Article

Effect of sensory education on food preferences in children.Eighth Pangborn Sensory Science Symposium - Wine Special Issue

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Abstract

During an evaluation of the effects of a French sensory education program for 8–10 years old school children, an experiment was carried out to investigate the influence of the program on the development of children’s preferences for stimuli differing in arousal potential (higher complexity and/or intensity).An experimental group (n = 101) who participated in the education program and a control group (n = 102) who did not, rated liking for five stimuli differing in arousal potential in each of three product categories (mashed potatoes, fruit yoghurts and compotes) at three moments: just before (T0) and after (T1) the education program and 10 months later (T2). Although initially both groups showed the same increase in liking for more arousing stimuli in two foods, indicating that exposure to more arousing stimuli alone sufficed, whereas the effect of the education program was only shown in the further extension of this change at T2 in the experimental group.

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... A prototype version of VERTICAL was developed and showed positive changes in mediating factors associated with children's vegetable consumption in a matched-control schools pilot study [33,34]. These changes included: increases in knowledge about vegetables and the senses, students' verbalization skills around vegetable sensory properties, vegetable acceptance and willingness to try vegetables [34]. ...
... These changes included: increases in knowledge about vegetables and the senses, students' verbalization skills around vegetable sensory properties, vegetable acceptance and willingness to try vegetables [34]. The program was evaluated favourably by teachers; however, preparation effort was seen as considerable [33]. The content of the VERTICAL program was refined based on study outcomes. ...
... The classroom intervention in both intervention arms was a teacher-led vegetable education program VERTICAL designed to positively prime children towards vegetable consumption by increasing enjoyment and willingness to consume vegetables. A pilot version of the program is described elsewhere [33] and results from a student and teacher evaluation were used to further develop the program [33,34]. A description of VERTICAL can be found in Appendix A. ...
Article
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Schools provide a relevant and equitable environment to influence students towards increased vegetable consumption. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of a Vegetable Education Resource To Increase Children’s Acceptance and Liking (VERTICAL) for Australian primary schools (curriculum aligned and based on a framework of food preference development and sensory experiential learning) on positively influencing factors predisposing children towards increased vegetable consumption. The secondary aim was to evaluate two levels of teacher training intensity on intervention effectiveness. A cluster-RCT amongst schools with three conditions was conducted: 1 = teaching VERTICAL preceded by online teacher training; 2 = as per 1 with additional face-to-face teacher training; 3 = Control. Pre-test, post-test and 3-month follow-up measures (knowledge, verbalization ability, vegetable acceptance, behavioural intentions, willing to taste, new vegetables consumed) were collected from students (n = 1639 from 25 schools in Sydney/Adelaide, Australia). Data were analyzed using mixed model analysis. No difference in intervention effectiveness was found between the two training methods. Compared to the Control, VERTICAL positively affected all outcome measures after intervention (p < 0.01) with knowledge sustained at 3-month follow-up (p < 0.001). In conclusion, VERTICAL was effective in achieving change amongst students in mediating factors known to be positively associated with vegetable consumption.
... According to this shift in research orientation, and in agreement with research areas shown in the conceptual map (Fig. 2), most of the publications related to consumer testing with children in the 21th century have dealt with the topic of increasing acceptance and consumption of fruits and vegetables (F&V) through food educational programs (Healthy eating, Nutrition and Education) (Laureati, Bergamaschi, & Pagliarini, 2014;Olsen, Ritz, Kraaij, & Møller, 2012;Reverdy, Schlich, Köster, Ginon, & Lange, 2010) or by using specific preparation methods (Poelman & Delahunty, 2011;Poelman, Delahunty, & de Graaf, 2013;Rohlfs Domínguez et al., 2013;Zeinstra et al., 2010). Other studies have attempted to find the most age-appropriate procedure to investigate aspects (e.g. ...
... Poelman et al. (2013) 5-6 x 46. Reverdy et al. (2010) 8-11 x 47. Rohlfs Domínguez et al. (2013) 4-6 x 48. ...
Article
Until only a few decades ago, there was little interest in research about children as consumers. Today, the food market for ‘‘the small consumers’’ is continuously growing and many foods and beverages are developed specifically for this target group. Furthermore, a better understanding of children’s food preferences could help design strategies to reduce obesity and malnutrition. The present review examines the main research domains in which measurements of children’s food preferences are applied. It also gives an overview of the progress made during the last 15 years in the field of consumer testing with children, highlighting the need of investigating and using new methods in addition to existing ones. Attention is devoted to the choice of specific methods according to the child’s age.
... The study of a products complexity's effect on subjects' perception have been extended to other than visual artistic stimuli including perception of aroma and perfumes (Jellinek & Köster, 1979, 1983Sulmont, Issanchou, & Köster, 2002) and the overall perception of food products with special focus on mere exposure (Levy, MacRae, & Koster, 2006;Reverdy, Schlich, Köster, Ginon, & Lange, 2010;Sulmont-Rosse, Chabanet, Issanchou, & Köster, 2008). Only few studies have looked on the effect of complexity based on the appearance of food (Kildegaard, Olsen, Gabrielsen, Møller, & Thybo 2011;Zellner, Lankford, Ambrose, & Locher, 2010). ...
... Females have earlier been reported to have a higher intake of fruit and vegetables (Pedersen et al., 2010) and the gender difference might therefore be related to the degree of exposure. Mere exposure studies combining exposure and arousal potential theories have been carried out, and they confirm percieved complexity as one of the factors in the development of food preferences in both adult subjects (Lévy et al., 2006;Porcherot & Issanchou, 1998) as well as in children (Reverdy et al., 2010). ...
... Elles montrent aussi l'importance dans la pratique de porter attention à la façon dont les aliments sont présentés aux enfants tant d'un point de vue perceptif (séparer les aliments, choisir des présentations visuellement le plus simples possible…) que d'un point de vue du contexte émotionnel afin d'éviter de générer chez l'enfant des émotions négatives supplémentaires.L'enseignement tiré du récit de Lamia appelle aussi à la prudence quant à l'application littérale de méthodes d'éducation à l'alimentation issues du monde ordinaire. Par exemple, la découverte sensorielle (attention aux propriétés sensorielles) des aliments est un outil largement proposé pour accompagner la construction alimentaire chez l'enfant au DT tant dans la littérature scientifique(Dazeley & Houston-Price, 2015;Mustonen, Rantanen, & Tuorila, 2009;Mustonen & Tuorila, 2010;Reverdy, Schlich, Köster, Ginon, & Lange, 2010) qu'en promotion de la santé (cf. par ex. ...
Thesis
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La construction du comportement alimentaire est un phénomène complexe chez une majorité d'enfants avec un trouble du spectre de l'autisme (TSA). Cette thèse de doctorat vise à mieux comprendre en quoi les particularités perceptives (vue et odorat) des enfants avec un TSA influencent leur acceptation d'un aliment.Nos résultats montrent que les enfants avec un TSA se distinguent sensoriellement des enfants au développement typique (DT), ces différences dépendent de la nature (visuelle ou olfactive) des stimuli. Les enfants avec un TSA attribuent aussi des valences hédoniques plus basses aux stimuli a priori plaisants, et ce plus significativement pour la modalité visuelle. Finalement, le jugement hédonique est associé au degré de néophobie chez les enfants avec un TSA, ce qui n'est pas le cas chez les enfants au DT. Nous avons ensuite évalué les effets d'une familiarisation olfactive sur l'agrément intrinsèque d'une odeur. Nos résultats montrent une augmentation de l'expression émotionnelle positive pour l'odeur familiarisée. Deux tiers des enfants, notamment ceux qui ont le plus de particularités sensorielles, choisissent un aliment porteur de cette odeur lors d'un choix alimentaire.Nous avons aussi pris en compte le point de vue des enfants avec un TSA et l'avons mis en dialogue avec les résultats issus des neurosciences. Nos observations relèvent la pertinence d'une posture d'accompagnement dialogique pour permettre la construction de savoirs sur l'alimentation.Nos études soulignent l'importance de prendre en compte le profil perceptif propre aux enfants avec un TSA lors de la conception d'outils pédagogiques pour accompagner la construction du comportement alimentaire
... In France, after Puisais and Pierre [10] developed the concept of taste education, the French government adopted policies to support nutrition education, taking part in an effort to help preschoolers and children establish good dietary habits. In addition, the government designated the second week of October as "La Semaine du Goût (The Week of Taste)" to stimulate dietary education and encourage more interest in traditional local foods [13]. Japan enacted the Fundamental Act on Meat to teach ways of enjoying meals by using all five senses, and the Japanese are now putting these measures into practice by seeking ways to make use of local foods [14,15]. ...
