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Cultural factors in child maltreatment and domestic violence in Korea

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Abstract

In Korean culture, children are taught to be obedient and to live up to adults' expectations, quietly carrying out their important duties like schoolwork. In such an adult-centered culture that has largely ignored children's opinions and perceptions, corporeal punishment has been accepted as a disciplinary action often employed by parents and teachers. Until recently, little public attention has been paid to children at risk of being abused in the name of disciplining. In recent years, child maltreatment emerged as a social problem in Korean society as the country accelerated its industrialization and societal structures and the family system have undergone many changes. Media coverage of child abuse incidents widely sensitized the public to abused children's plight. With this media coverage and the help of various civic and non-profit organizations' child welfare advocacy efforts, a national level public policy for preventing child abuse is near completion.

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... Within the school environment, group punishment was common even if only one individual caused trouble. Social hierarchy was also clearly established according to the age and the position within the group/organisation and respect for the older individuals and the seniors was expected or even demanded from childhood (Doe, 2000). ...
... Such a repressive, forcible atmosphere at school continued long after Korea regained its independence and indeed still continues in some parts of Korea although to a less extreme extent. One example is that physical punishment at school has been allowed and accepted until recently, with the Korean Protection Agency reporting in 2000 that 97% of the Korean children it surveyed have experienced physical punishment (see Doe, 2000). Kim, Kim, Park, Zhang, Lu, & Li (2000) also compared the prevalence of teachers" violence against children in South Korea with that in China and reported very large differences in these rates. ...
... This conflictand lack of respect from the younger generationmight have led older, more senior workers to develop a heightened and overly sensitive awareness of subordinates engaging in negative acts targeted at themselves since it goes against the Confucian values. Alternatively, given the upbringing of South Korean participants, which encourages obedience to superiors and elders (e.g., Bailey & Lee, 1992;Doe, 2000), together with the tolerance of physical punishment (Ellinger & Beckham, 1997) and the military experience of South Korean males (e.g., spread of authoritarian attitudes), one might suspect that the South Korean participants would have been desensitised to any harsh treatment coming from superiors and would not, therefore, consider such harsh treatment to be bullying. Indeed, in Chapter 3, it was found that South Korean participants were more tolerant to negative acts coming from superiors than to negative acts coming from peers or subordinates. ...
Article
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This thesis begins by questioning the applicability of Western concepts and measures of workplace bullying to the Far East culture. Facing such an issue, the thesis aims to address the role of culture on workplace bullying by examining the emic and etic dimensions and developing an indigenous bullying scale. By emic was meant culturally specific dimension while by etic was meant culturally neutral dimension. Three studies were conducted which illustrated the emic and etic dimensions of workplace bullying. The first study was based on a questionnaire survey with 50 Korean and 43 UK employees and showed the extent of cultural differences in the employees’ concepts of and attitudes towards workplace bullying. Based upon these results, the qualitative part of the second study developed an indigenous bullying questionnaire (KBAQ: Korean Bullying Acts Questionnaire) through a repertory grid with 42 Korean participants. Then, the quantitative part of the study tested employees’ agreement of the KBAQ items being examples of bullying using a questionnaire survey with 76 Korean and 75 UK participants. Finally, the third study conducted a questionnaire survey utilising KBAQ and NAQ-R (Negative Acts Questionnaire-Revised). 193 Korean and 167 UK employees participated. The study highlighted cultural differences in the descriptive aspects of workplace bullying such as the prevalence rate, bully/perpetrator status, health outputs (e.g., job satisfaction and work-related burnout) and predictors (e.g., leadership style, role conflict, and interpersonal conflict). The results also evidenced the validity and reliability of KBAQ and revealed that KBAQ had a greater applicability for Korean employees and NAQ-R for UK employees. The consistent findings of cultural differences suggest the need for an indigenous approach in examining workplace bullying. This thesis makes a significant contribution to the literature on workplace bullying in the Far East and provides the ground for the advancement of the indigenous approach to workplace bullying research.
... In response to the growing concerns about domestic violence, the Special Law to Prevent Domestic Violence and Protect the Victims (Kajo ˘ng p'ongnyo ˘k pangji mit p'ihaeja poho e kwanhan po ˘mnyul) was enacted in 1998 (Kim and Emery 2003). The legislation was designed to prevent violence from occurring in the home (Doe 2000) and to enforce penalties, including restraining orders, limiting parental rights, and making offenders responsible for medical costs, property loss, or custodial care costs of victims, and rehabilitation for the perpetrators (Han'guk Kajok Munhwawo ˘n 2005; Kim and Kim 2002b). This law aimed to increase public awareness of marital violence. ...
... In conjunction with the negative health and mental health outcomes, Doe (2000) found that a higher percentage of women in Korea who were abused by their husbands used harsh disciplining more often when punishing their own children (91.7%) than women who were not victims of violence (64.6%). This implies that marital violence can lead to child maltreatment, an extended form of family violence (Doe 2000). ...
... In conjunction with the negative health and mental health outcomes, Doe (2000) found that a higher percentage of women in Korea who were abused by their husbands used harsh disciplining more often when punishing their own children (91.7%) than women who were not victims of violence (64.6%). This implies that marital violence can lead to child maltreatment, an extended form of family violence (Doe 2000). Several researchers in Korea have also examined the relationship between spousal abuse and child care. ...
Article
Marital violence has been recognized as a serious social problem in South Korea (hereafter referred to as Korea) in recent years, which is reflected in domestic violence legislatures enacted in 1998. As a result, marital violence interventions (e.g., empowerment-based intervention) have been widely used in Korea. However, the efficacy of these interventions has not been systematically evaluated. Additionally, few researchers in Korea have examined evidence-based intervention for perpetrators of marital violence. As applied to Koreans, this paper examines current research on marital violence in Korea; interventions for victims and perpetrators, with particular focus on the applicability of empowerment-based intervention for Korean victims; and directions for research within the Korean context.
... In contrast, studies conducted outside the United States reported that boys tended to experience more frequent but less severe physical punishment than girls, whereas girls were more likely to be victims of sexual abuse than boys. For instance, studies in South Korea have found that sons are more likely to be punished than daughters, and boys between the ages of 13 and 18 are 3 times more likely to be victims of physical violence than girls (Doe, 2000;Hahm & Guterman, 2001). Similarly, in the study conducted in Hong Kong by Tang (2006), significantly more boys (60.7%) received physical punishment by parents than girls (53.9%). ...
... In a study of Korean immigrants in Los Angeles by Chang et al. (2006), 38.2% of the victims were maltreated by biological fathers, 31.2% by biological mothers, and 17.6% by both parents. However, studies on Chinese children in Canada and Hong Kong as well as South Korean children have found mothers to be the most common perpetrators in intact families, and the researchers regarded this as a result of mothers having a higher responsibility than fathers for their children's education and discipline (Doe, 2000;Hahm & Guterman, 2001;Maker et al., 2005). Similarly, Tang (2006) found that significantly more mothers (60.6%) than fathers (50.7%) in Hong Kong used physical punishment against their children and that 55% of the respondent parents used such punishment to solve childrelated problems. ...
