review we assess the correlation between teacher qualifications and measures of ECEC quality. There were 82 independent samples available for meta‐analysis: 58 assessed the overall quality of ECEC as an outcome and 24 assessed ratings of Environment Rating Scales (ERS) subscales. The relationship between teacher qualifications and overall ECEC quality demonstrate a positive correlation that was statistically significant (mean correlation with robust standard error, assuming ρ = .80 (r=0.198, confidence limits 0.133, 0.263)). When overall quality was disaggregated by measurement method (e.g. ECERS, ECERS‐R), studies that measured ECEC quality using different scales produced a non‐significant difference. Below, in descending order of effect size (correlation coefficient r), results (for the 7 factor subscales) show: • • a positive and statistically significant relationship between teacher qualifications and program structure (r= 0.224, 95% confidence limits 0.014, 0.415); • • a positive and statistically significant relationship between teacher qualifications and activities (r=0.204, 95% confidence limits 0.140, 0.); • • a positive and statistically significant relationship between teacher qualifications and language and reasoning (r=0.203, 95% confidence limits 0.122, 0.282); • • a positive and statistically significant relationship between teacher qualifications and parent and staff (r=0.189, 95% confidence limits 0.049, 0.321); • • a positive and non‐significant relationship between teacher qualifications and space and furnishings (r=0.122, 95% confidence limits ‐0.042, 0.280); • • a positive and statistically significant relationship between teacher qualifications and interactions (r=0.122, 95% confidence limits 0.053, 0.189); and • • a positive and non‐significant relationship between teacher qualifications and personal care (r=0.095, 95% confidence limits ‐0.053, 0.239). In descending order of effect size, the 2 factor subscale outcomes evaluated show: • • a positive and non‐significant relationship between teacher qualifications and provisions for learning (mean correlation with robust standard error, assuming ρ = .80 (r=0.173, confidence limits ‐0.054, 0.399)); and • • a positive and non‐significant relationship between teacher qualifications and language and interaction (mean correlation with robust standard error, assuming ρ = .80 (r=0.096, confidence limits ‐0.172, 0.363)). AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS This review shows the significant association between having lead teachers with higher qualifications and the overall structural and process quality within ECEC settings. In this review, ECEC settings consist of centre‐based classroom environments serving children of all ages (birth to prior to elementary/primary school age). The meta‐analysis has drawn on a wide range of literature from 1980 onwards to provide statistically significant results on the relationship of teacher qualification to the quality of the early childhood learning environment. The learning environment consists of program structure, activities, language and reasoning, parent and staff, space and furnishing, interactions and personal care routines. In a two way‐factor classification, the meta‐analysis also reflects a positive correlation between teacher qualifications and ratings on language and interactions and provision for learning within ECEC settings. This means that higher teacher qualifications are related to improvements in supporting children's development, including supporting language‐reasoning experience, supervision and the scheduling of activities, organization and arrangement of the room, providing varied social experiences for children, and creating a warm and friendly environment for interactions. The results are important for governments and stakeholders wanting to improve early childhood services to enhance children and family outcomes. Quality is closely linked to the level of staff qualification, which may indicate that it is important to have teachers with qualification higher than secondary education working with young children. The professionalization of the early childhood sector through more qualified staff may lead to significant gains for children and their families, contributing towards life‐long outcomes that will benefit all of society.
... One line of research indicates that state and national ELED teaching standards refer less often or not at all to essential aspects of early instruction (e.g., play and self-regulation) than comparable ECE standards (Fowler, 2016(Fowler, , 2022. Other lines of research suggest that teachers prepared and licensed as ECE educators are more likely than ELED licensees to believe in and implement developmentally appropriate teaching practices (File & Gullo, 2002;Vartuli, 1999) and that teachers who implement such practices have more favorable academic and behavioral outcomes (Hooper, 2018;Huffman & Speer, 2000). ...
This article explores whether states’ add-on endorsement policies provide shortcuts to early childhood education licensure. The following questions are pursued: What requirements must licensed teachers meet to add an ECE endorsement? What data do states report on the number of add-ons awarded, in total and in ECE, yearly? What terms do states use to refer to an official authorization to teach? Results indicate that shortened pathways to ECE licensure – licensure testing only and licensure testing plus 6–13 credits of coursework – are available for ELED licensees in 19 states, special education licensees in 16, and all others in 12. Add-on endorsements account for a substantial number of new in-state teaching credentials in the three states that reported such data: Texas (46%), Pennsylvania (19%), and Indiana (12%). In Pennsylvania and Indiana, add-ons constituted 7% and 5%, of all new in-state ECE credentials awarded, respectively. Nearly half of the states in the nation refer to a state authorization to teach as certification, the other near half as license, and two as credential. Now is an opportune time for early educational organizations to articulate what preparation requirements are suitable for an ECE add-on endorsement.
