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The Dark Triad and normal personality traits

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Abstract and Figures

Machiavellianism, Narcissism and Psychopathy are often referred to as the ‘dark triad’ of personality. We examined the degree to which these constructs could be identified in 82 persons recruited from the general population, predicting that the dark triad would emerge as a single dimension denoting the cardinal interpersonal elements of primary psychopathy. We expected the primary psychopathy dimension to correlate negatively with Agreeableness (A) and Conscientiousness (C), whereas secondary psychopathy would be associated with Neuroticism (N). The negative correlation was found between primary psychopathy and A, but not with C. While the predicted correlation between secondary psychopathy and N was found, N was also positively associated with primary psychopathy and Machiavellianism. Factor analysis revealed that all measures of the dark triad loaded positively on the same factor, upon which A loaded negatively. Secondary psychopathy loaded positively on a second factor, together with N and (negatively) with C. These findings reiterate the distinguishing properties of secondary psychopathy, impulsivity and anti-social behaviour relative to primary psychopathy. Thus, even in the general population, the dark dimension of personality can be described in terms of low A, whereas much of the anti-social behaviour in normal persons appears underpinned by high N and low C.
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The dark triad and normal personality traits
Sharon Jakobwitz, Vincent Egan
Department of Psychology, Glasgow Caledonian University, Cowcaddens Road, Glasgow G4 0BA, Scotland
Received 18 April 2005; received in revised form 1 July 2005; accepted 26 July 2005
Available online 8 September 2005
Machiavellianism, Narcissism and Psychopathy are often referred to as the Ôdark triadÕof personality.
We examined the degree to which these constructs could be identified in 82 persons recruited from the gen-
eral population, predicting that the dark triad would emerge as a single dimension denoting the cardinal
interpersonal elements of primary psychopathy. We expected the primary psychopathy dimension to cor-
relate negatively with Agreeableness (A) and Conscientiousness (C), whereas secondary psychopathy would
be associated with Neuroticism (N). The negative correlation was found between primary psychopathy and
A, but not with C. While the predicted correlation between secondary psychopathy and N was found,
N was also positively associated with primary psychopathy and Machiavellianism. Factor analysis revealed
that all measures of the dark triad loaded positively on the same factor, upon which A loaded negatively.
Secondary psychopathy loaded positively on a second factor, together with N and (negatively) with C.
These findings reiterate the distinguishing properties of secondary psychopathy, impulsivity and anti-social
behaviour relative to primary psychopathy. Thus, even in the general population, the dark dimension of
personality can be described in terms of low A, whereas much of the anti-social behaviour in normal per-
sons appears underpinned by high N and low C.
Ó2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Keywords: Psychopathy; Narcissism; Machiavellianism; Dark triad; Personality; Big five; Agreeableness; Conscien-
tiousness; Neuroticism
0191-8869/$ - see front matter Ó2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Corresponding author. Tel.: +44 141 331 3037; fax: +44 141 331 3636.
E-mail address: (V. Egan).
Personality and Individual Differences 40 (2006) 331–339
1. Introduction
The term ÔDark Triad of PersonalityÕrefers to three interrelated higher-order personality con-
structs—psychopathy, narcissism and Machiavellianism (Paulhus & Williams, 2002). The majo-
rity of work conducted on psychopathy builds upon observations by Cleckley (1941/1988),
operationalised in HareÕs revised Psychopathy Checklist (PCL-R; Hare, 1991). The PCL-R and
similar measures (e.g., LevensonÕs self-report measure of psychopathy (LSRP; Levenson, Kiehl,
& Fitzpatrick, 1995)) measure two facets of psychopathy. Factor 1 reflects primary psychopathy
(e.g., selfishness, callousness, lack of interpersonal affect, superficial charm and remorselessness),
factor 2 measures anti-social lifestyle and behaviours, and is akin to secondary psychopathy. It
should be noted that researchers now propose three facets to core psychopathy; an arrogant
and deceitful interpersonal style, deficient affective experience, and an impulsive and irresponsible
behavioural style (Cooke & Michie, 2001).