... Empirical evidence shows that parents' acceptance of physical punishment is positively correlated with child physical abuse (Maker et al., 2005;Park, 2001). In South Korea, one study found that 92% of mothers and 83% of fathers reported positive attitudes toward physical punishment, whereas another study showed that about 80% of parents reported using physical violence toward their children (see reviews by Chang et al., 2006;Doe, 2000;Hahm & Guterman, 2001). A study in Hong Kong has also shown that beating is a widely used form of child discipline (Samuda, 1988). ...
Article
This article systematically reviews the characteristics of child maltreatment among Asian Americans and provides a theoretical explanatory framework. The reported rate of child maltreatment among Asian Americans is disproportionately low. A high rate of physical abuse and low rates of neglect and sexual abuse are found among Asian American victims. Some protective factors (e.g., the emphasis on family harmony and reputation and the indulgence to infants and toddlers) may lead to low probability of child maltreatment among Asian Americans. Some others (e.g., parental authority and beliefs in physical punishment) may be risk factors of child maltreatment, especially physical abuse. Meanwhile, many other coexisting factors (e.g., children's obedience to parents and families' invisibility to authorities) may prohibit child maltreatment from being disclosed. Therefore, the overall low reported rate of child maltreatment among Asian Americans may be a combination of low incidence and underreporting. Implications for practice and research are discussed.
... A cross-sec ti o nal study was con duc ted bet we en Sep tem ber 15 and Oc to ber 15,2005, in high scho -ol stu dents in Sam sun city cen ter. Sam sun is the lar gest city of the Black Se a Re gi on of Tur key with a po pu la ti on of 400,000. ...
... Conf lic ting with our re sults, chil dren li ving in the nuc le ar fa mi li es we re fo und to be mo re li kely to re ce i ve physi cal pu nish ment than tho se li ving in grand pa rent-pre sent fa mi li es, in a Ko re an study, 15 whi le chil dren li ving in the lar ge fa mi li es we re fo und to be mo re li kely to re ce i ve physi cal pu nish ment than the ot hers in an Ara bic study. 13 The dif fe ren ces might be du e to the dif fe rent cultu ral and tra di ti o nal cha rac te ris tics of the na ti ons in which the stu di es we re con duc ted. ...
Conference Paper
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Amaç: Bu çalismanin amaci Samsun il merkezindeki lise ögrencilerinin gerek aile içinde gerekse de toplumda fiziksel siddete maruziyet durumlarini saptamaktir. Gereç ve Yöntem: 01 Ekim- 30 Kasim 2005 tarihlerinde Samsun il merkezinde gerçeklestirilen kesitsel çalismaya, seçilen 10 liseden 1415 ögrenci (753 kiz, 662 erkek) katilmistir. Katilimcilara, arastirmacilar tarafindan düzenlenen ve sosyodemografik özelliklerle birlikte aile içinde ve toplumda fiziksel siddete maruz kalip kalmadiklarini, kalmislarsa siddetin nedenini, kim tarafindan ve nasil uygulandigini sorgulayan 32 soruluk bir anket formu verilmis ve kendilerinin doldurmalari istenmistir. Bulgular: Katilimcilardan 102 (%7.2)’si (26 kiz, 76 erkek) aile içinde veya toplumda fiziksel siddete ugradiklarini belirtmislerdir. Fiziksel siddete ugrayanlarin 44 (%43.1)’ü sadece aile içinde, 19 (%18.6)’u sadece toplumda, 39 (%38.2)’u da hem aile içinde hem de toplumda siddete maruz kaldiklarini ifade etmislerdir. Siddete maruziyet riski erkeklerde kizlara göre 3.6 kat daha fazla bulunmustur. [ X2=33.9, sd=1, p<0.001, OR=3.6 (2.2< OR <5.9)]. Aile içi siddetin gerekçesi olarak en sik “söz dinlememe” (%21.7) bildirilirken, siddetin en fazla babalar tarafindan uygulandigi (%44.4) ve en sik kullanilan siddet uygulama yönteminin de “tokat atma” (%41.0) oldugu ifade edilmistir. Toplumda maruz kalinan siddetin gerekçesi konusunda en sik “sebepsiz” (%36.2) ifadesi kullanilirken, en fazla siddetin arkadaslar tarafindan uygulandigi (%37.9) ve en sik kullanilan siddet yönteminin de “yumruk atma” (%26.9) oldugu ifade edilmistir. Sonuç: Elde edilen bulgular isiginda, gerek aile içi gerekse de toplumsal siddetin çalismanin hedef grubu olan lise ögrencileri için önemli bir sorun oldugu düsünülmektedir. Ögrencilerin fiziksel siddet ve onun olumsuz sonuçlarindan korunmalari amaciyla basta ebeveynler ve ögrencilerin kendileri olmak üzere, toplumun bütün kesimlerine sorunlarin diyalog yoluyla çözümlenmesi konusunda egitim programlarinin düzenlenmesinin, egitim programlarinin yani sira kisileri siddet uygulamaktan alikoyacak yasal düzenlemelerin yapilmasinin ve uygulamada gerekli özenin gösterilmesinin siddetin önlenmesinde yararli olacagi düsünülmektedir.
... A cross-sec ti o nal study was con duc ted bet we en Sep tem ber 15 and Oc to ber 15,2005, in high scho -ol stu dents in Sam sun city cen ter. Sam sun is the lar gest city of the Black Se a Re gi on of Tur key with a po pu la ti on of 400,000. ...
... Conf lic ting with our re sults, chil dren li ving in the nuc le ar fa mi li es we re fo und to be mo re li kely to re ce i ve physi cal pu nish ment than tho se li ving in grand pa rent-pre sent fa mi li es, in a Ko re an study, 15 whi le chil dren li ving in the lar ge fa mi li es we re fo und to be mo re li kely to re ce i ve physi cal pu nish ment than the ot hers in an Ara bic study. 13 The dif fe ren ces might be du e to the dif fe rent cultu ral and tra di ti o nal cha rac te ris tics of the na ti ons in which the stu di es we re con duc ted. ...
Article
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Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and forms of violence in the family and in the community against adolescents living in Samsun city center, and perpetrators as perceived by adolescents, the determinants of violence, the consequences and the coping mechanisms that adolescents adopt. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between September 15 and October 15,2005, in high school students in Samsun city center. The study sample comprised of 1415 randomly selected 9th through 11th grade students attending 10 randomly selected high schools. A self-report survey questionnaire, prepared by the researchers was administered in the classroom in the presence of the guidance counselor and classroom teacher. Results: The prevalence of exposure to violence in the family and in the community was found as 5.9% and 4.1%, respectively. The students living in a nuclear family reported the lowest ratio of exposure to violence (5.2%). Illiterate, alcohol using and conflicting parents and unemployed fathers were more likely than the others to apply violence towards their children. Of the participants, 44.6% reported that the perpetrators of the violence in the family were their fathers. In logistic regression analysis, male gender, single parent family type, illiterate, unemployed and alcohol using father and marital conflict between parents were found to be the risk factors for exposure to both domestic and community violence. Conclusion: To initiate educational activities such as workshops, seminars, and conferences may increase awareness of different patterns of violence in the family and in the community, as well as the risks and consequences of such violence. Key Words: Adolescent; violence; family
... The study reports that 91.8% of mothers stated that they were more likely to use corporal punishment compared to 82.9% of fathers. These differences likely reflect the traditional role of mothers as primary caregivers (Doe, 2000). Moreover, mothers who perceive corporal punishment as a proper disciplinary method were less likely to recognize child abuse as a serious social problem . ...
