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The importance of ‘process’ in Rethinking Project Management: The story of a UK Government-funded research network

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Abstract

This paper tells the story of a UK Government-funded research network called Rethinking Project Management, funded by the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council between 2004 and 2006. The story is significant because of the considerable attention given to the process of the Network, both the inquiry process of ‘rethinking’ project management, and the broader social process in which the rethinking activity was carried out. In telling this story, the lead organisers explain how the inquiry process was organised as a learning system to enable the Network to ‘learn’ its way to relevant directions for future research, and secondly, how the broader social process was organised and facilitated to create a context for effective interaction between the people involved. A significant challenge in managing the research programme was how to engage the participants in purposeful inquiry, which would serve not only the primary aims of the Network, but would also yield new and interesting insights for the people involved. This paper seeks to explain how the lead organisers addressed this challenge, through a detailed and reflective discussion of how the research programme was organised and facilitated to achieve the Network’s primary aims. In summary, the principal aim in telling this story is to highlight the importance of process in collaborative research activity involving academics and practitioners, in order that other researchers might draw on the experience of this Network.

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... Rethinking Project Management (PM) * has been a recurring theme for some time [1]- [9]. In context of the current era of Digital Transformation, which is also referred to as the time of VUCA (Volatile, Uncertain, Complex and Ambiguous) it seems fair to assess if the current PM curricula match the needs of the market, both public and private. ...
... [1]- [9], addressing current matters with some retrospective reflections and highlighting areas in need of further research (Section III). ...
... Such periodical reflection really equals to a re-iterated action to have another learning feedback loop to be executed and closed over time. The theme or concept of "Rethinking Project Management" forms a repetitive discussion as seen in literature [1]- [9]. As does the periodically repeating discussion on skills and competences as for example by Napier et al. [47], who suggest research into the skillful practice for project managers to expand their repertoire into: [55]. ...
Conference Paper
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Rethinking Project Management (PM)* has been a recurring theme for some time [1]–[9]. In context of the current era of Digital Transformation, which is also referred to as the time of VUCA (Volatile, Uncertain, Complex and Ambiguous) it seems fair to assess if the current PM curricula match the needs of the market, both public and private. Professional bodies like IPMA† and PMI‡ similarly re-assess such which then leads to new editions of their standards to emerge. The current paper provides a short overview of the current developments of the profession. As well, it identifies related recent, current and ongoing research addressing similar questions regarding the success chances and rates of projects in light of the use and application of various PM methods. It aims to propose a new approach to learn using “Research through Project Management” (RtPM). Understanding the impact PM can have on the manner in which products, services, processes and systems are being developed, and the manner in which PM is performed. The authors propose the profession of PM will need to develop itself different from the way it has been conducted to-date and refer to it as “Towards Project Management 2030”, having the profession develop itself in a much more continuous manner. The paper ends with suggesting how to organize such ongoing research on, learning of and adoption by PM in practice embracing lifelong learning.
... Over time, PM developed its concepts and is taken as an approach to help organizations to efficiently operate. PM is no longer just a sub-discipline of engineering, it turned into an significant issue in many organizations for strategy implementation, business transformation and continuous improvement [15]. ...
... The instrumental lifecycle image of projects as a linear sequence of tasks to be performed on an objective entity 'out there', using codified knowledge, procedures and techniques, and based on an image of projects as temporary apolitical production processes, needs to change into concepts and images which focus on social interaction among people [15]. ...
... Social processes are a method of interaction established between individuals or teams [15]. Collaboration is one example of social processes. ...
Conference Paper
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This paper aims to help professionals and academics involved in collaborative university-industry R&D programs and projects, by presenting a conceptual social media tool that can be used to improve communication and collaboration between internal stakeholders. The social media tool conceptualization was developed based on a case study research strategy. The case selected was a large publicly funded R&D collaborative program that covers 30 R&D projects carried out by a university and an industry partner. During the case study analysis three research methods were applied: participant observation, document analysis, and focus groups. The social media tool is conceptualized in seven functional building blocks: identity, relationships, sharing, presence conversations, reputation and groups. For each building block, its main objectives and requirements are detailed, within this particular context of collaborative university-industry R&D programs and projects.
... There is though, no historical evidence to support such claims and it is unlikely that these ancient peoples employed the kinds of models of organisational control that would today be recognised as project management. In fact, the term is believed to have first originated in an article in the Harvard Business Review in 1959 (Winter, Smith, Cooke-Davies, & Cicmil, 2006) reflecting a then emerging sub-discipline of organisational studies which concerned itself with the adoption of newly formulated tools for the optimisation of organisational process (Bredillet, 2010). The classical view of a project as a temporary endeavour undertaken to create a unique product, service or result (Project Management Institute) is further codified through the development of professional bodies and institutionalised frameworks during the 1960s. ...
... During this period, we also see the arrival of large-scale project methodologies such as the Project Management Body of Knowledge which is developed by the Association of Project Managers, along with Projects in a Controlled Environment 2 which is developed by the UK government. The main focus of these approaches was to provide a normative framework for managing task-orientated activities within a directed command and control hierarchy (Winter et al., 2006) for delivering organisational benefit. A project is formulated by these systems approaches as an instrumental tool for managing project process and the metaphor for this methodology is that of a "machine that requires optimisation" (Svejvig & Andersen, 2015, p. 280), the main focus for which is the execution of a task. ...
... Instead of orientating themselves towards a positivist or functionalist conception of projects aimed at the optimisation of performance, they begin to present projects as a "lived experience" (Floricel et al., 2014(Floricel et al., , p. 1094. Thus, scholars in the field begin to reflect on the lived reality of what it is to do projects leading to a recognition of a project as a temporary organisation established by its base organisation to carry out an assignment on its behalf (Packendorff, 1995), the main focus for which is value creation, that is, to create a desirable development in another organisation (Winter et al., 2006). Table 8.1 sets out some key contrasts between the two views of a project. ...
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Challenging educators to rethink projects and see them as a practice rather than as a model of management the authors explore the possibilities for using live projects to enhance real world learning in higher education. Drawing on the work of the ‘critical projects movement’ the chapter outlines a theoretical underpinning for reconceptualising projects as a practice and proposes a new pedagogic model that of ‘agile learning’. Framing the use of live projects is a mode of real world learning that generates encounters with industry professionals and provides real-value outputs for clients. The chapter explores the challenges that face educators who wish to foreground ‘social learning’ and engagement with communities of practice as a means of easing the transition for students from education to the world of work.
... Modern project management (PM), especially the idea of MBP, has become popular within organizations [10][11][12]. As a modern model, MBP uses technical methods of modern PM to manage various tasks and activities that are considered as projects [13,14], and is an effective method to improve the efficiency of enterprise management [10,15,16]. The concept of MBP was first advanced in the mid-1980s [17] and applied in a number of areas, such as architecture, national defense, aerospace, etc. ...
... Modern PM, taking into consideration influencing factors such as competitions and markets, is a win-win PM strategy that can satisfy sustainable development requirements. As a modern model, MBP uses technical methods of modern PM to manage various tasks and activities that are considered as projects and is an effective method to improve the efficiency of enterprise management [10,[13][14][15][16]. MBP promotes cooperation among different projects and organizations and can accelerate economic development. ...
Article
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With economic development and globalization, more organizations have been cooperating with foreign enterprises, which brings not only opportunities but also management difficulties and competitions with organizations. Organizations must improve their management and adapt to changing market conditions and the requirements and needs of its customers to maintain and strengthen its position in the market. Management by Project (MBP) uses technical methods of modern project management (PM) to manage various tasks and activities that are considered as projects. It is an effective way to solve management problems and improve management levels and enterprise competitiveness. However, few small and medium-sized enterprises apply MBP in their operation and management processes. Therefore, this paper presents a new idea to promote the application of MBP and the formation of a PM culture within society. In this paper, we searched a major database using the systematic literature review method and analyzed the articles directly or indirectly linked to our paper to obtain literature supporting the views of this article. First, this paper presents a new kind of management culture from the social aspect, termed as Social Project Culture (SPC), which can promote sustainable development and improve the management level and efficiency of organizations by promoting MBP application across society. Second, by analyzing the SPC definition, its three functions, i.e., project management behavior, management and risk control capacity, and international competitiveness, are provided. Then, to help organizations apply this method, an evolutionary path is proposed, including the creation stage, formative stage, mature stage, and heritage stage. Finally, to ensure the continued optimization of SPC, four safeguard measures in terms of theory, institution, behavior, and ideology are proposed.