Most research into psychopathy involves forensic populations such as prisoners and mentally
disordered offenders. However, not all persons with primary and secondary psychopathy are
in custody, and a literature has gradually emerged examining psychopathy-like traits in the
general population (Board & Fritzon, 2005; Ross, Lutz, & Bailley, 2004). This suggests that if psy-
chopathy is a trait, it should be apparent in non-offenders, and that it may even confer some kind
of social advantage (Levenson, 1992). Examining psychopathy in the general population over-
comes the sample bias of only seeing persons from prison settings, who are essentially homoge-
nous regarding socio-economic background and who are competitively disadvantaged
intellectually, socially, and interpersonally. It is probable that the majority of institutionalised
offenders are more inclined to secondary than primary psychopathy, with different dispositional
mechanisms driving their transgressive behaviour (Lykken, 1995; McHoskey, Worzel, & Szyarto,
Machiavellianism (MACH) refers to interpersonal strategies that advocate self-interest, decep-
tion and manipulation. Christie and Geis (1970) examined the extent to which people use qualities
such as deceit, flattery and emotional detachment to manipulate social and interpersonal interac-
tions. While high MACHS are perceived to be more intelligent and attractive by their peers (Cher-
ulnik, Way, Ames, & Hutto, 1981), MACH does not correlate with intelligence or measures of
success in modern life such as income or status (Ames & Kidd, 1979; Hunt & Chonto, 1984).
In experimental settings high MACHS frequently outperform low MACHS, whether this be bar-
gaining and alliance forming (Christie & Geis, 1970), or assuming leadership in group situations
(Cherulnik et al., 1981). As persons high in MACH are likely to exploit others and less likely to be
concerned about other people beyond their own self-interest, MACH is predictably negatively
correlated with empathy (Barnett & Thompson, 1985). Given these findings, one would expect
a relationship between MACH and primary psychopathy.
The concept of narcissism derives from the psychodynamic formulations such as a pathological
form of self-love (Freud, 1914), or personality development, whereby ‘‘narcissistic wounds’’ sus-
tained in childhood may lead to an arrest in development and increased shame-driven rage
(Kohut, 1977). It has been argued that the construct of narcissism is compromised by the contrast
between vague psychoanalytic terminology and theory, and more observable elements of the con-
cept (Bradlee & Emmons, 1991; Watson & Morris, 1991). However as a means of encapsulating
332 S. Jakobwitz, V. Egan / Personality and Individual Differences 40 (2006) 331–339
the behavioural grandiosity and perceived entitlement of an individual, the concept of narcissism
is a very useful concept. One commonly used scale to assess narcissism is the Narcisssistic Person-
ality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Hall, 1979). The NPI measures persistent attention seeking,
extreme vanity, excessive self-focus, and exploitativeness in interpersonal relationships (Millon
& Davis, 1996), and comprises four factors: Exploitativeness/Entitlement, Leadership/Authority,
Superiority/Arrogance and Self-Absorption/Self-Admiration (Emmons, 1984).
The constructs of the dark triad correlate with each another singularly and in combination;
(Hare, 1991; Skinner, 1988; Smith & Griffith, 1978; McHoskey, 1995). Such findings led McHos-
key et al. (1998) to argue that for the general population MACH is a global measure of psycho-
pathy comparable to primary and secondary psychopathy, this comparability being confounded
due to the different paradigms and theoretical orientations of clinical and differential psychology.
McHoskey et al. found that when secondary psychopathy was controlled for, primary psychop-
athy remained associated with narcissism (r= 0.46). Paulhus and Williams (2002) also investi-
gated the dark triad in the general population and found considerable overlap between the
constructs, although the scale used to measure psychopathy (the SRP-III; Hare, 1985) did not
distinguish between primary and secondary psychopathy. The scales of the dark triad were
correlated with Agreeableness, and revealed negative correlations of 0.36, 0.47 and 0.25
for narcissism, psychopathy and MACH, respectively. No other dimension of the Big Five
captured the constructs of the dark triad. This is perhaps surprising, as MACH is typically neg-
atively correlated with anxiety (Wiggins & Pincus, 1989), as is primary psychopathy (Fehr,
Samson, & Paulhus, 1992), so one would expect Neuroticism (N) to be a negative associate of
the construct.
The current study investigated to what extent MACH, primary psychopathy, secondary
psychopathy and narcissism reflect the same underlying construct, and to examine the extent to
which normal dimensions of personality indexed by a brief measure of the Big Five could capture
the constructs of the dark triad. We expected to find low A and low C associated with higher
scores on each of the dark triad dimensions, and to load on a single dark triad factor. We expected
N to be unrelated to the core traits of psychopathy, but to be associated with secondary
2. Method
2.1. Sample and procedure
The sample in this study were recruited opportunistically from the general population using a
ÔsnowballÕsystem, whereby a starter sample were further asked recruit people from their environ-
ment who would be willing to take part in this study. Although this meant that not all participants
were in direct contact with the researcher, this form of recruitment ensured that a diverse selection
of the general population, was enlisted. Eighty-two persons were recruited, their mean age being
29; of the cohort 37% were men (N= 30), 63% (N= 52) women. Questionnaires were answered
anonymously and participants filled out a consent form before taking part in the study. The study
was a correlational within-subjects design.
