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Relations between social and emotional competence and mental health: A construct validation study

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Abstract

Researchers working fairly independently of each other have created numerous measures of social and emotional competence (SEC). These measures tend to correlate (sometimes highly) with each other and with measures of stressful events, suggesting potential redundancy. We evaluated which, if any, SEC variables predicted unique variance in social and mental health after controlling for other SEC variables in the study and the impact of stressful events. Three-hundred and thirty-one university students participated in an anonymous, cross-sectional study. We measured stressful events, and a wide variety of SECs, including: social problem solving skill (effective problem orientation, automatic processing, and problem solving), alexithymia (difficulty identifying and describing emotions; minimising emotions), effective emotional control (low rumination, high impulse control, high aggression control, low defensive inhibiting of emotions), and level of emotional awareness. We also assessed a variety of aspects of social and mental health (e.g. depression, anxiety, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, life satisfaction, social support). Covariance analyses revealed that all SEC measures except minimising emotions had significant incremental value over the other measures and over stressful events in predicting social and mental health. The optimal set of predictors differed depending upon the type of health predicted. These findings have important implications for the design of social and emotional intervention programs.

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... Sample Group: The sample of study consists of 40 volunteer teachers, 28 female and 12 male, working as special education and branch teachers at Rize Zehra Usta Special Education Practice School, in the spring term of the 2020-2021 academic year. Data Collection Tools: "Personal Information Form", which was developed by the researcher by taking expert opinion, and "Attitude towards Sportive Activities of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities Scale" (ATSAIIDS) developed by 15 . were used as data collection tools in the research. ...
... "Explanation of the Attitudes Scale towards Sports Activities of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (ATSAIIDS)": The scale has 28 items and 2 sub-dimensions: "Positive Attitude towards Sports Activities" (PATSA) and "Negative Attitudes towards Sports Activities" (NATSA). The PATSA (Positive Attitude towards Sports Activities) dimension of the scale consists of 1, 2, 3, 5, 6,7,9,10,11,13,14,15,17,18,19,21,22,23,25,26,27 (21 items), while the NATSA (Negative Attitude towards Sports Activities) dimension includes 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 28 (7 items). Respondents can give each item between 1 and 5 points. ...
Article
The aim of this research is to examine the attitudes of special education and branch teachers towards physical education and sports activities of individuals who need special education. The sample of study consists of a total of 40 volunteer teachers, 28 female and 12 male, who work as special education and branch teachers at Rize Zehra Usta Special Education Practice School in the spring term of the 2020-2021 academic year. "Personal Information Form", which was developed by the researcher by taking expert opinion, and "Attitude towards Sports Activities of Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities Scale (ATSAIIDS)" developed by İlhan, Esentürk, and Yarımkaya (2016) were used as data collection tools in the research. Survey model, one of the quantitative research designs, was used in the research. SPSS 21.00 statistics program was used in the analysis of the research data. In the findings obtained, a significant relationship was found in terms of the variable of department (branch) from which the participants graduated. It was determined that the attitude levels of the employees who graduated from other departments were higher than those who graduated from the special education department. However, no significant relationship was found in terms of gender, age, education level, having a disabled person in their family, and receiving sports training for the disabled. Keywords: Attitude, intellectual disability, special education, physical education and sports
... Considerada a concepção da competência comportamental, verifica-se a proximidade com aquela da competência social (White, 1959;Weinstein, 1969;Raven, 1984;Caballo, 1987;Yeates & Selman, 1989;Rubin e Rose-Krasnor, 1992;Del Prette & Del Prette, 1996;Ciarrochi et al 2003;Oliveira, 2003;Taborsky & Oliveira, 2012). Nessa direção, Yeates e Selman (1989) expõem que a competência social está alinhada ao desenvolvimento de habilidades e conhecimentos sociocognitivos, incluindo a capacidade de controle emocional, para mediar o desempenho comportamental em um contexto específico, que por sua vez são julgados por si e pelos outros como bem-sucedidos e, assim, aumentam a probabilidade de ajuste psicossocial positivo. ...
... Assinala-se que não foi encontrada correlação com o Inciso XI "capacidade de maximização e otimização dos recursos tecnológicos" (Resolução nº 3, 2005, s.p.), visto que, não envolve qualquer tipo de relação interpessoal. A partir da análise, que a aproximação entre a teoria e aquilo que define o marco legal vai ao encontro do disposto por Ciarrochi et al (2003) sobre a questão de a competência social não ser só percebida pela qualidade das interações com as outras pessoas, mas também, à capacidade de criar e manter o suporte social. ...
Conference Paper