... On the other hand, abusive wives were prone to employing only minor forms of physical punishment, while victimized wives were verbally abusive to their children and used more severe forms of punishment. These results suggest a complex relationship between domestic violence and child abuse (Doe, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article reviews risk factors associated with child maltreatment in South Korea within the context of the ecological system theory. Although child maltreatment is a serious concern in South Korea, understanding of this phenomenon is limited because most of the empirical studies address individual characteristics and few consider broader ecological contexts. This review integrates empirical findings on the risk and protective factors associated with child maltreatment in South Korea within the context of micro- (parent-child relationship, intergenerational transmission of abuse, and domestic violence), meso- (interactions between child-teacher and child-parent), exo- (mothers' employment and parents' socio-economic status), macro- (drinking culture and corporal punishment), and chrono-system (Asian economic crisis) levels.
... The findings of the study showed that 76.7% of children received physical punishment from family member(s) (i.e., 78.8% were punished by their mothers, 55.1% by fathers, and 30.3% by older siblings) during the last year. Physical punishment imposed on children might be closely associated with domestic violence in a family (Doe, 2000). ...
... That is, Korean immigrant women viewed physical punishment by parents as an acceptable discipline. They believe that physical punishment is one way parents show their love toward their children, which is consistent with Korean culture (Doe, 2000). There is a vital need for further comparative study to reveal the effects of violence experienced in childhood on Korean immigrant women experiencing violence in intimate relationships. ...
... Furthermore, in extract 3 we see that humour is used to reinforce the superior hierarchical status (by a vice-CEO), and it emphasises the traditional hierarchical relationship in terms of gender (Deuchler, 2003) and age (see Five Relations of Confucius, Yao, 2000) through a highly sexist joke. Highlighting the hierarchical difference is consistent with Confucian norms where unequal relationships are considered necessary to maintain harmony (Doe, 2000). ...
Chapter
Humour, a positive psychology (PP1.0) construct (Fischer, Carow, & Eger, 2020) is a central component of resiliency. Having a sense of humour is a sign of human strength, intelligence, and psychological maturity (Abel, 2016; Ghaemi, 2011). Humour allows individuals to emotionally distance themselves from a stressful event in order to cope. Humour is considered as a crucial job resource for individuals across cultures. It has been further credited for several positive outcomes such as resilience and well-being (Billig, 2018). The objective of the chapter is to present a critical review of the moderating role of resilience in adaptive humour styles (self-enhancing and affiliative humour) and well-being at work from a PP1.0 perspective. The findings of the study of Bhattacharyya, Jena, and Pradhan (2019) indicate a significant association between the adaptive humour styles and well-being at work, with resilience as a moderator.
... Attitude toward IPV has been established as one of the most important determinants of IPV (Gage & Hutchinson, 2006;Jewkes et al., 2002). The research revealed that there has been a close association between the individual's attitude toward IPV and the actual happening of spouse abuse (Doe, 2000;Straus, 2004). Females who show positive attitude toward IPV may be at a greater risk of constant abuse than those who do not (Gage, 2005). ...
Article
Full-text available
Intimate partner violence (IPV) is a public health and human rights issue with the social and economic impacts felt by women. Punjab is a male-dominated society, where partner violence is generally accepted as a cultural norm and viewed as normal behavior within a marriage. It stems from attitudes that partner violence is a private matter and usually a justifiable response to misbehavior on the part of the wife. The focus of the current study is to investigate the impact of this cultural norm in acceptability attitude of women toward IPV in Punjab province. A large-scale sample size of more than 46,000 from Multi-Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2018 has been used. The impact of the cultural norm on the wife-beating attitude has been investigated in five dimensions: wife going out without telling him, neglecting the children, arguing with him, refusing to have sex with him, and burning the food. The logistic regression results indicate that wife-beating is accepted as a community norm. It has been found that if wife-beating is accepted by community, then the individual female is more than 3 times more likely to consider it justifiable in all five dimensions. The other important factors are education level, household wealth, ethnicity, media exposure, and wife–husband age difference. The level of education of women plays the most important role in rejecting the wife-beating norm, as an increase in level of education is associated with an increase in the probability of rejecting the wife-beating. So, the current study suggests that there is a dire need to increase the female education level to overcome this issue.
... ‫במערב‬ ‫מדינות‬ ‫מספר‬ ‫של‬ ‫ובפסיקה‬ ‫בתחיקה‬ ‫התבססה‬ ‫בהדרגה‬ ) Pollard, 2003 ( , ‫לרבות‬ ‫ישראל‬ (Schur, 2003) , Holden, Coleman, & Schmidt, 1995;Socolar & Stein, 1995;Jackson et al., 1999;Vittrup & Holden, 2006 ( . Straus, 1990;Straus, 1994a; Giles-Sims, Straus & Sugarman, 1995 Darling & Steinberg, 1993;Doe, 2000;Whaley, 2000;Xu, Tung, & Dunaway, 2000;Leyendrecker et al., 2002 ( . ‫אמצעי‬ ‫היא‬ ‫גופנית‬ ‫ענישה‬ ‫שבה‬ ‫משפחות‬ ‫יש‬ ‫משמעת‬ ‫בלבדי‬ ‫או‬ ‫ראשוני‬ , ‫להבטיח‬ ‫שנועדו‬ ‫חלופיות‬ ‫מפרקטיקות‬ ‫אחת‬ ‫היא‬ ‫אחרות‬ ‫ובמשפחות‬ ‫הילדי‬ ‫של‬ ‫נורמטיבית‬ ‫התנהגות‬ ) Larzelere, 1996 . ...
Data
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Abstract The purpose of this study is twofold: Firstly, to what degree do Palestinian parents support the usage of different forms of corporal punishment against their children. Secondly, the relationship between their support level in corporal punishment of their children and their level of income and education. The population of the study included a sample of 890 parents of children who live within the Palestinian Authority territory (West Bank). The research instrument used in the study was a closed questionnaire in the Arabic language, which includes descriptions of non-normative behaviors of children. Regarding each of these behaviors the parent was requested to express his/her agreement level to possible responses presented to him/her. The main findings of the study are as follows. Firstly, parents' support level of all types of punishment, including corporal and non-corporal punishment, decreased with the increase in their education level. Secondly, parents with family income higher than 5,000 Shekels a month were less supportive of corporal punishment than parents with a family income lower than 5,000 Shekels a month.
... Child maltreatment is a serious social problem worldwide: Republic of Korea (He nceforth, South Korea) is not an exception [5,6,8,10]. National statistics conducte d by Korean Ministry of Health & Welfare (2015) reported that the cases of child maltreatment have been constantly increasing annually. ...
... In addition, male chauvinism and a householder system, which has lasted for hundreds of years, place South Korean women at comparatively lower status than men. [1][2][3] Male dominance in Korean society has weakened with the expansion of Western culture, bolstering the social influence of women; nevertheless, deference to men remains strong. ...