S. Jakobwitz, V. Egan / Personality and Individual Differences 40 (2006) 331–339 333
3. Measures
3.1. The revised NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI-R; McCrae & Costa, 2004)
The NEO-FFI-R is a revised version of the NEO-FFI, in which 14 items of the NEO-FFI were
changed. This was done to increase the correlation between the shortened version of the scale and
overall NEO-PI-R scores, diversify item content by selecting items from underrepresented facets,
and to increase the intelligibility of the items. This modification was required following the discov-
ery that not all scales of the NEO-FFI had equally stable structures (e.g. Egan, Deary, & Austin,
2000). The NEO-FFI-R consists of 60 items that yield scores on five personality dimensions: Neu-
roticism (N), Extraversion (E), Openness (O), Agreeableness (A), and Conscientiousness (C). In
responding to the NEO, subjects report the extent to which they agree or disagree in regard to
how each item applies to them by rating themselves on a 5-point Likert scale. Internal reliability
coefficients of the NEO-FFI-R scales range from 0.75 to 0.82.
3.2. The MACH-IV (Christie & Geis, 1970)
The original MACH scale consisted of 71 items in three categories: (1) interpersonal tactics; (2)
views of human nature; and (3) abstract or generalised morality. The scale was subsequently re-
duced to 60 meaningful items, from which the 10 highest-related items worded in the Machiavel-
lian direction were selected into the scale along with the 10 highest-related items worded in the
opposite direction to produce the MACH-IV. Responses are given to items on a 6-point Likert
scale, ranging from Ôstrongly disagreeÕto Ôstrongly agreeÕ. Although the reliability of the scale
has been questioned (Ray, 1983) more recent studies have found good reliabilities, with split-half
reliabilities based on several samples averaging 0.79 (Hansen & Hansen, 1991; Wrightsman, 1991)
and the MACH-IV is now the most widely used tool to measure the construct (McHoskey et al.,
3.3. The Levenson Self-Report Psychopathy Scale (LSRP; Levenson et al., 1995)
The LSRP is based on the two-factor interpretation of the PCL-R structure and is designed to
measure psychopathy in the general population. Responses are given on a 4-point Likert scale.
The 16-item primary psychopathy scale measures callous, selfish and manipulative interpersonal
attitudes, while the 10-item secondary psychopathy scale assesses impulsivity and a self-defeating
lifestyle. Rather than examine criminal activity typical of the person high on the second dimension
of the PCL-R, the LSRP elicits information about behaviours more typical of community life
which may be morally offensive but are not illegal. CronbachÕsais 0.82 for primary psychopathy,
0.63 for secondary psychopathy. The scale is valid and reliable (Brinkley, Schmitt, Smith, & New-
man, 2001; Lynam, Whiteside, & Jones, 1999; McHoskey et al., 1998).
3.4. Narcissistic Personality Inventory (NPI; Raskin & Hall, 1979)
The NPI is a 40-item forced choice instrument, used to measure narcissism in non-clinical pop-
ulations. Responses are scored positively; thus, the higher the score, the greater the narcissism
334 S. Jakobwitz, V. Egan / Personality and Individual Differences 40 (2006) 331–339
shown by the subject. Of the various instruments that measure narcissism, the NPI has received
the most rigorous scrutiny for its psychometric properties. Construct validity has been demon-
strated for the instrument with other measures of narcissism (Emmons, 1984; Raskin & Terry,
1988), and the inventory has high internal consistency, with alphas ranging from 0.82 to 0.84.
4. Statistical analysis
Correlations were calculated between scores on the dark triad measures and the NEO-FFI-R.
The reliability of these measures was calculated using CronbachÕs alpha. To simplify the relation-
ships between measures of personality and the dark triad, and to examine whether all three scales
of the dark triad reflected the same underlying construct, principal components analysis with
Varimax rotation of the derived factors was calculated.
5. Results
Table 1 presents means, standard deviations and internal reliabilities for the measures used in
the study. Reliabilities were adequate to good, but some measures clearly had greater internal reli-
ability than others (e.g. N and narcissism vs. secondary psychopathy). While not a main hypoth-
esis, independent sample t-tests examined whether there were any sex differences for the measures.
Results showed that males were higher than women for C (t(79) = 2.79; p< 0.05), whereas females
were significantly higher than males for E (t(79) = 3.37; p< 0.05), and A (t(79) = 2.56;
p< 0.05).
Table 2 presents the correlations between all measures in the study. The subscales of the NEO-
FFI-R were much less correlated when the NEO-FFI was used as a short-form of the Big Five.
