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Evaluation of the phenolic content, antioxidant activity and colour of Slovenian Honey

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Abstract

Honey samples from the seven most common honey types in Slovenia were screened for total phenolic content by the modified Folin–Ciocalteu method, for potential antioxidant activity using the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method for antiradical activity. In addition the colour characteristics of honey samples were analysed. The results of the study showed that total phenolic content, antioxidant activity and colour parameters differ widely among different honey types. Phenolic content expressed as gallic acid equivalent ranged from 44.8 mg/kg in acacia honey to 241.4 mg/kg in fir honey. Antioxidant activity was the lowest in the brightest acacia and lime honeys and the highest in darker honeys, namely fir, spruce and forest. The colour of the Slovenian honeys, analysed in this study was very variable and ranged from pale yellow to dark brown. Correlations between the parameters analysed were found to be statistically significant (p < 0.05).

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... The reported color intensities were similar to the Romanian honeys, which were in the range of 210 mAU (acacia honey) to 1228 mAU (forest honey) [56]. Net absorbances of Slovenian and Croatian linden honeys were four times higher than that of chestnut honey [57,58]; however their color values were lower than those of the same honey types in our study. Beretta et al. [59] reported lower color parameter for chestnut honeys (610 mAU), Cimpoiu et al. [56] measured lower color intensity for sunflower honey (512-556 mAU) compared to our results. ...
... Chestnut honey was reported to have high antioxidant potential in several studies [24,38,39]. Our results on this honey type are in accordance with values reported for Italian [59] and Slovenian [57] chestnut honeys, but in case of linden honey the values of the above research groups were slightly lower than ours. Flanjak et al. [58] measured somewhat lower values for these two types of honeys from Croatia, while Kus et al. [22] obtained higher TRC parameters for linden honey (192.5 ± 17.8 mg GAE kg −1 ) compared to our results. ...
... Polish honeys [11,12,22], Czech honeys [63], Romanian honeys [16], Indian honeys [37], or Lithuanian honeys [64]. The activity of linden honey in this study was in the upper range of values measured by Bertoncelj (28.8 ± 5.4 mg ml −1 ) and in the lower range of values measured by Flanjak (42.77 ± 10.32 mg ml −1 ) [57,58]. The activity of our chestnut honey was lower compared to data obtained by the abovementioned researchers. ...
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Although Hungary is one of the biggest honey producers in the EU, there is little information on diagnostic traits, nutritional value, and potential health benefits of the honeys produced in this Central European country. The aim of this study was to perform a complex analysis of eight Hungarian summer honeys, focusing on melissopalynology, antioxidant measurements with three different assays, and the macro- and microelement profile. Light-colored honey types included a multifloral honey and unifloral phacelia, milkweed, and linden honeys; dark-colored honeys were represented by unifloral goldenrod, sunflower, and chestnut honeys and a dark multifloral honey. Pollen analysis and sensory traits confirmed the botanical origin of each unifloral honey, while the dominance of Tilia- and Lamiaceae-pollen was observed in the light- and dark-colored multifloral honeys, respectively. The total reducing capacity (TRC) assay and the microelement content clearly separated the light- and dark-colored honeys. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay highlighted the strong antioxidant activity of linden honey, comparable to that of dark-colored honeys. Multivariate statistical analysis revealed correlations between antioxidant assays, color, and mineral content of honeys. The results contribute to establishing unique character sets for each honey type, aiding proper identification and quality control of these natural products.
... The FRAP was evaluated according to the method proposed by Bertoncelj et al. [32]. The results were calculated using a calibration curve at seven concentration levels of ferrous sulfate heptahydrate (20-300 µmol L −1 ) and expressed as µmol Fe 2+ 100 g −1 . ...
... Currently, Escalloniaceae contains six genera, among them, Escallonia. This genus is considered the most diverse family, with 39 species, distributed mainly in South America [32,33]. Geographic and environmental heterogeneity, besides environmental conditions, seems to be factors responsible for biodiversity and also a divergence of Escallonia species in South America [8]. ...
... Geographic and environmental heterogeneity, besides environmental conditions, seems to be factors responsible for biodiversity and also a divergence of Escallonia species in South America [8]. Despite this, some species are restricted to some regions of Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Peru, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Ecuador [32,33] [33,34]. To date, of these ten species, only the occurrence of E. chlorophylla was not reported in the Santa Catarina state, Brazil. ...
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This study characterized “canudo de pito” honeys by melissopalynological analysis, physicochemical characteristics, sugars, minerals, aliphatic organic acids (AOA), phenolic compounds, and antioxidant capacity. Our results indicated the presence of five plant families, especially from Escalloniaceae (Escallonia sp.) with a contribution of 31.0–47.7%. The honeys were in accordance with international physicochemical standards, except for electrical conductivity, suggesting a relationship with the high levels of minerals, mainly potassium. Also, this floral honey can be characterized as water-white honey and has low sucrose content. Among the AOA investigated, gluconic acid was the major (up to 1.06 g 100 g⁻¹), while benzoic, ferulic, and syringic acids (up to 140, 122, and 319 µg 100 g⁻¹, respectively) were the major phenolic compounds. This study is the first report on the composition of this exotic Brazilian honey and demonstrated its high quality and potential for national and international marketing.
... Rights reserved. Castro et al. 1992Bath and Singh 1999Terrab et al. 2003a, 2003bBertoncelj et al. 2007Nagai et al. 2018 Honeydew honey Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. Rights reserved. ...
... Bertoncelj et al. (2007),Ruiz-Navajas et al. (2011), Jasicka- Misiak et al. (2012,Pontis et al. (2014),Nayik and Nanda (2016), andLiben et al. (2018) was UV-Vis spectrophotometer whereasPauliuc et al. (2020) used UV-NIR spectrophotometer. In all the studies, gallic acid was used as the standard while the absorbance wavelength varied in some of the studies. ...
... In all the studies, gallic acid was used as the standard while the absorbance wavelength varied in some of the studies. To be precise, absorbance was measured at 750 nm byBertoncelj et al. (2007) andPauliuc et al. (2020), at 755 nm byStarowicz et al. (2021), at 760 nm by Ruiz-Navajas et al. (2011), Jasicka-Misiak et al. (2012), Nayik and Nanda (2016), and Badrulhisham et al. (2020), at 740 nm by ...
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Honey is a natural food produced by honeybees and contained approximately 200 distinct chemical compounds. The chemical compositions are dependent on the floral and geographical origin of the nectar collected by the bee. The physicochemical properties of honey such as moisture content, pH, free acidity, electrical conductivity, diastase activity, proline content, hydroxymethylfurfural, organic acids, protein, vitamins, and phenolic compounds are very important properties to measure to ensure the quality of honey for human consumption. International and Malaysian standards on honey quality parameters have been established as a reference for quality control of honey. Therefore, this review aims to compile the latest progress in established analytical techniques in the investigation of physicochemical properties and various constituents of honey.
... It is a supersaturated sugar solution of two main sugars, namely glucose and fructose, with small amounts of other more complex sugars. Other substances present in pure honey include phenolic acids, flavonoids, water, vitamins, organic acids, proteins, phytochemicals and minerals which are largely responsible for the differences among individual honey types (White 1980;White and Doner 1980;Bertoncelj et al. 2007). The concentration of the sugar is frequently the characteristic of the plant species from which the nectar fluid was taken, although this concentration also varies with environmental conditions (Flodhazi 2004). ...
... The concentration of the sugar is frequently the characteristic of the plant species from which the nectar fluid was taken, although this concentration also varies with environmental conditions (Flodhazi 2004). Fructose (levulose) is the dominant sugar with about 38.5 g/100 g honey, glucose (dextrose) 31 g/100 g, with at least 22 other more complex sugars such as sucrose 1.5 g/100 g honey, maltose, isomaltose, erlose, kojibiose, melezitose and all others constituting 4 g /100 g honey (White and Doner 1980;Bertoncelj et al. 2007). The mineral content of honey usually varies and is recognized as an environmental indicator (Terrab et al. 2004). ...
... These mineral contents of honey are closely related to the floral type, mineral resources in the soil and environmental factors. White and Doner (1980), Terrab et al. (2004) and Bertoncelj et al. (2007) claimed 100 g of honey contain 6 mg calcium, 4 mg phosphorus, 4 mg sodium, 52 mg potassium, 0.42 mg iron, 0.22 mg zinc, 2 mg magnesium, 0.80 mg selenium, 0.04 mg copper and 0.08 mg manganese. In addition, honey also contains vitamin C (0.50 mg), vitamin B (0.02 mg), folate (2 mg), pantothenic acid (0.07 mg), niacin (0.12 mg), riboflavin (0.04 mg) per 100 g (White and Doner, 1980). ...