Article
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The change in people's dietary life has led to an increase in an intake of processed foods and food chemicals, raising awareness about taste education for preschoolers whose dietary habits start to grow. This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and satisfaction of parents and childcare personnel after developing a taste education program and demonstrating it in class. A part of the curriculum developed by Piusais and Pierre was referred for the program. After educating 524 preschoolers in child care facilities in Seoul, a satisfaction survey was conducted on the program. The data in this study were analyzed using SPSS 14.0. Statistical analysis was conducted based on the frequency after collecting the data. Mean ± SD used to determine satisfaction with taste education, with preferences marked on a five-point scale and the alpha was set at 0.05. The program includes five teachers' guides with subjects of sweetness, saltiness, sourness, bitterness and harmony of flavor, and ten kinds of teaching tools. For the change in parents' recognition of the need for taste education based on five-point scale, the average of 4.06 ± 0.62 before the program has significantly increased to 4.32 ± 0.52 (P < 0.01). Regarding the change in the preferences for sweetness, saltiness, sourness, and bitterness, the average has increased to 3.83 ± 0.61, 3.62 ± 0.66, 3.64 ± 0.66, and 3.56 ± 0.75 respectively. In an evaluation of instructors in child care facilities, the average scores for education method, education effect, education contents and nutritionists, and teaching tools were at 4.15 ± 0.63, 3.91 ± 0.50, 4.18 ± 0.50, and 3.80 ± 0.56 respectively. In addition, the need for a continuous taste education scored 4.42 ± 0.67. This program has created a positive change in preschoolers' dietary life, therefore the continuation and propagation of the taste education program should be considered.
... This indicates that products coded 000 were less novel and complex whereas products coded 111 were highest in novelty and complexity. Previous Reverdy, Schlich, Koster, Ginon, and Lange (2010) have shown that products low in complexity were closest to the children's individual optimal arousal level, a concept introduced by Berlyne (Berlyne, 1960) and Dember and Earl (Dember & Earl, 1957). In this theory the arousal level of a stimulus is defined as a combination of novelty, complexity and intensity, and it determines the degree of liking. ...
... Thus, the program appeared to expand the taste world of children, as it encouraged them to try unfamiliar foods. This research was conducted in parallel with French researchers, and the outcome was largely the same in both countries (Reverdy, Chesnel, Schlich, Köster, & Lange, 2008;Reverdy, Schlich, Köster, Ginon, & Lange, 2010). ...
Article
During the past decades, sensory evaluation of food quality has evolved and grown into a discipline that covers sensory and consumer research of foods and beverages. The present review deals with those aspects of the development in which I have been personally involved and have considered inspiring and important subject matters in the field. They are consumer responses to (1) salt, (2) fat, and (3) unfamiliar foods; (4) food choice and socio-cognitive segmentation, (5) responses to food in the elderly and young; and (6) genetic origins of food preferences. Perspectives of the field and of these specific areas are discussed, and some ‘‘words of wisdom’’ are offered for the younger generation of sensory-consumer researchers.
... Research argues that schools are an important setting for improving children's food preferences, but school interventions all too often focus only on exposing children to healthy foods, nutrition education, and the like (e.g. Belot & James, 2011; Reverdy, Schlich, Köster, Ginon, & Lange, 2010). In doing this, these studies largely neglect the social dimension of liking. ...
Article
In this paper we investigate how children respond to a new type of school meal and ask whether classmates affect meal evaluations. The study is part of a school meal intervention which tested health effects of the New Nordic Diet. Over two separate three-month periods 834 pupils (age 8-11) from 9 schools (46 classes) were given either meals based on the Nordic diet or their usual packed lunch. The children rated their regular lunch packs and the Nordic meals on a five-point smiley scale when they reported their lunch intake. Ratings were done at home by the child, alone or with the help of a parent. The results show that the classmates influenced children’s ranking of a new type of school meal but did not influence rankings of familiar lunch packs. These results are important not only because they add to our knowledge of the social dimension of liking, but also because they show that we should attend to social mechanisms when implementing new health-promoting food initiatives among children in schools.
... Similarly, the greater proportion of students with large families in Group 1 (Neophobics) is consistent with the findings by De Steur et al. (2016), who concluded that higher food technology neophobia is associated with larger households, as people from large households attach more importance to the health related aspects of the FTNS. Thus, further research is needed in order to analyze parents' possible influence on their children's food technology neophobia (Reverdy, Schlich, Köster, Ginon & Lange, 2010). ...
Article
The aims of this study were to test the relationships between food neophobia, satisfaction with food-related life and food technology neophobia, distinguishing consumer segments according to these variables and characterizing them according to willingness to purchase food produced with novel technologies. A survey was conducted with 372 university students (mean aged = 20.4 years, SD = 2.4). The questionnaire included the Abbreviated version of the Food Technology Neophobia Scale (AFTNS), Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), and a 6-item version of the Food Neophobia Scale (FNS). Using confirmatory factor analysis, it was confirmed that SWFL correlated inversely with FNS, whereas FNS correlated inversely with AFTNS. No relationship was found between SWFL and AFTNS. Two main segments were identified using cluster analysis; these segments differed according to gender and family size. Group 1 (57.8%) possessed higher AFTNS and FNS scores than Group 2 (28.5%). However, these groups did not differ in their SWFL scores. Group 1 was less willing to purchase foods produced with new technologies than Group 2. The AFTNS and the 6-item version of the FNS are suitable instruments to measure acceptance of foods produced using new technologies in South American developing countries. The AFTNS constitutes a parsimonious alternative for the international study of food technology neophobia.
... 'Sensory food education' is a more structured approach than sensory play, originating in the 'Classes du goût' programme devised by French sensory scientist Jacques Puisais [36]. In 8-12 year old children, small improvements in willingness-to-taste have been reported [37,38], alongside improvements in sensory discrimination and description [39], and development of preferences for more complex flavours [40]. Across these four studies, statistical significance was driven by the younger participants, and no effect on willingness-to-taste was found in Dutch school children aged 9-11 [41], suggesting that sensory food education may be most effective for younger children. ...
Article
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Background Many children would benefit from a diet richer in vegetables and fruit. ‘Flavour School’ is a programme of ‘sensory food education’, which aims to increase children’s confidence and curiosity in exploring foods and flavours, especially vegetables and fruit. This study will conduct a cluster-randomised controlled trial to assess the outcomes of the Flavour School programme in primary school children aged 4–7 years. Methods Four hundred plus children from 4+ schools will either complete the Flavour School programme (experimental group) or have no intervention with normal school teaching (control group), cluster-randomised within-schools, by school class. Baseline data collection will consist of video recorded behavioural observation during a tasting activity, and post-intervention data collection will repeat this activity after the experimental group have completed the intervention. Process measures will be assessed using a teacher engagement feedback questionnaire. Discussion This study will provide causal data on the efficacy of a sensory food education intervention for increasing children’s confidence and curiosity in exploring foods and flavours, especially vegetables and fruit. This new knowledge will help educators and policy makers to make evidence based decisions on uptake of sensory food education. Trial registration ISRCTN: 40249947 Date assigned 17 March 2020 Last edited 22 September 2021 Version 1.2 Trial Acronym OASES (Outcomes Assessment of Sensory Education in Schools)
... In this context, rather than transmitting information, FlavourGame will privilege the communication around social norms and practices about nutrition, involving players in this discussion. The game will also be designed to promote relearning through experimentation, by giving players the opportunity to explore new flavors and the enjoyment of healthy foods [60] embed in the game narrative. The team seeks to explore the concept of hybridism increasing the physicality of the diegetic experience. ...
