Novel approaches to inhibiting HIV-1 replication
Virus-Cell Interaction Section, HIV Drug Resistance Program, National Cancer Institute at Frederick, Frederick, MD 21702-1201, USA Antiviral research
(Impact Factor: 3.94).
01/2010; 85(1):119-141. DOI: 10.1016/j.antiviral.2009.09.009
Considerable success has been achieved in the treatment of HIV-1 infection, and more than two-dozen antiretroviral drugs are available targeting several distinct steps in the viral replication cycle. However, resistance to these compounds emerges readily, even in the context of combination therapy. Drug toxicity, adverse drug–drug interactions, and accompanying poor patient adherence can also lead to treatment failure. These considerations make continued development of novel antiretroviral therapeutics necessary. In this article, we highlight a number of steps in the HIV-1 replication cycle that represent promising targets for drug discovery. These include lipid raft microdomains, the RNase H activity of the viral enzyme reverse transcriptase, uncoating of the viral core, host cell machinery involved in the integration of the viral DNA into host cell chromatin, virus assembly, maturation, and budding, and the functions of several viral accessory proteins. We discuss the relevant molecular and cell biology, and describe progress to date in developing inhibitors against these novel targets. This article forms part of a special issue of Antiviral Research marking the 25th anniversary of antiretroviral drug discovery and development, Vol 85, issue 1, 2010.
Available from: Mary Bebawy
- "Within membranes lipid rafts are small (10–200 nm), dynamic, heterogeneous and detergent-resistant microdomains (Simons & Toomre, 2000). Originally controversial, rafts are now implicated in many physiological and pathophysiological processes including apoptosis, cell signaling, viral entry and neurodegeneration (Simons & Toomre, 2000; Hancock, 2006; Adamson & Freed, 2010). Integrins and growth factor receptors, and associated intracellular signaling molecules are enriched in rafts that can be regarded as sites for the initiation of signaling pathways. "
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ABSTRACT: Lipids have the potential for development as anticancer agents. Endogenous membrane lipids, such as ceramides and certain saturated fatty acids, have been found to modulate the viability of tumor cells. In addition, many tumors over-express cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase or cytochrome P450 enzymes that mediate the biotransformation of ω-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) to potent eicosanoid regulators of tumor cell proliferation and cell death. In contrast, several analogous products from the biotransformation of ω-3 PUFAs impair particular tumorigenic pathways. For example, the ω-3 17,18-epoxide of eicosapentaenoic acid activates anti-proliferative and proapoptotic signaling cascades in tumor cells and the lipoxygenase-derived resolvins are effective inhibitors of inflammatory pathways that may drive tumor expansion. However, the development of potential anti-cancer drugs based on these molecules is complex, with in vivo stability a major issue. Nevertheless, recent successes with the antitumor alkyl phospholipids, which are synthetic analogues of naturally-occurring membrane phospholipid esters, have provided the impetus for development of further molecules. The alkyl phospholipids have been tested against a range of cancers and show considerable activity against skin cancers and certain leukemias. Very recently, it has been shown that combination strategies, in which alkyl phospholipids are used in conjunction with established anticancer agents, are promising new therapeutic approaches. In future, the evaluation of new lipid-based molecules in single-agent and combination treatments may also be assessed. This could provide a range of important treatment options in the management of advanced and metastatic cancer.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Available from: Xuan Zhang
- "Despite the success of combination therapies with antiretroviral drugs targeting several distinct steps in the viral replication cycle, drug toxicity, drug resistance, adverse drugdrug interactions, and accompanying poor patient adherence are still the major factors leading to treatment failure  . "
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To evaluate the anti-HIV activity and mechanism of action of wikstroelide M, a daphnane diterpene from Daphne acutiloba Rehder (Thymelaeaceae).
The anti-HIV activities of wikstroelide M against different HIV strains were evaluated by cytopathic effect assay and p24 quantification assay with ELISA. The inhibitory effect of wikstroelide M on HIV reverse transcription was analyzed by real-time PCR and ELISA. The effect of wikstroelide M on HIV-1 integrase nuclear translocation was observed with a cell-based imaging assay. The effect of wikstroelide M on LEDGF/p75-IN interaction was assayed by molecular docking.
Wikstroelide M potently inhibited different HIV-1 strains, including HIV-1IIIB, HIV-1A17, and HIV-19495, induced a cytopathic effect, with EC50 values ranging from 3.81 to 15.65 ng·mL−1. Wikstroelide M also had high inhibitory activities against HIV-2ROD and HIV-2CBL-20-induced cytopathic effects with EC50 values of 18.88 and 31.90 ng·mL−1. The inhibitory activities of wikstroelide M on the three HIV-1 strains were further confirmed by p24 quantification assay, with EC50 values ranging from 15.16 to 35.57 ng·mL−1. Wikstroelide M also potently inhibited HIV-1IIIB induced cytolysis in MT-4 cells, with an EC50 value of 9.60 ng·mL−1. The mechanistic assay showed that wikstroelide M targeted HIV-1 reverse transcriptase and nuclear translocation of integrase through disrupting the interaction between integrase and LEDGF/p75.
Wikstroelide M may be a potent HIV-1 and HIV-2 inhibitor, the mechanisms of action may include inhibition of reverse trascriptase activity and inhibition of integrase nuclear translocation through disrupting the interaction between integrase and LEDGF/p75.
Available from: Belete Ayele Desimmie
- "Maraviroc binds to the CCR5 coreceptor on the surface of cells and prevents interaction with the gp120 envelope protein of the virus . Successful targeting of host-virus PPIs demonstrates that HIV-1 therapeutic drug targets are not limited to virus-encoded enzymes and that understanding of the virus-host interactome can be the basis for future HIV therapeutics    . In theory, this antiviral strategy is expected to make it more difficult for the virus to develop resistance. "
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ABSTRACT: To accomplish their life cycle, lentiviruses make use of host proteins, the so-called cellular cofactors. Interactions between host cell and viral proteins during early stages of lentiviral infection provide attractive new antiviral targets. The insertion of lentiviral cDNA in a host cell chromosome is a step of no return in the replication cycle, after which the host cell becomes a permanent carrier of the viral genome and a producer of lentiviral progeny. Integration is carried out by integrase (IN), an enzyme playing also an important role during nuclear import. Plenty of cellular cofactors of HIV-1 IN have been proposed. To date, the lens epithelium-derived growth factor (LEDGF/p75) is the best studied cofactor of HIV-1 IN. Moreover, small molecules that block the LEDGF/p75-IN interaction have recently been developed for the treatment of HIV infection. The nuclear import factor transportin-SR2 (TRN-SR2) has been proposed as another interactor of HIV IN-mediating nuclear import of the virus. Using both proteins as examples, we will describe approaches to be taken to identify and validate novel cofactors as new antiviral targets. Finally, we will highlight recent advances in the design and the development of small-molecule inhibitors binding to the LEDGF/p75-binding pocket in IN (LEDGINs).
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