... The low number of reported cases of child maltreatment relative to the estimated occurrence rate in Korea may be due to the long history of using corporal punishment as common disciplinary methods for children. Moreover, there is a potentially social consensus that society should not intervene in family matters [5]. There were 15,025 Korean Children reported as suspected to be neglected and abused in 2014. ...
Article
The purpose of this study is to identify childcare teachers` self-reported perception of child abuse and neglect, reporting procedures, and reporting experience in Korea. The total average score of knowledge in child abuse and neglect was relatively high and most childcare teachers consider child abuse and neglect as a highly serious problem. About eighty six percent daycare teachers perceived reporting legislation toward child abuse and neglect, and most teachers in the study population perceived themselves as mandatory reporters. As the Child Welfare Act included a clause on mandated reporters, childcare teachers` role in intervening in child abuse cases has become more critical. In order to increase childcare teachers` reporting, education program should be designed for childcare teachers to effectively involve them in reporting child abuse and neglect.
... Attitude toward intimate partner violence has been demonstrated as one of the prominent predictors of IPV (Gage & Hutchinson, 2006;Jewkes et al., 2002). Studies showed that there was a close relationship between individual's attitude toward intimate partner violence and the actual occurrence of spouse abuse (Doe, 2000;Straus, 2004). In the International Dating Violence Study, Straus (2004) found that the higher the percentage of university students who tolerated physical aggression, the higher the percentage of students who assaulted a dating partner. ...
Article
Attitude toward intimate partner violence has been consistently demonstrated as one of the prominent predictors of IPV. Studies have frequently indicated several factors influencing attitude concerning IPV including age, gender, education, residency, economic status, patriarchal gender role and so on. Yet there is surprisingly little research focusing on the relationship of those factors. To promote the understanding of attitude toward IPV, and to contribute to the campaign of IPV-prevention, this study reviewed the factors associated with attitude concerning IPV and concluded that education might be the most crucial one among all the factors, as factors such as age, gender and residency were substantively reflected different education level, and factors as economic status, participating in household decision, ability to access media, and patriarchal gender role were deeply rooted in education. As a result, further research of specific population-based which might offer clearer insight into factors influencing attitude concerning IPV is required, and more effort of government in promoting individual's education level is demanded.
... In addition, male chauvinism and a householder system, which has lasted for hundreds of years, place South Korean women at comparatively lower status than men. [1][2][3] Male dominance in Korean society has weakened with the expansion of Western culture, bolstering the social influence of women; nevertheless, deference to men remains strong. ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Reports of sexual harassment are becoming more frequent in Republic of Korea (ROK) Armed Forces. This study aimed to analyse the impact of sexual harassment on mental health among female military personnel of the ROK Armed Forces. Methods: Data from the 2014 Military Health Survey were used. Instances of sexual harassment were recorded as 'yes' or 'no'. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was carried out to compare Kessler Psychological Distress Scale 10 (K-10) scores. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify associations between sexual harassment and K-10 scores. Results: Among 228 female military personnel, 13 (5.7%) individuals experienced sexual harassment. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that sexual harassment had a significantly negative impact on K-10 scores (3.486, p<0.04). Higher K-10 scores among individuals experiencing sexual harassment were identified in the unmarried (including never-married) group (6.761, p<0.04), the short-term military service group (12.014, p<0.03) and the group whose length of service was <2 years (11.067, p<0.02). Conclusions: Sexual harassment has a negative impact on mental health. Factors associated with worse mental health scores included service classification and length of service. The results provide helpful information with which to develop measures for minimising the negative psychological effects from sexual harassment and promoting sexual harassment prevention policy.
... The low number of reported cases of child maltreatment relative to the estimated occurrence rate in Korea may be due, in part, to the long history of using corporal punishment as a common disciplinary practice. Moreover, there is an overarching sentiment that society should not intervene in family matters, and how caregivers discipline their children is left up to their discretion (Doe 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
In Korea, an amendment to the Child Welfare Act was made in 2008 that required a national study estimating the occurrence rate of child abuse and neglect every 5 years. The present study reports the major findings of the first national study conducted after the 2008 amendment. The aim of the study is to estimate the prevalence of child physical and psychological maltreatment (CPPM) in Korea and to explore the basic characteristics associated with such incidents. Household surveys were administered to caregivers and focal children who were school age and older. We estimated the prevalence of CPPM using the Parent–child Conflict Tactic Scale, which was developed by Straus et al. (1998). The occurrence rate of CPPM was 25.3 % in Korea, with instances differing by household income, poverty status, and size of the region. Children who experienced physical and psychological maltreatment were more likely to witness the abuse of their siblings and domestic violence. The implications of the findings are discussed and recommendations made for further research.
... Gender norms and the views that are held by men and women about their roles in society and in their relationship sharply in fluence whether violence exists in intimate relationships (Doe 2000), especially if discordant views are held by partners in intimate relationships. When men hold traditional views about their roles as breadwinner, and exert power over household members and in the decision-making related to household expenditure, violence is commonplace. ...
Article
This study seeks to identify the factors associated with recent physical and sexual forms of intimate partner violence (IPV) using a nationally representative sample of 9,641 women involved in at least one sexual partnership in their lifetime. Women were asked questions about the specific act of physical and sexual abuse by a previous or existing male partner. Five broad categories involving the socio-demographic background, household characteristics, socialization towards violence, agreement with gender norms, and the controlling nature of the male partner were deemed critical in distinguishing women who experienced violent acts from those who did not. Results from logistic regression analysis indicate that the young age of a woman, belonging to one of the poorest households, and having a controlling partner consistently increased the likelihood of exposure to all forms of IPV, with control being the strongest. We recommend that future research explore dimensions of male control in intimate relationships.
... 16 For an overview on human rights norms and their application to violence against women see Walker (1999). (Yoshihama and Sorensen 1994;Doe 2000;Shirahase 2001;Yoshihama 2002c;Xu et. al. 2005;Nguyen, Ostergren, and Krantz 2008), and in general patriarchal societies such as those in Cambodia and Thailand (Yount and Carrera 2006;Aekplakorn and Kongsakon 2007;Brickell 2008). ...
Article
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p> The study analyses research on violence in the Northeast and Southeast Asia with respect to four types: political, urban, domestic and youth violence, highlighting current research themes, tendencies and gaps in violence research on and in the region, and identifying needs for further research. Commonalities and differences between countries and subregions are examined, along with a treatment of the colonial experience that influenced political violence in postcolonial countries. </p
... A religião adotada pelas mães foi o fator mais fortemente relacionado à crença na legitimidade da punição física. Nesta mesma perspectiva, Doe (2000), ao investigar as práticas parentais punitivas na cultura coreana, verificou que 76,7% das 1045 crianças pesquisadas relataram sofrer punições físicas por membros da família. Para a autora, características da cultura coreana como a necessidade exagerada de obediência, e de que a criança viva de acordo com as expectativas dos adultos, assim como a aceitação entre pais e professores da punição corporal como prática disciplinadora legítima, explicariam esses dados. ...
