Article

Color changes and acrylamide formation in fried potato chips

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Abstract

The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of browning during deep-fat frying of blanched and unblanched potato chips by using the dynamic method and to find a relationship between browning development and acrylamide formation. Prior to frying, potato slices were blanched in hot water at 85 °C for 3.5 min. Unblanched slices were used as the control. Control and blanched potato slices (Panda variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 120, 150 and 180 °C until reaching moisture contents of ∼1.8% (total basis) and their acrylamide content and final color were measured. Color changes were recorded at different sampling times during frying at the three mentioned temperatures using the chromatic redness parameter a∗. Experimental data of surface temperature, moisture content and color change in potato chips during frying were fit to empirical relationships, with correlation coefficients greater than 90%. A first-order rate equation was used to model the kinetics of color change. In all cases, the Arrhenius activation energy decreases alongside with decreasing chip moisture content. Blanching reduced acrylamide formation in potato chips in ∼64% (average value) in comparison with control chips at the three oil temperatures tested. For the two pre-treatments studied, average acrylamide content increased ∼58 times as the frying temperature increased from 120 to 180 °C. There was a linear correlation between acrylamide content of potato chips and their color represented by the redness component a∗ in the range of the temperatures studied.

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... Baardseth et al. (12) used lactic acid fermentation as a pre-treatment for French fries processing; when the inoculation of lactic acid was done in the blanched potato rods and fermented for between 45 and 120 min, AA content in final product could be reduced by 79 and 94%, respectively. Carrying out the blanching treatment before potato chips processing could significantly limit AA formation (about 64%) by reducing the content of glucose and asparagine, as well as enzyme inactivation in potato slices compared to the unblanched samples (13). Similar results were observed by other researches as well (14). ...
... The color parameter coordinates L * (whiteness or brightness), a * (redness or greenness), and b * (yellowness or blueness) were used to describe the surface color of samples. The redness parameter, a * , presented the significant variation due to non-enzymatic browning reactions during frying (13). ...
... In addition, several researchers have identified the chromatic parameter, a * , as a useful predictor of AA formation in fried potatoes. They found that the amount of AA content increased with the increase of the chromatic parameter, a * , in general, high values of a * are not desirable (13,44). Figure 3 shows the value of chromatic parameter, a * , at the final moisture ratio of the fried sample after the frying process, MR f = 0.1, vs. the frying temperature ( Figure 3A) and the moisture ratio after VD ( Figure 3B) for untreated (U) and PEF pre-treated samples (PEF). ...
Article
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The object of this work was to study the effects of preliminary vacuum drying (VD), pulsed electric field (PEF) treatment, frying temperature on color, oil uptake, and acrylamide (AA) content in fried potato chips. The results of this study indicated that an increase of frying temperature from 120 to 180°C led to a decrease of frying time of around 70% for untreated and PEF pre-treated samples. The color value of L* and a* decreased with the increase of frying temperature, and those values of the sample pre-treated by PEF were significantly higher compared to those obtained from untreated samples. The PEF pre-treatment promoted the reduction of oil content of fried samples by up to 17.6, 14.2, and 16% compared with untreated samples at the frying temperatures of 120, 150, and 180°C, respectively. Higher efficiency was observed by applying the preliminary VD in the case of the frying temperature of 150°C. Furthermore, it was revealed that PEF pre-treatment and preliminary VD application lead to a synergetic effect on the reduction of AA content in potato chips. For example, with the initial moisture ratio of 0.5, pre-dried by VD and pre-treated by PEF, the AA content was noticeably decreased from 2,220 to 311 μg/kg compared to untreated and undehydrated samples at the frying temperature of 150°C. Our findings provide reference for a new pre-treatment to mitigate AA formation and to improve the quality of potato chips.
... Higher concentrations of acrylamide have been found when the water activity was lower. This effect was found to be even more important when the temperature was risen (Ahrné et al., 2007;Miao et al., 2014;Pedreschi et al., 2005). ...
... Some strategies have been proposed in order to reduce acrylamide content. These include lowering baking temperature, pre-treating the food matrix with a blanching process that lowers sugar content (Pedreschi et al., 2005(Pedreschi et al., , 2007, cooking by boiling rather than frying the food (Keramat et al., 2011) or adding organic acids (like citric acid) to the composition of the dough of gingerbread (Amrein et al., 2004). Metallic ions have been proposed to be an alternative in reducing acrylamide concentration in bread crusts, by soaking them in a calcium water-oil emulsion (Sadd et al., 2008). ...
... Using a digital camera, the same authors found a significant correlation between acrylamide in potato crisps and the browning ratio (estimated as the ratio between the number of pixels with a certain intensity divided by the total number of pixels) (Gökmen & Mogol, 2010). In the same context, Pedreschi et al. (Pedreschi et al., 2005(Pedreschi et al., , 2006 found a correlation between both a* and colour change (ΔE) with acrylamide in potato slices, and followed the browning process over different temperatures. This same trend was observed by Mesias et al. (Mesias et al., 2019(Mesias et al., , 2020 in French fries, registering L*a*b* parameters with a HunterLab colourimeter, showing a* a good correlation with acrylamide concentration. ...
Article
A digital image colorimetric approach was developed using a smartphone as a detection device to study acrylamide concentration in homemade toasts. Different slices of white bread were toasted, their resulting colour was captured with the smartphone, and the acrylamide concentration in the samples was determined by LC-MS/MS. From that information, a regression model was built in order to obtain an estimation of the total acrylamide content in the toast from an image. Results indicated that R (from RGB colour space) and h* (hue, from CIE L*C*h*) worked well as predictors, following a linear and a polynomial response, respectively. With this approach, the colorimetric analysis allowed to estimate the acrylamide concentration in the samples in the range of 20–200 μg kg⁻¹, clearly identifying those samples which were below the recommended value (50 μg kg⁻¹) from the ones above it. Additionally, a more exhaustive colorimetric study was carried out on different fractions of the toasts to investigate the suitability of image colorimetry in the acrylamide control in daily consumed products. Overall, this works proves the applicability of smartphones for food control and analysis, allowing to obtain quantitative estimations of chemical parameters of concern.
... Pedreschi et al., 48 determined that acrylamide content of potatoes increased about 58 times due to an increase in the frying temperature from 120 °C to 150 °Cat atmospheric pressure. There were many studies indicating that increasing temperature caused higher acrylamide content during frying of potato products. ...
... There were many studies indicating that increasing temperature caused higher acrylamide content during frying of potato products. 48 The amount of acrylamide in vacuum fried French fries varied between 42.0 and 516.9 ppb under different operating conditions (Table 1). It could be clearly seen in Fig. 2 and ANOVA analysis (Table 2), the acrylamide content of French fries was significantly affected by the frying temperature and time (p < 0.05) and it increased with increasing frying temperature and time. ...
... Many studies have pointed out that there was a correlation between the acrylamide content and colour of fried potatoes. 36,48,53 In our study, similar to literature, it was determined that as the browning index increased higher acrylamide content was determined in fried French fries. According to correlation analysis, the acrylamide content and the browning index gave a correlation of r = 0.64 in vacuum fried French fries. ...
Article
Vacuum frying conditions were investigated with respect to physical, chemical and sensorial properties of French fries and frying oil, besides determining the effect of frying conditions in terms of frying temperature and time. In order to determine the optimum frying conditions of the French fries optimization study was carried out according to Central Composite Rotatable Design. The results were evaluated to determine optimum vacuum frying conditions targeting minimum oil content, 30–45 N in range of hardness, minimum acrylamide content and maximum overall preference. The optimum vacuum frying condition was selected as 124.39 °C of frying temperature and 8.36 min of frying time for French fries. The French fries obtained at optimum conditions for vacuum frying preserved the desired color, textural properties and flavor and it has low oil content and reduced acrylamide formation. In addition, the frying oil quality was preserved with vacuum frying.
... Over the past few decades, rapid economic development and globalization of markets worldwide have led to fundamental changes in human lifestyles [1] Fast food cooking methods such as deep frying are one of the most common cooking methods in the industrial world, which are used to prepare delicious and spicy snacks. During the cooking process at high temperatures, various contaminants may occur in food that can have adverse effects on human health (acrylamide, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polyethylene terephthalate, etc.) [2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and World Health Organization (WHO) reports that acrylamide is a potential human carcinogen (group 2A) considering its carcinogenicity in rodents [12]. ...
... Also, depending on the type of cooking methods, the contamination formation in food can also be different [41][42][43]. In the traditional method, we have a decrease in the moisture content and color changes (yellow to brown) more than the industrial method, and in fact, water withdrawal is one of the ways to decarboxylation the Amadori compounds, and then the acrylamide formation [2,19,44,45]. ...
... Also, the lowest amount of acrylamide were found in the skin of fried chicken, when the chicken was fried in fresh oil at 150°C for 11 min. Also, when the chickens are fried in fresh oil and used oil mixed at 150°C for 12 min, they have the lowest levels of acrylamide [2]. Mustadagh et al. (2005) reported that the type of frying oil is not effective in the acrylamide formation in fried potatoes, so the type of frying oils (cotton, olive, peanut, shortening, canola, meal, soybean, grain) no a significant effect [60] [61]. ...
Article
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The aim of current study was to evaluate the acrylamide level in chicken, meat and shrimp nugget samples cooked in both traditional and industrial methods using “Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe” QuEChERS extraction and gas chromatography-flame-ionization detection (GC-FID). Results revealed the traditional frying method has significant effect on the increase of acrylamide compared to industrial frying method and it was also found that the different cooking temperatures and time have significant effect on increase of acrylamide formation (p < 0.05), but type of edible oils had no significant effect. The highest acrylamide level found in shrimp nuggets (27 ± 1.5 ng/g) which fried by colza oil and traditional cooking method (6 min at 220 °C), while the lowest content of acrylamide found in chicken nuggets (7.3 ± 0.1 ng/g) which fried by corn oil and industrial method (3 min at 180 °C). Monte Carlo simulation (MCS) results indicated that the trend of potential non-carcinogenic risks on THQ for children was chicken nugget (3.51E-3) > meat nugget (1.36E-3) > shrimp nugget (1.43E-4) and for adults was chicken nugget (3.49E-4) > meat nugget (1.35E-4) > shrimp nugget (1.38E-5). The health risk of acrylamide for adults and children, was considerably lower than the safe risk limits (HQ >1 and CR > 1E-4) for Iranian population.
... Results obtained are in agreement with the results [18] that increase in potato slice thickness resulted in decreased oil content and emphasized that product size is another factor that affects the final oil content of fried products. Similar results were observed by other authors [19,20] who noted that thinner potato strips retained more oil after frying than thicker strips. A study on effect of pre-drying on fat content of potato chips reported that lower temperature is associated to the higher fat which hold true for our results reported [20]. ...
... Similar results were observed by other authors [19,20] who noted that thinner potato strips retained more oil after frying than thicker strips. A study on effect of pre-drying on fat content of potato chips reported that lower temperature is associated to the higher fat which hold true for our results reported [20]. However, the relation between the oil and moisture content of potato chips and their crispy texture still unclear. ...
Article
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Abstract Nutritional composition, of potato was evaluated to establish frying processing conditions to estimate the sensory profile and acceptability of different slice thickness.The slice thickness were set to 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5mm. The variables studied were: time, temperature and potato varieties. The comparisons evaluated were: chip colour, frying time, effect of different slice thickness, oil absorption to different thickness, content of reducing sugars, sucrose and phenols after frying of slices. Potato chips are sold in organized sectors and un-organised sectors sale chips through street vendors all over the India. Perception or profiling of chips of different thickness data and their sensory evaluation part has not been done so far. Two processing varieties, Kufri Chipsona-1 and Kufri Chipsona-3 (110 maturity days) were analysed for different thickness regulating different temperature of 170, 180 and 190°C. Associated parameters reducing sugars, sucrose and phenols were analysed before and after frying.The temperature of 170 and 180 °C was found to be suitable temperature for acceptable chip colour quality. Slice thickness of 0.5mm reduced the oil absorption. Reduction in reducing sugars was found to be maximum (77.9 %) in variety Kufri Chipsona-1, at 180°C with 0.2mm thickness followed by at 170°C with the same thickness (77.0%) in variety Kufri Chipsona-1. Phenol content in processed chips, markedly was more than raw potato phenol values. Sensory evaluation results in overall acceptance of 0.2mm thick slices than 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5mm thick slices.
... Grob et al. [25] reported a 50% reduction in the AA content of french fries after the blanching of potato strips. A similar finding was reported by Pedreschi et al. [26] when potato slices were blanched before deep frying of potato strips. Additionally, reduction in pH after fermentation was another important factor because it resulted in a decreased rate of Maillard browning [27][28][29]. ...