Even though the negative correlations between O and A, and N and C were statistically signifi-
cant, they were modest in magnitude. The MACH-IV correlated strongly with primary psychop-
athy and secondary psychopathy, and moderately with narcissism. Primary psychopathy
and narcissism also correlated positively. To test the claim that MACH is a global measure
of psychopathy (McHoskey et al., 1998), a partial correlation between MACH and secondary
Table 1
Descriptive statistics and reliabilities of scales used in study
Mean SD CronbachÕsa
Neuroticism 24.8 8.4 .85
Extraversion 28.6 5.1 .60
Openness 32.3 6.3 .71
Agreeableness 27.6 5.7 .65
Conscientiousness 29.5 6.5 .79
Primary psychopathy 31.4 6.7 .80
Secondary psychopathy 22.0 3.8 .60
Machiavellianism 55.9 7.7 .69
Narcissism 16.4 6.8 .85
S. Jakobwitz, V. Egan / Personality and Individual Differences 40 (2006) 331–339 335
psychopathy was calculated, controlling for the effects of primary psychopathy. This correlation
was found to be only .28, suggesting that the correlation of 0.52 found between the MACH-IV
and secondary psychopathy is largely attributable to shared variance between primary and sec-
ondary psychopathy. Finally, significant negative correlations were found between the MACH-
IV, primary psychopathy, secondary psychopathy, narcissism and A, and significant positive
correlations between primary psychopathy, secondary psychopathy, the MACH-IV and N. Lower
C was associated with higher scores on the MACH-IV and narcissism. In contrast to previous
findings (e.g., Paulhus & Williams, 2002), none of the dark triad constructs was significantly cor-
related to either O or E.
Finally, in order to clarify the relationship patterns found in the correlations between the NEO-
FFI-R and the measures of the dark triad and to identify possible latent constructs total scores of
the nine scales were subjected to a factor analysis, using varimax rotation. Four factors with an
Eigenvalue greater than 1 were extracted, with convergence occurring in nine iterations. Table 3
Table 2
Correlations for the dark triad and NEO-FFI-R subscales (n= 82)
Neuroticism .04 .11 .02 .27
Extraversion (E) .01 .15 .19 .08 .04 .13 .10
Openness (O) .23
.15 .21 .21 .17 .10
Agreeableness (A) .08 .43
Conscientiousness (C) .21 .19 .27
P. Psychopathy (PP) .49
S. Psychopathy (SP) .52
Machiavellianism (M) .36
Narcissism (Nar) – – – –
Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (two-tailed).
Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (two-tailed).
Table 3
Principal components analysis (with Varimax rotation; loadings less than 0.4 suppressed)
F1 F2 F3 F4
Agreeableness .69
Primary Psychopathy .80
Secondary Psychopathy .54 .52
Machiavellianism .77
Narcissism .76
Neuroticism .80
Conscientiousness .71
Openness .96
Extraversion .98
Eigenvalue 2.6 2.6 1.2 1.1
Variance (%) 29.9 19.9 13.7 12.2
Total variance = 74.7%
336 S. Jakobwitz, V. Egan / Personality and Individual Differences 40 (2006) 331–339
shows loadings for each scale on the relevant factor as well as the variance explained by the factor.
Together, these factors account for 74.7% of the variance. The first rotated factor contained all the
measures of the dark triad, as well as A, confirming our hypothesis. The second factor contrasted
a high positive loading for secondary psychopathy (which also had a split loading on the first fac-
tor) and N, and a high negative loading for C. O and E both loaded on separate factors and were
found to be entirely unrelated to any of the constructs underlying the measures of the dark triad.
These findings suggest that the dark triad is essentially unitary and associated with low A, whereas
secondary psychopathy has unique variance unrelated to the constructs underlying the dark triad,
and is associated with high N and low C.
6. Discussion
The current study examined the relationship between the constructs of the dark triad and how
they fitted into the five factor space of personality. Previous studies indicated that there is consid-
erable overlap between MACH-IV, primary psychopathy, secondary psychopathy and narcissism,
and that more specifically that MACH-IV is a global measure of psychopathy (McHoskey et al.,
1998). This could reflect the varied nature of the MACH-IV, which contains items measuring dis-
positions as well as behaviours, thus perhaps over-integrating the two factors of psychopathy.
While McHoskey et al. found support for their argument their findings were not replicated by
the current study which had a more differentiated measure of psychopathy. A correlation between
the MACH-IV and secondary psychopathy, controlling for the effects of primary psychopathy
produced a much weaker correlation (0.28), suggesting that the initial correlation could be attrib-
uted to the shared variance between primary and secondary psychopathy, rather than that shared
between MACH and secondary psychopathy.