... Traditionally, there has been a sharp distinction drawn between pedagogical practices in early childhood and in early elementary classrooms (Katz, 1996). Early childhood teacher education programs within the USA tend to focus on the child and/or child development as the basis curriculum (File and Gullo, 2002;Katz, 1996). In contrast, elementary teacher education programs focus on grade-level-defined content knowledge divided by disciplines (Hatch, 2010;Stipek and Byler, 1997). ...
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Borderlands of practice are spaces where teachers are engaged in negotiating multiple conceptions of “best practices” within their daily teaching practice. Teachers at work in borderlands must actively negotiate varied conceptions, expectations, and assumptions about what is “best” for their students. These conceptions often challenge teacher professional knowledge and can result in a sense of dissonance about how to best meet the needs of students. Using a case study of one veteran teacher’s sense-making processes in her first year of teaching pre-Kindergarten, this article explores how a theoretical lens of dissonance might help researchers and teacher educators to better understand and support teacher identity formation in borderlands of practice.
... There are two conceptual approaches to their interpretation: according to the firstdifferential approach, -the concepts are distinguished in a hierarchical interpretation, in which the profession (profesiya) is a category that has a higher status than the vocation (fakh). All professions are essentially professional occupations, but not all occupations are professions; according to the secondsynonymous approach, -the concepts of "vocation" and "profession" are interpreted as synonymous terms, and in the terminology of fakhovyy (vocational) and profesiynyy (professional) degree training are opposed to the definition of "education" in the context of general (Graue, 1992;File & Gullo, 2002). ...
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The article is devoted to the disclosure of psycholinguistic aspects of comparative research, in particular the specifics of speech and thinking activities of the comparativist in the application of comparative content analysis of Ukrainian and English scientific pedagogical terminology. Theoretical aspects of comparative content analysis in comparative pedagogical research are revealed, which consist in: objectivity of system and quantitative description of the available content of the term; counting the semantic units represented in the information array that are determined; objectivity of conclusions and rigour of a procedure; quantification of text processing with the subsequent interpretation of the results of the analytical review of the phenomenon under study. It is determined that the speech-thinking activity of a comparativist is characterised by a step-by-step and complex of complementary, interconnected operations, which consist of the following components: motivational-target, cognitive-semantic, reproductive-activity, creative-active, evaluative-reflexive. It was determined that the methodological aspects of the application of comparative content analysis are the necessity to separate units for analysis, the formation of a sample that will ensure the authenticity of the interpretation of the concept in the domestic research-pedagogical thesaurus.
... This section presents the findings of a study of efforts to identify barriers and challenges to teaching English in early childhood in many educational contexts through analytical studies of various international publications (Susanty et al., 2021). We focus on issues related to teaching English and problems that are often faced in the educational environment (File & Gullo, 2002;Early & Winton, 2001;Stipek & Byler, 2004). ...
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This paper will identify some of the barriers and challenges in teaching English early in Indonesia. We believe that teaching English as a foreign language has many obstacles and challenges that must be raised and published so that all parties with interest in teaching foreign languages ??in Indonesia, especially in early childhood, will receive enlightenment. So, we have first received much input from various data sources that we access electronically. All of our data is related to the purpose of this study, and we analyze it with a descriptive qualitative design under the control of a phenomenological approach so that the results will be valid and reliable findings. Based on the discussion of the findings, we can conclude that many teachers are often hampered by a lack of enthusiasm, limited study schedules, teaching resources, inadequate materials, and excess students in class. On the other hand, students have shallow learning motivation and very few skills related to learning English as a foreigner. Therefore, this is an insight for many parties who work in succeeding in English teaching in Indonesia.
... There are two conceptual approaches to their interpretation: according to the firstdifferential approach, -the concepts are distinguished in a hierarchical interpretation, in which the profession (profesiya) is a category that has a higher status than the vocation (fakh). All professions are essentially professional occupations, but not all occupations are professions; according to the secondsynonymous approach, -the concepts of "vocation" and "profession" are interpreted as synonymous terms, and in the terminology of fakhovyy (vocational) and profesiynyy (professional) degree training are opposed to the definition of "education" in the context of general (Graue, 1992;File & Gullo, 2002). ...