... A complex, dynamic, and highly uncertain environment is the scenario currently faced by many projects. As a result, project management needs to rethink their execution mechanisms efficiently and effectively [1][2][3][4]. Attention to the processes and knowledge areas involved in project management addresses that need for change, which is reflected in the considerable number of research articles devoted to exploring these issues and which promote the permanent link between theory and practice [5]. ...
... The first cluster includes the research streams that integrate a vision of sustainability mixing elements of organizational management, stakeholder theory, and project management (1). Likewise, the second cluster contains the research streams related stakeholder theory and project management with the impact on the strategic plan and the direction of business operations (2). In the third context, this relationship is explored according to the sources of information and the industrial sector (3). ...
Article
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Nowadays the advance towards sustainability poses a global challenge for modern society as well as for companies. Professionals and academics continually redefine business processes and design management mechanisms in a more appropriate way in order to allow companies to balance economic activity with the environmental and social impact that they generate. Under this complex and dynamic scenario, creating a product, providing a service, or achieving a given result requires a different interpretation of the efficiency paradigm and an adequate socio-environmental intelligence. In the context of project management, sustainability-related knowledge, skills, and suitable tools are necessary to face this challenge. Moreover, its close relationship with stakeholder theory presents an alternative to approach that purpose. This article attempts a systematic review of the literature on stakeholder theory in project management during the past nine years, with the aim of providing a comprehensive view of this relationship, revealing its impact and influence on sustainability, and finding new research paths. We highlight the potential benefits derived from this relationship, either as an instrument for the promotion of corporate social responsibility and inclusive policies, as a means for the generation of shared value and technological innovation, or as a key factor in the strategy and business management of a given project.
... This network was then able to make a more strategic exploration of the project management (PM) research agenda in order to explore and identify fruitful potential research directions that might improve the practice of PM. This led the important and iconic 'Rethinking PM' research network initiative that received a 24-month grant, funded by the EPSRC, starting on March 2004 and ending on February 2006 (Winter, Smith, Cooke-Davies and Cicmil, 2006a). It often takes several years to prepare a compelling and comprehensive research agenda and to gather together the coalition of thought leaders with the necessary profile and proven research record from academia and industry to win a research grant. ...
... We discuss the three research interest clusters in a more detail to deepen the context of our paper. (Winter and Smith, 2006) as well as in two of the papers from the special issue of IJPM (Winter et al., 2006a;Winter, Smith, Morris and Cicmil, 2006b). ...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the extent of the continuing influence on project management (PM) research directions of rethinking project management over the last ten years. Design/methodology/approach The authors chose a qualitative research approach that involved reading all papers published in the International Journal of Managing Project in Business since its commencement in 2008. Content analysis was performed on these papers to allow axial coding of key article content influence themes. Findings The research identified the strength, over time, of the three research interest clusters on the PM research agenda and resultant changes in the PM paradigm. The five directions put forward by the rethinking PM agenda and other researchers ten years ago have continued to influence the PM research agenda. Originality/value Findings provide a better understanding the changes in PM research directions since rethinking PM, the increased breadth and sophistication of PM research in general, and future research directions.
... Figure 1 below Figure 1: A suggested approach for rethinking project management Figure 1 shows the interrelated and reciprocal interacting domains of theory and practice. Theory and knowledge lead to practice and experience, and practice and experience generate theory and knowledge (Checkland 1985;Winter et al. 2006a). Both practitioners and researchers have to be heavily involved in this rethinking process; both domains can learn from and influence each other. ...
Article
Projects are everywhere across different sectors, industries and countries. Project management is no longer a sub-discipline of engineering and other rather technical disciplines, but is also used for many other purposes. Even though practice has changed dramatically over the years, the models and methodologies for project management have been fairly static and have therefore received substantial criticism for a lack of relevance to practice. Several scholars have therefore started to think more widely about projects and project management, conceptualized as rethinking project management. However, this theme has lived a somewhat quiet life in Denmark, which leads to the purpose of this chapter, which is to set the stage for rethinking project management in Denmark. The chapter is based on an empirical study, within the Danish project management community and beyond, where we discuss this rethinking process. The chapter argues for a rethinking process due to the pervasiveness and complexity in the contemporary project environment where rethinking is needed in order to stay competitive. The suggested approach for rethinking project management is a framing process, where a body of ideas is established and then diffused and translated into practices by a collective action process
... This supports the contours of this re-conceptualization. A more comprehensive literature review is needed to map central issues in a longitudinal view, e.g. during a ten-year period of time e.g. as done by Morris (2011), but also to initiate a broader discussion in research and practice about this reconceptualization like the UK initiative about rethinking project management (Winter et al., 2006a). ...
Conference Paper
Encouraged by resents years’ increased interest in project portfolio management (PPM), this paper conducts a review of two stocks of highly regarded publications on PPM — one stock representing most cited publications of all years, and the second representing the most cited publications from the last five years. Utilizing the theoretical lens proposed by Svejvig and Andersen (2015), we apply two complementary analytical perspectives to classify and analyze the stocks. One perspective, denoted as classical project management (CPM), highlights key characteristics of conventional research. A second perspective, denoted as rethinking project management (RPM), highlights characteristics of progressive research. Not surprisingly, characteristics from CPM are very dominant in the stock of most cited publications of all years — instrumentality and controllability in particular. In the newest stock, the aforementioned characteristics remain cornerstones, but are much less dominant. Instead, the RPM concept uncertainty seems to have conquered the agenda. Furthermore, based on our data we identify the following emerging trends: 1) increased focus on human actors, 2) broader accept of alternatives to rational explanations, 3) increased focus on adapting to a faster changing world. The limitations of our research are several, among these the limited size and timespan of our sample, and the scope of the utilized theoretical lens. Nevertheless, we argue that our research serves as a starting point to reveal overarching conjunctures of the discipline’s legacy and current knowledge base. As such, this paper modestly contributes to conceptual clarification of what we know and proposes directions for future research.
... The case studies are clearly aware of knowledge management and its' benefits but there is a lack of strategy for achieving measurable results. Winter et al (2006) highlight the importance of a KM strategic process as a learning system. They argue that knowledge sharing has to be strategic to make sense. ...
Article
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Nigeria experiences a perennial shortage of transportation energy despite being the world’s eighth largest producer of crude oil and the seventh largest proven reservoir of natural gas. Partly as a result, the Nigerian government proposed the use of compressed natural gas (CNG) as an automotive fuel in 1997 as part of the efforts to harness the country’s natural gas resources and address transportation energy challenges. However, the rate of adoption has been very low with natural gas vehicles constituting 0.04% of the national vehicle fleet. This paper presents a stakeholder analysis derived from interviews with senior executives of the leading organisations involved in the energy and transportation sectors in Nigeria. Analysis revealed thirty-one barriers and twenty-six policy proposals that were categorised into eight and four themes respectively. While there is a rarity of agreement across all stakeholder groups, we observed consensus on the suggestion for the removal of the subsidy on petrol and the need for the establishment of a coordinating agency to drive the use of CNG. The paper offers specific recommendations for the reform of the energy and transportation sectors, the introduction of fiscal and operational incentives and the creation of public awareness.
... The authors identify that the work answers specific deficiencies in the project management literature: "…project analysis has often tended to give too little attention to the management and implementation aspects of projects … and has dwelt too exclusively on the economic and financial aspects" (p. 7). The book can be considered a precursor to the more recent stream of research focusing on the 'actuality' of project management, starting with works by Cicmil et al. (2006), Winter et al. (2006) and Berggren and Söderlund (2008). ...