Article
Full-text available
The present study compared coercive childrearing practices between mothers of different socioeconomic status. Participants in the study were 40 mothers of children of both sexes, aged 5 to 6 years. Twenty mothers were of low socioeconomic status, and twenty mothers were of medium/high socioeconomic status according to the criteria established by Hollingshead. The mothers were administered a sociodemographic data form and were interviewed about childrearing practices. The results indicated that the mothers of low socioeconomic status exhibited a greater average frequency of responses in the corporal punishment category. The relations between sociodemographic variables and coercive practices are discussed, emphasizing the effects of schooling on the greater variability in the maternal repertoire for regulating child behavior.
... These five virtues attach great importance to social hierarchy and respect for authority and seniority. Under the influence of Confucianism, obedience and respect for the seniors is expected from childhood in South Korea (Doe, 2000) and hierarchy is clearly established according to age and positional status. Seniority and authority are respected even to the extent that mistreatment by seniors or superiors may be overlooked. ...
Article
This paper began by suggesting that culture might influence how people construe workplace bullying. Referring back to the studies of cultural differences in cognition, it was suggested that people of the Far East might construe workplace bullying differently from the people of Western countries. Taking South Korean culture as an example, this paper explained how historical background and culture shaped Korean's psyche in relation to workplace bullying. Currently available evidence was discussed including the way Koreans construed workplace bullying and how close social bonding might act as a buffer against a conflict escalating into bullying.
... Considering that patriarchal social values have traditionally been reinforced in South Korean society, violence against wives had been justified as a matter of maintaining hierarchal order in the family. With the implementation of these measures, serious forms of marital violence are less likely to be overlooked as a 'private', family matter between spouses (Doe, 2000). Likewise, more victims of marital violence in recent years have taken legal actions or sought help (see Hong, 2008). ...
Article
This study examines the relationship between marital conflict, child maltreatment, and young children's aggressive behavior in South Korea. Of particular interest is whether child maltreatment mediated the pathway between marital conflict and children's aggression. The participants consist of 349 mothers with 3-year-old children attending 20 daycare centers in Seoul. The mothers completed a questionnaire, which was composed of marital conflict, mothers' maltreatment, and children's aggression. Structural equation modeling was used to examine the mediating roles of mothers' maltreatment in the relationship between marital conflict and children's aggressive behavior. Results suggest that the effect of marital conflict on children's aggressive behavior was fully mediated by mothers' maltreatment. This model was invariant across both boys and girls. Findings from this study have major implications for research, practice, and policy regarding family violence and young children's aggressive behavior in South Korea.
... ‫במערב‬ ‫מדינות‬ ‫מספר‬ ‫של‬ ‫ובפסיקה‬ ‫בתחיקה‬ ‫התבססה‬ ‫בהדרגה‬ ) Pollard, 2003 ( , ‫לרבות‬ ‫ישראל‬ (Schur, 2003) , Holden, Coleman, & Schmidt, 1995;Socolar & Stein, 1995;Jackson et al., 1999;Vittrup & Holden, 2006 ( . Straus, 1990;Straus, 1994a; Giles-Sims, Straus & Sugarman, 1995 Darling & Steinberg, 1993;Doe, 2000;Whaley, 2000;Xu, Tung, & Dunaway, 2000;Leyendrecker et al., 2002 ( . ‫אמצעי‬ ‫היא‬ ‫גופנית‬ ‫ענישה‬ ‫שבה‬ ‫משפחות‬ ‫יש‬ ‫משמעת‬ ‫בלבדי‬ ‫או‬ ‫ראשוני‬ , ‫להבטיח‬ ‫שנועדו‬ ‫חלופיות‬ ‫מפרקטיקות‬ ‫אחת‬ ‫היא‬ ‫אחרות‬ ‫ובמשפחות‬ ‫הילדי‬ ‫של‬ ‫נורמטיבית‬ ‫התנהגות‬ ) Larzelere, 1996 . ...
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Abstract The purpose of this study is twofold: Firstly, to what degree do Palestinian parents support the usage of different forms of corporal punishment against their children. Secondly, the relationship between their support level in corporal punishment of their children and their level of income and education. The population of the study included a sample of 890 parents of children who live within the Palestinian Authority territory (West Bank). The research instrument used in the study was a closed questionnaire in the Arabic language, which includes descriptions of non-normative behaviors of children. Regarding each of these behaviors the parent was requested to express his/her agreement level to possible responses presented to him/her. The main findings of the study are as follows. Firstly, parents' support level of all types of punishment, including corporal and non-corporal punishment, decreased with the increase in their education level. Secondly, parents with family income higher than 5,000 Shekels a month were less supportive of corporal punishment than parents with a family income lower than 5,000 Shekels a month.
... Pierce and September (2000), building on Giovannoni and Becerra's (1979) and Segal's (1992) studies, found little agreement in South Africa in perceptions between social workers, the South African Police Child Protection Unit, human service workers, and lay persons. More frequently, studies in the US have concentrated on victims and their perceptions (such as Bower and Knutson, 1996;Doe, 2000;Gara and others, 1996;Varia and others, 1996) and on the perceptions of the general public (Daro and Gelles, 1992;Johnson and Sigler, 1995;Peltzer, 1999;Price and others, 2001), often assessing ethnic differences (Hampton, 1991;Hong and Hong, 1991). Kiong and others (1996) undertook an in-depth study of public perceptions in Singapore that should have informed the child welfare community. ...
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Japan passed its Child Abuse Prevention Act on 20 November 2000. In these early years following the passage of this Act, it is especially important to attempt to define what constitutes child abuse. Definitions and practical responses may be coloured by perceptions of service providers, and since professional culture is believed to influence individuals, this study compared the perceptions of (a) social workers, (b) physicians, (c) lawyers, and (d) the general public. Results suggested less disagreement in perceptions than was anticipated. When differences were observed, they were correlated more frequently with age and gender rather than with profession.
... ). One study focused on child maltreatment and domestic violence in Korea (Doe, 2000). Other studies reviewed cultural competence and domestic violence in social work and social science practice (Bell & Mattis, 2000). ...
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This empirical literature review examines and synthesizes inter-national domestic violence literature related to prevalence, types of violence, honor and dowry killings, health=pregnancy effects, and social stigma. The review continues with a summary of inter-national intervention efforts, recommendations for culturally competent practice, suggestions for future social work research, and a summary.
... Previous studies (Doe, 2000;Park, 2001) have indicated that physical punishment is prevalent in Korean society. Physical punishment serves as a disciplinary measure which has not been viewed as a problem because children are perceived as parental possessions. ...
Article
Domestic Violence is a serious problem among Korean immigrant women in the United States. However, little is known about the incidence of domestic violence as well as risk factors predicting violence experienced in intimate relationships. The purpose of this study is to describe domestic violence among Korean immigrant women, including type and frequency of violence and predictive factors of domestic violence experienced by Korean immigrant women. One hundred and thirty-six Korean women completed questionnaires developed in this study. Results indicate that domestic violence is a major family problem for Korean immigrant women. Implications are discussed in terms of the need of social services for Korean immigrant women.
... Wife battering not only affects the victim herself but others in the family, particularly children. Children who witness violence between their parents at home are at risk of experiencing maltreatment by their parents (Doe, 2000) and developing behavioral problems, such as aggression (Kim & Pak, 2002; Lee & Chang, 2000; Noh & Park, 1992). The rate of wife battering in South Korea is relatively high, as reported by the Ministry of Gender Equality, which conducted the first national survey of wife battering in South Korea in 2004. ...