As predicted, we found the dark triad reduces to a large general factor and a secondary factor
associated with secondary psychopathy, high N and low C. Also as predicted, there were signi-
ficant and systematic correlations between the scales of the dark triad and the A dimension of
the NEO-FFI-R. Comparable with conceptions of secondary psychopaths as essentially criminal,
neurotic and disorganised (Blackburn, 1975; Levenson et al., 1995), we found secondary psychop-
athy correlated positively with N and negatively with C. Predictions made about a negative cor-
relation between C and the dark triad were not upheld, perhaps because, at least in normal
samples, C is more associated with secondary psychopathy. These findings are comparable with
those found by Ross et al. (2004).
It must be emphasised that these findings reflect participants recruited from the general com-
munity, and not from criminal or psychiatric settings. As such, the results suggest that patterns
of association seen in more exclusively forensic or mentally disordered populations can also be
found in normal samples, vindicating the view that pathology associated with personality is
dimensional, and the extreme of normal characteristics, with no obvious discontinuity (Egan,
Austin, Elliot, Patel, & Charlesworth, 2003).
Moreover it suggests that studies into psychopathy are valid for non-offender samples, expedi-
ting researchers who do not have access to specialist samples. We found neither O or E contrib-
uted significantly to any aspect of the dark triad, and provide further negative evidence for the
long-hypothesised but often erratic contributory influence of E on anti-social behaviour.
S. Jakobwitz, V. Egan / Personality and Individual Differences 40 (2006) 331–339 337
Secondary psychopathy had a split loading with the other variables in the study, and this may
reflect the fact that although it fits into the Ôdark dimension of personalityÕ, it indexes anti-social
attitudes and lifestyle at a behavioural rather than philosophical or dispositional level. High N
and low C tap into this behaviour, as they reflect a more changeable and impulsive nature. We
speculate that anti-social behaviour—legal or illegal—results from a lack of impulse control
and a lack of planning as well as a sense of entitlement, which demands immediate gratification
of needs, no matter what the consequences are, and that low A is a contributory (but not cardinal)
dimension directing secondary psychopathy.
Our sample was relatively small, and from the general population. While these can be raised as
criticisms of the study, our findings are quite unambiguous and reflect, replicate and extend other
findings using similar paradigms. One interesting and novel finding is that our mean scores on the
MACH-IV were higher than for studies 20–25 years ago (e.g. Nigro & Galli, 1985; Smith & Grif-
fith, 1978). Recent scores were consistently high and uninfluenced by sample size. We speculate
that modern western society is much more competitive and materialistic than even 20 years
ago, and some degree of apparent psychopathy may be necessary to succeed in this type of society.
Anonymity leads to a diminished sense of communal responsibility and as long as the concept of
hurting another is abstract (i.e. society) vs. specific (i.e. my neighbour or colleague) persons might
more readily be prepared to behave in such a way (Gupta, 1986; Okanes & Murray, 1982).
In sum, the current study shows that the dark triad of personality—psychopathy, Machiavel-
lianism and narcissism—reflect an essentially unitary construct, and that the division of psychop-
athy into primary and secondary psychopathy usefully differentiates normal personality traits
associated with the more unpleasant features of the self. This differentiation could be made in
an unselected sample of persons from the general population. Our study contributes to the view
that it is perhaps unhelpful to overly differentiate the elements for the dark triad when they so
closely overlap with one-another.
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S. Jakobwitz, V. Egan / Personality and Individual Differences 40 (2006) 331–339 339
... (Paulhus, 2014;Paulhus et Williams, 2002). Outre leur faible degré́ d'agréabilité́ sociale, les personnalités sombres sont associées à plusieurs difficultés interpersonnelles et comportements agressifs (Burnham et al., 2013;Jakobwitz et Egan, 2006). Le narcissisme se caractérise par une tendance à la recherche d'attention et par un sentiment de supériorité́ envers les autres. ...
... En raison de ces chevauchements conceptuels et de la difficulté à mesurer adéquatement certains traits, plusieurs chercheurs ont avancé que la Tétrade Sombre reflèterait un seul et même trait de personnalité́ (Jakobwitz et Egan, 2006). Toutefois, les fortes corrélations entre les dimensions seraient expliquées par un élément sous-jacent qui serait commun aux personnalités sombres (Paulhus et Williams, 2002). ...
... Certains auteurs ont alors proposé que le coeur de la Tétrade Sombre soit la manipulation (Furnham et al., 2013), l'exploitation interpersonnelle (Jonason et al., 2009), un niveau faible d'honnêteté́ et d'humilité́ (Book et al., 2016) ou un faible degré d'agréabilité (Jakobwitz et Egan, 2006). (2011), ce qui expliquerait le mieux le chevauchement théorique entre les personnalités sombres serait l'insensibilité́ émotionnelle, plus précisément, le manque d'empathie. ...