Article
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The paper explores three texts in the field of megaproject management that intersubjectively, in terms of community sentiment, might be considered ‘classics’. We deploy four criteria for a structured analysis that determines if the status of the works in question may be considered classic. The works examined are Megaprojects and Risk: An Anatomy of Ambition by Flyvbjerg, Bruzelius and Rothengatter; (2003) The Anatomy of Major Projects by Morris and Hough (1987) and Industrial Megaprojects by Merrow (2011). Based on these works we conclude with a prospectus for future research that will serve to develop the field of research into megaproject management.
... These inner dynamics might be better explained with the help of routine theory. Second, configurations of IC resources that enable ambidexterity are static and do not account for timetime, however, is crucial in projects (Lundin and Söderholm, 1995, p. 439 f.) and it is hence important to incorporate time and a process perspective when explaining ambidexterity in projects (Ancona et al., 2001;Raisch et al., 2009, p. 693;Winter et al., 2006). Finally, a classification of project management methods as being either "mechanistic" or "organic" is quite coarse and misses many nuances which may be helpful for manager or project leader in business handling projects. ...
Article
Purpose Ambidexterity has been shown to contribute to project performance. Recent studies of ambidexterity on the project level focus on multilevel knowledge resources, individual actions and structural ambidexterity. However, the role of project management methods remains unclear. This is surprising because project management methods are broadly disseminated as standards. The purpose of this paper is to theorize how project management methods affect ambidexterity on the project level. Design/methodology/approach It is demonstrated how routine theory adds to a better theoretical conceptualization and understanding of project management methods. The analysis of this paper contains, first, the reconstruction of the contribution of each action in “Scrum” to either exploitation or exploration and, second, the discussion of roles in Scrum. To conclude, a “big picture” of what ambidexterity in projects can look like is developed. Findings The main findings suggest that Scrum facilitates sequential and contextual ambidexterity by producing a pattern of alternating exploitation and exploration actions and by assigning specific roles. Practical implications For practitioners this leads to steps they can take to enhance ambidexterity in projects. It is suggested to staff explicitly ambidexterity-related roles like a Scrum Master and to persist on explorative actions like adaption of project goals and Customer Feedback. Originality/value First, the present paper contributes an analysis of the underlying micro-mechanisms of sequential and contextual ambidexterity in projects. Second, it informs practitioners on what aspects of project management methods they should pay attention to.
... RPM research is born out of a UK-based research network involving many leading researchers in project management and senior practitioners from industry. The purpose of the network was to develop the field of project management and improve real-world practice as well as to enrich and extend the project management field beyond its current foundations (Winter et al., 2006b, p. 650). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to analyze the similarities and differences between the Danish rethinking project management (RPM) initiative named Project Half Double (PHD) and the RPM research stream. The paper furthermore discusses how PHD and RPM can inspire each other in research and practice. Design/methodology/approach This is an empirical paper based on collaborative research between industry and researchers. PHD has developed principles and practices driven by industry consisting of ten leading stars and the impact, leadership and flow (ILF) method. The ten leading stars and ILF method are compared to RPM research. The comparative analysis is then used in a broader discussion about how the research-driven RPM initiative can enrich the industry-driven PHD initiative and vice versa depicted in a theoretical understanding of translations between global ideas and local implementations. Findings RPM and PHD share a focus on value creation, social processes, learning and complexity while PHD also focusses on lean thinking, agile thinking, front-end loading and leadership, which are largely topics beyond the RPM research stream. Originality/value The paper presents how stakeholders from Danish industry interpret the actuality in projects and how they want to move forward with a radically different project paradigm. This is expressed in the ten leading stars and ILF method, which is compared and contrasted to the existing RPM literature providing a foundation for further development of both RPM and PHD.
... Second, the research directions were developed around the interplay between theory and practice. Third, the Rethinking Network's research process itself was discussed in light of concepts of the engaged scholarship (Winter et al., 2006a). However, scholarship per se has not been spelled out as a research direction in its own right. ...
Article
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Purpose In 2006, the “Rethinking Project Management” network called for a paradigm shift in project research, and proposed five research directions. The directions inspired research and marked a milestone in the development of the field. The purpose of this paper is to reflect on the past decade and to rejuvenate these research directions. Design/methodology/approach The authors propose the umbrella term: “project studies” to denote the research related to projects and temporary organizing. Project studies is conceived not only as a body of research, but also as a social process embedded in research communities, and contemporary Zeitgeist. Based on Sandberg’s interpretative approach to the fit between work and works (in this case research-researcher) and Habermas’ three types of human interests: technical, practical, and emancipatory, the authors develop a conceptual framework circumscribing three types of research in project studies. Findings The conceptual framework is used to craft future research directions, in the lines proposed by Winter et al. (2006b). Research limitations/implications The authors conclude by proposing for a sixth theme on the practice of theorizing, and call for engaged, ambidextrous scholars, who’s “job” goes beyond the writing of articles and research applications, and includes shaping discourses of project research, nurturing new project scholars, contributing to project practice and carefully considering the legacy of projects and project studies in society. Originality/value This paper positions research as a social process, and the role of researchers as actors shaping research in project studies.
... The philosophy behind the AR would be that there is a gap between the theory (knowledge) and practice (experience) worlds [87]. Reflections are essential to generate and reframe personal knowledge and perspectives about the real world and therefore appropriate approaches and actions (Figure 7). ...
Article
Various failures of the traditional approach in community development in developing countries have led to the development of a more appropriate and holistic approach to address complex development issues. Systems approaches and cutting-edge tools have recently been embraced to deal with such complexities under contexts of interwoven relationships amongst social, economic, political, cultural and environmental factors. This paper provides reflections on practical value of the Evolutionary Learning Laboratory (ELLab) through a case study on improving the quality of life for women farmers in northern Vietnam, where gender-bias labour hardship and poor living-standard are evident. The first five steps of the participatory systems-based ELLab were implemented during 2013-2014 providing valuable results that have made both practical and theoretical contributions with substantial implications to community development. Our study finds that the context-based results reshaped the original project goal. The approach and framework helped to identify and engage right stakeholders in problem analyses and decision making activities. Fuzzy problems within the complex web of life of the women and rural households were uncovered using relevant systems tools to develop a big picture (systems model) of the current situation, defining levers for systemic interventions. The ELLab helps to build capacity of local people for taking ownership of the process and outcomes to guarantee sustainability and long-term impacts. It also facilitates true participation and co-learning amongst stakeholders, triggering transformative learning. Contributions to action research and an innovative mechanism for sharing reflections and lessons at both local and global levels via the online Think2ImpactTM are discussed.
... The philosophy behind the AR would be that there is a gap between the theory (knowledge) and practice (experience) worlds (Winter et al., 2006). Reflections are essential to generate and reframe personal knowledge and perspectives about the real world and therefore Practical Value of the ELLab in Solving Complex Community Problems [10] appropriate approaches and actions ( Figure 6). ...
Conference Paper
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This paper provides initial reflections on the practical value of the systems-based Evolutionary Learning Laboratory (ELLab) through a case study on improving the quality of life for women smallholder farmers in rural Haiphong, northern Vietnam. The first five steps were implemented during 2013-2014 providing valuable results that have made both practical and theoretical contributions with substantial implications to community development. The approach and framework helped to identify and engaged right stakeholders in problem analyses and decision making activities. Fuzzy problems within the complex web of life of the women and rural households were uncovered using relevant systems tools through a guided ELLab process. The ELLab helped to build capacity of local people for taking ownership of the process and outcomes to guarantee sustainability and long-term impacts. It also facilitated true participation and co-learning amongst stakeholders, making transformative learning occur. Contributions to action research are discussed. http://journals.isss.org/index.php/proceedings59th/article/view/2652
... The philosophy behind the AR would be that there is a gap between the theory (knowledge) and practice (experience) worlds (Winter et al., 2006). Reflections are essential to generate and reframe personal knowledge and perspectives about the real world and therefore [10] appropriate approaches and actions (Figure 6). ...