Article
This article reviews the risk and protective factors for wife battering in South Korea based on the ecological systems theory. Although wife battering has been recognized as a major social problem in South Korea, understanding this phenomenon has been limited because the majority of empirical studies have examined individual characteristics without much consideration to broader environmental contexts for the victims and perpetrators. This review integrates the existing findings collectively on the factors associated with wife battering in South Korea within the context of micro-, meso-, exo-, macro-, and chrono-system levels. We then formulate implications on assessment and intervention strategies, which practitioners can utilize.
... There is very little in the literature that helps us understand the resources or the emerging needs of Korean children. However, we may infer from available studies by researchers and professionals that there are concerns about child maltreatment and high levels of stress, especially related to the areas of school and family (Hamn & Guterman, 2001;Doe, 2000;Lee, J. Y., 2000;Park, 2000;Lee, 1999;Kwon, 1998;Lee, Han & Park, 1998;Chee, Yee, Park & Han, 1997;Lim, 1997;Ahn & Lee, 1996;Kim 1998;Lee, Yoon, Lee, Kim, Suh, Kim & Shin, 1997;Ahn, Park & Lee, 1998;Park, 1996). ...
Article
Abstract. Thesis (Psy. D.)--Wheaton College Graduate School, Wheaton, IL, 2003. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 74-80). Electronic reproduction. s
... To illustrate this point, Ellinger and Beckham (1997) report that South Korean parents consent to their children being physically punished in school if the teacher thinks that it will improve the child's performance. The Korean Protection Agency has reported that 97% of the Korean students it surveyed have experienced corporal punishment (see also Doe, 2000). Kim and his associates (Kim et al., 2000), comparing the rates of teachers' violence against students in South Korea and China, found that 4.1% of Chinese students reported serious violence perpetrated against them by their teachers, while the rate among South Korean students was 43.8%. ...
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This paper reports on the prevalence of emotional and physical maltreatment of students in primary schools by school staff in Israel. Victimization by staff was analyzed according to students' gender, age group (4th, 5th, and 6th grade), cultural group (Jewish-non-religious, Jewish-religious, and Arab schools), school characteristics (school size and class size), and by socio-economic status of the students' families. Data were obtained from a nationally representative sample of 5472 students in Grades 4-6 in 71 schools across Israel. The students completed questionnaires during class, which included a scale for reporting physical and psychological maltreatment by staff. Data on the socio-economic status of the families of the students in each school were also obtained. Students reported generally high rates of maltreatment by staff members. Almost a third reported being emotionally maltreated by a staff member, and more than a fifth (22.2%) reported being a victim of at least one type of physical maltreatment. The most vulnerable groups for maltreatment were males, students in Arab schools, and students in schools with a high percentage of students from low-income and low-education families. These high rates of primary school students' victimization by staff are unacceptable. We recommend educational campaigns among teachers, as well as allocating more resources to support staff in low socio-economic neighborhoods.
... With more culturally traditional groups, parents and teachers might approve corporal punishment because they believe it is an effective way to educate, discipline, and rear the child [Doe, 2000;Dubanoski et al., 1983;Youssef et al., 1998]. Therefore, it is possible that in the Arab schools, in which school staff belongs to a culture characterized by traditional values, fewer efforts were made toward reducing staff victimization of students. ...
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In this study, we examined and compared findings from four nationally representative studies of victimization of students by school staff in Israel. We explored whether levels of student victimization by school staff (teachers, principals, secretaries, janitors, etc.) have changed between 1998, 1999, 2002, and 2005, and whether patterns of group differences (gender, age, and cultural groups) were replicated across those four points in time. We employed representative samples stratified by ethnic affiliation and school levels. In 1998, there were 15,916 4th-11th grade students from 232 schools; in 1999, 16,414 4th-11th grade students from 239 schools; in 2002, 21,577 4th-11th grade students from 410 schools and in 2005, 27,316 4th-11th grade students from 526 schools across Israel. Overall, the results reveal that for the entire student population in Israel reports of victimization are quite similar across the four waves of data collection. Levels of physical victimization were consistently higher among boys and Arab students, but other group differences were less consistent, especially with regard to differences between age groups.
Article
Over the past 20 years, the Korean government has developed child welfare laws to respond to an increasing number of child maltreatment cases and create a centralized child welfare delivery system. However, the system remains fragmented and under-developed due to a lack of understanding of child maltreatment and limited government support. Further, few studies have comprehensively reviewed the system. This study examines the Korean child welfare system, identifies challenges for child welfare policies and services, and discusses the implications for future policy; the results can be used to improve the safety, permanency, and well-being of children and families in Korea. The analysis shows that the government has prioritized family preservation over removal from families, even in substantiated cases of abuse. However, ensuring the safety of children in Korea will require not only working to preserve families but also developing and implementing better options for in-home services and out-of-home placement.
Chapter
Television has been described by Conrad P. Kottak as one of the most powerful idea disseminators, socializing agents, and public opinion molders in the contemporary world, and its power to change attitudes and behavior has long been assumed. However, as Denis McQuail has said, despite a large research literature on media effects and strong assertions about television’s impacts , “there is little agreement on the nature and extent of those assumed effects.” Concern has been raised about the theory, quality, and rigor of methodologies used in media impacts research. This chapter assesses research on television’s effects on family behavior and attitudes and reviews the research designs leading to these findings. Emphasis is placed on assessing the direction of causation, the impacts of third variables on the observed associations, and identifying the possible mechanisms through which television may influence family attitudes and behaviors. Finally, qualitative data (collected by ethnography, intensive interviews, and focus groups) from a unique study in Vietnam specifically designed to assess television’s impacts is used to illustrate and highlight some of the mechanisms and pathways discussed.
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The aim of this meta-analysis is to examine synthesized correlation outcomes between maltreatment, witnessing domestic violence, and bullying among youths in South Korea. The study examined 42 studies from between 2000 and 2015; the results showed that there is a medium effect size for this association among youths. Specifically, the effect size of the association was found to be larger for physical and verbal/emotional abuse and neglect than exposure to domestic violence for youths. The authors suggest that effective prevention and intervention for youths who are at risk of suffering maltreatment and witnessing domestic violence may help them avoid developing bullying behaviors.
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Few tests of General Strain Theory (GST) have examined the relative effects of objective and subjective strains on delinquency and the mediating effects of situational-based negative emotions linking strains to delinquency. With a sample of approximately 800 Korean adolescents, the present study tests a model that includes five key objective and the corresponding subjective strains identified as most predictive of delinquency, and situational-based anger and depression in response to each strain. Regardless of whether conceptualized as objective or subjective, three strains (teachers’ punishment, gender discrimination, and criminal victimization) have positive effects on delinquent behaviors. No indicators of situational-based anger and depression (except anger in response to victimization in a negative direction) have direct effects on delinquency or have mediating effects linking strains to delinquency. The results provide limited support for GST’s specification of the relatively greater effects of subjective than objective strains on delinquency and mediating effects of situational-based negative emotions. Theoretical implications are discussed.