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Background Honey is consumed for the derived benefits as sweetener, for healing wounds, skin burns, regulating blood sugar level, treatments of some ailments, etc. In Nigeria, adulteration of honey is a serious concern, and these adulterated or fake honeys have health implications. This research aims to compare and contrast the physicochemical qualities, functional health and medicinal values of honey samples from local honey parkers, supermarkets and beekeepers’ sales outlets in Southwest Nigeria. Results The darkness of the honey from the three sources was significantly different. The honey samples from the beekeepers have ash contents values of 0.25–1.0 in line with CAC and IHC, whereas 7(46.66%) and 2(13.33%) of honey samples from the supermarkets and local handlers/parkers, respectively, deviated from this standard values. The wound healing development after 8 days of topical treatment of incision wounds with honey from beekeepers shows a good development. 93.3% of the honeys sourced from the beekeepers, 58.06 and 66.05% of the honeys sourced from the supermarkets, and the local honey markets were found to be original. Conclusion The originality of honey for consumers’ satisfaction is dependent on the complimentary factors of physicochemical properties, functional health and medicinal values. These findings provide information for consumers’ awareness on categorization of honey as original/pure, adulterated and fake and the health implications.
... Given that Serbia (8)(9)(10) and its neighboring countries (11)(12)(13) have a high potential for honey production, testing of honey is of high importance. Based on published studies the phenolic compounds play a significant role in the bioactive properties of honey (8,10,11,14), and can also serve as potential markers of the botanical and/or geographical origin of honey (10,12,15). ...
... Given that Serbia (8)(9)(10) and its neighboring countries (11)(12)(13) have a high potential for honey production, testing of honey is of high importance. Based on published studies the phenolic compounds play a significant role in the bioactive properties of honey (8,10,11,14), and can also serve as potential markers of the botanical and/or geographical origin of honey (10,12,15). Determination of physicochemical parameters has proven to be an additional tool for differentiating honey types (8,9,(16)(17)(18)(19) and a good indicator of honey quality (20), which is also dependent on storage conditions that also affect the phenol content (21). ...
... Considering taste to be crucial for honey consumption, sensory analysis is of great importance. The parameters determined by sensory analyses can be dependent on the chemical constituents and their content in the honey, which was shown for the honey color and phenolic content (11), as well as for the botanical origin of honey (25). The color of the honey is related to the composition of phenolic compounds (14,16), with total flavonoid content showing the highest influence (25). ...
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This study presents a detailed characterization of 27 honey samples from the Tara Mountain region in Serbia using different comprehensive techniques and methods. The types of the honey samples were defined as monofloral (4 samples), honeydew (5 samples) and polyfloral (18 samples) honey based on determined polyphenol content, antioxidant activity, electrical conductivity and melissopalynological analyses. Physicochemical parameters such as pH (4.13–4.94), diastase activity (24.20–41.70 DN), acidity (14.60–29.70 meq/kg), content of 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural (in range below 5, up to 16.90 mg/kg), sucrose (0.20–3.90 g/100 g), and moisture content (15.01–19.23%) confirmed the required quality of the honey samples. Sensory analysis revealed honey characteristics favorable to consumers. Analyses of 19 phenolic compounds using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode-array detection and triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-DAD-MS/MS) revealed six phenolic acids and 13 other compounds from the group of flavonoids and their glycosides. In all the samples the highest content was determined for p-coumaric acid, followed by caffeic acid and pinocembrin. Besides total phenolic content and radical scavenging activity, antimicrobial activity was also examined. Most honey samples showed bactericidal activity against Staphylococcus aureus and bacteriostatic activity against Escherichia coli, while none of the honey samples inhibited the growth of Candida albicans. Chemometric analyses were applied for an in-depth study of the results to further evaluate the characteristics of the honey samples studied. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for assessing the differences in physicochemical parameters, polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity between honey samples. The unrooted cluster tree was used to group the samples based on the melissopalynological analyses.
... Dark honey has a higher total phenol content than light honey (Brudzynski and Miotto, 2011). The obtained results are in agreement with the results of Bertoncelj et al. (2007). ...
... This affected the antioxidant potential of these samples, because the antioxidant properties of honey depend on the botanical and geographical origin, but also on the time of storage, since antioxidant properties decrease during storage. The results for honey samples from Slovenia regarding their antioxidant activity as measured by the DPPH method (Bertoncelj et al., 2007) revealed the highest antioxidant activity in forest honey, and the lowest in acacia honey. Similar results were reported by Atanacković-Krstonošić et al. (2019). ...
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Honey is a natural product which has high nutritional value. Also, it has health benefits, which is the reason for its been used for the prevention of diseases caused by oxidative stress for centuries in many countries. Honey has antibacterial and antioxidant properties, which are the result of the presence of enzymes and chemical and phytochemical components, where phenolic acids and flavonoids play a significant role. The aim of this study was to examine the physico-chemical parameters, antioxidant properties and antimicrobial activity of forest-meadow, acacia and sunflower honey from the Gruža and Požega areas (Republic of Serbia). The tested physico-chemical parameters were found to be within the values prescribed by the Legislation and the Codex Alimentarius Standard. The presence of HMF was not detected in the sample of forest-meadow honey, while the content in other samples (1.09 and 1.79 mg HMF kg-1) was significantly below the value laid down by regulations (40 mg HMF kg-1). Forest-meadow honey had the highest antioxidant activity (35.2%, 26.32%-ABTS and DPPH method, respectively) and the highest content of total phenolics (90.96±5.18 g GAE 100 g-1), while acacia honey exhibited the lowest values for antioxidant activity (11.76%-ABTS; 7.28%-DPPH) and total phenolics (15.75±0,66 g GAE 100 g-1). Forest-meadow honey showed the best antibacterial activity, followed by sunflower and acacia honey.
... Honey is reported to have a positive effect on the human health, due to its antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antiatherogenic, antithrombotic, immunomodulatory and analgesic properties (Gomes et al., 2010;Trifković et al., 2017;Conti et al., 2018;Moein et al., 2022). In particular, among the antioxidants, phenolics are a chemical heterogeneous group well represented in honey, but their quantity is based on the botanical composition and geographic origin and also on the processing and conservation methods (Al-Mamary et al., 2002;Beretta et al., 2005;Andersen & Markham, 2006;Bertoncelj et al., 2007). Honey also contains minerals ranging from 0.04 to 0.20% depending on the type (Bogdanov et al., 2007). ...
... Honey is a natural antioxidant food with many beneficial properties (Aljadi & Kamaruddin, 2004;Chua et al., 2013), but the different geographical and botanical origin of honey leads to variable content of phenolic compounds and different antioxidant properties (Dżugan et al., 2018). Overall, the botanical origin of the honey most influences its antioxidant activity, while processing, handling and storage only slightly affect honey antioxidant activity (Beretta et al., 2005;Bertoncelj et al., 2007). In a study carried out by Gül and Pehlivan (2018) in Turkey, Rhododendron sp. and Petroselinum sp. ...
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In this review, we have focused on analytical methods for characterizing the geographical and botanical origin of honey. We evaluated works concerning the methods most used in the analysis of the geographical and botanical origin of honey, paying particular attention to what has been used in the last decade. We investigated starting from the most common methods used at the beginning of this century, such as melissopalynological analysis, the analysis of the mineral profile or chemico-physical parameters, to the current state-of-the-art technologies and methods including the metabolomic and genomic approaches, the blockchain or Internet of Things. For each methodology, several examples have been given, and advantages and limitations are explained. Whereas currently only one approach is rarely used, many methods are used in combination because a combined approach usually leads to greater accuracy, also thanks to the current possibilities that multivariate statistical methods or chemometric methods offers us.
... In its composition, there are natural compounds that yield strong antioxidant properties, such as the polyphenolic compounds (phenolic acids, catechins, flavonoids, etc.) [27,71]. These compounds qualitatively and quantitatively varied, and are directly linked with the rich flora, the environment, and the area around the beehive, due to their plant-honey-nectar traceability [13,19,43,44,49,56,72,73]. The chestnut honey sample had the highest average concentration of phenols of 73.2 mg GAE/100 g (Table 3). ...
... Rapeseed honey (RP3) of dark color (light amber) also had a high content of ash and antioxidants. The high content of polyphenolic compounds, pollen, pigments (carotenoids and flavonoid), and minerals present in honey can contribute to the appearance of a dark color of the honey [8,49,73]. In this study, comparable values of phenols concentrations in the acacia honey sample (A3) and rapeseed honey sample (RP3) were observed, but the flavonoid content was 3.3 times higher in the RP3 sample compared to sample A3, confirming the conclusions of several studies of a strong positive correlation between color and flavonoid content. ...
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The objective of this research was to evaluate some quality-defining physicochemical parameters (moisture, specific gravity, pH, free acidity, ash, electrical conductivity, total phenols, and total flavonoids content, K, Ca, Mg, Na, and P) of seven Romanian monofloral honeys (linden, acacia, rapeseed, sunflower, mint, raspberry, and chestnut) collected in 2017. The investigated quality parameters are mainly within the recommended limits set by standards for honey. Sample analyses indicate the presence of antioxidants, such as TPC (17.9–73.2 mg GAE/100 g) and TFC (0.84–4.81 mg QE/100 g), and high amounts of K (101–1462 mg kg−1), Ca (58.3–167.5 mg kg−1), Mg (24.8–330.6 mg kg−1), Na (94.5–233.3 mg kg−1), and P (34.1–137.2 mg kg−1). The Pearson’s correlations between some parameters (such as color/TFC, color/Mg, color/P, EC/Ash, mm Pfund/TFC, TPC/TFC, K/Ash, P/Mg), together with PCA, HCA, and ANOVA statistics, highlight three main factors that explain the variability in the dataset and could be attributed to stability, mineral, and color/antioxidant contributions. FTIR spectra confirm the authenticity of all the monofloral honeys. The results and data processing confirm the influence of environmental elements (soil, water, air) on the honey composition and highlight the quality of honey, as a complete food and a therapeutic product.
