Kryptoperidinium foliaceum blooms in South Carolina: A multi-analytical approach to identification

Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1031, N-0315 Oslo, Norway
Harmful Algae (Impact Factor: 3.87). 12/2002; 1(4):383-392. DOI: 10.1016/S1568-9883(02)00051-3


Observations following the discovery of Kryptoperidinium foliaceum blooms in South Carolina (SC), USA, suggest that a multi-analytical approach, using a standard, minimal set of criteria, should be adopted for determining dinoflagellate species identity and taxonomic placement. A combination of morphological, molecular, and biochemical analyses were used to determine the identity of this “red tide” dinoflagellate, first documented in SC waters in the spring of 1998. Results from thecal plate tabulations (based on scanning electron and epifluorescence microscopy), gene sequence data, species-specific PCR probe assays, and microalgal pigment profiles were analyzed and compared to reference cultures of K. foliaceum. Comparative data showed marked inconsistencies among the K. foliaceum reference culture isolates. In addition, the SC bloom isolate was shown to be mononucleate, contrary to previous reports for K. foliaceum, suggesting a more transient endosymbiotic association than previously considered.

Download full-text


Available from: Jennifer Wolny, Mar 16, 2015
  • Source
    • "Genetic analysis of dinotom host and endosymbiont mitochondria not only revealed a functional overlap between these organelles but also showed that both the host and the endosymbiont mitochondria appear to be largely unaffected by the integration of the endosymbiont, retaining nearly all characteristics of free-living dinoflagellate and diatom mitochondria , respectively (Imanian and Keeling 2007; Imanian et al. 2012). Observed size variability of the endosymbiont nucleus containing varying amounts of DNA and reports of isolates lacking the endosymbiont nucleus prompted speculations that the endosymbiont nucleus of dinotoms may be no longer functional (Kempton et al. 2002; Figueroa et al. 2009). However, the existence of functional mitochondria in the endosymbiont suggests that an actively transcribing nucleus is present to maintain these organelles. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dinoflagellates harboring diatom endosymbionts (termed 'dinotoms') have undergone a process often referred to as 'tertiary endosymbiosis' - the uptake of algae containing secondary plastids and integration of those plastids into the new host. In contrast to other tertiary plastids, and most secondary plastids, the endosymbiont of dinotoms is distinctly less reduced, retaining a number of cellular features, such as their nucleus and mitochondria and others, in addition to their plastid. This has resulted in redundancy between host and endosymbiont, at least between some mitochondrial and cytosolic metabolism, where this has been investigated. The question of plastidial redundancy is particularly interesting since the fate of the host dinoflagellate plastid is unclear. The host cytosol possesses an eyespot that has been postulated to be a remnant of the ancestral peridinin plastid, but this has not been tested, nor has its possible retention of plastid functions. To investigate this possibility, we searched for plastid-associated pathways and functions in transcriptomic datasets from three dinotom species. We show that the dinoflagellate host has indeed retained genes for plastid-associated pathways, and that these genes encode targeting peptides similar to those of other dinoflagellate plastid targeted proteins. Moreover, we also identified one gene encoding an essential component of the dinoflagellate plastid protein import machinery, altogether suggesting the presence of a functioning plastid import system in the host, and by extension a relict plastid. The presence of the same plastid-associated pathways in the endosymbiont also extends the known functional redundancy in dinotoms, further confirming the unusual state of plastid integration in this group of dinoflagellates.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014 · Genome Biology and Evolution
    • "Dinotoms display great variation in morphology (including both athecate forms and thecate species with different plate configurations), habitats (freshwater to marine), and lifestyles (including planktonic and both motile and sessile benthic forms) (Horiguchi 2004, 2006). Some, such as K. foliaceum, Peridiniopsis spp., Peridinium quinquecorne, can form harmful blooms (Kempton et al. 2002; Garate- Lizarraga and Muneton-Gomez 2008; Zhang et al. 2011). Although production of toxins has not been reported, these blooms can cause noxious odors and produce fish kills by depleting the water of dissolved oxygen. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Dinoflagellates are a peculiar group of protists with a surprising and varied history of plastid acquisition. They employ a variety of trophic strategies including photoautotrophy, heterotrophy, and mixotrophy, with multiple modes of food ingestion identified. This collection of features apparently preadapted dinoflagellates for acquisition of a bewildering array of photosynthetic bodies ranging from “stolen” plastids (or kleptoplastids) through permanent endosymbionts to true plastids, acquired in various primary, secondary, and tertiary endosymbioses. In this chapter, we focus on tertiary plastid endosymbioses (that is, uptake of an alga with a complex, secondary plastid), and especially on three that show distinct levels of host–endosymbiont integration. These endosymbiotic consortia are represented by (1) cryptophyte-derived kleptoplastids in Dinophysis species, (2) diatom endosymbionts in genera known as “dinotoms” (e.g., Kryptoperidinium and Durinskia), and (3) haptophyte-derived plastids in Karenia, Karlodinium, and Takayama. We discuss details of the structures, evolutionary origins, and processes involved in these varied endosymbioses, including feeding mechanisms, endosymbiotic gene transfer, and how nucleus-encoded proteins are targeted to each of these photosynthetic entities. Available data support previous predictions that all these photosynthetic bodies evolved via replacements of the peridinin plastid found in most photosynthetic dinoflagellates.
    No preview · Chapter · Jan 2014
  • Source
    • "The cells were held in the 70% EtOH bath for 48 hours at 4 º C. Cells were rinsed 2x for 5 minutes each with FSW (47 g l -1 , salinity measured with a Reichert hand refractometer using the correction factor of 1.13 from González et al. 1998 15 and then FSW washes of decreasing salinity (40, 34, 28, 23, 17, 11, 6, and 0 g l -1 ). The remainder of the fixation process followed Kempton et al. (2002) 16 . Observations were made using a Cambridge Stereoscan 240 scanning electron microscope. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: In early 2006, unusual algal blooms of two species occurred in the Salton Sea, a large salt lake in southern California. In mid-January local residents reported bioluminescence in the Sea. Starting in February, large rafts of long-lasting foam, also bioluminescent, were observed as well. Microscopy investigations on water and sediment samples collected in March showed the marine dinoflagellate, Alexandrium margalefii, and the prymnesiophyte, Prymnesium sp., both previously unreported in the Salton Sea, to be abundant. Bioluminescence and foam production continued through March. Other dinoflagellate species, recorded during earlier studies, were rare or not detected during these blooms. Despite the fact that many Alexandrium species are known paralytic shellfish poison (PSP) producers, preliminary saxitoxin tests on this population of A. margalefii were negative. Previous reports on A. margalefii do not mention bioluminescence. It appears that the foam was caused by the Prymnesium sp. bloom, probably via protein-rich exudates and lysis of other algal cells, and its glow was due to entrained A. margalefii. This is the first report of A. margalefii in U.S. waters and the first report of it in a lake.
    Preview · Article · Aug 2008 · Proceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
Show more

We use cookies to give you the best possible experience on ResearchGate. Read our cookies policy to learn more.