Conference Paper
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In this paper we intend to present a theoretical discussion on the definition and specificity of hybrid games and tangible experiences, grounded in the research project “FlavourGame”. The project is developing a serious game for kids aged 10–12 years old to generate discussion and sense-making around nutrition, more specifically everyday choices of nourishment and food. We believe hybrid games are presenting themselves as a new realm of gaming, opening new possibilities, making use of the best of both worlds - physical and virtual. Therefore, we are now working in the creation of a hybrid game model (combining the digital component based on a TUI - tangible user interface with a physical board game). FlavourGame aims to become a game design model for platforms mixing real, fictional and digital worlds merged through physical interactions and rich sensory experiences, unusual in videogames. We intend to present some of the ideas we have been brainstorming and drafting, built on past experiences, in order to design a research path in the direction of the development of a hybrid game model based on embodied conversation and player participation.
... Furthermore, the inability of some people to perceive specific odours, termed anosmia, is also well established. 38,39 4. psychology and cognition: finally, individual history, past experiences, expectations, product familiarity, 40,41 psycho-social and cognitive factors 42 such as culture, mood, conditioning and social context can all affect the way a person experiences a cup of coffee ( 40,(43)(44)(45)(46)(47)(48)(49)(50) ). he or she catches an aroma of a dish and is suddenly immersed in a flurry of vivid memories, often emanating from childhood. What is it about smells that can trigger memories so strong and real it feels like the person has been transported back in time? ...
Chapter
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Coffee is a relatively young caffeinated beverage, known in Western Europe since the 17th century. Initially consumed in Europe by the aristocracy, coffee has developed into one of the world's most popular beverages. The unique aroma is without doubt one of the key drivers for its rise in consumption. Over the past two decades, research on coffee aroma has mostly focused on two areas. (1) Identification and quantification of aroma relevant volatile compounds. This led to the publication of lists of sensory relevant (impact/key) compounds, together with their chemical and sensory properties. (2) Elucidation of the formation and degradation mechanisms of coffee aroma compound. After a period of consolidation of all these insights, the focus is shifting to new areas: (i) time-resolved studies of coffee aroma formation, release and degradation; (ii) study of different types of interactions and the development of an increasingly holistic approach to aroma perception; (iii) prediction of sensory profiles from instrumental data.
... The vegetable education program Taste & Learn™ consists of a teacher-led classroom-based program for Australian primary schools to increase children's enjoyment of vegetables. The scientific framework is based on evidence from food and vegetable preference development [19,20] and sensory education [21,22]; the key elements are building exposure and familiarity with vegetables through tasting, the verbalization of sensations, science experiments and a positive and fun environment. The program consists of 5 × 1-h lessons for the three different stages of primary school. ...
Article
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The teacher-led implementation of healthy eating programs in schools is cost-effective and potentially impactful. Teacher acceptability is important for uptake; however, process evaluations are scarce. This study evaluated the effect of two intensities of teacher training on the evaluation of a vegetable education program for Australian primary schools by teachers. The teachers (n = 65) who implemented the program as part of a cluster RCT (25 schools in two states, New South Wales and South Australia) received either low- (provision with materials and online training) or high (additional face-to-face (F2F) training)-intensity training prior to implementing a 5-week vegetable education program. They evaluated the acceptability of a digital training module and program by indicating the level of agreement with 15 and 18 statements, respectively, using 5-point Likert scales. The average item scores ranged from 3.0 to 4.2. All but one item, including student engagement, alignment to the curriculum and intent for reuse of the program, had a rounded average or median score of 4. The level of training intensity did not impact the teacher acceptability ratings. In conclusion, the teacher acceptability was good, and additional F2F training does not add value above the solely digital training of the teachers.
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This research is concerned with explaining consumer preference for Vermont artisan cheese and the relationship between that preference and sensory experience. Artisan cheesemaking is increasingly an important part of Vermont's dairy sector, and this tracks a growing trend of artisan agricultural practice in the United States. In popular discourse and academic research into products like artisan cheese, consumers explain their preferences in terms of intrinsic sensory and extrinsic - supposedly non-sensory - food qualities. In laboratory sensory studies, however, the relationship between preference, intrinsic, and extrinsic qualities changes or disappears. In contrast, this study explains this relationship by adopting a social theory of sensory perception as a practice in everyday life. This theory is applied to a series of focus group interviews with Vermont artisan cheese consumers about their everyday perceptions. Based on the data, a conceptual framework for the sensory perception of Vermont artisan cheese is suggested: consumers combine information about producer practice, social context, and the materiality of the product through an active, learned practice of sensory perception. Particular qualities that drive consumer sensory experience and preference are identified from the interview data. Many of these qualities are difficult to categorize as entirely intrinsic or extrinsic, highlighting the need for developing new approaches of sensory evaluation in order to fully capture everyday consumer sensory perception. Thus, this research demonstrates that social theory provides new and valuable insights into consumer sensory preference for Vermont artisan cheese.
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Apart from the established association between liking for fat and fat intake, little is known about the association between liking for fat and intake of specific nutrients or food groups. We investigated the association between dietary intake and liking for fat, fat-and-sweet and fat-and-salt. Liking scores were constructed using a validated preference questionnaire administered to 41,595 French adults participating in the Nutrinet-Santé study. Tertiles of the score were estimated in order to define low, medium and high liking. Dietary data were collected using web-based 24 h records. Relationships between liking and dietary intake were assessed using linear regression adjusted for age and energy intake. Results are expressed in percentage difference of intake between individuals with low liking and those with high liking. Compared with participants with low liking for fat, individuals with a strong liking for fat had higher intakes of total energy (+10.1% in women (W); +8.4% in men (M)), fats (W: +7.3%; M: +10.0%), saturated fats (W: +10.8%; M+15.4%), meat (W: +13.0%; M: +12.6%), butter (W: +34.0%; M: +48.1%), sweetened cream desserts (W: +14.8%; M: +21.1%) and croissant-like pastries (W: +27.2%; M: +36.9). They also consumed lower quantities of omega-3 fatty acids (W: -6.2%;M: -6.0%), fiber (W: -16.4%; M: -18.9%), fruits (W: -28.8%; M: -29.5%), vegetables (W: -16.4%; M: -19.7%) and yogurt (W: -12.1%; M: -14.8%). Participants with high liking for fat-and-salt had higher intakes of total energy, sodium and alcoholic beverages and lower consumption of total and simple carbohydrates and fruit and vegetables than persons with high liking for fat-and-sweet. Our study contributes to the understanding of liking as a determinant of dietary intake. It highlighted that increased liking for fat, especially fat-and-salt liking, was associated with a lower intake of healthy foods, such as fruit and vegetables.
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In this study health promotion theories were employed to analyze systems for promoting taste education (one of the food pedagogies common to Japan, France, and Italy) with a view to making recommendations for the improvement of the institutionalization of Japan's Shokuiku (food education) initiative. Each country's promotion system was examined, with a special focus on its pedagogies; its political/institutional positioning in primary school education; the organizational structures of promoter institutions; and effective strategies within communities, institutions, and public policies. The methodology included a literature review of related articles, interviews with the leaders of key organizations, and observations of organizational activities (e.g., classes and training programs). The major findings relate to (1) enabling a pedagogical classification of several taste education variants; (2) articulating the similarities and differences of the legal status of taste education within the educational systems of each country; (3) identifying effective strategies for promoter organizations at two different levels (central and regional); and (4) unmasking the critical roles of previously hidden actors such as “intermediary” organizations (for example, French and Italian inter-professional organizations) in effectively promoting food education. All of these findings inform suggestions for effectively orientating Japan's contemporary Shokuiku initiative. https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/jfsr/25/2/25_48/_article/-char/ja/
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This study investigated the effectiveness of the 'Food Dudes' school-based intervention consisting of rewards, peer-modeling and food exposure on food neophobia and the liking of fruits and vegetables (FV) in a large cohort of children. Five-hundred-sixty children recruited from three schools were assigned to the experimental or control group. For 16 days, children in the experimental group watched motivational videos, were read letters to encourage them to eat FV and received a small reward for eating one portion of both a fruit and a vegetable. The control group was only provided with FV for the same time period. Food neophobia and liking were measured in both groups of children before and after the intervention, and a follow-up measurement was carried out 6 months later. The intervention was effective in reducing food neophobia and, most importantly, a persistent effect was observed 6 months after the intervention as children of the experimental group showed significantly lower neophobia scores than the control group. Additionally, the program was effective in increasing liking for both FV; however, this effect was maintained only for fruit after 6 months.