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The article is devoted to the disclosure of psycholinguistic aspects of comparative research, in particular the specifics of speech and thinking activities of the comparativist in the application of comparative content analysis of Ukrainian and English scientific pedagogical terminology. Theoretical aspects of comparative content analysis in comparative pedagogical research are revealed, which consist in: objectivity of system and quantitative description of the available content of the term; counting the semantic units represented in the information array that are determined; objectivity of conclusions and rigour of a procedure; quantification of text processing with the subsequent interpretation of the results of the analytical review of the phenomenon under study. It is determined that the speech-thinking activity of a comparativist is characterised by a step-by-step and complex of complementary, interconnected operations, which consist of the following components: motivational-target, cognitive-semantic, reproductive-activity, creative-active, evaluative-reflexive. It was determined that the methodological aspects of the application of comparative content analysis are the necessity to separate units for analysis, the formation of a sample that will ensure the authenticity of the interpretation of the concept in the domestic research-pedagogical thesaurus. Linguistics and Culture Review
... To elaborate, the one factor (IF9: I could adopt many kinds of teaching methods in class) appears to indicate statistical differences between early childhood and primary school levels. To support this finding, File and Gullo (2002) demonstrate that early childhood teachers and primary school teachers had different thoughts towards teaching activities, as they both have a tradition of different teaching practices (Goldstein, 1997). Early childhood activities are child-directed and play-oriented while primary school activities put a traditionally heavier reliance on teacher-direction and discrete-content areas. ...
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The study aimed at exploring the perceptions pre-service student teachers had about their challenges and difficulties that hindered their teaching. The present study espoused a convergent mixed-methods approach, which adopted a questionnaire and semi-structured focused-group-interviews as the research instruments. The participants of this small-scale study were B.Ed. Students at a university in Thailand. There were 78 participants in a quantitative phase, while 17 of them participated in a semi-structured-focus-group interview. The findings demonstrated around 4 dimensions of various constraints and challenges. This embodied: communication factors, instructional factors, student-related factors, and support-related factors. Based on One-Way ANOVA, most students appeared to face similar challenges. However, pre-service student teachers at early childhood and primary school levels highlighted the different challenges which they encountered during their practicum experience concerning various teaching methods used in their lessons. The findings also addressed some areas which needed improvement in the teacher education program. Recommendations were suggested to enhance practical and effective teacher education among future teachers in Thailand.
... In particular, various studies report higher DAP or childcentered beliefs in preschool professionals with some form of early childhood certification or qualification (File & Gullo, 2002;Heisner & Lederberg, 2011;McMullen, 1999;Perren et al., 2017;Snider & Fu, 1990;Vartuli, 1999). Snider and Fu (1990) establish no differences between academic and non-academic (in this case high school) qualifications, whereas Han and Neuharth-Pritchett (2010) report that lead teachers with teaching certifications endorse DAP practices more strongly than teaching assistants with no formal education in 4-year colleges. ...
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This paper explores the pedagogical beliefs regarding language education of 1433 German preschool teachers, and the association between these beliefs and teacher and preschool characteristics. Factor analyses reveal a two-factor structure in teachers’ pedagogical beliefs: the more teacher-directed approach “additional language support” and the more child-centered approach “language education embedded into daily routines”. Teachers value both approaches, albeit participants more frequently express child-centered than teacher-directed beliefs. Factors influencing teachers’ beliefs were their age and language spoken at home, and their qualifications and professional development. Implications for future research and teachers’ professional development are discussed based on these findings.
... It is clear that this is not the best way to bring the sciences to the classroom, and that it must be replaced by perfectly planned work programs that incorporate content from the science area into the classroom routines. One of the possible explanations, coinciding with File and Gullo (2002), Mantzicopoulos, Patrick, and Samarapungavan (2008), Nilsson (2008), and Ucar (2012), could be the lack of confidence that many teachers have when teaching scientific content, either because they do not have sufficient disciplinary knowledge about the subject or because they put other competencies, such as literacy, before scientific competence. Another one of the explanations could be the possible formative deficiencies in sciences that the practicing teachers have received during their university stage, not only in relation to the disciplinary content but also regarding certain methodological aspects necessary to teach this content and that now, for obvious reasons, they move to their classrooms. ...
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In this work we analyze the educational reality of Early Childhood Education classrooms in relation to the teaching of science. A total of 83 students from a fourth-year elementary science teacher training program participated in the study. A 48-item instrument was used to collect data. In general, the results obtained show that sciences are a part, consciously and unconsciously, of children’s learning. A marked presence of scientific content in the classroom has also been noted and an excellent predisposition of teachers in practice for their students to carry out activities of scientific inquiry. However, significant shortcomings have also been detected in relation to certain disciplinary content and activities specific to the scientific methodology that should be corrected in order for schoolchildren to achieve adequate scientific literacy. In our opinion, skills such as observation, experimentation, scientific inquiry, reflection and critical thinking should be promoted in children and that are the basis for developing scientific reasoning, positive attitudes towards science and, ultimately, the construction of a scientific basis for their future.