... Several studies highlighted that all Dark Triad traits are linked with low agreeableness, indicating that individuals high in the DT traits are unfriendly, cold, and argumentative (Paulhus and Williams, 2002;Jakobwitz and Egan, 2006). However, a meta-analysis of 91 studies found that all three traits were negatively correlated with agreeableness, whereas psychopathy and Machiavellianism had a stronger correlation than narcissism (Muris et al., 2017). ...
... Maladjustment is a term usually represented in the form of anger, aggression, threatening, and hostile response system, and a negative view of the world (Rohner, 2004). There is a vast representation of literature on maladjustment or negative aspects of personality in relation to DT traits (Paulhus and Williams, 2002;Jakobwitz and Egan, 2006;Grigoras and Wille, 2017;Muris et al., 2017;Lyons, 2019). In the present study, psychological maladjustment is significantly related to DT when controlling the effects of gender, in the same way, psychological maladjustment is a positive predictor of psychological distress and a significant negative predictor for subjective happiness in emerging adults. ...
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The transition from adolescence to adulthood is fraught with challenges that might have impacts on later life and personality development. Earlier research investigated Dark Triad traits in connection to emotional problems. The current study, on the other hand, focused on investigating the mediating role of psychological maladjustment in the relation of Dark Triad traits, psychological distress, and subjective happiness in emerging adults. A sample of 546 participants aged 18-25 years (M = 21.2 years) from Pakistan have participated to complete an online survey. Standardized assessment tools were used to measure the targeted variables. Results indicated that Machiavellianism and psychopathy were positively associated with psychological distress, whereas narcissism appeared to be a non-significant predictor. Subjective happiness was positively associated with Machiavellianism and negatively associated with psychopathy. In addition, mediation analysis through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) indicated that the Dark Triad traits (Machiavellianism and psychopathology), psychological distress, and subjective wellbeing were explained by psychological maladjustment. Implications and limitations are discussed.
... The HEXACO personality inventory indicates most men are not inclined to offend, while some men are capable of multiple and continual offenses [98,[103][104][105][106][107]. This critically central point is generally ignored in the published sociological literature on sexual harassment, including throughout the NAS Report. ...
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Herein, the socio-psychological narrative of sexual harassment (SH) is critically evaluated. The notion of systemic SH in university departments of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) is contradicted by the overwhelming (>90%) career satisfaction among female STEM academics. The Sexual Experiences Questionnaire (SEQ), central to the study of SH, inheres the nominalistic fallacy. SEQ usage deploys subjectivist methodologies, categorical ambiguity, the post hoc ergo propter hoc fallacy, and treats respondents as cyphers. Intercorrelation of SEQ factors reduces response statistics by 42%, while phase-space vector geometry indicates the SEQ does not measure SH. Personality analysis implies that serial abusers dominate the incidence of SH. The widespread notion that 20–25% of female college students suffer violent sexual assault rests on a misreading of published work. The 2016 Campus Climate Survey permits an upper limit estimate that 3.2% of female college students suffer rape at the hands of 4.3% of male student perpetrators, largely accompanied by drugs or alcohol. The 2018 National Academy (NAS) Report on sexual harassment in STEM exhibits negligent scholarship and carelessly generalizing statistics and may itself promote violation of the EEOC legal definition of SH. Despite instances of grievous sex-based abuse, there is no evidence that female STEM academics face systemic sexual harassment. Finally, evolutionary psychology and the social significance of personality provide a scientific understanding of SH.
... The Dark Tetrad is a collection of four personality traits that are linked to harmful outcomes. Initially, three "dark" personality traits-narcissism, Machiavellianism, and subclinical psychopathywere summarized as the "Dark Triad" (Paulhus and Williams, 2002;Jakobwitz and Egan, 2006). Later researchers added everyday sadism to the taxonomy, bringing it to its current form (Chabrol et al., 2009). ...
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Terrorism researchers have long discussed the role of psychology in the radicalization process. This work has included research on the respective roles of individual psychological traits and responses to terrorist propaganda. Unfortunately, much of this work has looked at psychological traits and responses to propaganda individually and has not considered how these factors may interact. This study redresses this gap in the literature. In this experiment (N = 268), participants were measured in terms of their narcissism, Machiavellianism, subclinical psychopathy, and everyday sadism—collectively called the Dark Tetrad. Participants were then exposed to a vivid or nonvivid terrorist narrative (or a control message). Results indicate that Machiavellianism interacts with both narrative exposure and narrative vividness to amplify the persuasive effect of terrorist narratives. Neither narcissism, subclinical psychopathy, nor everyday sadism had such an effect. These results highlight the importance of considering the psychological traits of audiences when evaluating proclivity for radicalization via persuasion by terrorist narratives.