... Cultural activities, such as the adoption of more sustainable honey harvesting techniques that improve the conservation of bees, can indirectly aid the conservation of forest ecosystems. Beekeeping contributes to all four fundamentals of sustainability: (1) to environmental sustainability, as the beekeepers come to understand the link between beekeeping and forest conservation; (2) economic sustainability, by being a low-input rural activity that provides strong economic returns; (3) cultural sustainability, by being an activity that integrates well with other agricultural activities and that can be practiced by men, women, and youths; and (4) social sustainability, by reducing poverty and enhancing quality of life (Al-Waili, 2003;Mahesh et al., 2009;Bertoncelj et al., 2007;Bogdanov et al., 2008;Brady et al., 2008). ...
... Honey is effective in reducing the risk of heart disease, cancer, immune system decline, cataracts, indigestion, diabetes and different inflammatory processes etc. (Bogdanov et al., 2008). However, since some of these diseases are a consequence of oxidative damage, it seems that part of the therapeutical properties of honey products is due to their antioxidant capacity (Bertoncelj et al., 2007). Many studies have shown that honey reduces the secretion of gastric acid as well as it is effective in the treatment of wounds and conjunctivitis (Hegazi and Hady et al., 2009). ...
Article
The Bastar is the largest single block of Sal halophytic forest in the world. The forest lies at the feet of theIndravati River and is spread across areas of Bastar division, Chhattisgarh. In addition to its scenic beauty,the forest also contains a great variety of natural resources. Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) play animportant role in the livelihoods of tribal people in theBastar division. The cross-fertilization by bee increasesaverage agricultural yield by 20 to 25 percent. Its products like honey, wax, pollen, royal jelly, propolis, beevenom have immense medical importance. Honey is useful for healing the wounds, helps to build uphemoglobin, used as laxative blood purifier, preventive against cold, cough, sore throat, eye ailments,burns and gastrointestinal disorder etc. Honey has antibiotic property and is effective in reducing the riskof heart disease, cancer and diabetes. Pollen lowers blood pressure, increases hemoglobin and erythrocytecontent, useful in pernicious anemia, sterility, hypertension, in complaints of the nervous and endocrinesystem. Royal jelly has antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-aging, vasodilative and hypotensive,antioxidant, anti-hypercholesterolemic and antitumor property. Royal jelly has a diuretic effect, preventsobesity, builds up resistance to infection, regulates the functioning of the endocrine glands andis good forarteriosclerosis and coronary deficiency. Bee venom acts as antibiotic and useful for loweringof bloodpressure, in neural disorders and rheumatoid arthritis and acute rheumatic carditis, treating certain eyediseases, hypertension and gynecological and children’s diseases. Propolis, a resinous substance haspharmacologically active constituents as flavonoids, phenolics and other various aromatic compounds.Propolis has antibacterial, antifungal antiviral, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proprieties. It is used totreat mouth and gum disorders, gum decay, resistance to general illness, cure burns and fungal skincomplaints. Beeswax is used to prepare polishes, waterproofing, electrical insulation, cosmetics, cold creamsetc. It is also useful in engineering, pharmaceutical and confectionary industries.
... The total polyphenol content of black cumin honey in this study varied between 44 and 64 mg GAE/100 g. It is thought that the higher the monofloral value of black cumin honey, the darker the color of the honey and this is due to the polyphenols in its structure [43]. A study from Morocco reported that black cumin honey is one of the dark, amber-colored honeys, with high polyphenol content [19]. ...
... A study from Morocco reported that black cumin honey is one of the dark, amber-colored honeys, with high polyphenol content [19]. Polyphenols are secondary metabolites with very large subunits and numerous members, and flavonoids are the most effective natural molecules, constituting the largest class [42][43][44][45]. The flavonoid contents of the honeys in the present study varied between 0.56 mg QUE/g and 1.56 mg QUE/g, with the highest being observed in honeys from the Burdur region. ...
Article
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Honey is an important bee product with its nutritional and medicinal properties. Characterization of different monofloral honey has importance for focusing on honey’s biocomponents and the potential use of its medicinal applications. Although Black cumin (Nigella sativa L.) is a valuable monofloral honey, there are less study about its both chemical and biochemical study in literature. In this study, some characteristic properties of black cumin honey (Nigella sativa L.) were evaluated. The mean total polyphenol content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), and total antioxidant capacity based on the ferric reducing/antioxidant power (FRAP) and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity were 55.23 ± 1.27 mg GAE/100 g, 1.18 ± 0.11 mg QUE/100 g, 219.50 µmol FeSO4.7H2O/g, 219.50 ± 8.67 µMFeSO4/g, and 38.40 ± 2.26 mg/mL, respectively. Phenolic composition was measured by means of high-performance liquid chromatography-photodiode-array detection (HPLC–PDA) using 25 standards. Ellagic acid and pinocembrin were identified as the major components. Antimicrobial activities were tested on Escherichia coli, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enteric subsp. enterica, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus cereus, Listeria monocytogenes and Candida albicans. The results showed that Nigella sativa honeys were especially effective against L. monocytogenes, S. aureus, and E. faecalis. The results show that N. sativa honey possesses high apitherapeutic potential, although further research is now needed.
... The honey from this island appears green and makes it different of the forest on Banggi Island. The honey from this island appears green and make different from other commonly seen brown honey [2]. It is assumed that the bee consum algae or collects the nectar from the bamboo tree and this is the reason for honey's gr colour. ...
... The volumes spent during each titration were noted to calculate the total acidity of the sample. Acidity value was determined by Equation (2). ...
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Green honey is exclusively available on the island of Banggi in Sabah, and its uniqueness sees the commodity being sold at a high market price. Therefore, green honey is prone to adulteration by unscrupulous individuals, possibly compromising the health of those consuming this food commodity for its curative properties. Moreover, an established standard for reducing sugar in green honey is unavailable. Ipso facto, the study aimed to profile green honey’s physical and chemical properties, such as its pH, moisture content, free acidity, ash content, electroconductivity, hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), total phenolic content, total flavonoid content, DPPH, colour, total sugar content, total protein content, and heavy metals as well as volatile organic compounds, the data of which are profoundly valuable in safeguarding consumers’ safety while providing information for its quality certification for local consumption and export. The results revealed that the honey’s physicochemical profile is comparable to other reported kinds of honey. The honey’s naturally green colour is because of the chlorophyll from the nectar from various flowers on the island. The raw honey showed free acidity between 28 and 33 Meq/100 g, lower than the standard’s 50 Meq/100 g. The hydroxymethylfurfural content is the lowest compared to other reported honey samples, with the total phenolic content between 16 and 19 mg GAE/100 g. The honey’s reducing sugar content is lower (~37.9%) than processed ones (56.3%) because of water removal. The protein content ranged from 1 to 2 gm/kg, 4- to 6-fold and 2-fold higher than local and manuka honey, respectively. The exceptionally high content of trans-4-hydroxyproline in raw honey is its source of collagen and other healing agents. Interestingly, low levels of arsenic, lead, nickel, cadmium, copper, and cobalt were detected in the honey samples, presumably due to their subterranean hives. Nevertheless, the honey is fit for general consumption as the concentrations were below the maxima in the Codex Alimentarius Commission of 2001.
... To assist in deciphering the relationships between the physicochemical components of honey and bioactivities, all honey data was analysed using PCA. For PC1, colour, total phenolics and antioxidant activity were highly correlated, a relationship that appears to be relatively well established (Beretta et al., 2005, Bertoncelj et al., 2007. For PC2, mean MIC, pH and hydrogen peroxide at 6 and 24 h all contributed substantially. ...
... Results for canola honey are in agreement with two previous studies with European B. napus honeys, which showed MICs ranging from 12 À 45% against S. aureus and from 14 À 40% for P. aeruginosa (Bucekova et al., 2019), and from 25 ->25% against S. aureus, E. coli and P. aeruginosa (Ku s et al., 2015). For antioxidant activity, a wide range of values have been published for many different types of honey (Bertoncelj et al., 2007, Estevinho et al., 2008, however very few of these are comparable to the current data. Similarly, not many researchers use the same method for measuring colour as was used this study. ...
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Honeys produced by Apis mellifera from different flowering plants can vary widely in their characteristics. Some floral sources yield honeys with especially high antibacterial and/or antioxidant activity, which may be candidates for further evaluation as therapeutic agents. This study investigated 115 honeys harvested from three Western Australian coastal bioregions: the Swan coastal plain, Geraldton sandplains and Dampierland. Honeys were derived from a range of floral sources, including Agonis, Banksia, Calothamnus, Callistemon, Eucalyptus, Leptospermum and Melaleuca, and several multifloral honeys including wildflower honey were also included. HPTLC fingerprinting was used to analyse the phenolics fractions of all honeys and fingerprints were analysed to attempt to verify the floral source of each honey. Typical fingerprints were discernible for the four honeys derived from Agonis flexuosa, Banksia sessilis, Banksia menziesii and Calothamnus. Antibacterial and anti-oxidant activity was quantified for all honeys and showed that Calothamnus honeys had the highest activity for both, and also contained the highest levels of phenolics. Hydrogen peroxide, colour and water content were also determined. Data obtained for all 115 honeys were analysed by principal component analysis to investigate broad trends, and showed that colour, total phenolics and antioxidant activity correlated strongly, whereas antibacterial activity was not strongly correlated with any other factors. Data obtained for individual floral sources were analysed by one-way analysis of variance and revealed significant differences between some honey types, supporting the hypothesis that honeys derived from different floral sources vary in important characteristics such as antibacterial and antioxidant activity.