... Additionally, the color of the french fries was improved when the potatoes were blanched following the fermentation process. Pedreschi et al. [26] reported that blanched, deep-fried potato slices had a lighter color than unblanched slices. It has previously been demonstrated that lactic acid fermentation of potato slices increases the lightness of deep-fried potato chips [33]. ...
Article
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Acrylamide (AA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) are processing toxicants that are formed when food is fried. They are toxic and are thought to be a health hazard because of their high consumption levels in the diets of urban people. The purpose of this study was to minimize the formation of AA and HMF in french fries by lactic acid fermentation (Lactobacil- lus plantarum strain NCDC LP 20). HMF was quantifed with a UV-spectrophotometer and AA was determined by HPLC– DAD. Fermentation without blanching reduced the amount of HMF and AA in french fries by about 85.52% and 53.96%, respectively. Additionally, the combined efect of fermentation and blanching enhanced the rate of reduction in the amount of HMF and AA, i.e., 91.11% and 57.50%, respectively. Results showed that reducing sugar content is highly correlated with the level of acrylamide (r=0.905, p≤0.001) and level of HMF (r=0.927, p<0.001) than the asparagine content. The color and texture of the fried sample treated with fermentation were better compared to the control sample hence can be recommended as an efective method of reducing processing toxicants.
... Potatoes (about 8 for each test) were peeled and then cut with "fry cutters" into strips of dimensions 10 mm × 10 mm × 40 mm (Krokida et al. 2001). They were then blanched in water, heated at 85 °C for 3.5 min (Pedreschi et al. 2005) in order to remove the sugars retained on the surface. They were then drained for 20 min on air. ...
... The red index (a*) is the most important parameter in the colouring of French fries. It reflects the degree of browning associated with acrylamide formation (Pedreschi et al. 2005;Serpen and Gökmen 2009). Potato slices tend to show progressive increase of a* values with increasing frying time (Pedreschi et al. 2004). ...
Article
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The present study aimed to investigate the culinary quality of French fries of two intraspecific hybrid lines (CN1 and CN2) compared to the commercial variety Spunta. The choice of frying times and temperature was based on the oil absorption and colourimetric measurements carried out in the preliminary frying test on the variety Spunta. The frying temperature of 180 °C for 5 and 7 min was selected. In this report, we focused on studying the effect of deep-fat frying at 180 °C on the different lines in order to assess their behaviour during the frying process. Colour changes were recorded at mentioned frying conditions using the parameters of redness a*, yellowness b* and clarity L*. Experimental data of moisture content, oil absorption and texture in potato French fries of different lines during frying were also investigated. Results showed that oil uptake remained almost stable in the fries of hybrids with the lowest content presented in the CN1 line. Moreover, the rigidity values of CN2 and CN1 fries were respectively 2- and threefold higher than in Spunta fries for both frying times, leading to more crispy French fries. In addition, French fries of hybrids exhibited the lowest moisture levels, which may prolong the shelf-life of fried potatoes and their conservation. © 2022, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to European Association for Potato Research.
... A D65 light source normalized by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) was used in the color reader, which closely matches the daylight, helping minimizing the measurement errors due to lighting fluctuation. [29,30] ΔE*ab value as an index to describe the total color difference (TCD), [31] is calculated following (Equation (2)): ...
... A D65 light source normalized by the International Commission on Illumination (CIE) was used in the color reader, which closely matches the daylight, helping minimizing the measurement errors due to lighting fluctuation [29,30]. ∆E*ab value as an index to describe the total color difference (TCD) [31], is calculated following (Equation (2)): ...
Article
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We report on a novel colorimetric sensor system for highly sensitive detection of formaldehyde (FA) in the gas phase. The sensor is constructed with paper towel as a substrate coated with the sulfuric acid salt of hydroxylamine ((NH2OH)2·H2SO4) together with two pH indicators, bromophenol blue and thymol blue. Upon exposure to FA, the hydroxylamine will react with the absorbed FA to form a Schiff base (H2C=N-OH), thus releasing a stoichiometric amount of sulfuric acid, which in turn induces a color change of the pH indicator. Such a color change was significantly enriched by incorporating two pH indicators in the system. With the optimized molar ratio of the two pH indicators, the color change (from brown to yellow, and to red) could become so dramatic as to be visible to the eye depending on the concentration of FA. In particular, under 80 ppb of FA (the air quality threshold set by WHO) the color of the sensor substrate changes from brown to yellow, which can even be envisioned clearly by the naked eyes. By using a color reader, the observed color change can be measured quantitatively as a function of the vapor concentration of FA, which produces a linear relationship as fitted with the data points. This helps estimate the limit of detection (LOD), to be 10 ppb under an exposure time of 10 min, which is much lower than the air quality threshold set by WHO. The reported sensor also demonstrates high selectivity towards FA with no color change observed when exposed to other common chemicals, including solvents and volatile organic compounds. With its high sensitivity and selectivity, the proposed paper-based colorimetric sensor thus developed can potentially be employed as a low-cost and disposable detection kit that may find broad application in detecting FA in indoor air and many other environments.
... Acrylamide is a carcinogen as an unsaturated amide commonly formed when sugars and amino acids react at very high temperatures [1,2]. Acrylamide was detected in a variety of foods cooked in Sweden in 2002, and it was shown that cooking food at high temperatures alters the taste and can also be deadly [3]. ...
... Principally, several parameters have a cross effect on acrylamide formation in high-temperature processed potato. The main influential factors are reducing sugar, free amino acids, especially asparagine, thermal processing conditions (temperature and time) [2]. Since potato containing medium protein content and high carbohydrate content substantially anticipated high acrylamide formation during heating [21]. ...
Article
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Acrylamide is a carcinogen found in heat-treated food products that cause neurotoxicity and major genetic damage. The present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to elucidate probiotic microorganisms' efficiency for reducing acrylamide in high-risk foods, including bread and fried potato products. A systematic search was performed in Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and PubMed, from inception until January 2021. The experimental studies the reduction of acrylamide formation in bread and fried potato products using probiotic microorganisms included in this review. The extracted information was analyzed in two subgroups from fifteen studies with 41 strains of bacteria and yeast. The results indicated that probiotic microorganism strains significantly diminished acrylamide by 38.33% (CI 32.95%, 43.71%) in bread and 63.87% (CI 53.16%, 74.58%) in fried potato. Most studies were assessed using different probiotics strains, especially lactic acid bacteria (63.41%) in sourdough for bread making. Considering strain-specific potential of probiotics in binding with acrylamide the rank order of strain was Saccharomyces (82%), > Lactobacillus (39.28%), > Leuconostoc (34.35%), > Pediococcus (25.90%) in bread and Aureobasidium (83%), > Lactobacillus (63.8%), > Saccharomyces (60.87%) in fried potato products. These findings suggest that sourdough fermentation with selected potential strains of probiotics can be used safely for reducing acrylamide in cereal bread. Also, the treatment of potatoes with appropriate strains before frying can be recommended for decreasing acrylamide levels.
... Previous studies, investigating the acrylamide formation and color development in French fries, reported that the a* value changed, while the L* and b* values did not change with increasing temperature and time (Pedreschi et al., 2005(Pedreschi et al., , 2006a. Also, a linear correlation (R 2 = 0.957) was found between the a* value and acrylamide content (Pedreschi et al., 2005(Pedreschi et al., , 2006a. ...
... Previous studies, investigating the acrylamide formation and color development in French fries, reported that the a* value changed, while the L* and b* values did not change with increasing temperature and time (Pedreschi et al., 2005(Pedreschi et al., , 2006a. Also, a linear correlation (R 2 = 0.957) was found between the a* value and acrylamide content (Pedreschi et al., 2005(Pedreschi et al., , 2006a. Parallel behavior between acrylamide formation and browning (increasing a* value) was observed in another study, where conventional frying of potato chips was combined with radio-frequency post-drying (Koklamaz et al., 2014). ...
Article
Consumers tend to reduced-fat products recently due to health concerns, which create a need to design reduced-fat products either changing the recipes or the processes. In the last decade, baking was introduced to reformulated potato chips production to low-fat chips; however it might lead to higher acrylamide formation due to increased processing time. In this study, vacuum baking and combined conventional and vacuum baking processes were introduced as new baking technologies to mitigate acrylamide in baked reformulated potato chips. The acrylamide reduction in vacuum-baked potato chips ranged from 72 to 98% when compared with conventional-baked one (6 min, 200 °C) whose moisture content (4.83%) was similar to all vacuum- (4.07%–4.77%) and combined-baked samples (4.42%–4.57%). The surface browning was significantly different (p < 0.05) during vacuum baking compared to others due to the difference of the heat transfer in the corresponding ovens. Higher L* and lower a* values were observed in vacuum- and combined-baked chips compared to conventional ones. Sensory analysis showed that vacuum-baked samples were more appreciated than the others in texture and overall acceptability (p < 0.05). Vacuum and combined processes might be considered as alternative baking technologies for safer reformulated potato chips.
... On the formation of acrylamide during frying, many studies showed the fate of this compound in potato-based foodstuffs such as potato slices (Pedreschi et al., 2005) and French fries (Mestdagh et al., 2007). In potato-based products, asparagine content is relatively higher than the reducing sugar content, and the reducing sugar level influences the acrylamide formation of the products (Amrein et al., 2003;Amrein et al., 2004;Becalski et al., 2004;De Wilde et al., 2005). ...
... The decomposed products containing carbonyl group were probably responsible for the absorption of the visible light during frying. It is interesting to note that redness of soft oils during heating and frying were different, could be caused by the browning effect due to acrylamide formation when food debris from the fried food had diffused into the frying oils, which would produce a lighter colour of the fried food (Pedreschi et al., 2005). ...
Article
This study was carried out to determine the effect of intermittent frying of French fries using four different types of frying media on the media quality as well as 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol esters (3-MCPDE) and glycidyl esters (GE) in frying oils and acrylamide contents in finished product. A total of 80 h of heating (control) and frying experiments at 180°C was conducted, from which the heated and frying oil samples, as well as French fries were collected every day for 10 consecutive days. The oil samples were subjected to oil quality assessment as well as 3-MCPDE and GE in oils and acrylamide content in fried foods. A significant reduction of more than 80% in the 3-MCPDE content of palm olein was observed as compared to the other oils. The final 3-MCPDE levels in all oils were below 0.5 mg kg⁻¹; whilst the GE levels were between 0.5 and 2.0 mg kg⁻¹. For acrylamide analysis, oil type and lipid oxidation profile play an important role in the acrylamide concentration in the fried products. As for oil quality parameters, palm olein showed better frying performance due to the fact that it contains balanced proportion of saturated and unsaturated fatty acid composition. Edible oils with high unsaturated fatty acid are more susceptible to oxidation. In general, frying conditions affect the formation of 3-MCPDE and GE in all oils under extended frying time.
... According to Napolitano et al. (2008), the concentration of acrylamide in potato crisps increased quickly as frying time at 180 °C increased. While Pedreschi et al. (2005) found that the amount of acrylamide significantly increased as the frying temperature increased from 150 to 190 °C and that after 7 minutes at 150 °C, the acrylamide content of potato slices was around 500 µg/kg compared to around 4500 µg/kg for frying for 3.5 minutes at 190 °C. The generation of acrylamide in potato chips (Atlantic variety) fried for a maximum of 6 minutes in a conventional fryer was tested, and it was discovered that the acrylamide level increased significantly with frying duration for all frying temperatures of 150, 165, and 180 °C (Granda It was found that rice and potatoes absorb acrylamide at various times when the frying temperature raised from 110 to 175 °C. ...
Article
Acrylamide (AA) is an industrial chemical used in the production of polyacrylamides: It was discovered in food during the thermal processing (frying, baking, grilling, and roasting, among other things) of a wide range of foods (mostly starchy foods). Frying is one of the pathway for acrylamide formation, in which oil is heated to temperatures above the smoke point, which results in the production of acrolein known as the acrolein pathway. The formation of acrylamide during frying is influenced by a variety of factors. The article examines the factors contributing to the formation of acrylamide in various fried food products. These factors include processing time and temperature, type of oil, size of food, reused oil, food type and brand, storage conditions, presence of antioxidant in oil and so on.
... Roughly speaking a good level of yellowness is "the goal" but, at the same time, redness must be minimized. Nevertheless, Knol et al. [36] and Pedreschi et al. [53] indicated that acrylamide concentration shows a good linear correlation with the redness of potato chips. Therefore redness can be indirectly controlled by the level of acrylamide (recall that the first objective considered in this work was to minimize the concentration of acrylamide). ...