... • Socially Prescribed perfectionists accept that other individuals expect them to be perfect which these other individuals will be exceedingly critical of them in case they come up short to meet desires (Jakobwitz & Egan, 2006). ...
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This paper aims to contribute entrepreneurial management literature by investigating the role of caste on entrepreneurial aspirations, comparing family businesses in terms of their owners' aspirations, and tests its impact on business characteristics in the textile industry of Pakistan. Caste is a subject that is relatively neglected in the family business literature. However, castes, especially in the subcontinent, tend to influence owners' aspirations strongly and, hence, impact business characteristics and outcomes. Keeping this research problem in mind, the main objective of this study is to investigate the impact of educational background, business characteristics, family background, and owners' caste on entrepreneurial aspirations and how such aspirations influence business characteristics in the textile sector.
... In 2002, Paulhus and Williams attempted to taxonomize such aversive traits, finding that subclinical psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism, shared one commonality within the Five-Factor Model of Personality, low agreeableness. Underpinned by a shared callousness and malevolence (the Dark Core; Moshagen et al., 2018), these three personality dimensions were labelled the 'Dark Triad' (DT; Jakobwitz & Egan, 2006;Lee & Ashton, 2005;Paulhus, 2014). In 2009, Chabrol et al. extended the DT by examining sadistic characteristics in a minority of high school students; they termed subclinical sadistic traits as 'everyday sadism' 1 which was subsequently added to the DT, forming a Dark Tetrad of dark personalities. ...
Previous research suggests that individuals with increased sadistic traits may seek out opportunities to exercise cruelty towards others. This study extends research which has examined the emotional processing of individuals with increased sadistic traits. Results showed that all dark traits were significantly correlated with experiencing positive emotion in response to violent stimuli. This study also examined the relationship between sadism and the temperamental traits of the behavioural inhibition and approach systems. Results suggest that sadism could be understood as a high-approach low-avoidance temperamental trait. A structural equation model predicting emotional processing was constructed; a direct pathway was found between sadism and positive emotional responding to violent stimuli and lack of negative emotion to violent stimuli, over and above latent dark tetrad antagonism. Dark tetrad traits were predictive of a deficit in BIS-Anxiety. Implications of these findings are discussed.
... In the literature, Machiavellianism has been associated with dysfunctional personality, imbalanced and emotional dysfunctionality, hostile and negative attitudes, and depressive symptoms (Jakobwitz & Egan, 2006;McHoskey, 2001;Paulhus & Williams, 2002). These features brought to mind the idea that the individuals who get high scores on Machiavellianism may also score high on both anxious and avoidant attachment which demonstrate overlapping characteristics mentioned above. ...
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With the acceleration of internet use, social media addiction is included in our lives. When looking at the antecedents of SMA, being young has been found to be a risk factor for SMA. It is more important to investigate the effects of SMA on adolescents because, in addition to being in the risk group, adolescents adopt the latest technologies more easily and they are vulnerable to the negative effects of these technologies. The internet is not always used for "innocent" purposes such as self-entertainment or getting information; sometimes it can also be used for malicious purposes, such as humiliating or bullying others. In addition to the benefits of technological advances in education and training, rapid technological developments may also result in problematic behaviors especially among children and young and recently, possibilities brought by technology and more widespread use of technology by young people have created a new concept, namely, cyberbullying, which expands the concept of traditional bullying and that includes using technology for bullying others. The aim of the present study is to examine the effects of attachment anxiety and attachment avoidance on SMA and cyberbullying as distal outcome variables and partial mediating effects of the Dark Triad (DT) personality v traits, angry rejection sensitivity (RS) and anxious RS, and friendship quality in the links of attachment anxiety and avoidance among adolescences. In general, the findings supported the proposed theoretical model. The findings revealed that attachment anxiety was found to be a significant predictor of SMA among adolescent sample. The effect of attachment anxiety on cyberbullying was found to be insignificant. However, angry RS and anxious RS mediated the link between attachment anxiety and cyberbullying. Angry and anxious RS also fully mediated the link between attachment anxiety and friendship quality. The association between attachment avoidance and cyberbullying was mediated by psychopathy. Machiavellianism and psychopathy partially mediated the link between attachment avoidance and friendship quality. The results are discussed in terms of theoretical and practical implications along with suggestions for future research.
... In 2002, Paulhus and Williams attempted to taxonomize such aversive traits, finding that subclinical psychopathy, narcissism, and Machiavellianism, shared one commonality within the Five-Factor Model of Personality, low agreeableness. Underpinned by a shared callousness and malevolence (the Dark Core; Moshagen et al., 2018), these three personality dimensions were labelled the 'Dark Triad' (DT; Jakobwitz & Egan, 2006;Lee & Ashton, 2005;Paulhus, 2014). In 2009, Chabrol et al. extended the DT by examining sadistic characteristics in a minority of high school students; they termed subclinical sadistic traits as 'everyday sadism' 1 which was subsequently added to the DT, forming a Dark Tetrad of dark personalities. ...