... According to the present study, 10 honey samples collected from four different locations such as Tumkur (3), Sira (3), Kunigal (2) and Madhugiri (2) of Tumkur district were microscopically analysed for color and optical density ( Table 1). Color is an important property of honey used to identify its botanical source [16]. The color of the honey samples varies from light yellow to dark red. ...
... It also contains small amounts of other constituents such as minerals, proteins, vitamins, organic acids, flavonoids, phenolic acids, enzymes and other phytochemicals. The components in honey responsible for its antioxidative effect are flavonoids, phenolic acids, ascorbic acid, catalase, peroxidase and carotenoids (Turkmen et al., 2006;Bertoncelj et al., 2007). The colour, flavour, aroma and yeast are important quality characteristics which inturn influence the quality of mead (Gupta and Sharma, 2009). ...
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Mead is a traditional drink which results from the alcoholic fermentation of diluted honey carried out by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae KF233529). The present investigation was carried out for the optimization of fermentation parameters for maximizing the yield of ethanol. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based central composite design was employed to obtain best combination of temperature, fermentation time and total soluble solids (TSS). The optimum conditions for ethanol yield were temperature 28°C, TSS 15°Brix and 6 days after fermentation. The model showed that the value of R2 (0.9998) was high and p- value of interaction of variance was <0.0001. Hence the model can be said to be of highly significant.
... A similar research done by Ahmed et al. [34] obtained values ranging between 1.26 and 1.44 mAU. In comparison, the ABS 450 values were also conveyed to be between 724 and 1188 mAU in Algerian honey samples [35]; 25 and 3413 mAU in Italian honey samples [24]; 70 and 495 mAU in Slovenian honey samples [36]; 524 and 1678 mAU in Indian honey samples [32] and between 254 and 2034 mAU in Bangladesh honey samples [37]. These differences may be due to variation in floral and geographical origin [34]. ...
... Frankel et al. (1998) found a significant correlation between the antioxidant capacity determined by the DPPH method and the color of honey. Moreover, a high correlation coefficient (r = 0.924) was observed between the antioxidant activity evaluated by the FRAP method and the color of the honey (Bertoncelj et al., 2007). In addition, numerous studies have shown that dark colored honeys have a high content of total phenolic compounds and therefore a high antioxidant capacity (Beretta et al., 2005;Djossou et al., 2013;Otmani et al., 2021;Wilczynska, 2010). ...
Article
This study aimed to estimate two different types of Algerian honey: antioxidant contents (total phenols and vitamin C), and levels of antioxidant (DPPH assay) and reducing activity (FRAP assay). Honey samples were characterized by high content of total phenols (314.231 ± 281.346 – 394.231 ± 155.835 mg AG 100 g-1) and low vitamin C values (0.25 ± 0.05 – 0.35 ± 0.05 mg 100 g-1). As a result, the antioxidant activity and reducing capacity values were found to be 9.578 ± 3.157 and 11.255 ± 2.668% for DPPH and 15.240 ± 4.578 to 17.794 ± 8.179 µg 100 g-1 for the FRAP assay. Our data showed that dark honey contains bioactive compounds with significant antioxidant activity.
... The C value showed a high positive correlation with the b* value (r = 0.93), whereas the L* value was positively correlated with the h value (r = 0.76) (Fig. 1). It has been reported that in general, dark-colored honey has a higher level of phenolic compounds, minerals, and Maillard reaction products [69,78,79]. In our study, similar effects were observed in the color values and the TPC, TFC, DPPH, and HMF levels. ...
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Honey is a natural food substance considered among functional foods due to its positive effect on human health. Quality of honey is significantly influenced by environmental conditions and botanical origin. This study aimed to determine the element content in honey from Kars, Turkey, as well as the bioactive compounds and certain physicochemical and biochemical properties such as hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and color in a chemometric approach. In this study, a total of 41 local honey samples were analyzed. The levels of elements Al, As, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Zn, and Pb were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES). The mean concentrations of the elements in the samples were identified as 3.09, 0.64, 59.07, 0.02, 0.14, 0.17, 1.76, 9.32, 0.78, and 0.33 µg/g for Al, As, B, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Zn, and Pb, respectively. The mean bioactive compounds of the honey samples were determined as phenolic content (19.74 mg GAE/100 g), flavonoid content (4.47 mg CE/100 mg), and DPPH (49.08% inhibition). The HMF levels of all samples conformed to the honey standards of the Codex Alimentarius and Turkish Food Codex. HMF was not negatively correlated with the other color parameters except for the a* (redness or greenness) value. This study showed that clustering analysis (CA) and principal component analysis (PCA) are useful for distinguishing the originality of honey samples by using element content, bioactive properties, HMF, and color and were useful in defining the Kars honey type.
... Color of food products is one of the important characteristic professed by the customers, which plays a critical role about the consumer behavior vis a vis the given food product. The color of honey based fruit products is related to the mineral content, pollen profile, phenolics of fruit and honey and is also characteristic of honey source (Lazaridou et al., 2004;González-Miret et al., 2005;Baltrušaityte et al., 2007;Bertoncelj et al., 2007). The CIE lightness (L * ), redness (a * ) and yellowness (b * ) chromatic coordinates of honeybased apple spread products is shown in Table 2. ...
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This study was carried out to conduct the geographical discrimination of various types of honey, and their utilization in development of novel functional foods where in honey could be substituted in place of white sugar. Honey based apple spread and marmalade products were developed and evaluated for quality analysis. The results showed higher water activity (aw) and moisture content in Plectranthus rugosus (PR) honey based apple spread and marmalade while, TSS was highest (p < 0.05) in Multifloral (MF) honey based apple spread and marmalade. Hydroxymethylfurfural was found to be in the ranged of 6.77–7.05 (mg/kg) for honey based apple spread products and 3.09–3.46 (mg/kg) for honey based apple marmalade products. The lightness (L*) value was significantly highest in MF honey based apple spread and marmalades (p < 0.05). Redness (a*) and yellowness (b*) values were significantly highest in PR honey based apple spreads and marmalades and lowest in Robinia pseudo acacia (RSA) honey based apple spread and marmalades. In general, all MF honey based apple spreads and marmalades has the highest score for overall acceptability in comparison to RSA and PR honey based apple spreads. The values of gel strength (Fe), rupture force (FR), energy of penetration (E) and adhesiveness (A) in the given spread products were in the range of 1.50–1.54 N, 1.70–1.73 N, 17.00–17.05 Ns and −1.11–−1.08 Ns, respectively. The values of gel strength (Fe), rupture force (FR), energy of penetration (E) and adhesiveness (A) in the investigated marmalade products were in the range of 1.65–1.69 N, 2.08–2.13 N, 16.05–16.10 Ns and −1.14–−1.10 Ns, respectively.
... Of relevance in this study, three important flavonoids were identified for the first time as major compounds in the samples of Table 1. Most common phenolic compounds identified in honey (Cianciosi et al., 2018 Several researchers have observed that the content of total phenolic compounds, flavonoids and carotenoids is higher in darker honeys (Montenegro & Mej ıas, 2013) and therefore, their antioxidant activity is also higher (Alvarez-Suarez et al., 2010;Bertoncelj et al., 2007;Ku s et al., 2014b;Vela et al., 2007). Similarly, single-flower honeys have a higher phenolic content than multi-flower honeys (Ruiz-Ruiz et al., 2017). ...
Article
The "medicinal" benefits of honey have been known for thousands of years, being used as an antiseptic, fortifier, soother, healer, laxative, among others. But in addition to its use as a therapeutic, there is evidence that since ancient Rome honey has been used as a food preservative. Currently, the food industry faces several challenges, among which are maintaining the quality and safety characteristics of their products with the minimum addition of artificial ingredients and additives due to the worldwide increase in demand for natural products and functional properties, as well as helping to reduce food loss and thus its ecological footprint. Currently, honey produced by stingless bees has been the subject of research, due to its nutritional value and its bioactive properties of great utility, both in the pharmaceutical industry and in food production. Therefore, a review of published articles describing the potential uses of the bioactive properties of honey, mainly that produced by stingless bees, in the food industry was carried out.
... Honey color and color intensity participate on typical properties of unifloral honeys (Karabagias et al., 2016). Bertoncelj et al. (2007) and Pontis et al. (2014) demonstrated positive correlation between honeys phenolic content and their color. ...