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While child welfare practitioners in many countries are struggling to develop methods of effective family engagement, they operate within different national and cultural contexts that influence, both positively and negatively, the ability to engage with families. Increasingly, international comparisons are necessary to further understanding of the development of social work practice. This is particularly necessary because most countries utilize international frameworks (such as the United National Convention on the Rights of the Child) to provide guidance in the development of policies, programs, and interventions. Each country (and locality) struggles to advance practice to be more effective and humane. Our paper offers a comparative analysis focused on family-oriented and rights-based frameworks of different countries. Based on a review of current national policies and a review of the literature regarding family-based practices, we examine similarities and differences among four countries: the United Kingdom, Sweden, the United States, and South Korea. These countries were selected because they have some similarities (advanced industrialized democracies, professional social work, and formal child protection systems) but have some differences in their social welfare systems (policies, specific practices, and socio-cultural context). These differences can be utilized to advance understanding regarding the promise and potential for family engagement strategies. We then discuss the utility of this comparison for theory-building in the arena of child-care practice and conclude by identifying the challenges and limitations of this work.
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Marital violence has been recognized as a serious social problem in South Korea (hereafter referred to as Korea) in recent years, which is reflected in domestic violence legislatures enacted in 1998. As a result, marital violence interventions (e.g., empowerment-based intervention) have been widely used in Korea. However, the efficacy of these interventions has not been systematically evaluated. Additionally, few researchers in Korea have examined evidence-based intervention for perpetrators of marital violence. As applied to Koreans, this paper examines current research on marital violence in Korea; interventions for victims and perpetrators, with particular focus on the applicability of empowerment-based intervention for Korean victims; and directions for research within the Korean context.
Chapter
Although the concepts of child abuse and maltreatment have been widely studied, problems with definitions still remain. Confusion over definitions may lead to individuals not recognizing their own behavior as abusive (Portwood, 1998), further complicated by differences in cultural norms. A widely accepted set of definitions of abuse comes from the National Incidence Study (NIS-3).
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This book brings out the need for lifelong learning theory and explores how it is possible from a postmodern perspective. The book uses life history that has gained its popularity in social science research to overcome the dichotomy between individual and society or between agency and structure. Life history also reflects the postmodern or late-modern conditions of social life. In this book, the author uses a collection of published oral history narratives of famous Korean artists and craftsmen. The author maps out life and learning of five such artists and craftsmen with figurations of escaping, creating, controlling and formalizing. These figurations are images of 'Rhizoactivity' that the author proposes as a new conceptual tool to navigate lifelong learning from a postmodern perspective. This book signalises a new way of theory building in the field of adult and lifelong education. The Life and Learning of Korean Artists and Craftsmen: Rhizoactivity conceptualises: Adult learning in terms of postmodern and lifelong learning conditions. Life histories as a method of researching lifelong learning. The four facets of artistic journeys - escaping, creating, controlling and formalizing. This book will interest researchers focusing on lifelong and adult education. Its use of social theories in its study of lifelong learning amongst Korean artists will also interest sociologists and educators concerned with the sociology of education.
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This study examined the perceptual differences in child neglect among Korean parents and children. The data were collected from a convenient sampling of 321 Korean parents and 294 children using the case statements developed by Giovannoni and Becerra (1979). The statements consisted of examples of child neglect in the following seven domains: (1) emotional neglect; (2) lack of supervision; (3) medical neglect; (4) educational neglect; (5) neglect of personal hygiene; (6) nutritional neglect; and, (7) drug/alcohol use. Findings showed that both Korean parents and children consider child neglect moderately serious while Korean children consider child neglect situations significantly more serious. Korean parents perceive emotional neglect as the most serious child neglect domain whereas Korean children perceive drug/alcohol use as the most serious domain of child neglect. Gender variation among Korean children indicates that girls are more likely to perceive the emotional neglect and lack of supervision domains more seriously than boys. The implications of the study offer valuable insights into policy development and program planning efforts in reducing the child neglect among Koran parents and children. Additionally, the findings of the study will likely contribute to the existing body of knowledge in the area of child neglect among Korean children and parents.
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Family violence including interparental violence and child maltreatment is a pervasive social problem that affects all societies worldwide, and its detrimental impacts on people’s mental health are well documented. However, studies on family violence in South Korea are still limited. By utilizing an exploratory retrospective research design, this study explored the extent of childhood experience of family violence and the long-term impacts on mental health outcomes. A total of 90 college students in South Korea participated, and findings reveal that more than half of the participants were exposed to family violence as children, resulting in harmful long-term impacts on their mental health in young adulthood.
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Research indicates an association between parents’ disciplinary practices and their children’s developmental outcomes. Research also suggests that disciplinary practices vary with demographic factors such as class, ethnicity, and gender. This article draws on the Douglas-Wildavsky grid-group theory to explain the association between demographic factors and disciplinary practices in microsocial terms. This theory links disparate sets of core beliefs and value priorities to contrasting conceptions of the family (including distinctive orientations toward parenting) and parental preferences for different disciplinary strategies. Studies by other researchers provide empirical support for these linkages. This grid-group theory application contributes to theory development through (a) bridging macroexplanations and microexplanations by showing how culture contributes to shaping parental practices, (b) distinguishing rival sets of core beliefs and value priorities that help researchers and practitioners understand parents, and (c) indicating ways for practitioners to apply these distinctions in family intervention.
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We examined the frequency of domestic violence and verbal altercations relative to the level of domestic conflict using survey data from the United States and Korea. We found evidence that individuals are generally less likely to use violence during an altercation if the antagonist is a family member than if the antagonist is a stranger. People apparently have stronger inhibitions about hitting family members than about hitting strangers, and, as a result, domestic violence is infrequent relative to the level of domestic conflict. In addition, verbal altercations are more likely to occur in conflicts with partners and children than in conflicts involving strangers, suggesting that the relaxation of rules of politeness contributes to the expression of grievances and ultimately the use of violence in these relationships.
Article
This study examined self-reported early exposure to violence in the family of origin and positive attitudes towards marital violence as risk factors in court-referred Chinese immigrant male batterers (N = 64) versus controls (N = 62). Early exposure to violence was positively correlated with marital violence, but it alone did not differentiate the batterers from the controls, as both groups were widely exposed to it. While it was significantly correlated with marital violence in the batterer group, it was significantly correlated with depression in the control group. Positive attitudes towards marital violence were not only correlated with marital violence but also sufficient to differentiate the batterers from the controls. It also partially mediated the effect of early exposure to violence on marital violence. These two risk factors together accounted for 21.9% of the variance in marital violence over and above sociodemographic variables and marital dissatisfaction. Research and treatment implications based on these findings were outlined.
