Hazardous effect of tannery solid waste leachates on development and reproduction in Drosophila melanogaster: 70kDa heat shock protein as a marker of cellular damage
Rapid industrialization has increased the burden of chemicals in the environment. These chemicals may be harmful to development and reproduction of any organism. We therefore analyzed the adverse effects of leachates from a tannery solid waste on development and reproduction using Drosophila. We show a significant delay in mean emergence of flies observed at the higher concentrations of the leachates, indicating their effect on the organism's development. Significant leachate-induced effect on reproduction of the organism was also observed. Sub-organismal analyses revealed Hsp70 expression and tissue damage in a sex-specific manner. Refractoriness of Hsp70 expression in accessory glands of male flies and ovaries of females was concurrent with tissue damage. Genes encoding certain seminal proteins (Acp70A and Acp36DE) from accessory glands were significantly down-regulated at higher concentrations of the leachates. The study suggests that (i) sub-organismal adverse responses are reflected at organismal level, (ii) tannery waste leachates cause adverse effects on the expression of genes encoding seminal proteins that facilitate normal reproduction and (iii) Hsp70 may be used as a marker of cellular damage for reproductive organs.