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Honey is a popular sweetener that makes significant contributions to human nutrition. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare specific properties relating to honey quality and biological value such as total phenolic content, color, color intensity, proline and other quality parameters like moisture content, electrical conductivity, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, diastase activity in various honeys directly from beekeepers and from markets. In total fiftysix honey samples directly from Czech and Slovak beekeepers (n=25) and from markets in the Czech Republic (n=31) were collected during 2018. The determined parameters varied depending on the botanical and geographical origin of honeys. The identified most significant differences (p < 0.01) between the analyzed beekeepers and market honeys in color, color intensity, total phenolic content, moisture content and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural point to the different properties and impact of honey processing on honey composition. In several parameters, like color, color intensity, total phenolic content, proline content and electrical conductivity a very good correlations with botanical origin of honey were observed and beside the melissopalynological analysis these parameters participated on characterization and authentication of unifloral honeys. Normally, there is a positive correlation between color and electrical conductivity, however we have also confirmed that the color of honey also depends on the proline content. The results of this study confirmed that the origin (beekeeper/market) and botanical source of honeys (unifloral/nectar/honeydew) had effect on their quality and biological value. © 2022. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture. All Rights Reserved.
... Apart from the region term, the analyses of variance also considered a nested term of sampling locations within a region. A similar level of phenolic content was also observed for Algerian and Slovenian honeys for which the phenolic content varied from 64 to 1304 and 448 to 2414 mg GAE/kg, respectively (Bertoncelj et al., 2007;Ouchemoukh et al., 2007). The highest obtained amount was 1210 mg GAE/kg for Polish buckwheat honeys (Jasicka-Misiak et al., 2012). ...
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To understand the antioxidant properties of buckwheat honeys, we investigated their antioxidant effects on hydroxyl radical-induced DNA breaks in the non-site-specific and site-specific systems, the physicochemical properties, antioxidant activities (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, chelating, and reducing power assays), total phenolic content and individual phenolic acids were also determined. Total phenolic content of buckwheat honeys ranged from 774 to 1694 mg PA/kg, and p-hydroxybenzoic and p-coumaric acids proved to be the main components in buckwheat honeys. All the buckwheat honey samples possess stronger capability to protect DNA in the non-site-specific systems than in the site-specific systems from being damaged by hydroxyl radicals. In the non-site-specific and site-specific system, buckwheat honeys samples prevented ()OH-induced DNA breaks by 21-78% and 5-31% over control value, respectively.
... Honey also contains important components e.g. antioxidants (Bertoncelj et al., 2007). Some reports mentioned that honey contains more than 200 components (Kucuk et al., 2007). ...
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The present study was carried out to investigate the proximate composition, physicochemical properties, diastase activity and microbiological quality of clover bee's honey. Samples of clover honey were collected at random from different supermarkets and private honey producers distributed in some different governorates of Egypt. Results indicated that the produced private beehives clover honey sample) had the best attributes of natural bees honey as compared with the standardization given by Egyptian standardization authority and European standardization (codex) for natural bees honey. Also, the microbiological quality, and physicochemical properties of this sample was superior the other tested clover bees honey samples. However, the other tested clover bees honey samples collected from supermarkets were widely differed in HMF, sugars, enzyme activity, and other tested indicators as compared with private sample. It suggests that these samples may be subjected to various types of adulteration. Therefore, the physico-chemical and microbiological properties together with enzymes activity of bees honey are important tools for assess the quality of clover bees honey.
... TPC was detected using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent [26] following [27,28]. The honey solution (0.5 mL) was mixed with 2.5 mL Folin-Ciocalteu reagent (2N) and incubated for 5 min. ...
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The current investigation was conducted to assess the melissopalynological, physicochemical, and biochemical properties, antimicrobial and antioxidant activities as well as total phenolic and total flavonoid contents of 794 Sidr honey samples collected from the Saudi market that had been imported from 12 different countries. Testing Sidr honey from different countries showed different levels of growth suppression observed against five drug resistant bacterial strains. The pathogenic strains were Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus mutans, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The antimicrobial activity showed growth suppression levels which varied according to the origin of the honey. The comparative study of Sidr honeys revealed a strong correlation between total polyphenol and flavonoid contents and significant radical scavenging activities in particular Egyptian and Saudi Arabian honeys. The melissopalynological and physicochemical properties of different Sidr honeys complied with the recommendations of the WHO Codex Alimentarius, the European Union standards for honey quality, and the Gulf Technical Regulation on honey (GSO 147:2008-Standards Store-GCC Standardization Organization). It was concluded that Sidr honey from different geographical areas has the capacity to suppress the growth of pathogenic bacteria and perform significant radical scavenging activities.
... The FRAP assay detects the change in absorbance at 593 nm caused by electron-donating antioxidants forming blue-colored Fe 2+ TPTZ from colorless oxidized Fe 3+ TPTZ. The assay was carried out using Bertoncelj et al.'s [42] methodology, with some changes. For the calibration curve, aqueous standard solutions of FeSO 4 7H 2 O (100-1000 µm) were adopted, and the results were represented as the FRAP value (µm Fe(II)) of the solution. ...
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The present manuscript explores a spectroscopic technique to select turmeric powder, free from impurities, and has compounds of medicinal importance among the tainted and natural turmeric. Six Curcuma longa (turmeric powder) samples, named S1, S2, S3, S4, S5, and S6, were analyzed to discriminate between tainted and natural turmeric using the LIBS and multivariate technique. Other techniques such as UV–Vis, FTIR, and EDX are also used to ascertain the elements/compounds showing the medicinal properties of C. longa. Spectral lines of carbon, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, iron, strontium, barium, and electronic bands of CN molecules were observed in the LIBS spectra of turmeric samples. Spectral signatures of toxic elements such as lead and chromium are also observed in the LIBS spectra of all samples except S6. Adulteration of metanil yellow, a toxic azo dye, is used to increase the appearance of curcumin when the actual curcumin content is low. The presence of spectral lines of lead and chromium in the LIBS spectra of S1 to S5 suggested that it may be adulterated with lead chromate which is used for coloring turmeric. Further, the presence of sulfur in EDX analysis of sample S5 indicates that it may also have been adulterated with metanil (C18H14N3NaO3S). The concentration of samples’ constituents was evaluated using CF-LIBS, and EDX was used to verify the results obtained by CF-LIBS. The principal component analysis applied to the LIBS data of the turmeric samples has been used for instant discrimination between the sample based on their constituents. We also analyzed antioxidant activity and total phenolic and flavonoid content of different turmeric samples and found a negative Pearson correlation with heavy metals. The presence of curcumin in turmeric is confirmed using LIBS and UV–Vis, which have medicinal properties. View Full-Text Keywords: LIBS; PCA; tainted; natural; Curcuma longa
... The ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) of the samples was evaluated according to Benzie and Strain (1996), with modifications (Bertoncelj, Dobersek, Jamnik, & Golob, 2007). The FRAP reagent was prepared from 300 mmol L −1 sodium acetate buffer (pH 3.6), 10 mmol L −1 TPTZ solution in 40 mmol L −1 HCl and 20 mmol L −1 ferric chloride solution, in the proportion of 10:1:1, respectively. ...
Article
Physicochemical characteristics, phenolic, and mineral compounds of bracatinga honeydew honeys (BHH) from the south Brazilian plateau were evaluated, as requested for denomination of origin (DO) certification. Thirty-four samples were analyzed, and ANOVA and principal components analysis were carried out to classify them. Moisture content (<20 %), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (< 10.0 mg kg⁻¹), diastase activity (>8 Shade units), and electrical conductivity (> 0.8 mS cm⁻¹) met the international standards. Free acidity was higher than 50.0 mEq kg⁻¹, and reducing sugars (fructose and glucose) ranged from 58 % to 75 %. Syringic acid, p-coumaric acid, and rutin were the major phenolic compounds. In the PCA scatterplot (PC1 46.6%, PC2 25.8 %), BHH formed one single group, due to the common physicochemical parameters, with only two samples separated with higher levels of minerals Ba, Co, Pd, Nd, Sm, Eu, Gd, and V. The result proved that there was no distinction among the BHH samples, meeting the requirements for DO certification.
... Honey's plant origin has the greatest effect on its antioxidant activity, while honey processing and storage are less effective in this respect. [16,17] Moniruzzaman et al. (2013) monitored changes in phenolic, flavonoid and antioxidant activity of Malaysian acacia honey collected in different months over a two-year period. Based on the results, there was a gradual increase in the phenolic content of honey samples collected between September and December. ...
Article
Honey is a naturally sweet substance that the bee collects from the nectar of flowers and sap of plants, after adding various enzymes, processing and evaporating excess moisture, it stores it in the hive. The aim of this study is investigating the changes in the antioxidant activity of the 10 honey samples under different storage conditions [The samples were heated in water bath (48 Degree Celsius for 1 day and 80 Degree Celsius for 4 minutes), or kept at room temperature (25 Degree Celsius) for 3 and 6 months. Then they were re-evaluated for antioxidant activity]. Antioxidant activity by three methods: DPPH, beta-carotene-linoleic acid and reduction power method in honey samples evaluated. Measurements for all methods used in this research were done in three replications for each sample. Data were analyzed by SPSS software. Kolmogorov-Smirnov test was used to check the normality of the distribution of variables. The one-way ANOVA was used to compare the mean between groups. According to the results, antioxidant activity of honeys were increased under thermal condition and were decreased during storage. Storage and processing condition (thermal treatment) can cause changes in antioxidant activity as well as the quality of honey.