Article
Objective To investigate the association between sensory-based food education implemented in early childhood education and care (ECEC) centres and children’s willingness to choose and eat vegetables, berries and fruit, and whether the mother’s education level and children’s food neophobia moderate the linkage. Design The cross-sectional study involved six ECEC centres that provide sensory-based food education and three reference centres. A snack buffet containing eleven different vegetables, berries and fruit was used to assess children’s willingness to choose and eat the food items. The children’s parents completed the Food Neophobia Scale questionnaire to assess their children’s food neophobia. Setting ECEC centres that provide sensory-based food education and reference ECEC centres in Finland. Subjects Children aged 3–5 years in ECEC ( n 130) and their parents. Results Sensory-based food education was associated with children’s willingness to choose and eat vegetables, berries and fruit. This association was stronger among the children of mothers with a low education level. A high average level of neophobia in the child group reduced the children’s willingness to choose vegetables, berries and fruit. No similar tendency was observed in the group that had received sensory-based food education. Children’s individual food neophobia had a negative association with their willingness to choose and eat the vegetables, berries and fruit. Conclusions Child-oriented sensory-based food education seems to provide a promising method for promoting children’s adoption of vegetables, berries and fruit in their diets. In future sensory food education research, more focus should be placed on the effects of the education at the group level.
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Information from the nutrition facts labels of toddler foods marketed in low- and high-income New York City zip codes were analyzed for sodium content, the proportion of sugar-derived calories, and presence of sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup as an added sweetener in the list of ingredients. Among the 272 toddler foods analyzed, more than a quarter were high in sodium, over one-third derived at least 20% their calories from sugar, and more than 41% of the foods had sugar and/or high-fructose corn syrup listed among the first five ingredients. The proportion of foods with such nutritional characteristics did not significantly differ between the low- and high-income neighborhood supermarkets. Median sodium content was highest among "side dishes" and "meals." The proportion of calories derived from sugar was found to be highest among "snacks and yogurt blends" in both low- and high-income neighborhoods and "breakfast foods and cereals" in low-income neighborhoods. When compared to high-income neighborhoods, more than three times the proportion of total calories in "breakfast foods and cereals" sold in low-income neighborhoods were derived from sugar. Since taste preferences established during childhood can have long-lasting influence on dietary habits, it is imperative to limit the promotion of toddler foods that are high in sodium and sugar as well as educate parents to make nutritionally sound decisions at the point of purchase.
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To assess the effect of the Dutch school-based education programme 'Taste Lessons' on children's behavioural determinants towards tasting unfamiliar foods and eating healthy and a variety of foods. In a quasi-experimental study design, data on behavioural determinants were collected at baseline, four weeks and six months after the intervention in both the intervention and control group. Children completed consecutively three questionnaires in which knowledge, awareness, skills, attitude, emotion, subjective norm and intention towards the two target behaviours were assessed. Teachers implemented on average a third of the programme activities. Multilevel regression analyses were conducted to compare individual changes in the determinants in the intervention group with those in the control group, corrected for children's gender and age. Effect sizes were expressed as Cohen's d. Dutch elementary schools. Forty-nine classes (1183 children, 9-12 years old) in grades 5-8 of twenty-one elementary schools. The intervention group showed a higher increase in knowledge (d=0·26, P<0·01), which persisted after six months (d=0·23, P<0·05). After four weeks, the intervention group showed a higher increase in number of foods known (d=0·22, P<0·05) and tasted (d=0·21, P<0·05), subjective norm of the teacher (d=0·17, P<0·05) and intention (d=0·16, P<0·05) towards the target behaviours. Partial implementation of Taste Lessons during one school year showed small short-term effects on increasing behavioural determinants in relation to tasting unfamiliar foods and eating healthy and a variety of foods. Full and repeated implementation of Taste Lessons in subsequent years might result in larger effects.
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The purpose of the present research is to identify the experience-related mechanisms which induce the establishment of children’s flavor, food and drink acceptance and preferences. The development of children’s preferences for flavors, foods and drinks is mediated by a variety of mechanisms, such as flavor transmission via amniotic fluid (AF) and neonatal feeding regimen (breastfeeding and formula milk-based feeding), mere repeated exposure, conditioned preferences for or aversions to gustatory stimuli based on subsequent postingestive consequences, parental strategies and food management of school meals. Operation of specific mechanisms is age-dependent, but they may have interacting effects. An essential feature of these mechanisms is exposure to flavors and foods, which requires prior selection of foods by adults and thereby guarantees cultural transmission of gastronomic habits. Promoting healthy patterns of food consumption by children, such as diets rich in vegetables, requires careful manipulation of these experience-related mechanisms. Flavor, food and drink preferences developed by young and older children appear to remain stable in later life stages, probably due to gustatory imprintings originated during prenatal gestation and childhood. However, the specific age ranges during which such gustatory imprinting may occur, remain, in most cases, unknown. In addition to this, there is a need for further research on specific aspects of the above-mentioned mechanisms to elucidate the development of food preferences in children. For example, the impact of breastfeeding history on later food and/or flavor preferences beyond infancy should be ascertained.
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To give an account of provisions in the framework of international human rights and intergovernmental policy agreements in relation to eating at school and discuss how these provisions could be invoked to ensure healthy eating at school. A review of provisions in the international and European human rights frameworks and policy documents was performed in order to identify evidence and examples of provisions implying responsibilities of the school as a public service provider to ensure healthy eating. The review of the human rights and policy texts showed that there are a large number of provisions that can be invoked in support of measures at school which can contribute to ensuring healthier eating as well as better education supporting such measures. The international frameworks of human rights and intergovernmental policy agreements should be invoked and translated into concrete strategies, policies, regulations and accountability mechanisms at national, regional, local and school levels. Ensuring healthy eating should be a top priority among all stakeholders in and around the school environment since it is a good investment in children's short- and long-term health and educational achievements.
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A large number of essential oils (EOs) have been proposed as natural antioxidants in foods. They are added to minimize the oxidation effects in diverse meat matrices, showing promising results by inhibiting oxidation processes. Moreover, its addition in meat products induces changes in physicochemical and sensory properties, such as color, texture stability, pH, flavor among others, which are of great importance in the meat technology. In this review, the main physicochemical and sensory effects caused in different meat matrices by the addition of diverse EOs were analyzed in two parts, by reviewing strategies to add EOs and main changes reported. EOs are a good antioxidant source, and for their application in meat matrices is suggested to test different doses which could avoid negative effects on the physicochemical and sensory properties, as well as including toxicological assays to find an effective and safe dose.
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A mixed-methodology study was conducted to better understand consumer attitudes and behaviors toward novel food pairings and the impact of culinary education. Focus groups were conducted to investigate the underlying motivational factors to the reactions and behaviors toward unfamiliar foods. The second phase of the study consisted of sensory evaluation by two separate cohorts, panelists with and without culinary education, of food products created through the novel pairings of foods. Panelists with culinary education expressed a greater overall liking for the animal-based pairing. Sensory-Affective and Ideational factors appeared to be underlying motivational factors of these hedonic reactions.