... Οι αντιλήψεις αυτές λειτουργούν ως φίλτρα σε όποιες γνώσεις και εμπειρίες τους δοθούν στη συνέχεια μέσα από τις συστηματικές τους σπουδές και επιδρούν τόσο στον τρόπο που αξιοποιούν τις σπουδές τους όσο και στον τρόπο που ασκούν στη συνέχεια το διδακτικό και παιδαγωγικό τους έργο (Greene & Magliaro, 2005). Μάλιστα, οι υποψήφιοι εκπαιδευτικοί συχνά δεν διαμορφώνουν νέες αντιλήψεις μέσω των αρχικών τους σπουδών, αφομοιώνουν νέες αντιλήψεις μόνο στο βαθμό που συμφωνούν με τις παλιές και διατηρούν τις αντιλήψεις τους ακόμη και αν αυτές είναι αντίθετες με τη φιλοσοφία των προγραμμάτων σπουδών που παρακολουθούν (Murphy, 2004;Roehriget, 2008;File & Gullo, 2002;Hancock & Gallard, 2004). ...
... (ORCID: 0000-0003-4531-8445) Transition problems mostly result from discontinuities between two environments (Dockett & Perry, 2007b). Various countries, such as the USA (Buchanan, Burts, Bidner, White & Charlottesworth, 1998;File & Gullo, 2002;Goldstein, 1997), Germany (Griebel & Niesel, 2002), Australia (Margetts, 2002), China (Chan, 2012), Denmark (Broström, 2002), Italy (Corsaro & Molinari, 2000), Ireland (O'Kane, 2007, Iceland (Einarsdóttir, 2002(Einarsdóttir, , 2003a, Mexico (Urbina-Garcia, 2014;Urbina-Garcia & Kyriacou, 2018), Turkey (Kotaman, 2009;Oktay & Unutkan, 2005), New Zealand (Peters, 2000), and Greece (Carida, 2011), are faced with school adaptation problems due to the discontinuities between two environments during the transition from preschool to primary school. These studies suggest that more activities should be performed to ensure the coordination and cooperation between early childhood educational programs and primary schools. ...
... Specific to the early childhood certification, the EC-GEN Standards represents a wide range of developmental periods (ages 3-8) and comprises both early childhood education and elementary education (Barbarin & Miller, 2009;Bredekamp, 2010;Kagan, 2012). Given the differences in early childhood education and elementary education in their approaches to teaching and learning, it is reasonable to expect that a preschool teacher and an elementary teacher would apply the standards differently (Abry, Latham, Bassok, & LoCasale-Crouch, 2015;File & Gullo, 2002). Studies have indicated that early childhood teachers (e.g., preschool and kindergarten) are more likely to provide more child-directed instruction focusing on children's learning and development. ...
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Although interpreting and applying the professional teaching standards is a complex and active cognitive process influenced by teachers' knowledge and teaching context, there is a lack of in-depth research into how early childhood teachers' cognition impacts the way teachers change their beliefs and practices. With a cognitive framework, this study focuses on a preschool teacher and an elementary school teacher's changing beliefs and practices as they apply Early Childhood Generalist(EC-GEN) Standards during and after the National Board for Professional Teaching Standards(NBPTS) process. The findings from a qualitative comparative study suggest that EC-GEN Standards guided teachers to reflect on child-directed learning, personalized, more meaningful and intentional teaching. Additionally, there were several similarities and differences in how teachers make sense of the EC-GEN Standards by grade/age levels due to their different approaches to teaching. Implications for reinforcing teachers' professional development and utilizing professional teaching standards as a linkage for Pre-K to grade 3 continuities are discussed.
... The discontinuities expressed by a large number of studies in the literature, investigating the transition between pre-school education institutions and elementary schools (Broström, 2002;Carida, 2011;Chan, 2012;Einarsdóttir, 2002Einarsdóttir, , 2006File & Gullo, 2002;Margetts, 2002;Oktay & Unutkan, 2005;Peters, 2000), increase the need for school-oriented research based on transition to elementary school. In addition, young and minor children who are considered to be ready or not ready for school often carry the burden of being ready for school on their own (Cassidy et al., 2003;Suzuki, 2012). ...