... All rights reserved. correlated with the total phenolic content (Bertoncelj et al., 2007). Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) assay works based on the oxidation and reduction reactions observable from colour change from yellow to dark blue colour in the presence of phenolic compounds (Verzelloni et al., 2007;Wojdyło et al., 2007). ...
Article
Dragon fruit belongs to the genus Hylocereus of the Cactaceae family. There are two species that are commonly cultivated; Hylocerues polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus that have the same red skin but different flesh colours, red and white respectively. Although from the same genus, the phytochemical contents and bioactivities of both fruits may not be the same. This study aims to compare the phytochemical contents, antioxidant and antibacterial activities of H. polyrhizus and H. undatus to help consumers better choose nutritional fruits and to explore potential natural preservatives. The fruit samples were extracted using 50% ethanol and later were subjected to phytochemical, antioxidant and antibacterial assays. The phytochemical contents were determined using Folin Ciolcalteu and aluminium chloride methods for total phenolic and total flavonoid respectively. The antioxidant activity was determined using diphenyl-picryl hydrazine (DPPH) and 2,2-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. Disk diffusion method was performed to evaluate antibacterial activities against two food-borne pathogens, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. H. polyrhizus showed to contain significantly higher phenolic content (p<0.05), while H. undatus had significantly higher flavonoid content (p<0.05). Comparison of antioxidant activities in both fruit samples indicated higher activities were observed in H. polyrhizus and both fruit extracts showed inhibition zones against the tested bacteria with H. polyrhizus extract was able to inhibit at lower concentration. The results suggest that H. polyrhizus may have higher bioactivities compared to H. undatus due to the significantly higher phenolic content.
... Other Polish heather honey samples were analyzed by Kuś et al., 2014 in comparison with other five honey varieties such as black locust, rapeseed, lime, goldenrod and buckwheat, revealing that, besides buckwheat, heather honey exhibited the highest antioxidant potential in both the DPPH (0.6 ± 0.1 mmol TEAC/kg) and FRAP assays (2.1 ± 0.5 mmol Fe2+/kg) [247]. Both the content of polyphenols and the color parameters were significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity of heather honey, as studies have indicated that the darker the color of the honey, the more polyphenols it contains [248]. Moreover, the studies on Turkish monofloral honeys, including heather, evidenced the same existing correlation between the phenolic content and the antioxidant activity of various honey samples [216]. ...
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Calluna vulgaris, belonging to the Ericaceae family, is an invasive plant that has widely spread from Europe all across Asia, North America, Australia and New Zealand. Being able to survive in rigid soil and environmental conditions, it is nowadays considered to be of high nature-conservation value. Known for its nutritional and medicinal properties, C. vulgaris stands out for its varied physiochemical composition, spotlighting a wide range of biological activity. Among the most important bioactive compounds identified in C. vulgaris, the phenolic components found in different parts of this herbaceous plant are the main source of its diverse pro-health properties (antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, chemoprotective, etc.). Nonetheless, this plant exhibits an excellent nectariferous potential for social insects such as honeybees; therefore, comparing the bioactive compounds observed in the plant and in the final product of the beehive, namely honey, will help us understand and find new insights into the health benefits provided by the consumption of C. vulgaris-related products. Thus, the main interest of this work is to review the nutritional profile, chemical composition and biological activities of the C. vulgaris plant and its related honey in order to encourage the future exploration and use of this health-promoting plant in novel foods, pharmacological products and apitherapy.
... Specifically, the content of these antioxidants varies according to honey types, geographical and floral origins as well as climate characteristics of the harvesting site (Becerril-Sánchez et al., 2021). Studies have reported that dark coloured honey has a higher total phenolic content and constituted more PA derivatives but fewer flavonoids than light coloured honey (Amiot et al., 1989;Bertoncelj et al., 2007;Pita-Calvo and Vázquez, 2017). However, the colour of honey does not necessarily reflect its antioxidant potential, and may well be influenced by its pigments, mineral, pollen and botanical source (da . ...
Article
Over the past decade, the measurement of phenolics and flavonoids in honey has received much attention, which is attributed to their broad spectrum of beneficial pharmacological activity and their potential to address issues related to the authenticity and botanical origin of honey. Due to their high variability in structural and physicochemical properties, the separation, detection and identification of these molecules in honey is challenging. Among all the chromatography-driven techniques, liquid chromatography (LC) is one of the most popular and powerful tools for the analysis of phenolics and flavonoids. In particular, the coupling of LC to various detectors, especially mass spectrometry, has enabled relatively fast tentative identification and accurate quantitative and qualitative analysis of polyphenolic compounds in honey. In this review, a survey of the recent considerations and developments in the application of extraction strategies and LC-related techniques for polyphenolics determination in honey during past decade is provided. The review will also feature future trends of LC-based polyphenolics analysis, with opportunities for high-resolution multidimensional LC analysis that offers significantly higher total peak capacities.
... A recent study which compared the TPC of Greek pine honeys from different locations reported values between 0.45 and 0.69 mg GAE/g [50]. Beyond Greece, a study conducted on Slovenian honeys showed that their polyphenolic content ranged from 0.02 to 0.23 mg GAE/g [51], while the phenolic concentration of Brazilian honeys ranged from 0.25 to 0.54 mg GAE/g [52]. ...
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Several honeybee products are known for their functional properties, including important antioxidant and antimicrobial actions. The present study examines the antioxidant activity (AA), total polyphenolic content (TPC), and antibacterial action of honey and propolis samples collected from the Greek island of Samothrace, which were applied in vitro either individually or in combination in selected concentrations. To accomplish this, the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity and the Folin-Ciocalteu assays were employed to determine the AA and TPC, respectively, while the antibacterial action was investigated against each one of four important path-ogenic bacterial species causing foodborne diseases (i.e., Salmonella enterica, Yersinia enterocolitica, Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes) using the agar well diffusion assay. Compared to honey, propolis presented significantly higher AA and TPC, while its combined application with honey (at ratios of 1:1, 3:1, and 1:3) did not increase these values. Concerning the antibacterial action, Y. enterocolitica was proven to be the most resistant of all the tested bacteria, with none of the samples being able to inhibit its growth. S. enterica was susceptible only to the honey samples, whereas L. monocytogenes only to the propolis samples. The growth of S. aureus was inhibited by both honey and propolis, with honey samples presenting significantly higher efficacy than those of propolis. Νo synergism in the antibacterial actions was observed against any of the tested pathogens. Results obtained increase our knowledge of some of the medicinal properties of honey and propolis and may contribute to their further exploitation for health promotion and/or food-related applications (e.g., as preservatives to delay the growth of pathogenic bacteria).
... The high content of phenolic compounds confers to date vinegar inhibitory effects against oxidative reactions [80,[92][93][94][95]. Ali and co-workers [80] tested daily consumption effects of date vinegars on hypercholesterolemic adults. ...
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Currently, foods and beverages with healthy and functional properties, especially those that claim to prevent chronic diseases, are receiving more and more interest. As a result, numerous foods and beverages have been launched onto the market. Among the products with enhanced properties, vinegar and fermented beverages have a high potential for growth. Date palm fruits are a versatile raw material rich in sugars, dietary fibers, minerals, vitamins, and phenolic compounds; thus, they are widely used for food production, including date juice, jelly, butter, and fermented beverages, such as wine and vinegar. Furthermore, their composition makes them suitable for the formulation of functional foods and beverages. Microbial transformations of date juice include alcoholic fermentation for producing wine as an end-product, or as a substrate for acetic fermentation. Lactic fermentation is also documented for transforming date juice and syrup. However, in terms of acetic acid bacteria, little evidence is available on the exploitation of date juice by acetic and gluconic fermentation for producing beverages. This review provides an overview of date fruit’s composition, the related health benefits for human health, vinegar and date-based fermented non-alcoholic beverages obtained by acetic acid bacteria fermentation.
... In addition, some reports have also noted that polyphenols are thought to influence the color and flavor of honey (Alvarez-Suarez et al., 2010;Isla et al., 2011). Along with that, a positive correlation between phenolic content, color and antioxidant activity of honey was also observed (Bertoncelj, Doberšek, Jamnik, & Golob, 2007). ...
Article
Vietnam is located in the tropical monsoon climate area (Southeast Asia), along with the biodiversity of plant species, which has created many types of monofloral and polyfloral honey. However, there has not been a study that fully reports on the physicochemical composition, antioxidant activity and content of phytochemical compounds of honey in this country. Therefore, this study aimed to determine Vietnam's physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and phytochemical content of longan flower honey and natural polyfloral honey (from Micrapis honeycomb). The reference analytical methods were modified based on previous honey studies. Following proximate indicators were found: The moisture content varied from 21.9 to 30.5%, the ash content varied from 0.37 to 0.48%, the protein content varied from 0.25 to 0.41%, and the 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (HMF) varied from 33.4 to 75.4%. The total phenolic and flavonoid concentrations ranged from 0.890 to 1.110 mgGAE/g and 0.049 to 0.089 mgQE/g. Besides, the antioxidant activity of longan flower honey was recorded as the best, with the IC 50 value of 68.49 mg/mL. In addition, Water content, free acidity, sugar content (glucose, fructose, and sucrose), and HMF concentration were all tested and presented.