Data
This paper provides initial reflections on the practical value of the systems-based Evolutionary Learning Laboratory (ELLab) through a case study on improving the quality of life for women smallholder farmers in rural Haiphong, northern Vietnam. The first five steps were implemented during 2013-2014 providing valuable results that have made both practical and theoretical contributions with substantial implications to community development. The approach and framework helped to identify and engaged right stakeholders in problem analyses and decision making activities. Fuzzy problems within the complex web of life of the women and rural households were uncovered using relevant systems tools through a guided ELLab process. The ELLab helped to build capacity of local people for taking ownership of the process and outcomes to guarantee sustainability and long-term impacts. It also facilitated true participation and co-learning amongst stakeholders, making transformative learning occur. Contributions to action research are discussed.
... Notably, to tackle such critical and turbulent economic conditions, nations across the globe have started encouraging general public to engage in entrepreneurial activities to help withstand tough financial situations. In parallel, government authorities have also been indicated to understand their role especially when it comes to supporting financially (Winter et al., 2006). Likewise, when it comes to motivating people in the public sector to enhance performance, the element of funding support alongside entrepreneurial prospects has become even more important (Mok, 2005). ...
Article
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This paper examines the relationship between entrepreneurial training, entrepreneurial culture and organizational performance. Accordingly, the study also investigates the moderating effect of gov-ernment funding on the relationship between entrepreneurial culture, entrepreneurial training and business performance among the public universities in Pakistan. The respondents include 415 heads of department out of 1100 identified in the study. Structural equation modeling using PLS 2.0 M3 reports significant relationship between entrepreneurial training and organizational performance. Likewise, entrepreneurial culture is also reported to be significantly important for boosting organizational performance. Importantly, the study reports significant moderation of government funding on the relationship between entrepreneurial culture and organizational performance. How-ever, no moderation is reported on the entrepreneurial training and organizational performance relationship. The findings of this study have enhanced the understanding regarding government funding in the prospect of improving the performance of the HEIs in Pakistan. The study recommends that the state government and higher education institutions in Pakistan allow room for entrepreneurial activities, and development of entrepreneurial principles and opportunities, and further encourage entrepreneurial practices through the development of public entrepreneurial orientation and entrepreneurial training on innovation to generate/create positive effects on the organizational performance of HEIs.
... Fig. 2 shows an in-class team activity where teams had to design a problem-solving situation, either a real or fantasy one. Another in-class activity is shown in Fig. 3, where students 2002 Inefficient learning methods Suggested using multiple learning methods Cicmil et al. [6] Winter et al. [7] 2006 Inefficient content regarding knowledge, skills and attitudes ...
Article
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Project management education at university level faces a number of challenges. As coined by several researchers, it neither meets the actual needs of the industry, nor attracts the interest of architecture students. A number of methods have been discussed through recent researches that are capable of enhancing the teaching experience of PM. This paper aims to investigate the application of one of those methods, “blended learning” to support knowledge delivery to architecture students. A literature review has been presented, in addition to qualitative analysis of methods applied in PM course in two different programs, along 8 years, main-stream senior students in Ain Shams University, and year 3 students at the British university in Egypt. Findings of this paper took the form of a matrix of blended teaching methods that were examined in case studies, this matrix is of value to instructors involved in teaching PM courses.
... This creates connections with the project stakeholder theory [86]. However, the review of [78] was conducted through the lens of the rethinking project management school [94], which continually challenges the linear concept of project management processes in general use by many practitioners [95,96]. According to [97], some practitioners eschew such approaches and prefer to use more traditional processes and tools to deliver sustainable projects. ...
Article
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This paper aims to identify the major research concepts studied in the literature of sustainability in construction projects. Two bibliometric analysis tools—(a) BibExcel and (b) Gephi, were used to analyze the bibliometrics indices of papers and visualize their interrelations as a network, respectively. Therefore, a research focus parallelship network (RFPN) analysis and keyword co-occurrence network (KCON) analysis were performed to uncover the primary research themes. The RFPN analysis clustered the studies into three major categories of evaluating sustainability, project management for sustainability, and drivers of sustainable construction. The KCON analysis revealed that while each paper had a different focus, the underlying concept of all clusters was sustainability, construction, and project management. We found that while ‘sustainability’ was the leading keyword in the first cluster, i.e., evaluating sustainability, it was the second top keyword with the eigenvector centrality of over 0.94 in the other two clusters. We also found that the concept of sustainability should be included in construction projects from the early stages of design and feasibility studies and must be monitored throughout the project life. This review showed that previous researchers used a variety of statistical and mathematical techniques such as structural equation modelling and fuzzy decision-making methods to study sustainability in construction projects. Using an integrated approach to identifying the research gaps in this area, this paper provides researchers with insights on how to frame new research to study sustainability in construction projects.
... In addition, this methodology focus on communication as a strategic tool, especially regarding its implications in leveraging cross-functional teams, knowledge exchange, collaborative work, and innovation development. In fact, as stated before, industrialisation projects integrate social processes with some level of unpredictability, happening in volatile and competitive environments, which increases the need for implementing flexible and dynamic collaborative interaction systems between its various participants (Winter et al., 2006). Commonly, as well as in the presented case study, industrialisation project teams are international, intercultural, geographically dispersed and increasingly self-organised. ...
Article
This paper presents an integrated methodology for managing industrialisation projects combining know-how, abilities, instruments, and project management tools and techniques to fulfil more efficiently and effectively industrialisation requirements. Different research methods were used during an in-depth case study involving seven researchers over three years at an automotive industry company. Firstly, internal documents related to the organisation's specific set of rules for project management were analysed. Secondly, the organisation project managers' activities were observed. Thirdly, unstructured interviews were conducted to assess the organisation's project management awareness and the actual usage of tools and techniques. Finally, workflows were designed to represent the AS-IS model and the proposed TO-BE model. The methodology integrates a social project management approach, with social media tools, to improve communication between the industrialisation project management teams. Social project management is used to smoothly increase the projects' awareness and management within the global social ecosystem of the organisation.
... The Rethink in Project Management (RPM) movement, between 2005 and 2012, aimed to rethink projects and their forms of management in view of the challenges existing at the time and several existing project management failures. The movement presented a classical approach characterized with the following characteristics: executability, simplicity, temporality, linearity, controllability and instrumentality Winter et al., 2006;Zwikael, 2016). ...
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Purpose The article aims to critically analyze the project management developed by research laboratories of a Brazilian university in order to enhance their performance. For this, a critical analysis was performed to identify existing opportunities about the management of schedules and resources. Additionally, a software was developed to enable performance improvement. Design/methodology/approach The methodological procedures used were literature review, for a theoretical foundation, and case study conducted with semi-structured interviews, documentary research and on-site visits. Through a detailed critical analysis of the laboratories' management, it was possible to understand the activities developed and map the main difficulties observed. Findings A total of five plausible points of improvement were identified, namely reduced teams and accumulation of activities; team seasonality; centralized management; deviations from projects and schedule control. Based on the theoretical foundation, it has been proposed adjustments to minimize the mentioned difficulties that can greatly contribute for better management efficiency of multiple research projects. In addition, a software was structured based on the proposed improvements. The laboratories' performance was monitored for a month and significant improvements were observed. Practical implications The information presented here may be of great value to other researchers interested in enhancing research laboratory performance. Originality/value The academic literature presents several examples of project management guidelines application in different organizations; however, there are few studies about the application of them in research laboratories and how to improve their performance.
... The need to rethink the project management discipline has also been highlighted to achieve better results effectively [11][12][13][14]. Some authors have also noted that it is required to consider other aspects as sustainability [14][15][16][17][18] and the relationship between sustainability and different areas of knowledge of project management [2,19]. ...