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The effects of an alginate-based edible coating containing natural antioxidants (rosemary and oregano essential oils) on lipid oxidation, color preservation, water losses, texture and pH of beef steaks during 14 days of display were studied. The essential oil, edible coating and beef antioxidant activities, and beef consumer acceptability were also investigated. The edible coatings decreased lipid oxidation of the meat compared to the control. The coating with oregano was most effective (46.81% decrease in lipid oxidation) and also showed the highest antioxidant activity. The coatings significantly decreased color losses, water losses and shear force compared to the control. The coatings had a significant effect on consumer perception of odor, flavor and overall acceptance of the beef. In particular, the oregano coating showed significantly high values (approximately 7 in a 9-point scale). Active edible coatings containing natural antioxidants could improve meat product stability and therefore have potential use in the food industry.
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Japan’s food education initiative, known as Shokuiku, has been unable to claim any significant success in addressing complex agri-food problems facing children, mainly due to the absence of any evidence-based education model. As such, an evidence-based model called, sensory education meant to awaken children’s sensory systems and enhance their food literacy, has attracted growing attention in Japan. The purpose of this study is to evaluate educational impacts of sensory education on school children’s cognitive and attitudinal aspects of dietary habits. First, observation research was conducted on three of carefully selected lessons of “Leçon de Goût,” the most prominent sensory education program in Japan, in order to analyze the real situation of Japanese sensory education. Second, a questionnaire and dietary record survey were conducted to identify educational impacts of Leçon de Goût on fifth graders in Kyoto (n=97, aged 10-11 years). The evaluation tool was developed to measure the following six educational impacts: understanding of taste mechanism, food differentiation ability, taste expression ability, taste preference shift, food neophobia, and curiosity toward food. The result shows that the impact of the intervention is generally representative of Leçon de Goût curriculum, such that the children in the intervention experienced an increase only in their understanding of taste mechanism (p < 0.05) and curiosity toward food (p < 0.05), although there were also minor implications for taste preference and expression. These findings show that Leçon de Goût has a positive, if mixed, potential for achieving its stated goals. However, given that its educational impacts were relatively limited when compared to similar lessons in France, there is room to improve the evaluation methods, and more systematically promote this type of program, as well as articulating other social benefits of this type of evidence-based education model.
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Dietary behaviour can modify the risks for coronary heart disease (CHD). Dietary fat contributes to the sensory characteristics of many foods, but there are individual differences in liking for regular and reduced fat products. Preference for dietary fat might differ between healthy individuals and those of diagnosed CHD status. Preference for full-fat versus low-fat foods was assessed in a group suffering from CHD (N=24) and a healthy control group (N=41). Preferences were evaluated using a series of paired preference tests including 34 food pairs. Further, patterns across fat preference and a range of known risk factors for CHD were examined. The study was conducted in Sweden; March 2004 until May 2006. Overall the full-fat food items were preferred to the low-fat alternatives by both patients and control participants. The pattern of preference responses diverged significantly between patients and controls on only four of the 34 food items, in both directions, why preference related to total fat content per se is not confirmed as differentiating significantly between a group diagnosed with CHD compared to a healthy control group.
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Sensory methods to assess food preference in children have been investigated. Three non verbal methods were used: paired comparison, ranking by elimination and hedonic categorization. In order to assess the reliability of the different methods, three criteria were used: discrimination of products, repeatability of the responses given by children and validity of the methods. One hundred and sixty-nine children aged from 4 to 10 participated in six sessions (three methods tested twice) where they had to evaluate five biscuits dressed with different jams (apricot, banana, lemon, raspberry and strawberry). The products were slightly more discriminated with hedonic categorization than with comparative methods. For the three methods, familiar biscuits are preferred to new products and the color could have also influenced choices made by children. Children aged from 4 to 5 years did not give repeatable results. Children older than 5 made reliable food choices with all three methods. The results are slightly more repeatable with hedonic categorization than with comparative methods. At the end of the experiment, children had to choose a reward among five packets of the biscuits previously tested. The choice of the reward was more consistent with the results of paired comparison and ranking-by elimination, than with the results of hedonic categorization. It is argued that this is due to differences in the use of visual information under the different methods. The color of the products influences the food choices of children more strongly in comparative than in monadic presentation. ©
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This study determined the effects of repeated in-home consumption on long-term food acceptance and the best way of measuring the boredom concept over time. Subjects (n=244; 120 women, 124 men; mean age 37 years) consumed 175 ml soup at home every weekday for 3 weeks. Three parallel groups tested three soups: (1) regular chicken soup A, (2) an improved version of the regular chicken soup B, which we expected to be less boring, and (3) chicken soup C with a familiar flavour but new to chicken soup. Results showed a significantly smaller decrease for chicken soup C compared to the two other soups for both desire and liking. The question whether consumers looked forward to drink a second cup resulted in a more pronounced difference between chicken soup C and the other two soups. Gender, use frequency (heavy vs. light users) and variety seeking tendency did not affect the pattern in response for desire and liking over time. Time-preference measurement (i.e. consumers predicting interest over time based on three actual consumptions) was also applied. There was no correlation (r=0.07) between the predictions of change in interest and the change in desire and liking that consumers actually experienced. In other words, consumers thought they would not get bored with the instant soups, but in fact they did become bored––albeit slightly––with two of the three soups when actually eating. We therefore recommend (1) that the time-preference measurement with long-term exposure tests using a broader range of products across different product categories to be fully validated, and that (2) the development of a valid and efficient method that quickly measures boredom over time be continued.
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L'expérience acquise lors des repas (ou exposition) peut influencer les préférences et les comportements alimentaires. Par ailleurs, les campagnes actuelles d'informations nutritionnelles tentent d'influencer les comportements alimentaires en démontrant les dangers de manger trop et en donnant des instructions pour un comportement alimentaire sain. Toutefois, cette dernière approche met bien souvent de côté le plaisir de manger. Le projet ?EduSens' s'est intéressé à une approche hédoniste et sensorielle de l'éducation au goût qui marie à la fois de l'exposition à des aliments et de l'information sur ces aliments. L'objectif de ce travail fut dans un premier temps de développer des outils de mesure permettant d'évaluer les préférences et les comportements alimentaires d'enfants, puis d'utiliser ces outils afin d'étudier les effets d'une éducation sensorielle en contexte scolaire. L'éducation sensorielle utilisée est issue de la pédagogie des « Classes du goût » de Jacques Puisais. Elle a eu lieu avec des enfants en classe de CM1 (8 à 11 ans) avec leur enseignant habituel à Dijon, France. L'étude a été menée avec un panel constitué d'un groupe expérimental d'une centaine d'enfants et d'un groupe contrôle de la même taille. Les enfants du groupe expérimental ont participé à 12 séances d'une heure trente d'éducation au goût en classe pendant l'année scolaire de cours moyen 1 (CM1). L'ensemble du panel d'enfants a participé à trois sessions de mesures constituées chacune de trois séances de mesures au laboratoire avant la période d'éducation sensorielle (T0), juste après cette période (T1) et l'année scolaire suivante, soit neuf à dix mois après cette période (T2). Ceci dans le but de tester la durabilité des effets. Les résultats montrent une augmentation de l'appréciation des variantes d'aliments plus aromatiques et intenses dans les deux groupes dans un premier temps (T1), puis une continuité de cette augmentation dans le temps (T2) uniquement avec le groupe éduqué. Ainsi, la répétition des mesures (ou exposition) aurait un effet plus fort que l'éducation dans un premier temps (T1), alors que l'effet de l'éducation n'apparaitrait que plus tard (T2) sous la forme d'une consolidation de l'effet de l'exposition. L'éducation augmente la néophilie alimentaire des enfants, mais ceci de manière temporaire. L'éducation améliore la description du ressenti lors d'une dégustation en faveur de critères plus objectifs que subjectifs et cet effet perdure. Enfin l'éducation influence la stratégie de catégorisation d'odeurs inconnues vers une stratégie basée sur des critères moins hédoniques. Une nouvelle méthode de mesure de choix alimentaire a été mise en place pour cette étude mais ne montrait pas d'effet de l'éducation sensorielle sur le comportement de choix. Pour conclure, une éducation sensorielle telle qu'elle a été pratiquée montre quelques effets sur les préférences et les comportements alimentaires sans qu'ils soient durables, et influence principalement la description du ressenti lors d'une dégustation.