Article
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In this study, we performed multi-objective model-based optimization of a potato-frying process balancing between acrylamide production and a quality parameter (yellowness). Solution analysis revealed that, for most of the Pareto solutions, acrylamide levels exceeded the EFSA recommendation. Almost equivalent optimal solutions were found for moderate processing conditions (low temperatures and/or processing times) and the propagation of the uncertainty of the acrylamide production model parameters led to Pareto fronts with notable differences from the one obtained using the nominal parameters, especially in the ranges of high values of acrylamide production and yellowness. These results can help to identify processing conditions to achieve the desired acrylamide/yellowness balance and design more robust processes allowing for the enhancement of flexibility when equivalent optimal solutions can be retrieved.
... This reaction leads to brown-to-black-colored products with off-flavors that reduce consumer acceptance. Importantly, the Maillard reaction also generates the potential carcinogenic acrylamide, which raises a worldwide food safety concern (Pedreschi et al., 2005). ...
Article
Which sugar transporter regulates sugar accumulation in tubers is largely unknown. Accumulation of reducing sugar (RS) in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) tubers negatively affects the quality of tubers undergoing the frying process. However, little is known about the genes involved in regulating RS content in tubers at harvest. Here, we have identified two tonoplast sugar transporter (TST) 3-type isoforms (StTST3.1 and StTST3.2) in potato. Quantitative real-time PCR results indicate that StTST3.1 and StTST3.2 possess distinct expression patterns in various potato tissues. StTST3.2 was found to be the expressed TST3-type isoform in tubers. Further subcellular localization analysis revealed that StTST3.2 was targeted to the tonoplast. Silencing of StTST3.2 in potato by stable transformation resulted in significantly lower RS content in tubers at harvest or after room temperature storage, suggesting StTST3.2 plays an important role in RS accumulation in tubers. Accordingly, compared with the unsilenced control, potato chips processed from StTST3.2-silenced tubers exhibited lighter color and dramatically decreased acrylamide production at harvest or after room temperature storage. In addition, we demonstrated that silencing of StTST3.2 has no significant effect on potato growth and development. Thus, suppression of StTST3.2 could be another effective approach for improving processing quality and decreasing acrylamide content in potato tubers.
... Different segments of the population, particularly children, show great interest in eating snacks, mostly potato chips with especial popularity. Various studies have been reported so far on the side effects and health risks of consuming potato chips, most notably acrylamide being a carcinogen (Pedreschi et al., 2005;Gökmen et al., 2005;Gökmen and Şenyuva, 2006;Rommens et al., 2008;Ouhtit et al., 2014). Due to the need for pest control and the management of potato diseases by pesticides, their residue in potato chips may seriously endanger consumers' health. ...
Article
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Pesticides improve crop yields, but misuse imposes environmental problems and diseases or abnormalities in humans. Based on food security definition, balanced attention to healthy and sufficient products, there is a growing need to pay attention to product health. The present study was aimed to measure the residual levels of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN) in potato Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Agria and their chips by accurate, rapid, and reliable extraction method (QuEChERS) using gas chromatography equipped with NPD detector (GC-NPD). The samples were analyzed in pre-harvest stages, harvest, and storage. The recovery of DZN was 95.76-99.87% and 82.38-98.05%, and the CPF 90.85-99.07% and 79.4-89.76% in potatoes and chips, respectively. According to the specifications of the European Commission, the relative standard deviation (RSD) of < 11% detected in this study confirms the accuracy of the extraction method. Moreover, the CPF residual level was detected only in the pre-harvest stage; however, the DZN residual levels in the pre-harvest, harvest, and storage stages, and chips were 0.074 ± 0.007, 0.039 ± 0.014, 0.029 ± 0.009, and 0.13 ± 0.042 μg.g-1 , respectively. The residual level in chips and harvest and storage stages was higher than that in the maximum residue level (MRL).
... There is also a relationship between the dry matter content and the frying efficiency and frying color. The high dry matter content increases the productivity of chips, provides a crispy consistency in the mouth and less oil absorption during frying process (Pedreschi et al., 2005;Rommens et al., 2010). In our study, both the chips and finger potatoes productivities were found to be high in varieties with high dry matter ratios. ...
Article
This study aimed to determine the potato breeding lines that show superior processing quality traits and can be candidate variety by selection. The study was conducted according to The Randomized Plots Trial Design with four replications in 2019 and 2020 years. In the study, 26 potato breeding lines developed by Selcuk University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops, and 4 registered varieties as plant material were used in the two years. The varieties and lines were done harvest in the fields and then the genotypes were evaluated according to processing quality traits. In the study; dry matter ratio (%), chips yield (%), French fries yield (%), chips, and French fries color (L*, b*) parameters were examined. Dry matter ratio, chips yield and French fries yield, and chips and French fries color values were found important statistically in terms of years, genotypes, year x genotype interactions. Values of chips and French fries color were varied from only genotypes averages. According to two years average, results showed large variations for examined parameters; dry matter ratio changed between 16.8-20.9 %, chips yield was 34.1-51.0 %, French fries yield was 30.7-44.9 %, chips color values (L*, b*) were 19.4-67.1, 8-44 and French fries color values (L*, b*) were 11.4-71.5, 13.5-58.2, respectively.
... Early maturing potato varieties have less dry matter accumulation than late maturing ones (de Freitas et al., 2006;Jansky, 2009;Kawchuk et al., 2008). High dry matter ratio; It increases the yield of chips, provides a crispy consistency in the mouth and less oil extraction during frying (Pedreschi et al., 2005;Rommens et al., 2010). ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine the potato breeding lines that show superior storage traits and can be candidate variety by selection. The storage study was carried out in the first year according to the The Randomized Plots Trial Design and in the second year according to The Randomized Plots In Factorial Trial Design with four replications. In the study, 20 potato breeding lines developed by Selcuk University, Faculty of Agriculture, Department of Field Crops and 18 registered varieties as plant material were used in the first year. In the second year, the study continued with 7 breeding lines and 8 registered varieties that selected at the first year. The varieties and lines were done harvest in the fields and then the genotypes were evaluated according to physical and quality traits with storage trials (+ 4 °C, 6 months). In the study; ratio of dry matter (%), yield of leaf chips (%), yield of French fries (%), quality of leaf chips (1-5 scale), quality of French fries (0-4 scale), blackening (1-5 scale), storage weight loss (%), the first shoot formation time (day) parameters were examined. The ratio of dry matter, yield of leaf chips and yield of French fries values increased compared to the pre-storage period. Among the promising lines in terms of dry matter ratio changes; T7LA8 (20.9 %-24.8 % in 2019,19.0 %-21.1 % in 2020 according to the genotype average values), PAG5 (22.6 %-20.5 % in 2019, 20.0 %-19.0 % in 2020 according to the genotype average values), GAF4 (18.7 %-21.6 % in 2019, 18.4 %-20.7 % in 2020 according to the genotype average values) can be counted. As a result of the study, T7LA8, PAG5 and GAF4 lines with high ratio of dry matter, yields of chips and French fries were determined as promising lines.
... The accumulation of Maillard hazard is inseparable from the degree of Maillard reaction, which is visualized by the change in the color of the food surface. Color properties containing L * , a * , and b * has been widely used to establish the correlations with the Maillard hazards in different foods (41,42). According to the Pearson analysis, a negatively correlation (p < 0.01) between L * value with the five Maillard hazards content, but a * , b * , and E value was positively correlation (p < 0.001) with AM, 5-HMF, MGO, and 3-DG contents of air fried French fries. ...
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This study focused on the formation of Maillard hazards in air fried fries, highlighting the correlation between the resultant physical properties of the fries and the formation of Maillard hazards. In the meantime, the effects of air frying on the in vitro starch digestibility of fries were explored. Potato strips were fried at various temperatures (180–200°C) and time (12–24 min). Results indicated that the extent of browning, hardness, and the contents of Maillard hazards (acrylamide, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, methylglyoxal, and glyoxal) all increased steadily with air frying temperature and time. Moisture content were negatively correlated (p < 0.001) with Maillard hazards content and physicochemical properties except for L* with the correlation coefficients range from −0.53 to 0.94, and positively correlated with L* value with correlation coefficient was 0.91, hence, reducing the Maillard hazard exposure while maintaining the desired product quality can be achieved by controlling the moisture content of the air fried French fries. Compared with deep frying (180°C−6 min), air frying decreased acrylamide and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural content with the maximum reduction rate were 47.31 and 57.04%, respectively. In addition, the in vitro digestion results suggested that air frying resulted in higher levels of slowly digestible starch (48.54–58.42%) and lower levels of resistant starch (20.08–29.34%) as compared to those from deep frying (45.59 ± 4.89 and 35.22 ± 0.65%, respectively), which might contribute to more balanced blood sugar levels after consumption. Based on the above results, it was concluded that air frying can reduce the formation of food hazards and was relatively healthier.
... Positive a* values (a* > 0, redness), which would indicate a less greenish colouration, were not observed in any of the samples. Reddish colouration is not acceptable from the point of view of oil quality as it is related to combined oxidized fatty acid and pyrolytic condensation products [28]. ...
... Positive a* values (a* > 0, redness), which would indicate a less greenish colouration, were not observed in any of the samples. Reddish colouration is not acceptable from the point of view of oil quality as it is related to combined oxidized fatty acid and pyrolytic condensation products [28]. ...
Article
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The different vegetable oils used in canned fish as a filling medium have a preserving effect and contribute to the palatability of the product. In this study, the colour of European eels and the filling medium (sunflower oil, olive oil or spicy olive oil) was measured at different steps of the canning process. The sensorial characteristics of canned eels packed in the different oils were also evaluated. Colour scores (CieLab values) were higher in canned eels packed in sunflower and spicy olive oil than in canned eels packed in olive oil. The changes in colour parameters depended on the type of oil, the stage of the process and the storage time. Colour changes in canned eels packed in olive oil were highest during the sterilization process. Spicy olive oil was the filling medium in which the colour change was greatest, probably due to the migration of some of the spice components into the oil. Organoleptic properties were directly related to the type of oil used as the filling medium. The canned eels packed in sunflower oil were those awarded the highest scores in consumer tests, although the preferences varied depending on the age and gender of the consumers.
... Positive a* values (a* > 0, redness), which would indicate a less greenish colouration, were not observed in any of the samples. Reddish colouration is not acceptable from the point of view of oil quality as it is related to combined oxidized fatty acid and pyrolytic condensation products [28]. ...
Preprint
The different vegetable oils used in canned fish as filling medium have a preserving effect and contribute to the palatability of the product. In this study, the colour of European eels and the filling medium (sunflower oil, olive oil or spicy olive oil) was measured at different steps of the canning process. The sensorial characteristics of canned eels packed in the different oils were also evaluated. Colour scores (CieLab values) were higher in canned eels packed in sunflower and spicy olive oil than in canned eels packed in olive oil. The changes in colour parameters depended on the type of oil, the stage of the process and the storage time. Colour changes in canned eels packed in olive oil were highest during the sterilization process. Spicy olive oil was the filling medium in which the colour change was greatest, probably due to the migration of some of the spice components into the oil. Organoleptic properties were directly related to the type of oil used as the filling medium. The canned eels packed in sunflower oil were those awarded the highest scores in consumer tests, although the preferences varied depending on the age and gender of the consumers.
... The amount of acrylamide compounds increased significantly through moving from light brown to dark brown in all types of Tah-Dig. The results of the present study were consistent with the results of other studies about a direct and strong link between the intensity of the color and the amount of acrylamide in processed starch products [23,24]. Therefore, color can be a good indicator of the amount of acrylamide in different types of Tah-Dig. ...
Article
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Fried starchy foods have the conditions to produce harmful compounds, such as acrylamide and malondialdehyde (MDA). One of these popular and commonly consumed foods among Iranians is Tah-Dig. This study aimed to evaluate the factors that affect their production and also levels in Tah-Dig. In this cross-sectional study, the information about the cooking pattern and consumption of Tah-Dig was randomly obtained from 611 households in Kermanshah through a dietary pattern questionnaire. Samples were provided by the households were classified according to type (potato, rice and bread) and color (golden, light brown and dark brown). Acrylamide levels were measured by a LC–mass spectrometer, and MDA levels were measured using a barbituric acid kit. More than 77.7% of participants consumed Tah-Dig at least 5 times a week. Potato Tah-Dig had the highest amount of acrylamide (1096 ± 637 ng/g). By changing the color value from golden to dark brown, the amount of acrylamide in all types of Tah-Dig increased significantly (P-value < 0.001). The highest amount of MDA was ascribed to canola oil (1527.89 ± 519.20 ng/L) and the lowest to ghee (546.12 ± 213.43 ng/L), after the Tah-Dig was cooked. No correlation was found between the type of oil and the amount of acrylamide. Tah-Dig is considered a harmful food among Iranian households due to its high consumption frequency and the abundance of acrylamide and MDA. Food and nutrition policymakers should consider teaching the proper cooking ways of such foods to the people.