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Business globalization causes all project managers, sooner or later, to face the challenge of understanding cultural differences. Identifying the risks associated with these differences has become an essential task today when discussing international projects. This paper shows how to improve the management of projects carried out in China by Spanish organizations, identifying risks related to differences between societies. To determine this set of risks, the cultural dimensions of Hofstede and Meyer were analyzed for the case of China and Spain, as well as the most critical values of the World Value Survey between both cultures. From there, and thanks to work done with a focus group formed of 29 Spanish project managers who are experienced in working in projects developed in China, risks were identified and classified into categories considering cultural dimensions. The results obtained show a record of risks of great interest for organizations working in international contexts, mainly in China. They reveal, in addition, the importance of considering this type of risks related to cultural differences, which have rarely been treated before.
... The strongest opportunities to develop this perspective fully may therefore lie outside the domain of traditional research products and communications. These might include, for example, the use of forums or networks for ongoing idea exchange among scholars and practitioners, analogue to some of those created in the past in the project management field (Winter, Smith, Cooke-Davies, & Cicmil, 2006), and to the collaborative research-practice network described by Sharma and Bansal (2020) in their study. ...
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Projects are inherently processual, and many project management scholars have begun to mobilize a process view, albeit sometimes implicitly. This methodological article presents four distinct process perspectives (process as evolution, process as narrative, process as activity and process as “withness”) that are grounded in different ontologies. We contribute to the literature on project management by identifying the distinctive implications of each perspective for research designs, data collection and analysis and by exploring their potential contributions to project management knowledge, drawing on examples from the project management and organization studies literatures. We further show how different perspectives can offer insight into different facets of project temporality (linear vs. momentary; objective vs. subjective, past, present or future), and we explore the varied visual representations they give rise to. We also reveal the multiple ways in which the notion of performance may be treated in process studies (as outcome, as input, as performativity, as theatre, as accomplishment), highlighting new modes of thinking about what performance might mean. Finally, the paper considers the dilemmas and limitations of each perspective and proposes opportunities for future development.
... There is ongoing debate in project management literature on how to create reflective project managers (Crawford, Morris, et al., 2006;Roger, 2008;Winter, Smith, Morris, et al., 2006). One part of the debate is related to identifying type of competences that educational institutions should focus on to achieve this objective (Alam et al., 2008;Cicmil et al., 2006;Crawford, Pollack, et al., 2006;Pant & Baroudi, 2008;Ramazani & Jergeas, 2015;Winter, Smith, Cooke-Davies, et al., 2006). The other part of the debate is concentrating on suggesting new means for developing competences needed to create reflective project managers (Córdoba & Piki, 2012;Hingorani et al., 1998;Thomas & Mengel, 2008) (Hussein & Rolstadås, 2002;Ojiako et al., 2011). ...
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In this chapter, we argue that the strength of game-based learning is not restricted to improving motivation or engagement to learn project management concepts and methods. We demonstrate that game-based learning approach could as well be used to uncover biases and pre-made assumptions about how projects should be managed. The paper provides a thorough description of a project management game that is used in an introductory course in project management. The game was developed to demonstrate the scope and impact of assumptions and biases on the early phases of project development. The game provides the course participants with an opportunity to comprehend the importance of reflecting holistically before taking decisions. The game was developed to uncover the following biases: 1) Focus on problem solving 2) Bounded rationality bias: basing problem solving on simplified models of reality that do not consider the complexity of contextual and external factors. 3) Group think bias. The game also demonstrates how these biases may result in failure to evaluate project outcome and failure to identify and involve key project stakeholders.
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This research is a case study of government involvement in academic research. In the case study, we analyzed what factors influence government involvement in academic research. Specifically, we scrutinized different factors such as language, citizenship, networking, age, and gender that could, to some extent, facilitate or complicate research cooperation between academia and government bodies. Though there are other universities with foreign professors, including KIMEP, SDU, KBTU, the number of foreigners in those universities is insignificant in comparison with NU, and the location of NU provides better access than others. We conducted an online survey among NU faculty, as well as several face-to-face interviews. The survey involved 47 respondents. The findings revealed that the most significant factors influencing government involvement in academic research are lack of proficiency in Russian and Kazakh, networking. The implications of this research suggest it is essential to establish particular intermediary institutions between academics and the government in order to facilitate the cooperation and omit unnecessary bureaucratic processes.
Article
Purpose The fundamental challenge for project management is dealing with people and their feelings. While there has been sporadic attention to the importance of emotions in project work, project management practices tend to neglect the role of emotions and emotional reflexivity. The authors use a symbolic interaction framework to present an in-depth exploration of emotions and emotional reflexivity in projects. Design/methodology/approach Empirical data was gathered in 19 semi-structured interviews with diverse project managers to assess their experience of emotion (15 male, 4 female, early 20s to late 50s, 3–38 years of expertise). Transcribed interviews were thematically analysed using a sociology of emotions informed, grounded theory, interactional framework. Findings The data revealed that emotional states are framed by factors specific to project management, including organisational change, project constraints and dealing with stakeholders. Explicitly managing emotions improved team engagement and project performance by acting as a catalyst for engaging in reflective practice and intuitive decision making. Practical implications Given the widely held misconceptions of emotion as maladaptive, project management education must focus on empathy in communication and leadership if practitioners are to master valuable soft skills. Techniques for emotional reflection and learning feeling lessons must be incorporated into practice. Originality/value The authors contribute to the emerging understanding that emotions matter in project management. The authors demonstrate the centrality of emotions in projects and the substantial impact they have on the wellbeing of practitioners and staff. Emotional reflexivity in practice, which is widely acknowledged yet tends to be ignored, is an essential part of the project manager's toolkit.
Article
The construction industry is acutely aware of the need to improve its management process. Currently, construction management is facing four major schools of thoughts. This paper reports the recent study results, the aim of which was to compare these approaches. The focus will be on the questions: What is the theory root for this school of thoughts? What is the position of planning? What are the techniques used or recommended by each of these schools of thoughts in managing construction projects? Recommendations are then given through a deep discussion of the capability of each approach in managing today's highly complex construction project.
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In the last section, we covered the issues in contextualizing project success and some of the key critical success factors that have been presented in the literature. We now turn our attention to project management and highlight some of the key areas in standards, performance, and approach. The initial section of this section describes two of the main standards used for the management of IS projects in particular the PMBoK® and PRINCE2®. The key contents of both standards are discussed in terms of content and performance based on the available literature. The section then progresses to discuss the actualities of project management and some of the complexities of project delivery.
Chapter
In this chapter, we argue that the strength of game-based learning is not restricted to improving motivation or engagement to learn project management concepts and methods. We demonstrate that game-based learning approach could as well be used to uncover biases and pre-made assumptions about how projects should be managed. The paper provides a thorough description of a project management game that is used in an introductory course in project management. The game was developed to demonstrate the scope and impact of assumptions and biases on the early phases of project development. The game provides the course participants with an opportunity to comprehend the importance of reflecting holistically before taking decisions. The game was developed to uncover the following biases: (1) focus on problem-solving; (2) bounded rationality bias, basing problem-solving on simplified models of reality that do not consider the complexity of contextual and external factors; and (3) groupthink bias. The game also demonstrates how these biases may result in failure to evaluate project outcome and failure to identify and involve key project stakeholders.
Article
The most prominent obstacle facing the construction industry in Yemen is mismanagement. Developing appropriate tools, approaches, and standards for managing construction projects will contribute effectively to the development and prosperity of the Yemeni construction industry. This study aims to provide the tools, approaches and standards for project management based on the opinions of the Yemeni advisory bodies. It presents an Integrated Cost, Quality, Time, and Scope (ICQTS) diamond framework model by developing the traditional triangle model in project management providing a practical contribution to researchers and companies working in the construction industry. The study uses a descriptive and analytical approach through a comprehensive literature review followed by a field study using a designed questionnaire distributed to the relevant Yemeni advisory bodies. The study concluded with the development of the traditional triangle model resulting in the introduction of the diamond framework model in the management of construction projects. Integration management was found to have a strong impact on project success presenting the framework model as an easy and flexible tool that unifies and integrates the processes and roles in the project and directing it towards achieving project stakeholder objectives. The literature largely neglects the impact of integration management in the various models and is mostly overlooked. Inclusion of integration management in the presented model will highlight measures of project success stressing the need to integrate and manage them together. Future studies may research the differences in the opinions of construction companies.