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The aim of this study was to evaluate two interventions (one reward-based and one exposure-based) for increasing children's acceptance of an unfamiliar vegetable compared with a no-treatment control. It was predicted that the exposure condition would increase liking for, and consumption of, the vegetable relative to either the reward or control group. Using a randomized controlled design, participants were assigned to one of two intervention groups (exposure or reward) or to a no-treatment control condition, for a 2 week period. Liking for, and consumption of, red pepper was assessed before and after the treatment period. The study was conducted in three primary schools in London. Parental consent was obtained for 49 out of a possible 72 children. Interventions comprised eight daily sessions during which participants in the exposure group were offered a taste of sweet red pepper and told that they could eat as much as they liked. Participants in the reward group were shown a sheet of cartoon stickers and told that they could choose one of them on condition that they ate at least one piece of the pepper. The exposure-based intervention significantly increased both liking (P=0.006) and consumption (P=0.03) compared with the control group. The outcome of the reward intervention was intermediate and did not differ significantly from the exposure or control conditions. Repeated exposure to the taste of unfamiliar foods is a promising strategy for promoting liking of previously rejected foods in children.
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Children constitute a complex but interesting market for the food industry. The objective was to compare the sensory attributes generated and rated by a panel of 261 children from 9 to 11 years old with those of a trained panel of 10 adult experts in the food industry, using a range of eight chocolate products belonging to the child segment. In a first phase, a subgroup of 27 children went through attribute generation according to the Kelly-grid method to establish a questionnaire of 13 attributes. The experts used the QDA method to set up a questionnaire of 27 attributes. Data were analysed to find out relationships between attributes, using Partial Least Square regression with experts' attributes as explicative variables and children's attributes as variables to be explained. Surprisingly, some of the attributes most cited by children are not those better explained by experts' attributes.
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The traditional view of measurement repeatability is discussed in the light of psychological theories about stability and change in preference and choice behavior. The argumentation is illustrated by data obtained in groups of children and adults who are exposed to the same hedonic sensory measurements a number of times. It is demonstrated that first hedonic impressions are poor predictors of final liking and choice. The repeatability of hedonic methods should be judged on the basis of the stability of the change in preference of different, but comparable populations, rather than on the reliability of repeated measurement in the same population.
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How children acquire preferences for added sugar and salt was examined by investigating the effects of repeated exposure to 1 of 3 versions of a novel food (sweetened, salty, or plain tofu) on children's preference for those and other similar foods. Participants were 39 4- and 5-yr-olds assigned to taste only 1 of 3 flavored versions 15 times over several weeks. Preferences for all versions were obtained before, during, and after the exposure series. Preference increased for the exposed version only. Experience with 1 flavored version did not produce generalized liking for all 3 versions of the food. Experience with 1 version (flavored or plain) actually produced a decline in preference for the other version. This was true whether children had experience with plain or flavored versions of the food. The acquired preference was restricted to the particular food/flavor complex; through exposure, children seemed to learn whether it was appropriate to add salt or sugar to a particular food. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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A presentation of "the generalizations or principles that have emerged from the empirical investigations of perception." Attention is given to the research methods used and the data acquired. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The problem of balancing out the effect of order of presentation and the carryover effect of a preceding sample over a series of presentations of the same set of samples is addressed. A series of designs developed by Williams (1949) are used. The method of calculation is given. Tables containing about 50 consumers of each design for presenting from 4 through to 16 samples are given.
Chapter
HYPOTHESIZES THAT MERE REPEATED EXPOSURE OF THE INDIVIDUAL TO A STIMULUS OBJECT ENHANCES HIS ATTITUDE TOWARD IT. BY "MERE" EXPOSURE IS MEANT A CONDITION MAKING THE STIMULUS ACCESSIBLE TO PERCEPTION. SUPPORT FOR THE HYPOTHESIS CONSISTS OF 4 TYPES OF EVIDENCE, PRESENTED AND REVIEWED: (1) THE CORRELATION BETWEEN AFFECTIVE CONNOTATION OF WORDS AND WORD FREQUENCY, (2) THE EFFECT OF EXPERIMENTALLY MANIPULATED FREQUENCY OF EXPOSURE UPON THE AFFECTIVE CONNOTATION OF NONSENSE WORDS AND SYMBOLS, (3) THE CORRELATION BETWEEN WORD FREQUENCY AND THE ATTITUDE TO THEIR REFERENTS, AND (4) THE EFFECTS OF EXPERIMENTALLY MANIPULATED FREQUENCY OF EXPOSURE ON ATTITUDE. THE RELEVANCE FOR THE EXPOSURE-ATTITUDE HYPOTHESIS OF THE EXPLORATION THEORY AND OF THE SEMANTIC SATIATION FINDINGS WERE EXAMINED. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
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We studied the effect of sensory education on taste and odor awareness and food ratings in school children. Second and fifth graders (n = 244, 7–11 years at the baseline) from two schools in Helsinki area participated in the study. At the completion of the study at two years, the groups consisted of 96 (education, school one) and 79 (control, school two) students. At baseline and in four follow-up measurements, both groups performed six tasks: (1) free odor naming (five odors), (2) taste identification (six solutions), (3) descriptive characterization of two breads, (4) ratings of the extent to which subjects paid attention to sensory properties of food, (5) willingness-to-try ratings of unfamiliar vs. familiar foods and (6) aided odor naming (five odors, 10 verbal labels). Subsequently, the education group received two waves of sensory education: the first wave comprised of 10 Classes du goût lessons and the 2nd of 5 lessons familiarizing the children with different food categories. The second wave was performed only for 2/3 of the education group. The educated children improved their skills in identifying tastes and odors, and characterizing foods, while no difference was seen in the performance of the control group. However, effects of education were mainly observed for the younger children only. Although the improvements were small and not always consistent over the study period, their general direction was encouraging: the sensory education activated children’s odor and taste perceptions and improved their ability to describe sensory properties of food.
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The principal aim of this study was to compare two experimental conditions for measuring the effect of repeated consumption on liking: a laboratory boredom test and a home use test. Another goal was to investigate the impact of perceived familiarity, appropriateness and complexity on the dynamics of liking. Two groups of consumers were recruited, one for each condition. Five variants of salty crackers, each with a different flavour, were tested. The laboratory condition did not show any difference in the dynamics of liking among the flavours. The home condition revealed a significant increase in liking for only one flavour. This increase could not be related to the level of complexity of the flavour or to other factors measured in this study. However, for both conditions, familiarity and appropriateness had a strong effect: the most familiar and appropriate flavours were always the most preferred.
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The role of stimulus arousal potential in the effect of repeated exposure on the liking for a food was investigated. Eighty-nine participants rated four uncommon fruit drinks for arousal (novelty, complexity and taste intensity), and were exposed to these drinks over 24 trials. Their liking for each drink was regularly recorded during exposure. Results showed that exposure led to an increase of liking for drinks with a high arousal potential, while no evolution of liking was observed for drinks with a moderate arousal potential but a higher sweetness intensity. It was discussed, whether these results could be explained by two opposing effects of exposure, a positive one resulting from the reduction of uncertainty about the nature of the novel and unfamiliar stimulus and a negative one in the form of a combination of both experimental boredom and a specific stimulus boredom for sweetness intensity.