... Color is the first parameter by which consumers judge food quality. L * , a * , and b * color system parameters have been extensively used to analyze the significance of correlations between the surface color and the AM concentration in different foods (39)(40)(41). Gökmen et al. (19) developed a prediction model of AM content in traditional baked cookies based on computer visual image analysis algorithms and found that there was a significantly positive correlation (r = 0.946, p < 0.01) between the browning rate of biscuits and the amount of AM produced, the browning rate was calculated based on the data of L * , a * , and b * values. The existing literature also ignored the correlation analysis between color and precursor substances. ...
Article
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To reduce thermal processing hazards (TPHs), microwave baking has been extensively used in food thermal processing. In this study, the influence of microwave power and microwave time on the formation of TPHs and their precursors was explored in microwave-baked biscuits. The results indicated that the content of acrylamide, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, methylglyoxal, and 3-deoxyglucosone increased linearly with the extension of microwave time (2, 2.5, and 3 min) and microwave power (440, 480, and 520 W). There was a significant correlation between the four TPHs. 3-Deoxyglucosone may directly or indirectly participate in the formation of the other three TPHs. The relationship between TPH levels with some heat-induced sensory characteristics was analyzed. The correlation between the sensory characteristics and the content of TPHs is L * > a * > hardness > Water activity (AW). The correlation coefficients between L * value and the four TPHs are −0.950, −0.891, −0.803, and −0.985. Furthermore, the content of TPHs produced by traditional baking and microwave baking under the same texture level was compared. Compared with traditional baking (190°C, 7 min), microwave baking at 440 W for 3 min successfully decrease methylglyoxal, 3-Deoxyglucosone, acrylamide, and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural content by 60.75, 30.19, 30.87, and 61.28%, respectively. Traditionally baked biscuits, which had a more obvious color, as characterized by lower L * value, larger a * and b * values, are more susceptible to the formation of TPHs. Therefore, microwave baking can reduce the generation of TPHs.
... Similarly, HMF content was strongly correlated with BI and a* value (P ≤ 0.01) ( Table 4). A similar finding was obtained by Pathare et al., (2012), Pedreschi et al., (2005) and Mesias et al., (2020), who stated linear correlation (Mean R 2 = 0.9569) of HMF with a* values for fried potato slices. Another finding from this study is that the parameter BI appears to differentiate samples according to the AA level using the benchmark as a threshold (500 μg/kg) that show100 percent data french fries and >50 percent data of bakery products have an AA value above the benchmark level. ...
Article
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The harmful effects of acrylamide (AA) are a major health concern for human beings. To find out the levels of AA content in commercial food products, 43 samples representing 3 important product categories (French fries, bakery biscuits, and branded biscuits) were procured from the local market in Allahabad, India. An assay of AA was done using HPLC-DAD. The LOD and LOQ for AA were 3.733 and 11.045 ng/μl, respectively. The AA recovery from ten standard solutions was 100.6 percent, indicating good extraction efficiency. Level of AA ranged between 144.35 and 781.17 μg/kg, 126.33–664.90 μg/kg, and 825.96–1143.15 μg/kg, in branded biscuits, bakery biscuits, and French fries, respectively. A strong and positive correlation of AA was found with HMF, a* value, BI and negatively with ΔE (P ≤ 0.01). It is concluded that a high browning index is significantly associated with AA content and can be used as a screening food to reduce the intake of AA in the diet.
... High dry matter content in tuber exhibited better processing quality of potato (Abong et al., 2009). The chip yield, crispy consistency, and oil absorption during cooking are decided by the high dry matter content in potato tubers (Pedreschi et al., 2005;Rommens et al., 2010). The factors like soil and climate, agronomic techniques, biological and cultivar specifics etc. can varies the potato yields and tuber quality. ...
... In the process of AFF, the L* decreased from 72.93 to 47.42 because of the moisture loss and the weakening of light reflection with the increase of temperature, resulting in the browning and darkening of sturgeon steak surface. The result indicated that the yellow and red deepened differently and the brightness decreased(Pedreschi et al., 2005).When the condition of AFF at 190℃ for 15 min, a* value changed to a positive value of 2.94, indicating the increase of redness. It is reported that high a* value is directly related to the production of carcinogenic compound acrylamide (AtaçMogol & Gökmen, 2014). ...
Article
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In this study, the influence of air‐frying temperature on the physical properties of sturgeon steaks was explored. Meanwhile, the comparison of traditional deep fat frying (TF) and air fryer frying (AFF) methods on the quality, flavor, and digestibility of sturgeon steaks were investigated. The results indicated that along with the increase of temperature (130, 160, and 190℃) for 15 min, the moisture content of AFF sturgeon steak surface decreased dramatically while that of interior was well preserved. The applied texture property analysis exhibited that AFF sturgeon steak showed the enhanced elasticity, low hardness, and soft texture. The results indicated that AFF sturgeon steak contained higher essential amino acid content than TF sturgeon steak. More flavor compounds (aldehydes, alcohols, and esters) were produced after AFF than TF. Although the digestibility of fried sturgeon steaks decreased after frying, AFF sturgeon steaks were digested rapidly in the stomach and intestine. Conclusively, AFF sturgeon steaks exhibited a crispy texture, appealing flavor, and low oil content. This work provides a certain reference for the suitable frying methods in the processing industry of sturgeon products. Under the optimum conditions, air‐fried sturgeon steak had crisp texture, attractive flavor, and low oil content, which can meet the preference of consumers. Compared with deep fat fried surimi, air frying can be considered as a healthy technique for preparing attractive fried food.
... High dry matter content in tuber exhibited better processing quality of potato (Abong et al., 2009). The chip yield, crispy consistency, and oil absorption during cooking are decided by the high dry matter content in potato tubers (Pedreschi et al., 2005;Rommens et al., 2010). The factors like soil and climate, agronomic techniques, biological and cultivar specifics etc. can varies the potato yields and tuber quality. ...
Article
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Production of low-quality potato is the main constraint for increasing the processing and export scenario in Bangladesh. Hence, application of different sources of potassium and vermicompost may improve the biochemical and sensory quality of potato. The experiment was conducted to assess the effect of potassium sources and vermicompost level on the yield and processing quality of potato. The potato variety BARI Alu-25 (Asterix) was used as test crop for this experiment. The experiment consisted of two factors: Factor A: 3 sources of Potassium as-K1: KCl, K2: KNO3, K3: K2SO4; Factor B: 4 levels of vermicompost as-Vm0: 0 ton, Vm1: 4 ton, Vm2: 8 ton, and Vm3: 12 ton. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with three replications. Results revealed that the highest dry matter content (19.83%), specific gravity (1.090 g/cc), and starch (14.81%) were recorded from K2SO4, whereas, the lowest from KNO3. The firmness, dry matter content, specific gravity, and starch content increased with increasing the vermicompost level. A negative relation was observed in the case of TSS and sugar content. Among the 12 treatment combinations, the highest dry matter content (21.12%), specific gravity (1.103 g/cc), and starch (16.34%) were found from K3Vm3, whereas, the lowest from K2Vm0 treatment. However, K1Vm2, K1Vm3, K3Vm2, K3Vm3 showed statistically similar results regarding quality attributes. But the availability of potassium sources and economic point of view, KCl combined with 8-ton vermicompost ha-1 could be used for the production of good quality potato.
... According to Nourian and co-workers [10] L* value of boiled potato decreased and no major changes observed at a* and b* values. Pedreschi and co-workers [20] results did not show any changes in the manner of L* and b* values of potao chips, but at a values there was a progressive increase were seen with frying time. Table 4 shows there was no significant differences about texture profile parameters (Hardness, Adhesiveness, Springiness, Cohesiveness, Gumminess, Chewiness, Resilience) between the 5 different cultivars of potato. ...
... The colour development of potato slices during frying typically followed first-order reaction kinetics (Equation (2)), as reported in other potato cultivars namely 'Panda' based on b* value [27], 'Desiree' based on total colour difference (∆E) [28,29], 'Rosetta' based on L*, a*, and b* values [30] and 'Russet Burbank' based on L*, a*, b*, and ∆E values [31]. ...
Article
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The current research aimed to investigate the effect of pulsed electric fields (1 kV/cm; 50 and 150 kJ/kg) followed by blanching (3 min., 100 °C) on the colour development of potato slices during frying on a kinetic basis. Four potato cultivars ‘Crop77’, ‘Moonlight’, ‘Nadine’, and ‘Russet Burbank’ with different content of glucose and amino acids were used. Lightness (L* values from colorimeter measurement) was used as a parameter to assess the colour development during frying. The implementation of PEF and blanching as sequential pre-treatment prior to frying for all potato cultivars was found effective in improving their lightness in the fried products. PEF pre-treatment did not change the kinetics of L* reduction during frying (between 150 and 190 °C) which followed first-order reaction kinetics. The estimated reaction rate constant (k) and activation energy (Ea based on Arrhenius equation) for non-PEF and PEF-treated samples were cultivar dependent. The estimated Ea values during the frying of PEF-treated ‘Russet Burbank’ and ‘Crop77’ were significantly (p < 0.05) lower (up to 30%) than their non-PEF counterparts, indicating that the change in k value of L* became less temperature dependence during frying. This kinetic study is valuable to aid the optimisation of frying condition in deep-fried potato industries when PEF technology is implemented.
... Blanching treatments are used to reduce browning of fried products by leaching out Maillard reactions which play a predominant role in color and acrylamide formation during frying (Pedreschi et al., 2004). Blanching lead to lighter in color potato chips than those of the control after frying at 150°C (Pedreschi et al., 2005). Blanching prior to frying improves the color and texture of potato chips and could reduce in some cases the oil up take (Califano and Calvelo, 1978). ...
Article
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A study was conducted to investigate the influence of growing environment and blanching on chips quality of five improved potato cultivars (Chiro, Zemen, Bedassa, Gabissa and Harchassa). The cultivars were grown at Langaie, Kulubi and Haramaya, all in the eastern part of Ethiopia. The highest tuber dry matter content (27.33%) and specific gravity (1.110 gcm-3) were produced by cultivar Harchassa while the lowest dry matter content (20.33%) and specific gravity (1.078 gcm-3) were by cultivar Zemen both grown at Haramaya condition. All the cultivars at all locations produced tubers with a dry matter content greater than 20.0% and a specific gravity of 1.070 gcm-3 which are within the acceptable range for chip processing. The tuber pH value ranged from 6.18 to 6.37 for the cultivars regardless of the growing environment. Location did not significantly affect tuber reducing sugar content and the cultivars produced tubers with low reducing sugar content that ranged from 0.036 to 0.051 g 100 g-1 fresh weight (FW). For chips making, peeled potatoes were sliced to 2.0 mm thickness, washed and surface-dried. In the blanching treatment, sliced potatoes were blanched at 90°C for about 5 min. Both blanched and unblanched slices were fried at 175°C for about 5 min using vegetable oil. The interaction effect of genotype and growing environment significantly influenced texture, bitterness, sweetness, crispiness and overall acceptability of potato chips. Blanching improved chips color, texture, sweetness, and crispness while reducing sourness and bitterness, ultimately increased the overall acceptability. In all cases, blanching resulted in a better acceptability of potato chips. The study indicated that the tested cultivars can be potentially be used for chips making. However, a comprehensive study under wide frying and blanching condition would be necessary to optimize the best operating conditions. The potato breeders should give emphasis for genotype × environment interaction while developing varieties suitable for processing.
... Processing quality of potato tubers is determined by high dry matter, and low reducing sugar and phenol contents (Kadam et al., 1991;Abong' et al., 2009). High dry matter content increases chip yield, crispyconsistency, and reduces oil absorption during cooking (Pedreschi et al., 2005;Rommens et al., 2010). Low reducing sugars and phenol contents are required to avoid dark color and bitter taste of processed products, which negatively affect consumer acceptance (Wiltshire and Cobb, 1996). ...