... According to Moniruzzaman et al. (2013), the color of the honey contributed to the enzyme and antioxidant spectrophotometric reading of the honey. This was in agreement with the report of Bertoncelj et al. (2007) for Slovenian honey (color with FRAP, r ¼ 0.850). The correlation of color and FRAP was also in line with Indian honey (r ¼ 0.85) (Saxena et al., 2010). ...
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In this study, comb and industrially processed honey samples collected from Bonga forest were investigated in relation to Melissopalynology and enzyme content, antioxidant and physicochemical properties. Melissopalynology categorized honey samples as Croton macrostachyus and Schefflera abyssinica honey. The physicochemical properties of the honey were determined using the Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC) and International Honey Commission (IHC) methods. The enzymatic and antioxidant properties of honey were evaluated using the spectrophotometric method. The highest enzyme activity was observed in Croton macrostachyus comb honey (diastase=7.44±0.13°Schade and invertase=13.97±0.2 Invertase number (IN). Croton macrostachyus processed honey exhibited the highest values in flavonoids (83.36±1.65 mg Catechin equivalents (CEQ)/100g)), Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) (69.94±1.0 mg Ascorbic acid equivalents (AAE)/100g), and Inhibitory Concentration (IC50) (136.3±0.00 mg/ml), while Schefflera abyssinica comb honey had stronger 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical scavenging (DPPH) (49.47±0.00%) activity. The principal component analysis revealed that enzymes can be associated with comb honey, and antioxidants with processed honey. Thus, comb and processed honey can be differentiated based on the enzyme level, and Croton macrostachyus and Schefflera abyssinica honey can be identified using pollen analysis.
... In addition, the higher correlation between IC 50 value and TPC than between IC 50 value and TFC suggested that the phenolic acids are one of the most important compounds contributing to the antiradical activity of honey (Cheung et al., 2019). The color of A. cerana cerana honeys was positively correlated with TPC and TFC (Figure 2), which means that the dark-colored honeys possessed higher antiradical activity as compared to honey with a light color (Bertoncelj et al., 2007). ...
Article
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Abstract A summarized physicochemical profile of nine multifloral honeys produced by Apis cerana cerana Fabricius in Qiongzhong region located in Hainan province was exhibited, regarding pH (3.72-4.02), moisture (19.20-22.53%), fructose (34.40-38.70 g 100 g-1), glucose (31.60-35.05 g 100 g-1), sucrose (less than 3%), color (31.00-80.00 mm Pfund), ash content (0.17-0.45 g 100 g-1), soluble solid (75.87-79.10 ◦Brix), and electrical conductivity (343.67-678.33 μS cm-1). Potassium showed the highest concentration, followed by calcium. Manganese, boron, iron, aluminium, and zinc were the main micro-elements while cadmium and hydrargyrum were not detected in all honey samples. The antiradical activity was shown to be significantly negative correlated with total phenolic content (TPC) (r2 = −0.756) and total flavonoid content (TFC) (r2 = −0.477). Among all tested honey samples, sample A exhibited the highest levels of TPC (45.46 mg GAE 100 g-1), TFC (10.02 mg RE 100 g-1), and antiradical activity (DPPH IC50 = 2.63 mg mL-1). Our results will be useful in determining to set the standard for A. cerana cerana honey.
... In the case of certain microbial strains that are pathogenic for the human organism and resistant to various medicamental treatments, whose drugs do not achieve the expected results, the valorization of honey as a therapeutic substance has been addressed in numerous scientific researches with a view to its possible use in alternative medicine [4][5][6]. According to Albaridi [7], antibacterial effects have been known and practiced in vitro for several years, without even understanding their mechanisms of action. ...
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... However, this does not imply that other compounds are not involved in the prevention of oxidation processes. As evidenced by a weak and very weak negative correlation between TAOC, TPC, and TFC, a non-phenolic antioxidant may also responsible for the antioxidant activity of honey (Bertoncelj et al. 2007;Bogdanov 2012). Profiling and identification of the volatile compounds was conducted using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ...
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The antiradical activities of various antioxidants were determined using the free radical, 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH*). In its radical form. DPPH* has an absorption band at 515 nm which dissappears upon reduction by an antiradical compound. Twenty compounds were reacted with the DPPH* and shown to follow one of three possible reaction kinetic types. Ascorbic acid, isoascorbic acid and isoeugenol reacted quickly with the DPPH* reaching a steady state immediately. Rosmarinic acid and δ-tocopherol reacted a little slower and reached a steady state within 30 min. The remaining compounds reacted more progressively with the DPPH* reaching a steady state from 1 to 6 h. Caffeic acid, gentisic acid and gallic acid showed the highest antiradical activities with a stoichiometry of 4 to 6 reduced DPPH* molecules per molecule of antioxidant. Vanillin, phenol, γ-resorcylic acid and vanillic acid were found to be poor antiradical compounds. The stoichiometry for the other 13 phenolic compounds varied from one to three reduced DPPH* molecules per molecule of antioxidant. Possible mechanisms are proposed to explain the experimental results.
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The causes of darkening in honey have been attributed to Maillard reaction, fructose caramelization and reactions of polyphenols, however, no systematic studies exist on this subject. The influence of composition and initial color on the rate of darkening of several Argentine honeys submitted to storage at 37°C during 90 days was evaluated through spectrocolorimetric measurements. The most suitable color functions to evaluate darkening of honeys [lightness (Lab*), browning index (BI), metric chroma (Cab*), metric hue (Hab*) and 1/Z] increased linearly as storage time increased, after an initial induction period of very low browning development. The slope of the linear browning development zone with time was an index of browning rate, and it was analyzed in relation to the initial color and the composition of honeys (moisture content, total nitrogen, total lipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, fructose and glucose content). Of the analyzed variables, the initial color was the parameter which better defined the rate of darkening of honeys.
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Several honey samples (27) from Burkina Faso were analyzed to determine their total phenolic, flavonoid and proline contents as well as their radical scavenging activity. These samples consisted of 18 multifloral, 2 honeydew and 7 unifloral honeys, derived in the latter cases from flowers of Combretaceae, Vitellaria, Acacia and Lannea plant species. The total phenolic contents varied considerably with the highest values obtained for honeydew honey. Similarly, much variation was seen in total flavonoid and proline content, with Vitellaria honey having the highest proline content. Vitellaria honey was also found to have the highest antioxidant activity and content. The correlation between radical scavenging activity and proline content was higher than that for total phenolic compounds. This suggests that the amino acid content of honey should be considered more frequently when determining its antioxidant activity.
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In this study, we investigated and compared some chemical properties and in vitro biological activities of three different types of Turkish honey. The first two honey samples were monofloral from chestnut and rhododendron flowers, collected from the east Black Sea region, and the third sample was the heterofloral form of astragalus (Astragalus microcephalus Willd.), thyme (Thymus vulgaris) and other several mountain flowers, collected from Erzincan in Eastern Anatolia. The chemical properties of the honey samples, such as total moisture, ash, total protein, sucrose, invert sugar, diastase activity, hydroxymethylfurfural content and acidity, were determined. Total phenolics, superoxide radical- and peroxynitrite-scavenging activities, and ferric reducing/antioxidant power measurements were used as antioxidant capacity determinants with ±-catechin, butylated hydroxytoluene, ascorbic acid, and trolox® used as reference. The antimicrobial activity was studied by the agar diffusion method, using eight bacteria and two yeasts. The mineral contents were also determined by an AAS method. The chestnut flower honey had the highest phenolic content, superoxide radical-scavenging activity and reducing power, while the heterofloral honey sample exhibited the highest peroxynitrite-scavenging activity. The antioxidant activities were also found to be related to the sample concentrations. The mineral content of the chestnut honey was much higher than the others. The samples showed moderate antimicrobial activity against some microorganisms, especially Helicobacter pylori ATCC 49503, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633, Candida tropicalis ATCC 13803 and Candida albicans ATCC 10231. The honey samples studied proved to be a good source of antioxidants and antimicrobial agents that might serve to protect health and fight against several diseases.
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Total polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant power of raw honey samples from two of the most common Italian varieties, i.e., Millefiori and Acacia, were evaluated. Phenolic content, expressed as caffeic acid equivalents, ranged from 12.5 to 17.5 mg/100 g and from 3 to 11 mg/100 g in Millefiori and Acacia honeys, respectively. All Millefiori samples exhibited the highest flavonoid concentration being between 1.23 and 2.93 mg catechin equivalents (CE)/100 g honey. Total flavonoids in 100 g Acacia honeys were in the range of 0.45–1.01 mg CE. Acacia honeys had lower total antioxidant power, as assessed by ferric reducing/antioxidant power assay, than Millefiori. The relationship between phenolic content and antioxidant power was discussed. Comparative experimental analysis was performed with an artificial honey and processed honeys. Raw Millefiori honey is rich in both amount and variety of antioxidant substances, and its inclusion in the diet may be recommended to complement other polyphenol sources.