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Purpose-The main goal of this article is to review, update, and critically evaluate this growing base of evidence in order to elucidate many of the key issues regarding dark triad personality traits and leadership effectiveness, as well as to propose numerous study future goals. Study design/methodology/approach-The study has undergone a review of secondary database of the past years of journals, articles, blogs, and the web of science. Findings-It seems like a positively relationship build up between the variables and indicating that a leaders who score high in dark triad personality they are desire for powers. All the traits equally necessities to choosing great and successful leader. Originality/value:The author makes determined efforts to explain pastyear's literature on dark triad personality which make effects on leader's perspective. Ramifications for workplace behaviours and businesses must cope with these issues. The paper concludes by discussing the research findings' practical ramifications, including topics like; psychological contract breach affects dark triad CWBs males than for females.The narcissistic of DT is connected to vocational goals, such as career choice and the motivation to attain leadership/ responsibility roles.
Psychopathy is characterized by diverse indicators. Clinical accounts have emphasized 3 distinct facets: interpersonal, affective, and behavioral, Research using the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), however, has emphasized a 2-factor model, A review of the literature on the PCL-R and related measures of psychopathy, together with confirmatory factor analysis of PCL-R data from North American participants, indicates that the 2-factor model cannot be sustained. A 3-factor hierarchical model was developed in which a coherent superordinate factor, Psychopathy, is underpinned by 3 factors: Arrogant and Deceitful Interpersonal Style, Deficient Affective Experience, and Impulsive and Irresponsible Behavioral Style. The model was cross-validated on North American and Scottish PCL-R data, Psychopathy Screening Version data, and data derived from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.; American Psychiatric Association, 1994) antisocial personality disorder field trial.
Several clinical-behavioral and self-report measures of psychopathy were compared in a sample of 274 male prison inmates. The assessment procedures included global clinical ratings, a 22-item checklist, the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-III; American Psychiatric Association, 1980) criteria for Antisocial Personality Disorder (APD), a self-report version of the 22-item checklist, the Socialization scale of the California Psychological Inventory, and the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Agreement among the various assessment procedures was evaluated with correlational analyses, discriminant function analyses, and kappa coefficients of diagnostic agreement. There was much stronger agreement among the clinical-behavioral measures (ratings, checklist, and DSM-III) than there was among the self-report measures. Agreement between these two measurement domains was, with few exceptions, rather poor.
The Mach IV scale and the Mehrabian test of achievement orientation were administered to 185 students in two accredited programs for Masters of Business Administration. Of these, 70% were from foreign countries. An across-countries analysis of scores on both tests was applied to students from Algeria, Iran, the Philippines, Taiwan, and the United States. An analysis of similarities and differences based on cultural factors is provided. Predictions for each of the five countries derived from hypotheses generated on the basis of cultural background were confirmed more often for Mach scores than for achievement scores.
60 female college students from all four class years and from 14 different majors were given a personal data sheet asking for age, major, college year, and grade point average, and completion of a Bern Sex-role Inventory, and a Mach V Test. Scores of undergraduate female college students were not expected to correlate significantly with those on the Mach V Test and grade point averages, but, when the students were divided into traditionally masculine sex-typed and traditionally feminine sex-typed groups on the basis of the Bern scale, a significant positive correlation between Mach V scores and grade point averages for traditionally masculine sex-typed females and a significant negative correlation for traditionally feminine sex-typed females were expected. No significant over-all correlation between Mach V scores and grade point averages was found. However, the Pearson correlation of .61 between these two variables for the Bern inventory scored traditionally masculine sex-typed females was significantly positive and of —.64 for traditionally feminine sex-typed females was significantly negative. Suggestions for further research on Machiavellianism and particularly on different manipulations used by traditionally feminine sex-typed females were made.
The study examined the relationship of popular music preferences to individual differences in social judgments and to personality characteristics. Individuals who expressed liking for heavy metal music were higher in machiavellianism and machismo and lower in need for cognition than nonfans. Heavy metal fans also made higher estimates than nonfans of consensus among young people for sexual, drug‐related, occult, and antisocial behaviors and attitudes. Punk rock fans were less accepting of authority than those who disliked this music. Punk fans also estimated higher frequencies than nonfans of antiauthority behaviors such as owning weapons, committing a crime, shoplifting, and going to jail. The results are discussed using interactive and social‐cognitive models for the acquisition of stable social attitudes and personality characteristics.