Article
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In this study selected potato clones were evaluated for acceptable processing tuber attributes with yield. The most important processed potato products in the country are French fries (chips), followed by crisps. The demand for these products has increased over the years and therefore require more effort to develop varieties with appropriate qualities for the rapidly developing industry. Therefore, the experiments were conducted from 2016 to 2019 at multiple locations in the central, northwestern and southeastern regions of Ethiopia to evaluate the performance of seven (7) advanced potato genotypes breed at the International Potato Center (CIP) and three nationally released potato varieties for high tuber yield and processing qualities during the main cropping season, June to September. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications in four locations over three years. The main objective of the experiments was to select high-yielding potato clones, with suitability for processing in four agro-ecological regions of the country. Data were collected on average tuber number, tuber weight, number and weight of marketable and unmarketable tubers,and total tuber yield. Tuber physicochemical properties, dry matter content (DM), specific gravity (SG), starch content (SC), and processing products after harvests were evaluated. Moreover, the frying suitability test (IBVL) and crispness/ texture/ for the product were evaluated. Analysis of variance was performed and treatment means were compared using the Duncan multiple range test. The results revealed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) among potato clones with respect to total and marketable tuber yields, dry matter content, and specific gravity. The highest total and marketable tuber yields were obtained from Holetta and Kulumsa, while Adet and Jeldu recorded the lowest. The growing season effect on clones marketable and total tuber yield, average tuber number and weight showed highly significant. The over locations mean for total and marketable tuber yield for CIP-398190.404 was 39.90 t/ha & 35.71 t/ha, respectively followed by CIP-391058.175 with 33.31 t/ha & 30.81 t/ha. Whereas, CIP-396034.103 gave 33.77t/ha and 28.84t/ha total tuber yield and marketable tuber yield, respectively. Tuber dry matter (DM) of 25.8, 24.3, and 25.7% was recorded, respectively. While, the specific gravity (SG) of 1.09, 1.08, and 1.09 g/cm 3 were obtained, respectively. The frying suitability test (IBVL) value showed that CIP-396034.103, (8.5) followed by CIP-398190.404, (7.5) and CIP-391058.175, (7.0). Among the evaluated clones, three cultivars had overall acceptable DM, SG, and frying suitability test (IBVL) for French fries and crisp processing. Thus, among the tested clones, CIP-391058.175 was registred as the first processing variety in Ethiopia.
... Processing quality of potato tubers is determined by high dry matter, and low reducing sugar and phenol contents (Kadam et al., 1991;Abong' et al., 2009). High dry matter content increases chip yield, crispyconsistency, and reduces oil absorption during cooking (Pedreschi et al., 2005;Rommens et al., 2010). Low reducing sugars and phenol contents are required to avoid dark color and bitter taste of processed products, which negatively affect consumer acceptance (Wiltshire and Cobb, 1996). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study selected potato clones were evaluated for acceptable processing tuber attributes with yield. The most important processed potato products in the country are French fries (chips), followed by crisps. The demand for these products has increased over the years and therefore require more effort to develop varieties with appropriate qualities for the rapidly developing industry. Therefore, the experiments were conducted from 2016 to 2019 at multiple locations in the central, northwestern and southeastern regions of Ethiopia to evaluate the performance of seven (7) advanced potato genotypes breed at the International Potato Center (CIP) and three nationally released potato varieties for high tuber yield and processing qualities during the main cropping season, June to September. The experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with three replications in four locations over three years. The main objective of the experiments was to select high-yielding potato clones, with suitability for processing in four agro-ecological regions of the country. Data were collected on average tuber number, tuber weight, number and weight of marketable and unmarketable tubers,and total tuber yield. Tuber physicochemical properties, dry matter content (DM), specific gravity (SG), starch content (SC), and processing products after harvests were evaluated. Moreover, the frying suitability test (IBVL) and crispness/ texture/ for the product were evaluated. Analysis of variance was performed and treatment means were compared using the Duncan multiple range test. The results revealed that there were significant differences (p<0.05) among potato clones with respect to total and marketable tuber yields, dry matter content, and specific gravity. The highest total and marketable tuber yields were obtained from Holetta and Kulumsa, while Adet and Jeldu recorded the lowest. The growing season effect on clones marketable and total tuber yield, average tuber number and weight showed highly significant. The over locations mean for total and marketable tuber yield for CIP-398190.404 was 39.90 t/ha & 35.71 t/ha, respectively followed by CIP-391058.175 with 33.31 t/ha & 30.81 t/ha. Whereas, CIP-396034.103 gave 33.77t/ha and 28.84t/ha total tuber yield and marketable tuber yield, respectively. Tuber dry matter (DM) of 25.8, 24.3, and 25.7% was recorded, respectively. While, the specific gravity (SG) of 1.09, 1.08, and 1.09 g/cm 3 were obtained, respectively. The frying suitability test (IBVL) value showed that CIP-396034.103, (8.5) followed by CIP-398190.404, (7.5) and CIP-391058.175, (7.0). Among the evaluated clones, three cultivars had overall acceptable DM, SG, and frying suitability test (IBVL) for French fries and crisp processing. Thus, among the tested clones, CIP-391058.175 was registred as the first processing variety in Ethiopia.
... A consumer's first decision on quality is based on the visual appearance and color of the commodity. Appearance is one of the most important attributes that influences the consumers acceptability of any product [23,24]. From 2016 to 2018, we tested different formulations on three different potato cultivars (Rio Grande, Youkan Gold, and Purple Majesty) to study the effect of edible coatings on fresh potato tuber under different storage conditions. ...
Article
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In this study, we aimed to investigate the effect of edible coatings and cold storage conditions on the skin color of red potatoes (Ciklamen and Modoc) stored for six months at 4 ± 2 °C and 90 ± 5% relative humidity (RH). The four different formulations used were sodium alginate (F1), sodium alginate and potato starch (F2), zein and chitosan (F3), and chitosan, sodium alginate and potato starch (F4), in addition to the control treatment with distilled water. The treated samples were assessed periodically during six months of storage for changes in color, levels of reducing sugars, total phenolics and sensory qualities. The results indicated that the treatment with edible coatings significantly enhanced the chroma value of skin color, especially F1 and F2 formulations. However, these coatings instilled a limited effect on the level of reducing sugars. Moreover, F1 and F4 formulations exerted a significant effect (p < 0.05) on anthocyanin content examined after three months of storage. Alginate-based edible coatings significantly improved sensory evaluation, especially in terms of the color, gloss, and general acceptability of red skin potatoes.
... The literature (Ng et al. 2015) research on 31 developing countries shows that in developing countries with relatively better financial development, when companies have more growth opportunities, the internationalization of companies can bring higher levels of debt financing. Literature (Pedreschi et al. 2005) pointed out that supply chain integration helps companies obtain more bank debt financing, and the improvement of the financial development level of the company's location can further strengthen this effect. Support vector machine (SVM) is an emerging machine learning algorithm based on statistical learning theory proposed by Russian scholars Comes and Vapnik in 1995. ...
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The continuous deepening of the development of my country's market economy has brought more development opportunities to Chinese enterprises, which has made the development of Chinese enterprises more rapid. A financial crisis in an enterprise will bring about disastrous consequences such as investment loss, unemployment of employees, and unrecoverable credit, which will further affect the country's economic development, financial security and social stability. Therefore, the impact of corporate cloud computing database applications and corporate debt financing has attracted widespread attention, and the impact of corporate debt financing capabilities and debt financing costs have become the main issues studied in this article. This article uses scientific methods to establish an effective financial crisis early warning model, conducts an empirical analysis of the financial data of listed companies in my country, selects indicators that have a significant impact on the financial status of the enterprise, and obtains an accurate early warning classification of the financial status of the enterprise, which verifies this article The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed early warning ideas, early warning index system and early warning methods. This article also focuses on the internal risk management methods of enterprises, and makes an in-depth study on whether high-quality internal control can weaken creditors' expectations of risks caused by corporate strategic differences, thereby weakening the relationship between strategic differences and corporate debt financing. Based on the conclusions obtained, this article puts forward a number of constructive suggestions for Chinese enterprises to optimize their strategic positioning and control operating risks to alleviate financing difficulties, which have certain theoretical significance and practical value.
... A conical probe used to conduct the test had a diameter of 3 mm at 60 mm/min rate and a depth of 7 mm (as target deformation). Hardness was explained as the maximum force for this penetration (Pedreschi et al., 2005). ...
Article
In this research, the effect of different temperatures (160, 180, and 190 ◦C) and hydrocolloid coatings (Basil seed gum [BSG], xanthan gum [XG], methylcellulose [MC], BSG–XG, and BSG–MC mixtures) were investigated on the physicochemical properties (oil uptake, moisture loss, color, microscopic structure, activation energy, and texture), mass transfer kinetic of fried potato strips in deep-fat frying, and oil partitions using frying and post-frying cooling phase. An increase in frying time reduced the moisture content and hardness of potato strips; however, the oil content and color difference increased. The oil content in the coated samples had lower rates than that in the noncoated ones. The treated samples using BSG–xanthan mixture (50:50) and BSG had the lowest oil uptake at 0.13% and 0.14% Dry basis (d.b.), respectively. The maximum and minimum values of effective moisture diffusivity were measured in control and samples coated with BSG–XG and BSG, respectively. As frying temperature increased, the specific rate of oil uptake increased and the equilibrium oil content decreased. Overall, BSG–XG mixture coated potato strips can be used as a promising product due to absorbing the lowest oil rate and being similar to the control in terms of organoleptic properties.
... Deep frying is one of the oldest and prevalent food preparation methods globally (Pedreschi et al. 2005). The consumption of fried food is increasing gradually due to its pleasing and distinctive flavor, color, texture and appearance (Saguy and Dana 2003). ...
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Deep fried foods are popular among consumers due to their unique taste and texture. During the process of deep-frying, oil is subjected to a high temperature that results into the generation of harmful compounds. The repeated usage of frying oil is a common exercise and associated with various health hazards. Thus, determination of frying oil quality is a critical practice to follow. The chemical methods employed to determine the quality of frying oil are destructive and require large amount of harmful chemical, thus researchers are exploring the application of various vibra-tional spectroscopic techniques for this purpose. The first part of this review provides a detailed insight into fundamental theoretical aspects of two main vibrational spectroscopic techniques (infrared and Raman spectroscopy) and chemical alteration in frying oils under thermal stress. While in the following parts, the application of near-infrared (NIR) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman spectroscopy for evaluating the quality of various frying oils and fats under thermal stress has been discussed. It is anticipated that this review paper can serve as a reference source for impending research in this field.
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To cope with cold stress, plants have developed antioxidation strategies combined with osmoprotection by sugars. Potato tuber, a swollen stem, exposure to cold stress induces starch degradation and sucrose synthesis. Vacuolar acid invertase (VInv) activity is a significant part of the cold‐induced sweetening (CIS) response, by rapidly cleaving sucrose into hexoses, and increasing osmoprotection. To discover alternative plant tissue pathways for coping with cold stress, we produced VInv‐knockout lines in two cultivars. Genome editing of VInv in ‘Désirée’ and ‘Brooke’ was done using stable and transient expression of CRISPR/Cas9 components, respectively. After storage at 4°C, sugar analysis indicated that the knockout lines showed low level of CIS and maintained low acid invertase activity in storage. Surprisingly, the tuber parenchyma of vinv lines exhibited significantly reduced lipid peroxidation and reduced H2O2 levels. Furthermore, exposing the whole‐plant of vinv lines to cold stress, without irrigation, showed normal vigor, in contrast to wilting of the WT plants. Transcriptome analysis of vinv lines revealed upregulation of osmoprotectant, and ethylene‐related genes during cold temperature exposure. Accordingly, higher expression of antioxidant‐related genes was detected after exposure to short and long cold storage. Sugars measurement showed an elevation of an alternative pathway in the absence of VInv activity, raising the raffinose pathway with increasing levels of myo‐inositol content as a cold‐tolerance response.
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The impact of ultrasonic pretreatment on water loss, water mobility, microstructure, texture, volatile compounds, nutritional, and functional composition of French fries, and their intrinsic relationship, compared to commonly used blanching pretreatment, was investigated. Application of ultrasonic resulted in enhancement of water loss (27–56%), which also reflected in the NMR results. Ultrasonic (17–20%) and blanching (7–12%) pretreatments decreased the oil content in the French fries compared to untreated samples. Ultrasonic (250 W, 10 min) preserved nutritional and functional composition and antioxidant activity in comparison with blanching treatments while increasing the power (500 W, 10 min) triggered the loss of these nutritional ingredients. The hardness of ultrasonic pretreated French fries increased, probably related to the crispness of French fries. Volatile compounds were enhanced with ultrasonic and both pretreatments showed changes in the microstructure. In conclusion, non-thermal ultrasonic pretreatment can be an alternative to maintain nutritional quality and produce French fries with low oil content and good sensory quality.
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The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of deep frying (DF) and air frying (AF) on the quality and flavour profile of hairtail (Trichiurus lepturus) fillets. The changes of some physicochemical indices such as moisture content, oil content, colour, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide values (POV) in hairtail fillets were detected with increasing frying time. According to these physicochemical indices and sensory evaluation, deep frying for 7 min under 190 °C (DF7) and air frying for 24 min under 190 °C (AF24) were selected as samples for their great quality. The flavour fingerprint of hairtail (Raw, DF7, AF24) was developed and volatile compounds were investigated by HS-GC-IMS. A total of 28 volatile substances including aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and others were identified both in the DF7 and AF24 samples. There are differences in the aroma fingerprint between the DF7 and AF24 samples. DF was characterised by 2-Heptanone, (E)-2-Heptenal, 2-Pentyfuran and 1-Pentanol, AF was characterised by 2-methylbutanol, Ethyl methyl ketone-M and 3-hydroxy-2-butanone. These findings suggest that the aroma of hairtail fillets after DF7 and AF24 was significantly different and supply flavour information and practical applications of the fried hairtail fillets.