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The relevance of hedonic judgements, commonly used for product launch decisions in the food industry, is questioned in two experiments, in which such a judgement is followed by a second judgement in the form of a choice between the products just tested. The influence of repeated exposure on the development of preference is also studied. The first study compares three soft drinks, in a design based on an alternation of laboratory measurements and home exposure to one of the drinks by different groups. The second one consists of repeated measurements at home of all three drinks (spirits this time). The results of both experiments question the stability of preferences. A considerable amount of preference change is observed within sessions, and a development of preference over sessions is clearly shown in the choice behavior, but not in the hedonic judgement. According to psychological theories, the wish for perceptual variety, the exploratory context of exposure, stimulus properties like novelty and complexity, and the individual state of the subject are among the factors that might explain such preference changes. Finally, difficulties encountered in the construction of adequate methods for the measurement of dynamic preferences, are discussed. ©
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This study has evaluated the impact of food choices at 2–3 years old on food preferences later in life, by following up the same subjects. Early preferences were estimated through recordings of food choices conducted in a nursery canteen in children aged 2–3, from 1982 to 1999. The children were free to choose the composition of their lunch from among a varied offering of eight dishes. The same subjects (n=341) were contacted in 2001–2002 and so their ages varied from 17–22 (n=91), 13–16 (n=68), 8–12 (n=99) to 4–7 (n=83). Their present preference for the 80 foods most frequently presented at the nursery canteen was assessed through a questionnaire. Five food categories were studied: vegetables, animal products, cheeses, starchy foods and combined foods. The ranking of preference for the different food categories changed especially after puberty. However, regressions performed by food category indicated that for most categories, individual present preference was highly linked to individual preference at 2–3 years old. The link was the stronger for cheeses, followed to a lesser extent by animal products and vegetables. Present preferences increased with age for vegetables and they decreased with age for animal products only in females (to a lesser extent, they decreased with age for starchy foods and cheeses). Analyses by specific foods confirmed the global analysis. Individual present preference was linked to individual early preference for all mature cheeses and for 50% of the foods for other categories: most of these items were strongly flavoured. This study showed that preferences were stable from 2- to 3-year-old until young adulthood and that some changes in preference occurred during adolescence.
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Facial expressions, whether innate or acquired, are one of the richest nonverbal communicational catalogs of man. This chapter shows facial expressions in the experimental part of the discussion and illustrates the three prototypes of facial play described by Darwin as that of “good spirit,” of “contempt,” and of “low spirit or disgust.” Darwin intended to describe facial expressions used by man to reflect his feelings, his mood, and his spirit. The expressions demonstrated in the chapter are by no means acquired; they are present at the date of birth, perhaps even earlier, and are elicitable by different chemical stimuli. The hedonically different meaning of the sweet and the bitter and the hedonically polar value of odors of fresh and good food and that of rotten one, unlock facial expressions identical to those indicating “high and low spirits.” The individual first exposed to typical stimulants of “good” and “bad” food-related chemical cues evaluates these signals at low levels of the central nervous system.
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In order to determine the effects of mere exposure on liking for edible substances, male undergraduate subjects tasted previously unfamiliar tropical fruit juices 20, 10, 5 or 0 times. After this exposure phase, subjects rated each of the juices in terms of their liking for its taste. The results showed a strong exposure effect such that the more frequently a juice had been tasted, the better it was liked. It was suggested that the mere exposure effect may play a role in the acquisition of food preferences.
Article
The relationship between frequency of exposure to foods and preference for those foods was investigated in two experiments. Participants in both studies were two-year-old children. In Experiment 1, each of six children received 20, 15, 10, 5 or 2 exposures of five initially novel cheeses during a 26-day series of familiarization trials in which one pair of foods was presented per day. In Experiment 2, eight children received 20, 15, 10, 5 and 0 exposures to five initially novel fruits, following the same familiarization procedures, for 25 days. The particular food assigned to an exposure frequency was counterbalanced over subjects. Initial novelty was ascertained through food history information. Within ten days after the familiarization trials, children were given ten choice trials, comprising all possible pairs of the five foods. Thurstone scaling solutions were obtained for the series of choices: when the resulting scale values for the five stimuli were correlated with exposure frequency, values of r = 0·95, p < 0·02; r = 0·97, p < 0·01; and r = 0·94, p < 0·02 were obtained for the data of Experiments 1, 2, and the combined sample, respectively. A second analysis, employing subjects rather than stimuli as degrees of freedom, revealed that 13 of 14 subjects chose the more familiar stimulus in the sequence of ten choice trials at greater than the level expected by chance, providing evidence for effects within subjects as well as consistency across subjects. These results indicate that preference is an increasing function of exposure frequency. The data are consistent with the mere exposure hypothesis (Zajonc, 1968) as well as with the literature on the role of neophobia in food selection of animals other than man.
Article
Psychological influences on the childhood diet are addressed. The focus is on factors that influence the formation of children's food preferences. Evidence for links among food preferences, dietary intake and children's adiposity is presented, with an emphasis on dietary fat. Few food and flavor preferences are innate; most are learned via experience with food and eating and involve associative conditioning of food cues to aspects of the child's eating environment, especially the social contexts and physiological consequences of eating. Parents' child-feeding practices are central in this early feeding environment and affect children's food preferences and their regulation of energy intake. An understanding of how children's food preferences are acquired is essential in developing strategies to improve the quality of children's dietary intake.
Article
In two studies, 7- to 9-year-old and 10- to 12-year-old children received taste exposure to four good-tasting familiar, four good-tasting novel or four bad-tasting novel foods. Following this exposure phase, they saw a series of different foods, familiar and novel, and rated their willingness to taste them. For older children, exposure to the novel-good foods increased willingness to taste novel foods in comparison to the familiar-good control, while exposure to the novel-bad foods had no effect. For younger children, exposure to both novel-good and novel-bad foods decreased willingness to taste novel foods. The studies were originally framed in terms of children's schemas about novel foods and how exposure to good- and bad-tasting novel foods constituted provision of schema-inconsistent (novel-good) or schema-consistent (novel-bad) information. While such a framework accounted well for the results for the older children, it did not account for those for the younger children. The behaviour of the younger children was tentatively explained in terms of their attempt to regulate arousal produced by the initial exposure to the novel foods.
Article
A study with 133 adults, who had been breast-fed or bottle-fed after birth, shows that neonatal experience with vanilla influences preferences for other foods in later life.
Article
Rozin & Rozin (1981) have suggested that the addition of flavour principles (the distinctive combinations of seasonings which characterize many cuisines) may facilitate the introduction of a new staple food into a culture. That is, the reluctance of omnivores to approach novel foods can be reduced by adding the familiar flavor principle to the unfamiliar food. To test this hypothesis, we "created" flavor principles in the laboratory by exposing children repeatedly to one of two initially novel chip dips. After the exposure phase, they were offered familiar and unfamiliar chips and asked about their willingness to taste each, alone, with the exposed dip, the unexposed dip, and several other dips. The main prediction was that addition of the exposed dip to the unfamiliar chip would increase children's willingness to taste it. Since individuals are not reluctant to taste familiar foods, addition of the exposed dip to the familiar chip was not expected to increase willingness to taste it. The results confirmed this prediction. Practical and theoretical implications of this finding were discussed.
Article
Although Social Cognitive Theory (Bandura, 1997) suggests that teacher modeling would be one of the most effective methods to encourage food acceptance by preschool children, opinions of experienced teachers have not yet been sampled, teacher modeling has rarely been examined experimentally, and it has produced inconsistent results. The present study considers opinions of teachers and conditions under which teacher modeling is effective. Study 1 was a questionnaire in which preschool teachers (N=58) were found to rate modeling as the most effective of five teacher actions to encourage children's food acceptance. Study 2 and Study 3 were quasi-experiments that found silent teacher modeling ineffective to encourage either familiar food acceptance (N=34; 18 boys, 16 girls) or new food acceptance (N=23; 13 boys, 10 girls). Children's new food acceptance was greatest in the first meal and then rapidly dropped, suggesting a "novelty response" rather than the expected neophobia. No gender differences were found in response to silent teacher modeling. Study 4 was a repeated-measures quasi-experiment that found enthusiastic teacher modeling ("Mmm! I love mangos!") could maintain new food acceptance across five meals, again with no gender differences in response to teacher modeling (N=26; 12 boys, 14 girls). Study 5 found that with the addition of a competing peer model, however, even enthusiastic teacher modeling was no longer effective to encourage new food acceptance and gender differences appeared, with girls more responsive to the peer model (N=14; 6 boys, 8 girls). Thus, to encourage children's new food acceptance, present results suggest that teachers provide enthusiastic modeling rather than silent modeling, apply such enthusiastic modeling during the first five meals before children's "novelty response" to new foods drops, and avoid placing competing peer models at the same table with picky eaters, especially girls.