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Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify the major trends and contributions published in the Advances in Project Management book series and place them in the context of the findings and outputs from the Rethinking Project Management Network. A key aim is to address the concerns of project practitioners and explore the alternatives to the assumed linear rationality of project thinking. The paper further offers a guided catalogue to some of the key ideas, concepts and approaches offered to practitioners through the series. Design/methodology/approach – This is a conceptual review paper that reflects on the main areas covered in a book series aimed at improving modern project practice and explores the implications on practice, knowledge and the relationship between research and practice. The topics are addressed through the prism of the Rethinking Project Management Network findings. Findings – The paper explores new advances in project management practice aligning them with key trends and perspectives identified as part of the Rethinking Project Management initiative. It further delineates new areas of expertise augmenting those mentioned in the disciplinary canons of knowledge. Research limitations/implications – The paper offers a new understanding of how knowledge is created in, for and by practice. Improving the relationship between theory and practice may demand a new appreciation of the role of practitioners and the value of their reflection in context. Practical implications – The primary implication is to explore the new directions and perspectives covered by authors in the Advances in Project Management series, and identifymain areas and topics that feature in the emerging discourse about project management practice. In addition, new conceptualisations of the role of practitioners in making sense of project realities are offered and considered. Originality/value – New areas of interest and activity are identified and examined, offering a catalogue of new writing and perspectives in project practice. Reflection on the relationship between research and practice encourages fresh thinking about the crucial role of practitioner knowledge and reflection. Keywords: Practice, Practitioner, Reflective practitioner, Theory-practice gap, Stakeholders, Theory, Success, Reflective practice, Rethinking Project Management, Project management theory, Modern project management Paper type: Research paper
Article
This paper explains how engineering students at a Danish university acquired the necessary skills to become emergent facilitators of organisational development. The implications of this approach are discussed and related to relevant viewpoints and findings in the literature. The methodology deployed for this paper is empirical and conceptual. A specific facilitation project carried out by six international engineering students is presented. The importance of combining cognitive, emotional and synergistic skills is highlighted on the basis of this example, the authors’ extensive experience in teaching facilitation and the literature. These types of skills are most effectively acquired by combining conceptual lectures, classroom exercises and the facilitation of groups in a real-life context. The paper also reflects certain ‘shadow sides’ related to facilitation observed by the students and discussed in the literature. The educational process description and reflections presented in this paper can help university staff and mentors in public and private organisations to adopt interactive methods for education and training. A brief overview of the methods used is included in the Appendix. By connecting the literature, the authors’ and engineering students’ reflections on facilitator skills, this paper adds value to existing academic and practical discussions on learning facilitating leadership.
Conference Paper
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About this project: We wanted to evaluate the effectiveness of War Room Meetings (WRM) in the Oil and Gas sector and what impact WRM's have on Cohesion, Multicultural Teams, and Problem-Solving. Project Management is in the process of evolving more collaboratively, workshops and integrated meetings are the new norm. However, getting the most out of inexperienced team members is still challenging. Senior leaders need to set the project pace, provide the integrated processes, and lead by example. We see daily WRM's as a fundamental step towards developing teams. Abstract Summary This paper introduces a framework for WRM's that influences Cohesion and team building, integrates Multicultural Teams, motivates networking and relationships, and provides a framework for problem-solving with the project team. This study utilized WRM as a vehicle to co-develop project teams. Because the concept of collaboration and multicultural diversity is extensively viewed as organizational social structures, most theories of developing cohesion are skeptical about the social process within which it might occur. We have started collecting data from people in the Oil and Gas sector via virtual interviews (Skype & Microsoft Teams). We also have some slots open for further interviews, but will close the window by 1 July 2020. If you are interested in the research and available for an interview, please contact Adrian on ahepworth2015@gmail.com. We have also started to analysis interview data and form a Action Group to manipulate the data. We started by examining mainstream literature to develop conceptual theories. This study will use interviews and an Action Learning group to collect data and evaluate ideas into action. We aim to understand if team building, problem-solving, multicultural-teams, language barriers, and networking could improve by using WRM. We also want to explore if WRM influence ambidexterity the balance between exploitation and exploration, and if ambidexterity could manipulate ideas through flexibility to test the variety of shared ideas. As a project practitioner (Adrian) I use real world research to improve project performances. Any effective outcomes from this research project will be tested in the project community. The shaped outcomes of WRM, the impacts, successes, and fundamental influences of testing will be shared at future conferences. About the Author: Adrian is a practitioner and the Project Construction Manager in the Oil and Gas sector on a multi billion-dollar project for both civil and marine infrastructures in the Caspian Sea region. Adrian is currently in the thesis stage of his DBA Doctorate from the University of Liverpool, and also holds Masters Degree (Distinction) in Project Management, obtained from the University of Liverpool. Adrian has been an active project practitioner on many international projects for more than twenty-five years, and total experience more than forty years.
Purpose IS project failure has been a recurring problem for decades. This study examines the key factors that influence project failure and an analysis of the major areas that can have a significant impact on success. The study explores some of the key aspects that have an impact on project management performance from the practitioner perspective and discusses the problems faced by organizations in the closer integration of change and project management. Design/methodology/approach This study critically reviews the IS failure literature developing a synthesized view of the key issues and common reasons for projects to fail. The approach taken in this study is one that focuses on a number of key questions that pull together the relevant themes in this genre of research whilst highlighting many of the implications for practitioners and organizations alike. Findings Key questions remain on the underlying causes of instances of poor project management as an IS failure factor. The literature has omitted to develop a deeper analysis of the associations between failure factors and the potential causal relationships between these factors. The realization of project benefits relies on the success of both change and project management yet the formal integration of these two disciplines is constrained by separate standards bodies and an immature body of research. Research limitations/implications This study is limited by its theoretical nature lacking an empirical element to provide a deeper analysis of IS failure factors and their interrelationships. This specific area is a recommendation for future research, where causal relationships between failure factors could be developed via a mathematic based method such as Interpretive Structural Modeling (ISM). Practical implications With failure rates of IS projects still unacceptably high after decades of attempts to significantly change outcomes, a deeper analysis of this topic is required. The research gaps and recommendations for practitioners highlighted in this study have the potential to provide valuable contributions to this topic of research. Originality/value The intent of this study is to present a new perspective of this genre of IS research that develops the main arguments and gaps in the literature from the practitioner viewpoint.
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O estudo apresentado nesta dissertação tem como principal objetivo propor tratativas que possibilitem a melhor gestão de múltiplos projetos desenvolvidos por laboratórios de pesquisa do grupo ALFA do CEPETRO-UNICAMP, em termos de cronograma e recursos. Os procedimentos metodológicos utilizados foram revisão da literatura, para fundamentação teórica, e estudo de caso auxiliado por entrevistas semiestruturadas, pesquisa documental e visitas in locco. Por meio de uma análise crítica detalhada da gestão dos laboratórios citados foi possível entender as atividades desenvolvidas e mapear as principais dificuldades observadas. Cinco pontos de melhoria plausíveis foram identificados, a saber: equipes reduzidas e acúmulo de atividades; sazonalidade da equipe; gestão centralizada; desvios dos projetos; controle do cronograma. Com base na fundamentação teórica, foram propostas tratativas para minimizar as dificuldades citadas que em muito podem contribuir para melhor eficiência da gestão de múltiplos projetos de pesquisa. De forma complementar foi estruturado um software tomando por base as melhorias propostas. O autor desta dissertação acredita que as informações aqui apresentadas podem ser de grande valia para outros pesquisadores interessados no assunto e gestores de laboratórios de pesquisa.
Chapter
In human history, mega infrastructure construction has dramatically transformed the appalling natural environment and improved people’s living conditions and quality of life. Apart from great construction achievements, engineers and professional managers have enriched their experiences in and knowledge of mega infrastructure construction management.