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Soursop fruit comprise many bioactive compounds that potentially support human health. The processing method dramatically affects the antioxidant activity found in soursop of these compounds in the soursop fruit. This study aimed to explore the effects of preheating treatment approaches (steam blanching, hot water blanching, and microwave‐assisted blanching) on the physiochemical properties of soursop fruit. The changes in colors, total ascorbic acid, and total phenolic content were results of the variations in surveyed parameters including treatment time 2‐4‐6‐8 min, temperature 60‐70‐80‐90°C (blanching hot water), and capacity 150‐300‐450‐600W (blanched by microwave). About of 59.57% total phenolic content and 64.07% of total ascorbic acid were retained after 8 min of blanching, 17.97% of total phenolic content, and 31.42% of total ascorbic acid remained after blanching at 90°C, whereas the microwave‐assisted blanching at 300 W was found to remain over 70% of total phenolic content and about 50% of total ascorbic acid. The evaluation results showed the total phenolic content loss was hindered by using microwave‐assisted blanching at 150W for 2 min. The color changes (darken conversion) were significantly affected by the prolonged processing time, increasing the total different color value compared to the control sample. These databases provide insight into the blanching processes, which are considered intermediate stages for many food products.
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The flavor is a decisive sensory characteristic that determines the popularity of French fries (FFs). During high-oleic rapeseed oil (RO) frying, the flavor development of FFs showed three noticeable stages including break-in (3.5 %–7.5 % of total polar compounds (TPC)), optimum (7.5 %–22.18 % of TPC), and degrading stages (above 22.18 % of TPC). Further, in order to distinguish the key aroma compounds in each stage, the FFs prepared in RO at TPC of 3.5 % (FF4), 14.5 % (FF15), and 26.96 % (FF27) and their relevant oils (RO4, RO15, RO27) were selected for sensory-directed analysis. The results revealed that the FF4 had low contents of (E,E)-2,4-decadienal (deep-fried odor) which also caused lower sensory score in FF4 sample. The higher contents of (E,E)-2,4-decadienal in FF15 induced its higher deep-fried odor. The FF27 had higher hexanoic acid (sweaty odor), heptanoic acid, nonanoic acid, benzene acetaldehyde (stale odor), and trans-4,5-epoxy-(E)-2-decenal (metallic odor) compared with FF4 and FF15, thus leading to the undesirable flavor of FF27. Moreover, the decrease of 2,5-dimethylpyrazine and 2-ethyl-6-methyl-pyrazine in FF27 induced the lower roasty flavor, which may also lead to the decline of the sensory score. Similarly, the higher contents of (E)-2-undecenal, hexanoic acid, heptanoic acid, and nonanoic acid in RO27 lead to increase its rancid score and thus lower the sensory score.
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In this study, the influence of five hydrocolloids on the formation of acrylamide (AA) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) in French fries was investigated. Sodium alginic acid (SA) was the most promising inhibitor for simultaneously inhibiting AA and 5-HMF formation, with the highest inhibition rate of 35.3% and 26.2%, respectively. Additionally, the inhibitory effects of SA combined with ultrasound treatment (SA-UTS) or blanching treatment (SA-B) were evaluated. The combined treatments improved the simultaneous inhibitory effect compared to single SA coating treatment. SA-B treatment showed highest inhibition effect on AA (56.7%) and 5-HMF (40.9%) formation, however, it led to obvious discoloration and poor sensory quality of French fries. SA-UTS treatment showed a slightly lower inhibition effect on AA (50.6%) and 5-HMF (36.5%) formation but it had slighter side effects on color and sensory quality. Thus, SA-UTS treatment could be an interesting alternative to simultaneously inhibit the formation of AA and 5-HMF in French fries. Moreover, the AA and 5-HMF might be inhibited according to preventing the formation of their intermediates α-dicarbonyl compounds. Overall, this study for the first time proved the inhibiting effects on AA and 5-HMF formation achieved by SA-UTS treatment, a simple and practical method, which allowed new opportunities to optimize the frying process of fried foods and provided a basis for improving food safety and quality.
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Potatoes are an important food crop that undergo postharvest storage, reconditioning, and cooking. Colored‐flesh varieties of potatoes are rich in phenolic acids and anthocyanins. Previous studies have suggested that purple‐flesh potatoes can inhibit colon cancer cells in vitro and reduce colon carcinogenesis in vivo. Vacuum frying (VF), as an alternative to conventional frying (CF), reduces fat content and may promote polyphenol retention in potato chips. We examined the impacts of reconditioning (storing at 13°C for 3 weeks following the 90‐day cold storage at 7°C) and frying method on phenolic chemistry and in vitro colon cancer stem cell (CCSC) inhibitory activity of purple‐flesh potato chips. We found that reconditioned chips exhibited higher total phenolic content (TPC) than nonreconditioned chips. We found that VF chips had lower TPC than CF chips. We observed no interaction between treatments. We found that VF chips had 27% higher total monomeric anthocyanin levels than CF chips, and observed a significant interaction between treatments. We found that VF chips had higher concentrations of caffeic acid (42%–72% higher), malvidin (46%–98% higher), and pelargonidin (55%–300% higher) than CF chips. We found that reconditioning had no effect. We found that VF chips had greater in vitro CCSC inhibitory activity than CF chips. Our results suggest that VF can improve the phytochemical profile and health‐related functionality of purple‐flesh potato chips, but additional studies are needed to determine if these results translate to the in vivo situation. Our current study shows that vacuum frying of purple‐flesh potato chips results in higher levels of total monomeric anthocyanins and concentrations of specific polyphenols as compared to chips produced by conventional frying. These differences correlated with better in vitro colon cancer stem cell inhibitory activity. Although additional in vivo studies are needed, our current results suggest that it may be possible for potato processors to improve the health‐related functionality of purple‐flesh potato chips through the use of vacuum frying.
Chapter
Processed foods have become a way of life in the modern world. Processing allows for a more consistent and global supply of foods and increases consumer convenience. Although processing generally improves the quality and safety of foods, it can decrease nutrient levels and bioavailability and produce chemical and physical changes that result in the formation of chemical hazards. Process-induced toxic compounds such as acrylamide, furan, and trans fatty acids (TFAs) have gained wide-spread attention due to their presence in a wide variety of foods. The precursors and mechanisms of formation for these compounds are different. Acrylamide and furan are formed during thermal processing of carbohydrate-rich foods, while TFAs are predominately produced when oils are hydrogenated to improve their oxidative stability or to change their texture. This chapter summarizes the worldwide efforts aimed at understanding the factors that result in the production of acrylamide, furan, and TFAs in processed foods. A more thorough understanding of these factors may result in strategies for minimizing their formation.
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Dee are a unique and rapidly growing part of the global snack food market and are recognised as having distinct sensory properties (taste and texture). In this study, the development of important volatile aroma compounds over storage was evaluated and their chemical origin explained. Sweet potatoes were batch fried in high oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) and subjected to accelerated shelf life testing. Headspace volatiles were analysed using SPME GC-MS and correlated with sensory perception. All the components (sweet potatoes, oil and β-carotene) showed significant degradation after 3 weeks of storage at accelerated conditions (equivalent to 12 weeks in real-time at 25 °C). Marker volatiles associated with lipid oxidation such as hexanal, octanal, pentanal were identified, in addition to norisoprenoids from β-carotene degradation such as β-ionon, 5,6-epoxy-β-ionone, dihydroactinidiolide (DHA) and β-cyclocitral. The most prominent marker of lipid oxidation (hexanal) rapidly increased at week 1, whereas the carotene degradation makers did not rapidly increase until week 3 suggesting a delayed response. The frying temperature during the batch frying process of SPC was also shown to play a significant role in the sensory perception of the product over the shelf life. Overall, the results suggest that tight control of process variables and raw material design may enable extended shelf life and potentially enhanced health credentials for the product. These findings are unique to SPC, but also of value to the wider food industry.
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ABSTRACT. Assessment of genetic diversity among wheat cultivars is important to ensure a continuous pool of varieties with different desirable traits is maintained. Accordingly, a molecular study was conducted toassess the genetic diversity of hundredmutant bread wheat (Triticumaestivum L.)genotypes using nine microsatellite markers. Based on the SSRanalysis, cluster analysis was used to determine the genetic diversity and similarity among mutant genotypes. The results showed thatthe number of alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 3 with an average number of 2.22 alleles per locus.Polymorphism of alleles was measured bypolymorphic information content (PIC) and genetic diversityrespectively. The microsatellite was the highest genetic diversity and polymorphism followed by XBARC137,while GWM291was the lowest genetic diverse and polymorphism.A dendrogram was created on the basis of all SSR markers, showed that the genotypes were divided into fivegroupsfor Khalefa’s genotypes.The mutant genotypes number 64 (G�435) and 77(G-411) forming a clade well separated from the other mutant genotypes. While, Tagana’sgenotypes were grouped into two major groups. The two mutant genotypes 44 (G-13) and 25 (G�7) were found more distinct from the other groups and Tagana parent. From the above initially interesting primary results we need further DNA molecular markers confirmation and analysis using more reliable DNA molecular marker techniques such as SNPs markers for exploring and to estimate the genetic diversity among all of the screened lines, and also sequencing for genetic mapping. Keywords: Mutant, population, genotypes, wheat, genetic diversity, SSR * Corresponding author: saharageeb2006@yahoo.com
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Acrylamide (AA), a toxic compound and potential carcinogen, which forms at elevated heating of starchy food stuffs through the Maillard reaction. Thus, the identification and quantification of AA in the fried starchy food stuffs is of great importance in order to prevent cancer causing possibilities. The primary objective of this research was to investigate the effect of frying conditions and utilize PYTHON programming language to quantify the AA content on the Potato Chips (PCs). The PCs were prepared by frying at different time intervals and duration. The digital images of PCs were captured and used to extract significant browning parameter. Here, we employed image processing technique with PYTHON module to quantify the AA content on the PCs. In addition, we studied the influence of frying conditions concerning to the formation of AA, by varying the temperature and duration. As-prepared PC samples’ water content decreased and ash content increased with respect to the enhancement of frying temperature and duration. For image processing, the captured PCs images were subjected to pre-processing in terms of object segmentation, region of interest and feature extraction to quantify the AA content, precisely. The lowest AA content was observed as 0.26 µg/g, and the highest AA content was observed as 4.75 µg/g on the PCs. The results of this study showed that the small/large scale fried starchy food stuffs companies can utilize this cost-effective technique to quantify the AA content in their products.
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Cold chain logistics is a common way of fresh-keeping transportation at present, but in the actual transportation and storage process, temperature control is often not accurate, which leads to shortened shelf life. We evaluated the changes in the quality of yellow croaker (Pseudosciaena crocea) at different temperatures during transportation. Specimens of P. crocea were immersed in slurry ice for 20 min and stored at 22, 4, or −1°C for 4 days. During this period, the development of rancidity of P. crocea was measured by sensory (odor, skin, color, and flesh appearance) and biochemical (total number of colonies, total volatile basic nitrogen, and K value) analyses. A combination of sensory and biochemical parameters and the Arrhenius equation were used to predict the shelf life of P. crocea during storage. After verification under different storage temperatures, the relative error between the predicted and the measured values was found to be within 15%. The present work provides theoretical guidance for the quality control of P. crocea during transportation and storage. HIGHLIGHTS
Chapter
Chemical deterioration can affect the quality and safety of food products. This chapter is aimed at providing a better understanding of chemical deterioration in food, including its cause, influence on food quality and available detection methods. Specifically, major types of chemical deterioration are presented, such as enzymatic deterioration, nonenzymatic browning, lipid oxidation, protein oxidation, vitamin and pigment degradation. Currently available methods for detection of chemical deterioration in food are also overviewed, including sensory evaluation, physic and chemical analysis, spectroscopic and chromatographic methods as well as electronic nose, electronic tongue, and electronic eye.
