Ilex paraguariensis extract ameliorates obesity induced by high-fat diet: Potential role of AMPK in the visceral adipose tissue

Department of Food and Nutrition, Brain Korea 21 Project, Yonsei University, 134 Shinchon-dong, Sudaemun-ku, Seoul 120-749, South Korea
Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics (Impact Factor: 3.02). 08/2008; 476(2):178-185. DOI: 10.1016/


The aim of present study was to investigate the anti-obesity effect of Ilex paraguariensis extract and its molecular mechanism in rats rendered obese by a high-fat diet (HFD). I. paraguariensis extract supplementation significantly lowered body weight, visceral fat-pad weights, blood and hepatic lipid, glucose, insulin, and leptin levels of rats administered HFD. Feeding I. paraguariensis extract reversed the HFD-induced downregulation of the epididymal adipose tissue genes implicated in adipogenesis or thermogenesis, such as peroxisome proliferators’ activated receptor γ2, adipocyte fatty acid binding protein, sterol-regulatory-element-binding protein-1c, fatty acid synthase, HMG-CoA reductase, uncoupling protein 2, and uncoupling protein 3. Dietary supplementation with I. paraguariensis extract protected rats from the HFD-induced decreases in the phospho-AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/AMPK and phospho-acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC)/ACC protein ratio related to fatty acid oxidation in the edipidymal adipose tissue. The present study reports that the I. paraguariensis extract can have a protective effect against a HFD-induced obesity in rats through an enhanced expression of uncoupling proteins and elevated AMPK phosphorylation in the visceral adipose tissue.

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    • "Its leaves are used to prepare different beverages (Lima et al., 2014a). Traditionally, they are used as mild central nervous system stimulant, diuretic, and in weight reducing preparations (Pang et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Obesity is the most prevalent nutritional disease and a growing public health problem worldwide. This disease is a causal component of the metabolic syndrome related with abnormalities, including hyperglycemia, dyslipidem-ia, hypertension, inflammation, among others. There are anti-obesity drugs, affecting the fundamental processes of the weight regulation; however they have shown serious side effects, which outweigh their beneficial effects. Most recent studies on the treatment of obesity and its complications have focused on the potential role of different plants preparation that can exert a positive effect on the mechanisms involved in this pathology. For instance, anti-obesity effects of green tea and its isolated active principles have been reported in both in vitro (cell cultures) and in vivo (animal models) that possess healthy effects, decreasing adipose tissue through reduction of adipocytes differentiation and proliferation. A positive effect in lipid profile, and lipid and carbohydrates metabolisms were demonstrated as well. In addition, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities were studied. However, the consumption of green tea and its products is not that common in Western countries, where other plants with similar bioactivity predominate; nevertheless, the effect extension has not been analyzed in depth, despite of their potential as alternative treatment for obesity. In this review the anti-obesity potential and reported mechanisms of action of diverse plants such as: Taraxacum officinale and Arachis hypogaea is summarized. We consider the potential of these plants as natural alternative treatments of some metabolic alterations associated with obesity.
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    • "The worldwide popularity of yerba mate is ascribed to its content and variety of bioactive compounds, such as metilxantin alkaloids (whose main representatives are caffeine and theobromine), terpenes (such as saponins, essential oils, minerals and vitamins) and phenolic compounds (flavonoids, caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid), all known for their bioactivity (Silveira et al., 2014; Marcelo et al., 2014; Anesini et al., 2012; Bastos et al., 2007). These compounds exhibit pharmacological activities such as an antioxidant effect (Gao et al., 2013a, 2013b; Anesini et al., 2012), protectiveness against induced DNA damage (Miranda et al., 2008) and osteoporosis (Conforti et al., 2012), and other properties, namely, diuretic (Bastos et al., 2007), chemo preventive, antifungal (Filip et al., 2010), stimulating (Bastos et al., 2007) and antiobesity (Kim et al., 2012; Bracesco et al., 2011; Pang et al., 2008). "
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    ABSTRACT: Purpose – Forasmuch as the consumer’s demand for food products that provide nutrition and health benefts has considerably increased in the past decade, the authors decided to join two important Brazilian commodities in a high-nutrition drink: yerba mate (Ilex paraguariensis) is rich in several bioactive compounds, and soybean is a high-quality protein source. To optimize the design and maximize the acceptability of the beverage, the authors studied its stability during storage. The beverage developed allows enlarging of the potential market of yerba mate, taking proft of the growing call for the consumption of antioxidant foods and benefts small-scale producers. Design/methodology/approach – Twelve beverages were formulated with extract of yerba mate from leaves of planted (P) and native trees (N), both enriched with water-soluble soy extract (WSE). Among all formulations, two of them, which were sensorially preferred in a previous study, were selected to investigate their market potential. During the six months of storage, microbiological analyses were performed and the parameters acidity, viscosity, pH and rutin content were assessed. Sensorial tests of acceptability and purchase intent were also conducted.Findings – The drinks remained microbiologically adequate for consumption during six months of storage. High sensory acceptability and purchase intent scores were obtained for Beverage P. This drink resulted in smoother taste and presented a decrease in acidity and constant viscosity during the storage, while Beverage N had an increase in acidity and viscosity. The rutin loss at 120 days was 14.2 per cent for Drink P and 32.4 per cent for N, with a half-life of 423.6 and 185.3 days, respectively. Originality/value – Given the quantifed parameters, the beverage produced from leaves of planted trees (P) may be used as a novel high nutrition food suitable for the growing requirements of the yerba mate by-products market.
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    • "However, the mate treatment decreased leptin mRNA expression in SWAT, which could explain the intermediary leptin serum levels that were observed in this group, which did not differ from those in the control and EW groups (Lima et al., 2014). The action of yerba mate on leptin serum levels is controversial: some authors showed no effect (Pimentel et al., 2013), others showed a clear decrease in serum leptin (Kang et al., 2012; Pang et al., 2008), and Hussein et al. (2011) showed an increase in serum leptin. These contradictory results may be related to differences in the initial obesity models, species, treatment period and yerba mate concentration. "
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    ABSTRACT: Aims: We evaluated the effects of yerba mate treatment over 30 days on body weight, food intake, hypothalamic leptin action and inflammatory profile in adult rats that were weaned early. Main methods: To induce early weaning, the teats of lactating rats were blocked with a bandage to interrupt milk access for the last 3 days of lactation (EW group). Control offspring had free access to milk throughout lactation. On postnatal day (PN) 150, EW offspring were subdivided into: EW and M groups were treated with water and mate aqueous solution (1g/kg BW/day, gavage), respectively, for 30 days. Control offspring received water by gavage. On PN180, offspring were killed. Key findings: EW group presented hyperphagia; higher adiposity; higher NPY and TNF-α expression in the ARC nucleus; higher TNF-α and IL-1β levels in the adipose tissue; and lower IL-10 levels in the adipose tissue. These characteristics were normal in M group. As expected, the leptin injection in control offspring caused lower food intake. However, EW group exhibited no change in food intake after the leptin injection, indicating leptin resistance. In contrast, M group had a normal response to the leptin injection. Significance: Thirty days of mate treatment prevented the development of hyperphagia, overweight, visceral obesity and central leptin resistance. This beneficial effect on the satiety of M offspring most likely occurred after the improvement of inflammatory markers in the hypothalamus and adipocytes, which suggests that Ilex paraguariensis plays an important role in the management of obesity by acting on the inflammatory profile.
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