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Using data from 8,320 husbands'self reports for the 2006 Urban Health Survey, this article examines the prevalence of physical and sexual intimate partner violence (IPV) perpetrated by husbands against their wives in Bangladesh and identifies risk markers associated with such violence. Of the men included in the sample for this study, 55 percent reported perpetrating physical IPV against their wives at some point in their married lives, 23 percent reported perpetrating physical IPV in the past year, 20 percent reported ever perpetrating sexual IPV, and 60 percent reported ever perpetrating physical or sexual IPV. Bivariate analyses revealed that men residing in slums had a greater likelihood than those residing in nonslum areas and in district municipalities of perpetrating lifetime and past-year physical IPV, and any lifetime (physical or sexual) IPV. Lifetime sexual IPV prevalence, by contrast, was highest in district municipalities (26 percent), followed by slum (20 percent) and nonslum (17 percent) areas. Net of other factors, low socioeconomic levels were associated with men's increased likelihood of perpetrating IPV. Alcohol and drug use, sexually transmitted disease infection, poor mental health, and holding attitudes supportive of wife beating were predictive of IPV perpetration. These results suggest that IPV-prevention programs targeting men should consider spousal abuse, substance use, and sexual risk behaviors as social and public health problems and should also consider the sociocultural context within which men who abuse their partners are embedded.
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Bibliography of literature related to multicultural social work. New Zealand embraces a diverse range of racial, ethnic, and cultural populations and this can be a challenge for social workers as they approach their research and practice. The bibliography attempts to bring together research and literature relevant to multicultural and indigenous social work practice in New Zealand. Includes material published in, or about New Zealand but selected international material has also been included where this is relevant to the New Zealand situation. Information is arranged by “fields of practice” subject headings and further by specific region, ethnic, racial or cultural group. References are presented in APA style.
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Bibliography of research and literature of interest to social work professionals working with Asian clients in New Zealand. Contains references to material published in, or about New Zealand but selected international material has also been included where this is considered relevant to the New Zealand situation. Includes references to journal articles, conference papers, government reports and selected books. Information is arranged by “fields of practice” subject headings, in the APA style.
Article
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Objectives: This paper reports on the first nationally representative study on the prevalence of emotional, physical, and sexual victimization of children by school staff in Israel. The study identifies groups of children that are at higher risk for such maltreatment. We examine the differences in staff-induced victimization by the children's gender, age group (junior high vs. high school), cultural groups (Jewish non-religious, Jewish-religious and Arab schools) and by socioeconomic status of the children's families. Method: The study is based on a nationally representative sample of 10,410 Israeli students in Grades 7-11 in 161 schools across Israel. Students completed questionnaires during class. In addition, we obtained data on the socioeconomic status of the families of the students in each school. Results: Overall, children reported high rates of victimization by staff members. Almost a quarter of all children participating in this study reported being emotionally maltreated by a staff member, almost a fifth (18.7%) reported being a victim of at least one type of physical forms of maltreatment, and 8.2% reported on at least one sexually inappropriate behavior by a staff member. The most vulnerable groups for all types of maltreatment were males, children in junior high schools, children in Arab schools, and children in schools with a high concentration of students coming from low-income and low-education families. Conclusions: The overall prevalence rates of staff maltreatment should be considered high and unacceptable. Although rates of physical and sexual maltreatment were lower than emotional maltreatment, they were still high and are worthy of greater attention. Both cultural beliefs and low family socioeconomic status increase vulnerability to staff maltreatment. We suggest conducting an educational campaign to reduce rates of staff maltreatment. We also recommend allocating more resources to support staff in low SES neighborhoods, to alleviate their stress and to provide them with the support that would reduce maltreatment of children in the educational system.
Article
This study examined individual, partner, and community characteristics associated with the occurrence of intimate partner violence among ever-married women of reproductive age, using data from the 2000 Haiti Demographic and Health Survey. Separate logistic regressions were analyzed to assess women's risks of experiencing emotional, physical and sexual violence and multiple forms of intimate partner violence in the past 12 months. Twenty-nine percent of women in the sample experienced some form of intimate partner violence in the past 12 months, with 13 percent having experienced at least two different forms of violence. Significant positive associations with all forms of violence were found for lack of completion of primary school, history of violence exposure in women's families of origin either through witnessing violence between parents while growing up or direct experience of physical violence perpetrated by family members, partner's jealousy, partner's need for control, partner's history of drunkenness, and female-dominated financial decision-making. Significant positive associations were found between men's physical abuse of children at the community level and women's risk of experiencing emotional and physical violence. Neighborhood poverty and male unemployment, number of children living at home, women's attitudinal acceptance of wife beating, and male-dominated financial decision-making were additional risk factors for sexual violence. Women's economic independence was a protective factor for emotional and physical violence, while relationship quality was protective for all forms of violence and multiple victimizations.
Article
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South Korea has had remarkably high incidence and prevalence rates of physical violence against children, yet the problem has received only limited public and professional attention until very recently. This article represents the first attempt in English to systematically analyze South Korea's recent epidemiological studies on child maltreatment. Discussed are sociocultural factors that have contributed both to delays in child protection laws and a low public awareness of the problem of child abuse. The article highlights methodological issues concerning the definition of physical abuse in South Korea and the complex attitudes toward violence. It also examines the role of the Korean women's movement in the reform of family laws and the recent establishment of new child protection legislation. Suggestions for future directions for the problem of child maltreatment within South Korea are presented.
Article
‘Alto’canola seed and sesame seed were toasted at 180, 200, 220, 240, and 260C, for 8 min or 10 min. As temperature increased, minor changes in fatty acid composition were observed. Darkness and blueness in canola oil increased with toasting temperatures up to 240C, and then decreased. The darkness, greenness and yellowness of sesame seed oil increased with increasing toasting temperature. The overall color of canola oil was significantly darker than that of sesame seed oil (α 0.05). 2-Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) numbers for both oils increased as toasting temperature increased. TBA numbers of the canola oil increased with extended storage time up to 4 weeks and then decreased. For sesame seed oil, TBA numbers also were influenced by storage time, but less change was observed than for canola oil. 2-Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) content of canola oil was significantly higher than that for sesame seed oil when TBA numbers were compared to the same treatment.
Concepts of child abuse and neglect: A survey of the general public and professionals about their perceptions of social interventions concerning child
  • Yoon
The reality of child maltreatment and its impact
  • Joon Ho Kim
  • Seon Yae Kim
  • Joon Ho Kim
  • Seon Yae Kim
A study of correlations between attitudes about domestic violence and violent behaviors
  • Kim
Facts about child maltreatment and preventive measures
  • Park
Park, Myung Yoon. (1996). Facts about child maltreatment and preventive meas-ures. Journal of Children and Adolescents Studies [Korean], 3(l), 107-130.
A study of correlations between attitudes about domestic violence and violent behaviors. Korean Family Welfare Studies
  • Jae Kim
  • Yop
Kim, Jae Yop (1998b). A study of correlations between attitudes about domestic violence and violent behaviors. Korean Family Welfare Studies [Korean], 2,87-114.
The reality of child maltreatment and its impact. Study of Korean Children and Adolescents
  • Joon Kim
  • Ho
  • Kim
  • Seon
  • Yae
Kim, Joon Ho & Kim, Seon Yae. (1997). The reality of child maltreatment and its impact. Study of Korean Children and Adolescents [Korean], 26(l), 5-28.
Concepts of child abuse and neglect: A survey of the gen-eral public and professionals about their perceptions of social interventions concem-ing child maltreatment
  • Hye Yoon
  • Me
Yoon, Hye Me (1997). Concepts of child abuse and neglect: A survey of the gen-eral public and professionals about their perceptions of social interventions concem-ing child maltreatment. Korean Journal of Social Welfare [Korean], 31, 393-422.
The reality of child maltreatment and its impact
  • Kim