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This study aims to compare traditional, vacuum, and electrostatic frying methods on the mitigation of acrylamide formation, and oil content with and without potassium aluminum sulfate in youtiao. The results obtained showed that the addition of potassium aluminum sulfate decreased pH and 79.88% acrylamide content in youtiao with traditional frying. Electrostatic frying and vacuum frying methods do not reduce acrylamide content and oil content of youtiao when compared to the traditional deep-frying method in this research. The present study indicated that the pH of youtiao with vacuum frying method increased from 5.87 to 6.49 without potassium aluminum sulfate addition. Youtiao with potassium aluminum sulfate fried by traditional deep-frying had higher flavor and appearance score and lower oil content than the electrostatic frying method. The results of this research could be a consideration for alternative slow acting aluminum acidulants, reducing oil adsorbing frying methods in future work.
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By applying the transition state theory, enthalpy–entropy compensation was studied for browning kinetic data obtained during deep-fat frying of both impregnated and control potato strips (Solanum tuberosum L., Desiree variety). The main objective was to study an eventual change in the browning mechanism during frying, and the effect on it of solutes impregnation (corn syrup DE 42 and NaCl). Two alternative approaches were used in order to obtain the isokinetic temperature: enthalpy/entropy relationship and frequency factor/activation energy relationship. Values of 333.1 and 335.9 K were found respectively. Both values are significantly lower than the harmonic mean temperature which was found to be 397.0 K, meaning that the mechanism of reaction is entropy controlled. A statistical analysis carried out for the data of enthalpy of activation against the entropy of activation showed that only one mechanism is present for browning during frying and that the impregnation of the strips with the studied solutes had no effect on the reaction mechanism.
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The convective heat transfer coefficient is a useful parameter in characterizing heat flow across a fluid/solid interface when the fluid flow field is complex and solution of the coupled transport equations impractical. While convective heat transfer coefficient values for many unit operations have been tabulated, the boiling phase of immersion frying has not been quantified. The objective of this study was to develop a laboratory method for the measurement of the convective heat transfer coefficient during immersion frying. The method that was developed was applied to the immersion frying of potato cylinders at an oil temperature of 180C. The convective heat transfer coefficient was initially 300 W/m2K, it increased sharply to 1100 W/m2K, and gradually decreased to 300 W/m2K over the duration of the process. Use of this new method will allow the study of the effects of oil temperature, oil quality, product shape/size, and product quality on heat transfer coefficients.
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Characterization of the frying process of potato strips was carried out using response surface methodology. Frying was performed on either fresh or blanched strips following a conventional water treatment. The independent variables of the process were frying temperature (between 170 degrees C and 200 degrees C) and frying time (between 4 min and 6 min). A central composite rotatable design was adapted to study the effects of the independent variables on different quality attributes of potato strips. Textural quality was measured by texture profile analysis, Volodkevich tests and multiple puncture tests. Colour parameters and moisture and oil contents were also determined. The effect of frying time was more significant than the effect of frying temperature on the quality attributes, and when blanching was carried out before frying most attributes were independent of frying temperature. Frying of fresh strips at 185 degrees C for 4.5 min resulted in minimum optimal points for hardness 1, hardness 2. Volodkevich parameters and oil content and saddle points for colour parameters in approximately the same combination. For models fitted for most of the quality attributes of blanched fried strips, r(2) was better and the lack of fit was not significant, although high-temperature short-time blanching before frying resulted in loss of firmness and discolouring, and increased the percentage of oil retained by the strips, causing sensorial quality loss.
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Reaction products (adducts) of acrylamide with N termini of hemoglobin (Hb) are regularly observed in persons without known exposure. The average Hb adduct level measured in Swedish adults is preliminarily estimated to correspond to a daily intake approaching 100 microg of acrylamide. Because this uptake rate could be associated with a considerable cancer risk, it was considered important to identify its origin. It was hypothesized that acrylamide was formed at elevated temperatures in cooking, which was indicated in earlier studies of rats fed fried animal feed. This paper reports the analysis of acrylamide formed during heating of different human foodstuffs. Acrylamide levels in foodstuffs were analyzed by an improved gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) method after bromination of acrylamide and by a new method for measurement of the underivatized acrylamide by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), using the MS/MS mode. For both methods the reproducibility, given as coefficient of variation, was approximately 5%, and the recovery close to 100%. For the GC-MS method the achieved detection level of acrylamide was 5 microg/kg and for the LC-MS/MS method, 10 microg/kg. The analytic values obtained with the LC-MS/MS method were 0.99 (0.95-1.04; 95% confidence interval) of the GC-MS values. The LC-MS/MS method is simpler and preferable for most routine analyses. Taken together, the various analytic data should be considered as proof of the identity of acrylamide. Studies with laboratory-heated foods revealed a temperature dependence of acrylamide formation. Moderate levels of acrylamide (5-50 microg/kg) were measured in heated protein-rich foods and higher contents (150-4000 microg/kg) in carbohydrate-rich foods, such as potato, beetroot, and also certain heated commercial potato products and crispbread. Acrylamide could not be detected in unheated control or boiled foods (<5 microg/kg). Consumption habits indicate that the acrylamide levels in the studied heated foods could lead to a daily intake of a few tens of micrograms.
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A method using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) with electrospray for the analysis of acrylamide in foods is reported. The method comprises the addition of deuterium-labelled acrylamide-d3, extraction with water, mixed mode solid phase extraction, ultrafiltration and a graphitised carbon column for chromatography. The transitions m/z 72 > 55, 72 > 54, 72 > 44, 72 > 27, 72 > 72 and 75 > 58 were recorded in multiple reaction monitoring mode for identification and quantification. In-house validation data for products from potatoes and cereals (30 to 10,000 microg kg(-1)) are presented (accuracy 91 to 102%, relative standard deviation 3 to 21%). Interlaboratory validation data (comparison with gas chromatography mass spectrometry, 25 to 2000 microg kg(-1)) showed excellent results (r2 = 0.998).
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The various aspects of potato chip, one of the most popular salty snacks, and other snacks are discussed. The potato chip was invented by George Crum, a cook at Moon's Lake House in Saratoga Springs, New York, in 1853. Retail sales of potato chip in the US are about $6 billion per year. Motivated by health concerns of consumers, manufacturers have developed snacks with less fat.
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The convective heat transfer coefficient is a useful parameter in characterizing heat flow across a fluid/solid interface when the fluid flow field is complex and solution of the coupled transport equations impractical. While convective heat transfer coefficient values for many unit operations have been tabulated, the boiling phase of immersion frying has not been quantified. The objective of this study was to develop a laboratory method for the measurement of the convective heat transfer coefficient during immersion frying. The method that was developed was applied to the immersion frying of potato cylinders at an oil temperature of 180 C. The convective heat transfer coefficient was initially 300 W/m2K over the duration of the process. Use of this new method will allow the study of the effects of oil temperature, oil quality, product shape/size, and product quality on heat transfer coefficients.
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Acrylamide formation in potato crisps was investigated in relation to raw material (potato variety and field site) and production process. Both, potato variety and field site had a noticeable Influence upon acryl-amide formation. Differences between field sites changed between early and late varieties. A reduction of the sugar content by blanching or soaking decreased the acrylamide concentration by about 60%. No differences between blanching and soaking, respectively, could be observed. Blanching removed more glucose and fructose than sucrose, whereas the effect of soaking was vice versa. The total content of reducing sugars showed a good correlation with the acrylamide concentration in the fried product (r2 = 0.64). In detail, the correlation was pronounced for the monosaccharides (glucose: r2 = 0.60; fructose: r2 = 0.56), whereas the content of the disaccharide showed no correlation with the acryiamide concentration (sucrose r2 = 0.24). Additionally, only by lowering the frying temperature (from 185 to 165°C, and from 190 to 150°C resp.; adaptation of frying time) it was possible to reduce the acrylamide formation to a half and to a third, respectively.
Article
A computer-based video image analysis system has been developed to quantify the colour of potato chips in L*a*b*colour space. This system is not sensitive to light intensity, and the light reflection effect from the undulating surface of the chips was not significant to the colour measurement. The presence of undesirable spots on the chip surface was also quantified. The sensitivity of the technique to separate ‘colours’ correlated well with the capability of the human eye. The technique shows encouraging potential for use in studying the colour and appearance of other kinds of products.
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Vacuum frying was tested as an alternative technique to develop low oil content potato chips. The effect of oil temperature (118, 132, 144 °C) and vacuum pressure (16.661, 9.888, and 3.115 kPa) on the drying rate and oil absorption of potato chips and on the product quality attributes such as shrinkage, color, and texture was investigated. Furthermore, the characteristics of the vacuum-fried potato chips (3.115 kPa and 144 °C) were compared to potato chips fried under atmospheric conditions (165 °C).During vacuum frying, oil temperature and vacuum pressure had a significant effect on the drying rate and oil absorption rate of potato chips. Potato chips fried at lower vacuum pressure and higher temperature had less volume shrinkage. Color was not significantly affected by the oil temperature and vacuum pressure. Hardness values increasedwith increasing oil temperature and decreasing vacuum levels.Potato chips fried under vacuum (3.115 kPa and 144 °C) had more volume shrinkage, were slightly softer, and lighter in color than the potato chips fried under atmospheric conditions (165 °C). It was concluded that vacuum frying is a process that could be a feasible alternative to produce potato chips with lower oil content and desirable color and texture.
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Reports of the presence of acrylamide in a range of fried and oven-cooked foods1, 2 have caused worldwide concern because this compound has been classified as probably carcinogenic in humans3. Here we show how acrylamide can be generated from food components during heat treatment as a result of the Maillard reaction between amino acids and reducing sugars. We find that asparagine, a major amino acid in potatoes and cereals, is a crucial participant in the production of acrylamide by this pathway.
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The uptake of oil during deep-fat frying of potato slices was followed by frying slices for an equal length of time, introducing a fat-soluble and heat stable dye into the oil at different times before the end of frying and measuring the fraction of dyed oil compared to the total oil content. Total oil content was measured by a refractometric method, and the content of dyed oil by a spectrophotometric method. Results from these measurements were compared to those obtained by removing slices after various periods of frying and analysing fat content. The experiments with dyed oil showed conclusively that oil does not penetrate the potato slices during frying, but is taken up by the slice only when it is removed from the frying pan due to adhesion of oil to the surface of the slice. Therefore, oil uptake is primarily a surface phenomena involving an equilibrium between adhesion and drainage of oil upon retrieval of the slice from the oil bath.
Article
ABSTRACTA model of heat and mass transfer with simultaneous chemical reaction is proposed for simulating changes in profiles and surface concentration of reducing sugars during warm water blanching and the subsequent holding of potato strips in a hot-dry air stream before frying. This content is partially responsible for the color of the finished product. The proposed model allows the prediction of the best leaching conditions (temperature and time) in terms of the initial sugar content of the tubers, the maximum holding time before frying, and the desired maximum surface concentration of sugars.
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Mathematical models describing dynamics of crust formation and kinetics of crust color and firmness changes were developed for the deep-fat frying of beef meatballs. Good agreement (R2 ranged between 0.815 and 0.987) was observed between experimental and predicted data. Crust color lightness, redness, and yellowness decreased exponentially with frying time while total color change increased. All color parameters followed first order reaction kinetics. Meatball firmness was measured by peak force obtained from a puncture test whose kinetics model had a reaction rate constant of 5.39E-3 1/(s.Nn-1) and a reaction order of 0.0013.
Article
Color development during potato frying was studied. Increments of reducing sugars led to increase in color of fried potatoes. For L (luminosity) between 60–51, corresponding to a reducing sugar content of 120–140 mg %, an acceptable color was obtained. Both amino acids and reducing sugars participated in the color development of potato during frying, with the amount of reducing sugars being the limiting factor. Fructose yielded the highest browning followed by glucose. Sucrose addition caused practically no change in the final color of the fried potato. At low content of reducing sugars the reaction followed first-order kinetics, the activation energy, Ea, being equal to 31 Kcal mol-1.
Article
Potatoes, CV. Alpha, were sorted (specific gravity), peeled, cut, and blanched at four temperatures (55—70°C) for several times (0—60 min.) before frying in vegetable oil (200°C, 4 min). Multiple puncture (raw potatoes) and single puncture and Texture Profile Analysis (TPA) of French-fries were used. Limpness angle and oil retention (Carver press) were also evaluated. Firmness and some TPA parameters (chewiness, cohesiveness) were increased (>200%) by blanch. Limpness and oil content were reduced by treatment. Improvement of French-fries texture resulted after blanching for 30—45 min. at 60—65°C.
Article
A tracer method was used to assess the uptake of oil by commercial frozen parfried potatoes fried (180 °C, 150 s) in colza oil (CO) involving a short post-frying immersion in hot coconut fat (CF). CO and CF were determined directly in the crust by differential scanning calorimetry (crystallization temperature and enthalpy −42.7 °C/50 J/g and 10 °C/71 J/g, respectively). Oil uptake by the crust during frying in CO or CF was similar (average 25.3%). Potato samples transferred immediately after frying in CO to the CF bath had most of the CO absorbed replaced by CF after a 10 s post-frying, meaning that CO was readily accessible in the crust structure. Samples fried in CO and cooled for up to 60 s before transfer to hot CF showed only partial replacement of CO. Oil wetting the surface of the sample at the end of frying was estimated as 70 to 80% of the total oil uptake. Formation of the crust (frying time > 1 min) was required for oil to migrate into intercellular spaces that are dynamically formed during frying and thus accessible to CF and solvents.