... For example, the study by George and Jinyoung (2010) found that preservice elementary teachers who engaged with an interdisciplinary approach to teaching gained greater understanding of interdisciplinary curriculum through college course content and that this knowledge and interest was carried into the practicum setting. This insight has been reinforced in other field placement research suggesting the requirement for a successful experience includes a match between the college classroom and field classroom in terms of philosophy and approaches to teaching (Darling-Hammond, Hammerness, Grossman, Rust, & Shulman, 2005;File & Gullo, 2002;Kennedy & Heineke, 2014;Zeichner, 2010). Zeichner (2010) has continued to consider 'hybrid' ways to conceptualize the university and field relationships to consider power dynamics, dialogue, and shared learning experiences for all stakeholders. ...
With the rollout of edTPA, Common Core Standards (CCS), and the Next Generation Science Standards (NGSS), there is renewed interest in teacher education programs providing an interdisciplinary approach to curriculum. Yet, future teachers are under increased pressure to pass standardized exams, such as the MTEL, WIFOR and PRAXIS, with a focus on content-specific instruction. Curriculum and assessment policy initiatives present contradictory messages regarding best practice. This research study examines an interdisciplinary approach to teaching content in one early childhood education teacher preparation program. Teaching that crosses disciplines and honors the content and epistemology of each discipline is complex and challenging to convey. Data for this yearlong study exploring student and faculty understanding of teaching from an interdisciplinary perspective at a small liberal arts college included semester-end surveys, focal student interviews, final projects, and faculty surveys. Based on this research, we suggest that integration of content area specialists in college curriculum courses, cross-institutional attention to effective integration strategies, and purposeful interdisciplinary field placements are needed as early childhood educators face continued policy reform.
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The aim of the present study was to investigate prospective teacher candidates' educational beliefs and pupil control ideologies. The sample of the study consists of 218 teacher candidate from the early childhood education departments of two Universities at Turkish Republic of North Cyprus (Eastern Mediterranean and International Cyprus). The data was collected by; Parental Modernity Scale, Pupil Control Ideology Form (PCI), and Beliefs about Student Inventory (BSI). Data reveal significant differences on participants' educational beliefs and pupil control ideology due to gender and grade level. Women are seen to have lower scores on traditionalism dimension and less custodial beliefs for pupil control. Participants' modernity scores and humanistic beliefs for pupil control are seen to increase due to grade level. Prospective teachers' traditionalism orientation and beliefs about student were seen to be predictive of their PCI.
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As of the 2012-2013 academic year, the starting age for primary school has been changed to 66 months. The purpose of this research is to analyze whether basic concepts knowledge and academic development show any differences in children starting school at different ages. The group analyzed in this research consisted of 254 first-year students. The Bracken Basic Concept Scale and measuring tools for reading speed, reading comprehension and mathematical problem solving were used. It is observed that children show no significant difference in basic concepts at the beginning of the academic year, that the existing difference is on the concept of numbers, and that aside from the concept of letters there is no meaningful difference evidentat the end of the academic year. Students from the younger age group were able to learn to read. However, differences in the younger age group in reading comprehension and mathematical problem solving were observed.
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The purpose of this study was to investigate female student teachers’ beliefs towards developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) and the relationship between these beliefs and the GPA. It also aimed to investigate the differences in DAP beliefs among female student teachers at different years(lst through 4th year). Study sample consisted of 60 female students selected from the Early Child Education program at the College of Education, Sultan Qaboos University from different years (lst through 4th year). The study used the three subscales of teacher beliefs scale: (a) integrated/social- cultural curriculum, (b) teacher-directed / basic school skills and (c) child-centered learning. The results indicated a significant correlation at p=0.01 among the three TBS subscales, the total score and GPA. Significant differences were also found between the different years where the beliefs of the second, third and fourth year students were better than first year students beliefs on all subscales and the total score.
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The purpose of this study was to explore the beliefs of Jordanian kindergarten and 1st-grade teachers regarding six child-based dimensions of school readiness: academic knowledge, basic thinking skills, socioemotional maturity, physical well-being and motor development, self-discipline, and communication skills. Questionnaires were used to collect data from 289 teachers; 155 kindergarten teachers and 134 1st-grade teachers were randomly selected from Zarqa, a highly populated city in Jordan. Results revealed that kindergarten and 1st-grade teachers considered all the six child-based dimensions as important to getting children ready for school. However, both groups of teachers rated the basic academic knowledge as the most important dimension and emphasized it over the other dimensions. In addition, results of the multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) indicated that there were statistically significant differences in the beliefs of kindergarten and 1st-grade teachers on four dimensions: academic knowledge, basic thinking skills, socioemotional development, and communication skills; meaning that kindergarten teachers rated these dimensions as more important than 1st-grade teachers did. Yet when teachers’ level of education was controlled for as a covariate, multivariate analysis of covariance results showed that significant statistical differences were only detected on the first dimension (i.e., academic knowledge). Suggestions for policymakers and for further research were offered based on the results of this study.