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Resumo O advento da Nova Gestão Pública introduziu o conceito de gestão de projetos, até então exclusivo do setor privado, abrindo caminho para o aumento da eficiência do Estado. Nesse cenário, o objetivo deste artigo é localizar, sintetizar e identificar as proximidades teóricas entre os estudos de gestão de projetos no contexto público. Para alcançá-lo, definiu-se a abordagem metodológica bibliométrica recorrendo à análise relacional de citações, realizada pelos métodos de cocitação e de pareamento bibliográfico, a fim de descobrir relações de conectividade entre as obras publicadas. As análises fatoriais exploratórias da cocitação e do pareamento conduziram a 6 fatores, indicando a estrutura intelectual e possibilitando, também, a geração de um framework de integração dos fatores a partir das citações mais frequentes. Os resultados indicaram a prevalência de estudos sobre competências em gestão de projetos e governo eletrônico. Abre-se, ainda, o leque de discussões com a apresentação de uma agenda especificamente direcionada à gestão de projetos públicos.
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The advent of New Public Management introduced the concept of project management until then exclusive to the private sector, paving the way for increased state efficiency. In this scenario, this article aims to locate, synthesize, and identify the theoretical proximity among studies on project management in the public context. The bibliometric methodological approach used relational analysis of citations and the methods of cocitation and coupling to reveal the connections among the studies published. Exploratory factor analysis of cocitation and coupling led to six factors, indicating the intellectual structure, and enabling the generation of a factor integration framework from the most frequent citations. The results indicated the prevalence of studies on project management and e-government competencies. It also amplifies discussions with the presentation of an agenda directed explicitly to the management of public projects.
Article
Combining attention to the dynamics of collaborative relationships with standard project management techniques, this article describes and reflects on the approach taken by the Mayor’s Office for Policing and Crime (MOPAC) in the delivery of a Home Office Police Innovation Fund research project. The research project, with several work streams, focused on the development of the evidence base to inform the design and implementation of the College of Policing’s new Police Education Qualifications Framework graduate entry programme for police officers. The article comments on managing a complex collaboration comprising MOPAC, three academic research teams, Police Now and the College of Policing, and discusses the relationship between the project and the evolving policy environment. In conclusion, the article makes some observations about the value of a tri-partite collaboration between policy, practice, and research and the insights gained through this experience, which may offer guidance in the future management of collaborative projects.
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to identify patterns of project risk management (PRM) practices’ adoption, and provides empirical evidence concerning the importance (and key attributes) of organizational PRM maturity to the use of risk-related practices and project performance. Design/methodology/approach The research involved two phases: interviews with five project managers, and a worldwide survey of project managers that resulted in the analysis of 865 valid questionnaire responses. Cluster analysis was used to classify PRM practices’ use, factor analysis to detect the structure of the relationship between the variables measuring PRM practices’ use and a multiple regression analysis (with canonical correlation) to further reveal the different degrees to which PRM practices and organizational maturity are associated. Findings The identified patterns of risk practices’ adoption indicate that different contexts of organization PRM maturity and project complexity influence practices selection. The PRM practices related with targets (e.g. time-phased budget plan) are the most used, and those related to tools and techniques (e.g. S-curve) are the least used. Additionally, the obtained results confirm that organizational PRM maturity influences risk practices’ usage, moderated by project complexity, and organizational PRM maturity influences project performance. Originality/value Empirical methods were used to investigate the relationship between organizational PRM maturity and a large set of PRM practices with project complexity as a moderator. Gaps in the use of PRM practices (i.e. areas where more PRM knowledge and training are needed) were identified. Finally, this work identifies the attributes of organizational maturity with implications in practices’ usage and project performance.
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This paper describes the results of a qualitative study for improving communication in New Product Development (NPD) projects through a social project management approach. Through a case study research strategy, the main communication problems in a Car Industry section, dealing with NPD projects, were identified and four important initiatives were established to solve these communication problems: (i) standardize an integrated project management process focused on social interaction; (ii) select the most appropriate information tools for an 'open' and continuous communication environment; (iii) standardize the information disclosure for each information tool; and (iv) create/improve the visualization of the disclosed information.
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With the increased complexity in technology, projects are becoming more complex, and their outcomes are hard to predict. As we are entering the Industry 4.0 revolution, the complexities associated with technology will likely to increase to unprecedented levels. The main motivation of this chapter is to understand the link between the complexities associated with the projects and the project management style in dealing with these complexities. In this study, the project management style is defined as a dominant paradigm that a manager uses as a mental model in dealing with the management problems. The chapter investigates the effects of the alignment between project management style and project complexity on the project management outcomes. The implications of this research are that with the increased complexity as in the case of Industry 4.0, the project management approaches will need to become more agile, with shortened planning horizons and more involvement and communication with the stakeholders.
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Theory of Constraints (TOC) is new concept of project management. It has been effectively used in the manufacture industry. This study explores the idea of how the TOC is applicable to improve the project performance dealing with time constraint with a case of Sankosh-Tipling Road project and Bhimdhunga-Lamidanda Road Project of Dhading District. The five basic steps of TOC to remove the constraints are identifying the constraint, exploiting the constraint, subordinating to exploitation, elevating the system performance and repeating process. Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) approach has considered the human behavior factors like Parkinson's Law and student syndrome while rescheduling the project. Buffer management was introduced with considering the human behavior factors for manipulating the activity duration to aggressive time estimates. Buffer Management uses the time buffers viz. Project Buffer and Feeding Buffers as well as Resource Buffers. These buffers signal the warning of its consumption as the activities are implemented and suggests to critical look at the processes without exceeding the project duration. It was assessed that project could be completed 30 weeks prior to originally proposed deadline with application of CCPM. It might not be very ideal condition and could not be completed 30 weeks prior to deadline but CCPM ensures the project completion within originally proposed deadline with effective management of buffers. Thus, this study has assumed that project could be completed within previously proposed deadline if different counter measures which have been suggested with consideration of TOC. Introduction: Project Management objectives are the successful development of the project's procedures of initiation, planning, execution, regulation and closure as well as the guidance of the project team's operation towards achieving all the agreed upon goals within set scope, time, quality and budget standard(Oberlender, 1993). The purpose of the project management is to foresee or predict as many dangers and problem as possible; and to plan, organize and control activities so that the project is completed as successfully as possible in spite of all the risks. The ever-present element of risk and uncertainty means that events and tasks leading to completion can never be foretold with absolute accuracy. However, many constraints exist in practice with regard to construction project resulting the failure of projects. There are numerous challenges facing today's Construction Manager (CM) due to direct and indirect peripheral activities in construction processes. A surprising number of challenges are not construction issues but must be addressed and managed by the construction manager to ensure project success. Some of the construction issues include workforce considerations, time constraints, resource constraints, quality constraints and the changing nature of the work. These constraints are the most limiting factors that has restricted the overall project performance for timely completion of projects. Non-construction challenges that CM face that are part of business landscape include legal issues, governmental regulations, environmental concerns, and socio-political process. Most of the road construction projects in Nepal, both completed and ongoing are suffering badly from time and cost overrun and its consequences. Some of them have time overrun for short duration while some have time overrun for many years causing loss of project's profit, increasing cost and leading to technical and managerial problems between project's parties (Shah, et al., 2017). Thus, delay as a time constraint due to consequences of several other constraints, has a frightening economic problem, which not only wastes financial resources but also reduces the pace of development activities. To overcome such delay and overrun, effective project management with planning, scheduling and controlling is necessary. For effective planning, scheduling and control, the identification of constraints in the system is very necessary. The identification of the constraint in early stage of the project assist to make the organizational decision. The traditional scheduling approaches have been extensively applied in construction to identify the necessary activities and determine activity start and finish times. The basic approach has the problem in the ability of dealing with non-precedence constraints, human behavior factors, although traditional approach is simple to use and solve sophisticated problems. It is fact that constraints should be managed effectively in view of construction schedule planning and control. Most available methodologies to solve the non-precedence constraints include hit and trial approach, optimal solutions and simulation approach. Another solution for solving the problem regarding construction constraints is use of Theory of Constraint (TOC). TOC has been widely used and accepted in the manufacture
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The recent rediscovery of concrete lived time from 'clock-time' by process theorists enables us to make important adjustments in our thinking about the true nature of temporality, movement and change. For these process theorists, change is reality itself, and 'organizations' are nothing more than 'temporary arrestations' in a sea of flux and transformation. From this perspective it is the phenomenon of organisation that requires analysis and explanation and not change itself. This understanding opens up new avenues of inquiry for Organization Studies as a field of study. Thus the shaping of contemporary modes of thought, codes of behaviour, social mannerisms, dress, gestures, postures, the rules of law, ethical codes, disciplines of knowledge and so on, makes for more appropriate theoretical foci for an expanded realm of Organization Studies - one which offers a deeper understanding of organisation and its consequences for the world of affairs.