Article
ABSTRACT Analysis of the oil-absorption process in deep-fat fried potato cylinders (frying temperatures of 155°C, 170°C, and 185°C) allowed to distinguish 3 oil fractions: structural oil (absorbed during frying), penetrated surface oil (suctioned during cooling), and surface oil. Results showed that a small amount of oil penetrates during frying because most of the oil was picked up at the end of the process, suggesting that oil uptake and water removal are not synchronous phenomena. After cooling, oil was located either on the surface of the chip or suctioned into the porous crust microstructure, with an inverse relationship between them for increasing frying times.
Article
An approach to classify potato chips using pattern recognition from color digital images consists of 5 steps: (1) image acquisition, (2) preprocessing, (3) segmentation, (4) feature extraction, and (5) classification. Ten chips prepared for each of the following 6 conditions were examined: 2 pretreatments (blanched and unblanched) at 3 temperatures (120°C, 150°C, and 180°C). More than 1500 features were extracted from each of the 60 images. Finally, 11 features were selected according to their classification attributes. Seven different classification cases (for example, classification of the 6 classes or distinction between blanched and unblanched samples) were analyzed using the selected features. Although samples were highly heterogeneous, using a simple classifier and a small number of features, it was possible to obtain a good performance value in all cases: classification of the 6 classes was in the confidence interval between 78% and 89% with a probability of 95%.
Article
Color analysis is a critical quality evaluation procedure in the potato processing industry. This research sought to determine whether potato chip color could be quantified by video image analysis. Russet Burbank and Shepody potatoes, stored at 8 and 5 C, were processed into 8 mm thick chips, which were fried for three time periods. Chip color was characterised by mean gray level values. Changes in video equipment operation and sample presentation were investigated to establish the most reproducible conditions for chip color measurements. The use of image analysis software to analyze mean gray level values from specific regions of the chip was demonstrated. Differences in chip color from potatoes stored at the two temperatures could be distinguished by mean gray level values. For potatoes that had been stored at 5 C, different chip frying times were distinguished on the basis of mean gray level. Chips of 1 mm thickness were prepared from 13 selections and 2 cultivars and color measured by mean gray level, L value (Hunterlab D25L-2 colorimeter) and by Agtron value (Agtron M31A color meter, green mode). Good correlation was found between color assessed by mean gray level and color measured by the Agtron and Hunterlab. A repeatability study showed that image analysis color was not as repeatable as color measured by the two other techniques. Nevertheless, video image analysis appears to have potential as an objective assessor of chip color, and through software development, has specific advantages over other color assessment techniques.
Article
Reduction of acrylamide formation in potato chips was investigated in relation to frying temperature and three treatments before frying. Potato slices (Tivoli variety, diameter: 37 mm, width: 2.2 mm) were fried at 150°C, 170°C and 190°C until reaching moisture contents of ∼1.7 g water/100 g (total basis). Prior to frying, potato slices were treated in one of the following ways: (i) soaked in distilled water for 0 min (control), 40 min and 90 min; (ii) blanched in hot water at six different time–temperature combinations (50°C for 30 and 70 min; 70°C for 8 and 40 min; 90°C for 2 and 9 min); (iii) immersed in citric acid solutions of different concentrations (10 and 20 g/l) for half an hour. Glucose and asparagine concentration was determined in potato slices before frying, whereas acrylamide content was determined in the resultant fried potato chips. Glucose content decreased in ∼32% in potato slices soaked 90 min in distilled water. Soaked slices showed on average a reduction of acrylamide formation of 27%, 38% and 20% at 150°C, 170°C and 190°C, respectively, when they were compared against the control. Blanching reduced on average 76% and 68% of the glucose and asparagine content compared to the control. Potato slices blanched at 50°C for 70 min surprisingly had a very low acrylamide content (28 μm/kg) even when they were fried at 190°C. Potato immersion in citric acid solutions of 10 and 20 g/l reduced acrylamide formation by almost 70% for slices fried at 150°C. For the three pre-treatments studied, acrylamide formation increased dramatically as the frying temperature increased from 150°C to 190°C.
Article
This paper presents the development of the mathematical equations used for modeling immersion frying of an infinite slab. Immersion frying was viewed as a moving boundary problem similar to that found in freezing and freeze-drying. The infinite slab was divided into two regions, the crust and core, and macroscopic balances were used to develop the governing partial differential equations for heat and mass transfer in each region. Flux relations were proposed for the heat and mass transfer and incorporated into the partial differential equations. The final set of equations consisted of four non-linear partial differential equations and appropriate boundary conditions and initial conditions.
Article
The objective of this work was to study the kinetics of crust browning during deep-fat frying of impregnated and control potato strips (Solanum tuberosum L., Desiree variety) by using a dynamic method and, with the obtained kinetics parameters, to predict the color change during frying. Blanched potato strips were impregnated at 25 °C by soaking in solutions of corn syrup DE 42-NaCl, 50–3% by weight, and NaCl 3% by weight. After rinsing and air drying, the strips were deep fried in sunflower oil at 160, 170 and 180 °C. A control treatment, consisting of potato strips blanched but not soaked was also conducted. Experimental data of surface temperature, mean moisture content of potato strips and crust color changes during frying were fit to empirical relationships, with correlation coefficients greater than 99.0%. A first-order rate equation was used to model the kinetics of color change. In all cases, the Arrhenius activation energy decreased alongside with decreasing mean moisture content, suggesting a possible color development rate control from a chemical step to a diffusional one. The kinetic parameters were employed to predict the color change during the deep-fat frying with RMS's values in the range of 5.1–10.5%.
Article
The effect of frying conditions on the colour changes during deep fat frying of french fries has been investigated. The Hunter colour scale parameters redness, yellowness and lightness were used to estimate colour changes during frying as a function of the main process variables (oil temperature, oil type and sample thickness). A first-order kinetic equation was used for each one of the three colour parameters, in which the rate constant is a function of the main process variables. The results showed that oil temperature and thickness of potato strips have a significant effect on the colour parameters, which are not affected by the use of hydrogenated oil in the frying medium.
Article
Contenido: 1) Introducción; 2) Modelos generales de fenómenos de transporte; 3) Propiedades y características de alimentos y otros productos biológicos; 4) Fenómenos de transporte de productos líquidos; 5) Fenómenos de transporte de alimentos sólidos; 6) Fenómenos de transporte y su origen; 7) Modelos de fenómenos de transporte en operaciones unitarias y equipos de procesamiento; 8) Epílogo.
Article
An advanced intermediate in the synthesis of the phytotoxins cornexistin and hydroxycornexistin has been synthesized. Sequential palladium-mediated sp(2)-sp(3) fragment coupling and ring-closing diene metathesis have been used to construct the nine-membered carbocyclic core found in the natural products. [reaction--see text]
Article
Acrylamide in food products-chiefly in commercially available potato chips, potato fries, cereals, and bread-was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Samples were homogenized with water/dichloromethane, centrifuged, and filtered through a 5 kDa filter. The filtrate was cleaned up on mixed mode, anion and cation exchange (Oasis MAX and MCX) and carbon (Envirocarb) cartridges. Analysis was done by isotope dilution ([D(3)]- or [(13)C(3)]acrylamide) electrospray LC-MS/MS using a 2 x 150 mm (or 2 x 100 mm) Thermo HyperCarb column eluted with 1 mM ammonium formate in 15% (or 10% for the 2 x 100 mm column) methanol. Thirty samples of foods were analyzed. Concentrations of acrylamide varied from 14 ng/g (bread) to 3700 ng/g (potato chips). Acrylamide was formed during model reactions involving heating of mixtures of amino acids and glucose in ratios similar to those found in potatoes. In model reactions between amino acids and glucose, asparagine was found to be the main precursor of acrylamide. Thus, in the reaction between nitrogen-15 (amido)-labeled asparagine and glucose, corresponding (15)N-labeled acrylamide was formed. The yield of the model reaction is approximately 0.1%.
Article
Lipid decomposition studies in frozen fish have led to the development of a simple and rapid method for the extraction and purification of lipids from biological materials. The entire procedure can be carried out in approximately 10 minutes; it is efficient, reproducible, and free from deleterious manipulations. The wet tissue is homogenized with a mixture of chloroform and methanol in such proportions that a miscible system is formed with the water in the tissue. Dilution with chloroform and water separates the homogenate into two layers, the chloroform layer containing all the lipids and the methanolic layer containing all the non-lipids. A purified lipid extract is obtained merely by isolating the chloroform layer. The method has been applied to fish muscle and may easily be adapted to use with other tissues.Lipid decomposition studies in frozen fish have led to the development of a simple and rapid method for the extraction and purification of lipids from biological materials. The entire procedure can be carried out in approximately 10 minutes; it is efficient, reproducible, and free from deleterious manipulations. The wet tissue is homogenized with a mixture of chloroform and methanol in such proportions that a miscible system is formed with the water in the tissue. Dilution with chloroform and water separates the homogenate into two layers, the chloroform layer containing all the lipids and the methanolic layer containing all the non-lipids. A purified lipid extract is obtained merely by isolating the chloroform layer. The method has been applied to fish muscle and may easily be adapted to use with other tissues.
Article
Acrylamide (CH2=CH-CONH2), an industrially produced alpha,beta-unsaturated (conjugated) reactive molecule, is used worldwide to synthesize polyacrylamide. Polyacrylamide has found numerous applications as a soil conditioner, in wastewater treatment, in the cosmetic, paper, and textile industries, and in the laboratory as a solid support for the separation of proteins by electrophoresis. Because of the potential of exposure to acrylamide, effects of acrylamide in cells, tissues, animals, and humans have been extensively studied. Reports that acrylamide is present in foods formed during their processing under conditions that also induce the formation of Maillard browning products heightened interest in the chemistry, biochemistry, and safety of this vinyl compound. Because exposure of humans to acrylamide can come from both external sources and the diet, a need exists to develop a better understanding of its formation and distribution in food and its role in human health. To contribute to this effort, this integrated review presents data on the chemistry, analysis, metabolism, pharmacology, and toxicology of acrylamide. Specifically covered are the following aspects: nonfood and food sources; exposure from the environment and the diet; mechanism of formation in food from asparagine and glucose; asparagine-asparaginase relationships; Maillard browning-acrylamide relationships; quenching of protein fluorescence; biological alkylation of amino acids, peptides, proteins, and DNA by acrylamide and its epoxide metabolite glycidamide; risk assessment; neurotoxicity, reproductive toxicity, and carcinogenicity; protection against adverse effects; and possible approaches to reducing levels in food. Further research needs in each of these areas are suggested. Neurotoxicity appears to be the only documented effect of acrylamide in human epidemiological studies; reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity/clastogenicity, and carcinogenicity are potential human health risks on the basis of only animal studies. A better understanding of the chemistry and biology of pure acrylamide in general and its impact in a food matrix in particular can lead to the development of improved food processes to decrease the acrylamide content of the diet.
Article
Structural considerations dictate that asparagine alone may be converted thermally into acrylamide through decarboxylation and deamination reactions. However, the main product of the thermal decomposition of asparagine was maleimide, mainly due to the fast intramolecular cyclization reaction that prevents the formation of acrylamide. On the other hand, asparagine, in the presence of reducing sugars, was able to generate acrylamide in addition to maleimide. Model reactions were performed using FTIR analysis, and labeling studies were carried out using pyrolysis-GC/MS as an integrated reaction, separation, and identification system to investigate the role of reducing sugars. The data have indicated that a decarboxylated Amadori product of asparagine with reducing sugars is the key precursor of acrylamide. Furthermore, the decarboxylated Amadori product can be formed under mild conditions through the intramolecular cyclization of the initial Schiff base and formation of oxazolidin-5-one. The low-energy decarboxylation of this intermediate makes it possible to bypass the cyclization reaction, which is in competition with thermally induced decarboxylation, and hence promote the formation of acrylamide in carbohydrate/asparagine mixtures. Although the decarboxylated Amadori compound can be formed under mild conditions, it requires elevated temperatures to cleave the carbon-nitrogen covalent bond and produce acrylamide.
Summary: Integrative concepts
  • Taoukis
Taoukis, P., & Labuza, T. P. (1996). Summary: Integrative concepts. In O. W. Fennema (Ed.), Food chemistry (3rd ed.). New York: Marcel Dekker.