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The purpose of the study was to investigate preschool children s views and attitudes concerning their transition into primary school. The research was conducted in Reykjavik, Iceland, using group interviews with 5- and 6-year-old children. The results show that many of the participating children had the image of school as a place where children sat quietly at their desks learning how to read, write, and do mathematics. The children were preoccupied with the ways in which the primary school would be different from preschool. They also saw learning the customs of the school, the school rules, and how to behave in school as an important part of what they would be learning in first grade. Many of the children seemed excited and looked forward to starting school while others worried about not being able to meet the school s expectations.
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This study investigated student teachers’ instructional beliefs over the course of student teaching. This study also examined the relationship between the beliefs of student teachers and their cooperating teachers. Participants of the study were 75 student teachers and 35 cooperating teachers. Data were gathered through Teacher Beliefs Survey, which were administered at the beginning and at the end of the student teaching period. Findings showed that the constructivist beliefs of the participant student teachers increased during the student teaching period. Cooperating teachers hold more traditional beliefs than student teachers. The implications of these results are discussed in relation to the literature.
Chapter
A system-level perspective on the transition to Kindergarten requires consideration of the differences that exist between the systems of birth-to-five early care and education (ECE) and K-12 education. Challenges in bridging these systems are rooted in paradigmatic and structural differences that make ongoing, meaningful collaboration and alignment between ECE and K-12 difficult and complex to address. With practitioners and policymakers alike experiencing the challenges, the impetus to address them is heightened by the prominent national focus on school readiness and closing achievement gaps by third grade. This chapter explores theoretical rationales for creating more coherence and alignment across the birth through elementary school age range (P-3), providing a picture of how children’s learning opportunities would be positively influenced by system-level alignment work. Schools and districts that have engaged in system-level alignment efforts show promising improvement in child-level outcomes. The chapter provides examples of alignment strategies at the level of implementation and proffers suggestions for how research, policy, and practice can contribute to greater coherence between the ECE and K-12 systems.
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Drawing on ecological systems and social capital perspectives, this study uses the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study–Birth Cohort to investigate links between early nonparental caregiver beliefs about early academic skills and children’s math and reading achievement in kindergarten with special attention to the children from Latino/a immigrant households. Regression analyses revealed that nonparental caregiver beliefs were associated with academic achievement at kindergarten entry and that types of alignment or misalignment between nonparental caregiver and parental beliefs were differentially associated with math achievement but not reading. Notably, the association between nonparental caregiver beliefs and children’s academic achievement was more consequential for children from Latino/a immigrant households. Results suggest that having nonparental caregivers with low early academic skills beliefs may be especially detrimental for children from Latino/a immigrant households.
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Increasingly school districts are attempting to align curricula, assessments and standards, in an effort to eliminate inequities. Some approaches like Prek‐3 initiatives call for coordination of instruction between preschool and later elementary grades that would resemble a coherent instructional system with clear learning goals for students aligned to supports for teachers to help them to teach in, possibly new, ways that would realise such goals. Central to these efforts are instructional materials like curricula that specify learning goals used to teach the students and the guide teachers. Districts seeking to coordinate prek with elementary must create novel solutions for coordinating supports for teaching that is connected across prek and elementary classrooms. In this study, we consider the mandated math curricula that two school districts in California used to establish district‐wide prek‐3 programs. What emerged from our analyses of curricula were distinct designs for continuity of instruction across grades: one district's curricula offered consistently challenging tasks across grades, while the other emphasised easy tasks for younger students followed by increasing levels of challenge for advanced grades. We argue that prek‐3 initiatives present a unique opportunity to recognise why continuity of instruction specified by curricula matters as much, if not more, than coherence or alignment when districts seek to coordinate and connect instruction in preschool and elementary classrooms.
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The purpose of this study was to examine preK certification requirements for literacy and mathematics coursework to understand policy trends across the United States. We were interested in examining whether teacher certification requirements in these content areas align with expectations for child outcomes in early literacy and math. We completed a content analysis of 114 documents from 50 states including preK teacher certification requirements and early learning standards from each state. We engaged in a detailed analysis of the sections of these documents related to early literacy and mathematics. Based on this state-by-state analysis, we found that most states had very little specification of preK teacher certification requirements related to literacy or mathematics. Our findings suggest that current certification policies are not well-aligned with expectations for preK children’s learning in early literacy and mathematics.