Article
The present study was designed to investigate the effect of variety on long-term product acceptance and consumption in a home-use situation. Subjects (N= 105) consumed a meat sauce once a week at dinner at home for a period of 10 weeks. Three variety groups were designed. The monotony group (N= 45) consistently received the same flavour of meat sauce across all 10 weeks; the imposed variation group (N= 30) received one from three different flavours of the meat sauce in random order, and the free choice (N= 30) in variation group was allowed to choose among three flavours of the meat sauce. Results showed a substantial increase in boredom and decline in acceptance ratings after repeated consumption. As hypothesized, this effect was the largest for the monotony group and was least pronounced in the free-choice group, with the imposed variation group in between. Consumption data were in line with these acceptance ratings; the monotony group consumed less of the food than the free-choice group over that time. In conclusion, repeated consumption of a food product only once a week at home resulted in a remarkable increase of boredom over time. The boredom effect was the largest for subjects who consistently received the same food, and was least pronounced for subjects who were allowed to choose among three different flavours of the food.
Article
As part of a program of research designed to investigate the long-term effects of early feeding experiences, the present study exploited the substantial flavor variation inherent in three classes of commercially available infant formulas and determined whether flavor preferences during childhood differed as a function of the class of formula (i.e., milk, soy, hydrolysate) that 4- to 5-year-old children were fed during their infancy. Age appropriate, game-like tasks that were fun for children and minimized the impact of language development were used to examine their preferences for a wide range of food-related odor qualities including infant formulas, as well as the flavor of milk-based and hydrolysate formulas and plain, sour- and bitter-flavored apple juices. Formula type influenced children's flavor preferences when tested several years after their last exposure to the formula. When compared to children who were fed milk-based formulas (n=27), children fed protein hydrolysate formulas (n=50) were more likely to prefer sour-flavored juices, as well as the odor and flavor of formulas, and less likely to make negative facial expressions during the taste tests. Those fed soy formulas (n=27) preferred the bitter-flavored apple juice. That the effects of differential formula feeding also modified children's food preferences is suggested by mothers' reports that children fed hydrolysate or soy formulas were significantly more likely to prefer broccoli than were those fed milk formulas. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that flavor experiences influence subsequent flavor preferences even several years following the early experience.
Article
The palatability of oral medications, many of which are quite bitter, plays an important role in achieving compliance in pediatric patients. We tested the hypothesis that the addition of a sodium salt to some, but not all, bitter tasting liquids enhances acceptance and reduces the perceived bitterness in 7- to 10-year-old children and their mothers. For both children and adults, sodium gluconate significantly suppressed the perceived bitterness and enhanced the acceptance of urea and caffeine whereas the reverse was true for another bitter stimulus, Tetralone. Because children preferred salted solutions more than did adults, these data suggest that the use of sodium salts may be an especially effective strategy for reducing the bitterness of some medicines and facilitating compliance among pediatric populations. However, based on sodium's differential ability to inhibit bitterness, as has been shown here with children and adults, clearly each drug of interest must be evaluated separately.
Article
Exploration, manipulation, and curiosity are classified as attention. Experimental analysis of both temporal and spatial change in stimulation in arousing attention shows a common psychological basis, change or discrepancy, which can possibly be interpreted and measured in Coombsian terminology. On a molar level conditions are defined for the arousal and loss of attention. Fundamental to the molar analysis is " the ability of stimuli to increase the psychological complexity of the individual who perceives them." 20 references.
Article
Unlabelled: This study examined acquired liking of flavour preferences through flavour-flavour and flavour-nutrient learning under hungry or sated conditions in a naturalistic setting. Each participant consumed one of three versions of a test drink at home either before lunch or after lunch: minimally sweetened ( Control: 3% sucrose, 40 kcal), artificially sweetened (3% sucrose 40 kcal plus artificial sweeteners ASPARTAME) and sucrose-sweetened (SUCROSE: 9.9% sugar, 132 kcal). The test drink was an uncarbonated peach-flavoured iced tea served in visually identical drink cans (330 ml). Participants preselected as "sweet likers" evaluated the minimally sweetened flavoured drink (conditioned stimulus, CS) in the same state (hungry or sated) in which they consumed the test drink at home. Overall, liking for the CS flavour increased in participants who consumed the SUCROSE drink, however, this increase in liking was significantly larger when tested and trained hungry than sated, consistent with a flavour-nutrient model. Overall increases in pleasantness for the CS flavour in participants who consumed the SUCROSE drink when sated or the ASPARTAME drink independent of hunger state, suggest that flavour-flavour learning also occurred. These results are discussed in light of current learning models of flavour preference.
Article
The importance of perceived complexity, a "collative property" as defined by [Berlyne, D. E. (1967). Arousal and reinforcement. In Nebraska symposium on motivation (pp. 1-110). University of Nebraska Press], to the dynamic development of preference was investigated. Eighty-six female and 82 male subjects rated their liking for and various collative properties of seven very similar orange drinks that differed only in perceived complexity as a result of adding small quantities of other flavours. This was done before and after giving each subject extended experience of one of the drinks, each being used equally often for this purpose. As predicted by the theory of [Dember, W. N., & Earl, R. W. (1957). Analysis of exploratory, manipulatory and curiosity behavior. Psychological Review, 64 (2), 91-96] exposure to a stimulus with a slightly higher complexity than an individual subject's optimally preferred level of perceived complexity, caused an upwards shift in that level, whereas exposure to a less complex stimulus had no such effect. Changes in the appreciation of the drinks predicted by the theory were also observed.
Article
As part of 'EduSens', a project aiming to measure the effect of a sensory education program developed in France on the food behaviour of school children, the present paper shows the results regarding neophobia. One hundred and eighty children (8-10 years old) were involved in the study. Half of them (experimental group) were educated during school-time with the 12 sessions of taste lessons "Les classes du goût" by J. Puisais. The others served as a control group. Food neophobia was evaluated before and after the education period of the experimental group and once again 10 months later. An adapted food neophobia scale was used (AFNS) and the willingness to taste novel food (WTNF) was evaluated by the presentation of eight unknown foods. To improve involvement in the expressed willingness to taste new foods, the children were told that they would have to eat one of the not rejected unknown foods afterwards. Results revealed that, at the end of the education period, in the educated group, declarative food neophobia decreased significantly and participants' willingness to taste novel food seemed to increase compared to the control group. Nevertheless, these effects had disappeared 10 months later. Thus, we have shown that sensory education can influence childrens' food neophobia, but does so only temporarily. This is especially true for the WTNF test, which measures the expression of neophobia in concrete situations, whereas neophobia measured as a psychological trait by the AFNS test hardly changes.
Le goût et l'enfant. Flammarion. Puisais
  • J Puisais
  • C J Pierre
  • Mac Leod
  • P Politzer
Puisais, J., & Pierre, C. (1987). Le goût et l'enfant. Flammarion. Puisais, J., Mac Leod, P., & Politzer, N. (2002). Le Goût et les 5 Sens. Compact disc – read only memory. Odile Jacob Multimédia-SCEREN.
Préférences et néophobie alimentaires à l'adolescence. Unpublished Thèse de Doctorat
  • Ton Nu
Ton Nu, C. (1996). Préférences et néophobie alimentaires à l'adolescence. Unpublished Thèse de Doctorat, ENGREF, Paris.
Self-efficacy: The exercise of control Conflict, arousal, and curiosity
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Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: Freeman. Berlyne, D. E. (1960). Conflict, arousal, and curiosity. New York: McGraw-Hill.