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This paper uses the framework of Michel Foucault to examine the mainstream discourse of ‘knowledge management’ (KM) in organizations. In particular, we draw on the notions of reflexivity, subjectivity, power, freedom and resistance to show how Foucault's ideas challenge contemporary uses of KM including its alignment with organizational learning and strategic change. A dominant theme of KM discourse relates to what computer technology can do for storing, sorting and distributing organizational knowledge. Indeed, a central assumption of the ideology of KM is that its systems are universally desirable. KM is often presented as a common-sense way of thinking about one's organization, and having everyone "pitch-in' through sharing knowledge is meant to ensure the company's commercial future. KM is thus represented as in the fundamental interests of workers and companies alike. In this article, we jettison the idea that KM is an unquestioned good. More specifically, we are concerned with the highly instrumental ways that knowledge is being constructed and how this influences workplace subjectivities. Foucauldian theory certainly helps with an examination of KM discourse, but we do not claim it is the only theory appropriate to this subject.
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It is through public reflection that we may create a collective identity as a community of inquiry. But how does public reflection differ from introspection, and how does it contribute to self and organizational learning? In this article, the author uncovers the many traditions which constitute the process of critical reflective practice, as may be practiced as part of a project-based learning experience. After defining the concept, the article illustrates why reflection is fundamental to learning and how it can be brought out in the company of trusted others through dialogue. The article goes on to illuminate the relationships between public reflection and the common good, experience, and time, as well as to characterize the skills associated with reflective practice.
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On Henri Bergson's view, the flux of time is reality itself and the things we study are the things that flow. Unfortunately, popular literatures on organizational knowledge are accustomed to seeing the moving by means of the immobile. They perceive knowledge as an already organized state that can be transferred between spatially distinct points. Drawing on Bergson's theory of continual movement (Duration) and Deleuze's concept of transversal communication, I challenge the ontological concern for knowledge production and use between the discrete parts of an organized system. Instead of seeing knowledge as the integration of derived points or positions, I advocate a threefold method of creative involution in which production and use are considered as a living interpenetration of foldings and movements that connect all `things' at all places and times.
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The concept of bounded rationality provides a premise from which one can interrogate the development of management as an academic discipline founded on the assumptions of a "normal" science. Our concern is with the consequences of this for the content of management education and its addressees, namely the students (receivers), and teachers and texts (senders) that carry and disseminate the ideas and pedagogy of management education. We draw a distinction between a science of objects and a science of subjects, arguing that the latter is a more appropriate frame for the discipline of management. We introduce the idea of management knowledge based on "phronesis," central to which is a concern with power, history, and imagination. We discuss power and the politics of organizing as a case study and conclude that if the teachers and graduates of today's schools of business and management were to aspire to Aristotelian virtues of " phronesis," they would need to learn in an environment in which discursive plurality is accepted and acknowledged, and where obstinate differences in domain assumptions are explicitly tolerated. In terms of pedagogy, we need to refocus the curriculum less around answers to apparent problems and more on questions that undercut the apparent problematics of the answers proposed.
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Growing attention to self-as-theorist threatens to shift reflexivity from a means to improve theory to an end in itself. Such a shift both muddles observations and conceals the possibility that reflexive liabilities are present-at-hand reconstructions of dissimilar ready-to-hand moments of data collection. Reflexivity lived forward differs, from reflexive threats to validity understood backward. This difference is illustrated through an analysis of Wicklund's theory of multiple perspectives. It is concluded that current renderings of reflexivity may have focused on the wrong categories.
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Drawing upon relevant concepts in organizational social theory (becoming ontology and processual view of complexity), and adopting an interpretative approach to studying organizational phenomena, this paper aims to make a contribution to the understanding of social processes in multi-organizational settings defined as ‘construction projects'. The study takes a critical view on the claimed advantages of non-conventional, innovative project procurement strategies as integration-enhancing mechanisms at the project level. Taking a swimming pool construction project governed by an innovative procurement procedure known as ‘two-stage tender’ as a case in point, the paper evaluates the extent to which better project team integration has been achieved in this context. Two major concerns emerged from the case study analysis: (1) two-stage tendering is an incomplete solution to tensions, adversarial culture and a lack of genuine cooperation over time; and (2) there is a need for facilitating mechanisms of a different nature to support and sustain collective situated learning and shared understanding of longer-term benefits of collaborative work. Based on the theoretical considerations and the interpretation of the empirical accounts, the paper proposes and refines a conceptual framework for understanding the complexity of construction projects as social settings. In the light of this framework, alternative concepts and skills for enhanced collaborative interaction among participating parties in this kind of social setting are suggested.
Article
In 2003 the UK’s Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC) agreed to fund a research network – Rethinking Project Management – to define a research agenda aimed at enriching and extending the subject of project management beyond its current conceptual foundations. The main argument for the proposed Network highlighted the growing critiques of project management theory and the need for new research in relation to the developing practice. Being the first paper of this Special Issue, this paper presents the Network’s main findings: a framework of five directions aimed at developing the field intellectually in the following areas: project complexity, social process, value creation, project conceptualisation, and practitioner development. These areas are based on a comprehensive analysis of all the research material produced over a 2-year period and represent the dominant pattern of ideas to emerge from the Network as a whole. They are not meant to be the agenda for future research, but an agenda to inform and stimulate current and future research activity in developing the field of project management. Methodologically, the five research directions represent a synthesis of ideas for how the current conceptual base needs to develop in relation to the developing world of practice. As well as presenting the main findings, the paper also presents a practical research framework aimed at researchers working in the field. The intended audience for the paper is the project management research community, and also researchers in other management areas for whom the Network’s findings might be of interest.
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Strategic alliances have been recognized as arenas with potential for opportunistic behavior by partners. Hence, a firm needs to have an adequate level of confidence in its partner's cooperative behavior. In this article we examine the notion of confidence in partner cooperation in alliances and suggest that it comes from two distinct sources: trust and control. We make the argument that trust and control are parallel concepts and that their relationship is of a supplementary character in generating confidence. In addition, we suggest that control mechanisms have an impact on trust level and that the trust level moderates the effect of control mechanisms in determining the control level. Finally, we discuss various ways to build trust within strategic alliances and important alliance control mechanisms.
Article
In any subject concerned with rational intervention in human affairs, theory must lead to practice; but practice is the source of theory: neither theory nor practice is prime. We can examine this 'groundless' relation by asking what intellectual framework F is applied in what methodology M to what area of application A? If we do this for O.R., systems analysis, systems engineering etc., we see that F and M have changed dramatically between the 1950s and the 1980s, yielding the 'hard' and 'soft' traditions of systems thinking. The 'hard' tradition, based on goal seeking, is examined in the work of Simon and contrasted with the 'soft' tradition, based on learning, as exemplified in the work of Vickers and the development of soft systems methodology. The two are complementary, but the relation between them is that the 'hard' is a special case of 'soft' systems thinking. This analysis makes sense of the recent history of management science and helps to prepare us for the 1990s.
Appreciative inquiry. Jossey-Bass
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Essai: time, duration, and simultaneity: rethinking process and change in organizational analysis
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