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In an effort to improve learning for young children and respond to preschool fade out, some districts are working on “PreK-3” initiatives to create better connected learning pathways for children. In these pathways, primary grades continue to build on what children learn in preschool; they also present potential implementation challenges that are not accounted for in the literature. Using conceptual tools from institutional theory and empirical evidence from a study of two school districts, we show how challenges arise as districts try to bridge the divergent and entrenched institutional systems of preschool and elementary. Our findings suggest that these systems are each held in place by their own set of regulative, normative, and cultural-cognitive mechanisms that reinforce one another thereby providing an explanation for why beliefs and practices are so resistant to change. This analysis also points to practical implications that may lead to better connections and learning experiences for young children.
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Poor-quality early childhood education and care (ECEC) can be detrimental to the development of children, as it may lead to poor social, emotional, educational, health, economic, and behavioral outcomes. A lack of consensus, however, regarding the strength of the relationship between teacher qualification and the quality of the ECEC environment makes it difficult to identify strategies that could enhance developmental and educational outcomes. This meta-analytic review examines evidence on the correlation between teacher qualifications and the quality of ECEC environments. Results show that higher teacher qualifications are significantly correlated with higher quality ECEC environments. Specifically, the education level of teachers or caregivers is positively correlated to overall ECEC qualities, as well as subscale ratings including program structure, language, and reasoning.
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Studies consistently find a discrepancy between teachers' self-reported beliefs about developmentally appropriate practices (DAP) and their actual, observable classroom practices. Teachers attribute the discrepancy to a variety of environmental/work-related stresses or institutional barriers. Some early childhood professionals, however, are either unaffected by, or able to cope with, these same obstacles and live out DAP beliefs in practice. What are the characteristics of teachers who both state a belief in DAP and engage in DAP practices in their early childhood classrooms? Although there were differences between preschool and primary teachers in this sample of 20 early childhood educators of children ages birth through 8, DAP beliefs overall were strongly correlated with practices at the p
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Student teacher beliefs about developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) were investigated in relation to socialization influences. Sixty student teachers (25 with elementary plus early childhood preparation, 35 with elementary only preparation) completed the Primary Teacher Questionnaire (PTQ), the Internal Locus of Control Index (ICI), and an adaptation of the PTQ rating cooperating teacher beliefs. Early childhood student teachers endorsed developmentally-based practices more than did elementary student teachers; the elementary group endorsed traditional practices more than did the early childhood group. Between-group patterns remained stable over the student teaching placement, indicating a strong preservice influence on beliefs. No within-group changes were found, indicating a continuity in beliefs across the student teaching experience. Results only partially supported the view that student teacher beliefs become similar to those of their cooperating teachers. Internal locus of control orientation had no effect on the convergence of student teacher and cooperating teacher beliefs.
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This study identified classroom characteristics and teacher characteristics that were related to the self-reported beliefs and classroom practices of first, second, and third grade teachers. Teachers (n = 277) representing 77% of the potential subjects completed and returned The Primary Teacher's Beliefs and Practices Survey, a measure based on the developmentally appropriate standards advocated by NAEYC. Factor analyses of the survey supported the use of four proposed subscales: developmentally appropriate beliefs, developmentally appropriate activities, developmentally inappropriate beliefs, and developmentally inappropriate activities. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses indicated that classroom characteristics (class size, grade level, number of children with disabilities, and number of children on free or reduced lunch) and teacher characteristics (perceived relative influence and area of certification) predicted teacher beliefs and practices. After controlling for the classroom variables, teacher characteristics added significantly to the prediction of developmentally inappropriate activities.
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The continuum of beliefs reported by early childhood teachers (Head Start through third grade) and how those beliefs relate to classroom practice were explored in this article. Head Start, kindergarten, first-, second-, and third-grade teachers’ beliefs and self-reported practices were measured by three different instruments. These included the Early Childhood Survey of Beliefs and Practices (Marcon, 1988), and the Teacher Beliefs Scale and . Each classroom was also observed using the Classroom Practices Inventory and . The belief measures were moderately correlated and observed practices supported what teachers reported as their beliefs and practices. Beliefs were significantly more appropriate than practice at every grade level. As the grade level increased the level of self-reported developmentally appropriate beliefs and practices decreased. The same held true for observed practice. Teachers in first, second, and third grade did not rate developmentally appropriate practices as high as Head Start and kindergarten teachers. Teachers with fewer years of teaching experience and those with certification in early childhood education were more likely to believe in and use more developmentally appropriate practices.
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Lisa Delpit uses the debate over process-oriented versus skills-oriented writing instruction as the starting-off point to examine the "culture of power" that exists in society in general and in the educational environment in particular. She analyzes five complex rules of power that explicitly and implicitly influence the debate over meeting the educational needs of Black and poor students on all levels. Delpit concludes that teachers must teach all students the explicit and implicit rules of power as a first step toward a more just society. This article is an edited version of a speech presented at the Ninth Annual Ethnography in Education Research Forum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, February 5-6, 1988.