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The antioxidant activity of two selected Malaysian honeys, as well as their ethyl acetate extracts, were evaluated. The antioxidant activities were determined in terms of their anti radical power (ARP) as assessed by DPPH radical scavenging assay and their total antioxidant power (TAP), as assessed by FRAP assay. Total phenolic content of the extracts was determined according to the Folin-Ciocalteau procedure. The characteristic antioxidant activities showed a marked correlation with the total phenolic contents. These results indicated that honey has antioxidative and radical scavenging properties, which are mainly due to its phenolic content. This is the first report of the antioxidant properties of Malaysian honeys.
Article
The beneficial influence of many foodstuffs and beverages including fruits, vegetables, tea, red wine, coffee, and cacao on human health has been recently recognized to originate from the chain-breaking antioxidant activity (AOA) of natural polyphenols, a significant constituent of the above products. For this reason, the dietary value of such products is determined to a large extent by their AOA. The latter stimulated the development of effective and reliable methods for determining AOA. Although the kinetic approach provides the basis of the majority of these methods, only a few of them have been analyzed from the viewpoint of chemical kinetics. This review is intended to close down this gap, at least partly. The most popular methods for determining chain-breaking AOA of food are considered with the aim to estimate their reliability and limitations. The main requirements imposed on these methods have been suggested. The main attention has been paid to the repeatability of the data obtained. Along with the methods that are currently popular among researchers working in food chemistry and biomedical sciences, perspectives of the application of the methods used to studying industrial antioxidants have also been considered. The review consists of two main sections. In the first general section, definitions of the main parameters used to characterize AOA are given and the kinetic basis of the methods applied is considered in some detail. The second section is devoted to particular methods including some technical details. In conclusion the data on AOA obtained by various methods are correlated with each other.
Article
The kinetics of changes in total antioxidant activity as assessed by DPPH radical and brown pigment formation (BPF) in honey heated at different temperatures (50, 60 and 70 °C) for up to 12 days were studied. Antioxidant activity and BPF increased with treatment temperature and time. BPF increased following zero-order kinetics with the activation energy value of 122 kJ/mol−1 at 50–70 °C. However, antioxidant activity variation showed different trends according to heating temperatures following second-order, first-order and zero-order kinetics at 50, 60 and 70 °C, respectively. Heating of honey at 70 °C was found to be more effective than 50 and 60 °C for both two parameters. The results demonstrated that antioxidant activity was correlated with increased browning of the samples.
Article
A simple, automated test measuring the ferric reducing ability of plasma, the FRAP assay, is presented as a novel method for assessing "antioxidant power." Ferric to ferrous ion reduction at low pH causes a colored ferrous-tripyridyltriazine complex to form. FRAP values are obtained by comparing the absorbance change at 593 nm in test reaction mixtures with those containing ferrous ions in known concentration. Absorbance changes are linear over a wide concentration range with antioxidant mixtures, including plasma, and with solutions containing one antioxidant in purified form. There is no apparent interaction between antioxidants. Measured stoichiometric factors of Trolox, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbic acid, and uric acid are all 2.0; that of bilirubin is 4.0. Activity of albumin is very low. Within- and between-run CVs are <1.0 and <3.0%, respectively, at 100-1000 micromol/liter. FRAP values of fresh plasma of healthy Chinese adults: 612-1634 micromol/liter (mean, 1017; SD, 206; n = 141). The FRAP assay is inexpensive, reagents are simple to prepare, results are highly reproducible, and the procedure is straightforward and speedy. The FRAP assay offers a putative index of antioxidant, or reducing, potential of biological fluids within the technological reach of every laboratory and researcher interested in oxidative stress and its effects.
Article
Methods for determining primary antioxidant activity were evaluated. A beta-carotene bleaching method and a free radical method using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(*)) were modified to rapidly test samples for potential antioxidant activity. Malonaldehyde production in a linoleic acid emulsion system assayed by an HPLC method was also used to determine antioxidant and prooxidant activities initiated by a metal catalyst (Cu(2+)). All methods were used to assess activity of selected phenolic compounds including several anthocyanidins/anthocyanins and selected berry extracts. Most phenolic compounds had prooxidant activity at low concentrations, unlike synthetic antioxidants (BHA and BHT). Compounds with similar structures exhibited comparable trends in antioxidant activity. Antioxidant activity usually increased with an increase in the number of hydroxyl groups and a decrease in glycosylation. The antioxidant activity of many phenolic compounds and extracts was comparable to those of synthetic antioxidants using the beta-carotene bleaching and HPLC methods.
Article
Honeys from different floral sources were evaluated for their antioxidant content and for their ability to inhibit enzymatic browning in fruits and vegetables. Antioxidant contents of honeys vary widely from different floral sources, as do their abilities to protect against enzymatic browning. Polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity was reduced over a range of approximately 2-45% in fruit and vegetable homogenates, corresponding to a reduction in browning index by 2.5-12 units. Soy honey was particularly effective when compared to clover honey, which had a similar antioxidant content. When compared to commercial inhibitors of browning, honeys were less effective; however, in combination they added to the effectiveness of metabisulfite and ascorbic acid. Honey has great potential to be used as a natural source of antioxidants to reduce the negative effects of PPO browning in fruit and vegetable processing.
Article
Antimicrobial activity of honey has been attributed to hydrogen peroxide, which is produced by naturally occurring glucose oxidase, and phenolic compounds, although lethality of and inhibition by these and other components against microorganisms vary greatly, depending on the floral source of nectar. This study was undertaken to compare honeys from six floral sources for their inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella typhimurium, Shigella sonnei, Listeria monocytogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Bacillus cereus. A disc assay revealed that development of zones of inhibition of growth depends on the type and concentration of honey, as well as the test pathogen. Growth of B. cereus was least affected. The inhibition of growth of S. sonnei, L. monocytogenes, and S. aureus in 25% solutions of honeys was reduced by treating solutions with catalase, indicating that hydrogen peroxide contributes to antimicrobial activity. Darker colored honeys were generally more inhibitory than light colored honeys. Darker honeys also contained higher antioxidant power. Since antimicrobial activity of the darker colored test honeys was not eliminated by catalase treatment, non-peroxide components such as antioxidants may contribute to controlling the growth of some foodborne pathogens. The antibacterial properties of honeys containing hydrogen peroxide and characterized by a range of antioxidant power need to be validated using model food systems.
Article
Lipid oxidation is a major deteriorative factor in meats. Sources of natural antioxidants that are as effective as commercially available antioxidants are desired. The objective of this research was to investigate honey as an inhibitor of lipid oxidation in ground poultry. The antioxidant content of different varieties of honey was investigated spectrophotometrically and honey's effectiveness in reducing oxidation of ground poultry determined by monitoring thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Buckwheat honey had the highest antioxidant content and acacia honey the lowest. Honeys of different floral sources differed in their protection against lipid oxidation. Buckwheat honey (5%, w/w) reduced TBARS approximately 70%, whereas acacia honey reduced TBARS approximately 34% at 3 days of storage at 4 degrees C. In comparison to butylated hydroxytoluene and tocopherol (0.02% of total fat), honey (at 5% of the weight of the meat) was much more effective at preventing oxidation. Honey has great potential as an antioxidant source and may result in greater acceptability of meat products and prevent negative health implications of oxidized meats.
Article
Honeys from seven different floral sources were analyzed for in vitro antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content. Antioxidant capacity was measured by the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay and by monitoring the formation of conjugated dienes as an index of the inhibition of copper-catalyzed serum lipoprotein oxidation. ORAC values ranged from 3.1 to 16.3 micromol Trolox equivalent/g honey. The darkest colored honeys, such as buckwheat honey, had the highest ORAC values. A linear correlation was observed between phenolic content and ORAC activity of the investigated honeys (p < 0.0001, R (2) = 0.9497). The relationship between the ORAC activity and inhibition of lipoprotein oxidation by the honeys yielded a correlation coefficient of 0.6653 (p = 0.0136). This work shows that honey may be used as a healthy alternative to sugar in many products and thereby serve as a source of dietary antioxidants.
Article
Little is known about the individual components of honey that are responsible for its antioxidant activity. The present study was carried out to characterize the phenolics and other antioxidants present in honeys from seven floral sources. Chromatograms of the phenolic nonpolar fraction of the honeys indicated that most honeys have similar but quantitatively different phenolic profiles. Many of the flavonoids and phenolic acids identified have been previously described as potent antioxidants. A linear correlation between phenolic content and ORAC activity was demonstrated (R(2) = 0.963, p < 0.0001). Honeys were separated by solid-phase extraction into four fractions for sugar removal and separation based on solubility to identify the relative contribution of each fraction to the antioxidant activity of honey. Antioxidant analysis of the different honey fractions suggested that the water-soluble fraction contained most of the antioxidant components. Specific water-soluble antioxidant components were quantified, including protein; gluconic acid; ascorbic acid; hydroxymethylfuraldehyde; and the combined activities of the enzymes glucose oxidase, catalase and peroxidase. Of these components, a significant correlation could be established only between protein content and ORAC activity (R(2) = 0.674, p = 0.024). In general, the antioxidant capacity of honey appeared to be a result of the combined activity of a wide range of compounds including phenolics, peptides, organic acids, enzymes, Maillard reaction products, and possibly other minor components. The phenolic compounds contributed significantly to the antioxidant capacity of honey but were not solely responsible for it.