Article
This book extends the discussion regarding effective early childhood teacher education in light of two contradictory public demands, day care and education. The sections of the book focus on what makes an effective beginning teacher, what is needed to move beyond initial competence, and what makes an effective early childhood teacher educator. Each section contains essays prepared by practitioners at infant through primary levels, followed by three commentaries from noted scholars, administrators, or teacher educators. Following an introduction (Day, Goffin) on the context in which the nurturing and pedagogical demands of early childhood education coexist, the essays are: (1) "Facilitating the Distinctive Role of Infant and Toddler Teachers" (Rowe and others); (2) "Defining Competence as Readiness To Learn (Kramer); (3) "Preparing Early Childhood Educators for Constructivist Teaching" (Olson); (4) "'You Might As Well Go on Home,'" on a teacher's increasing self-confidence (Albarado); (5) "The Competence of Entry-Level Early Childhood Teachers" (Bredekamp); (6) "New, with Something More To Learn: Comments on the Skills Necessary for Entry into an Early Childhood Classroom as a Competent Teacher" (Daniel); (7) "Listening to Teachers To Improve the Profession" (Schultz); (8) "Moving Beyond an Initial Level of Competence as an Infant Teacher" (Hamilton); (9) "Preparing Early Childhood Teachers for Careers in Learning" (VanArsdell); (10) "Deepening Teacher Competence through Skills of Observation" (Martin); (11) "Preserving Commitment to Teaching and Learning" (Tull); (12) "Developmental Stages in the Lives of Early Childhood Educators" (Berliner); (13) "Knowledge of Child Development and the Competence of Developing Teachers" (Katz); (14) "Reflections on the Growth and Development of Teachers in Early Childhood Education" (Sobol); (15) "Preparing Tomorrow's Inventors" (Fein); (16) "The Value of Developmentally Appropriate Practice for All Children" (Hutchison); (17) "Viewed through a Prism: The Multifaceted Enterprise of Early Childhood in Higher Education" (Fernie, Kantor); (18) "Accomplishing My Work as a Teacher Educator" (Yonemura); (19) "Early Childhood Teacher Educators in the Context of Professional Change" (Isenberg, Raines); (20) "Reflections of an Early Childhood Teacher Educator In-the-Making" (Wilson); (21) "'Women's Work,'" on how the female perspective shapes early childhood education and reform (Lubeck); (22) "Thoughts on Educating Teachers" (Bowman); and (23) "Moving Toward a Vision of Early Childhood Education" (Rosegrant). An epilogue discusses generating new perspectives in early childhood teacher education. (HTH)
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Discusses the reconceptualist movement in curriculum studies, which advocates researchers' use of critical, interpretive, feminist, or phenomenological frameworks to share their work with the early childhood community. This movement is the focus of this special issue of the journal. Discusses efforts of the past 20 years to reconceptualize ways to describe curriculum and education. (LB)
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Primary grade teachers attempting to implement developmentally appropriate practice (DAP) in their classrooms must contend with the competing professional paradigms of early childhood education and elementary schooling. In this article I describe the practices of one primary grade teacher to give a picture of how these tensions play out in one public elementary school setting. Though the practices of the teacher studied here embody some aspects of developmentally appropriate practice, they are also marked by problems with personal interpretation, partial adoption, and inconsistency in implementation of DAP principles. Analysis of this teacher's experience provides insight into the general challenge of implementing DAP as well as into the specific challenges facing primary grade teachers committed to developmentally appropriate teaching.
Article
The study explored relationships, for 60 preschool, kindergarten, and first grade teachers, among teachers' beliefs about how children learn, their views on the goals of early childhood education, their positions on policies related to school entry, testing, and retention, their satisfaction with current practices and pressures for change, and their actual practices. Results revealed, for preschool and kindergarten teachers, significant associations among beliefs, goals, practices, and to some degree policy positions, that map on to current debates among experts on child-centered versus more didactic, basic-skills approaches. Findings for the small sample of first grade teachers showed few of the predicted associations. Nearly all teachers who reported that they were not able to implement the program they believed was appropriate claimed that their program was too basicskills oriented; parents were the most often cited source of pressure.
Critical perspectives on the historical relationship between child development and early childhood education research
  • M N Bloch
Teacher beliefs and practices survey
  • D C Burts
  • T Buchanan
  • R Charlesworth
  • P Fleege
  • S Madison
The state of the art in early childhood professional preparation
  • J P Isenberg
Early childhood education
  • S Bredekamp