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RESUMO: A competência é um fenômeno que vêm ganhando espaço como forma de gerir nas organizações, principalmente alinhada à gestão de pessoas. Assim, considerada a amplitude da competência em um contexto organizacional são apresentadas tipologias para o fenômeno, dentre as quais está à competência social. Nessa direção, reconhecido o pressuposto de que o profissional de secretariado tem competências para atuar como um gestor nas organizações, este estudo tem como objetivo verificar, em linhas teóricas, de que modo às competências sociais estão associadas ao contexto das competências secretariais. Para alcançar tal propósito, desenvolveu-se uma pesquisa descritiva, de abordagem qualitativa e bibliográfica/documental quanto à estratégia. Observa-se que essa última escolha se materializa nas técnicas de coleta de dados. Os resultados apontaram que a profissão secretarial transmutou, agregando, com o passar dos anos, mais funções e valores, o que fez com que as atividades tecnicistas do passado se transformassem em competências técnicas e comportamentais. Essas últimas, conforme análise deste estudo alinham-se às concepções da competência social. Nessa direção propõe-se ao final desta reflexão, que seja inserido ao contexto secretarial, conexa às competências comportamentais, as competências sociais. Palavras-chave: Competências. Competências Sociais. Secretariado.
... Following measures were used in the present study for the construct of emotional competence the problem orientation scale (nine items) of the social problem solving inventory consists of statements such as 'I avoid dealing with problems in my life' (frauenknecht & black, 1995) [23] . The emotional control questionnaire measures people's ability to control emotions in trying circumstances, and consists of scales measuring 'aggression control', 'rumination', 'benign control', and 'emotional inhibition ' (ciarrochi et al., 2003; roger & najarian, 1989, 1998) [21,13,32] . The measure of central importance to the present study is the rumination scale, which consists of items such as 'I find it hard to get thoughts about things that upset me out of my mind'. ...
... The results of the study revealed that a strong positive association between the three social-emotional competencies, and direct and indirect (via teachers' self-efficacy) effects of emotional self-efficacy on empathy. [13,21] made an attempt to explore the relations between social and emotional competence and mental health: a construct validation study The study assessed a variety of aspects of social and mental health (e.g. Depression, anxiety, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, life satisfaction, social support).three ...
... Following measures were used in the present study for the construct of emotional competence the problem orientation scale (nine items) of the social problem solving inventory consists of statements such as 'I avoid dealing with problems in my life' (frauenknecht & black, 1995) [23] . The emotional control questionnaire measures people's ability to control emotions in trying circumstances, and consists of scales measuring 'aggression control', 'rumination', 'benign control', and 'emotional inhibition ' (ciarrochi et al., 2003; roger & najarian, 1989, 1998) [21,13,32] . The measure of central importance to the present study is the rumination scale, which consists of items such as 'I find it hard to get thoughts about things that upset me out of my mind'. ...
... The results of the study revealed that a strong positive association between the three social-emotional competencies, and direct and indirect (via teachers' self-efficacy) effects of emotional self-efficacy on empathy. [13,21] made an attempt to explore the relations between social and emotional competence and mental health: a construct validation study The study assessed a variety of aspects of social and mental health (e.g. Depression, anxiety, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, life satisfaction, social support).three ...
Article
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In this research article, an attempt was made to identify significant correlates and critical predictors of emotional competence. A large number of researches were examined. The significant correlates and predictors of emotional competence emerged as mental health, social behaviour, maladjustment, forgiveness, happiness, adolescent risky behavior, well-being, emotional abilities, self-efficacy, empathy, life satisfaction, social support, resilience, psychopathology, risk behaivours and self-esteem. Though, age, gender, type of school, working & non-working conditions and residential locality from demographic perspective emerged as significant correlates and predictors. While analyzing the researches, the validity of statistics, statistical design and use of reliable and valid psychometric properties of variables under study was the qualifying condition. The results compiled in the article will help the research professionals to visualize significant correlates and predictors in summative form.
... Rumination was also found in association with a greater risk for anxiety symptoms in adults (Abbott and Rapee, 2004;Ciarrochi et al., 2003;Fresco et al., 2002;Harrington and Blankenship, 2002), as well as in children and adolescents. Rood et al. (2010) showed a correlation between trait anxiety and rumination among non-clinical children and adolescents aged between 10 and 18 years. ...
Chapter
Several types of stress factors are likely to be implied in the development, maintenance, and transmission of rumination: genetic/temperamental factors, cognitive factors, family factors, and societal/cultural factors. The current chapter focuses on the etiological factors involved in the development of a ruminative thinking style in childhood. In the first part of the chapter, the most important studies on the topic are reviewed in detail, illustrating differences in genetic and neurobiological correlates, as well as environmental risk factors. A discussion on the role of rumination in the development and/or maintenance of psychopathological symptomatology is also proposed, especially focusing on internalizing and externalizing manifestations. The last part of the chapter reviews studies investigating the metacognitive factors as possible pathways of the relation between rumination and childhood symptoms, suggesting prevention and intervention techniques for parents, mental-health professionals and policymakers.
... Finally, the mediation model could not prove the causal relationships between the variables without using the experimental method. A future study is recommended to explore the related intervention of emotional competence and its effect on long-term mental disorders among adolescents based on an experimental design (65). ...
Article
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Background: The outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound influence on the mental health and well-being of individuals across the globe. Emotional competence, defined as one's ability to recognize, understand, and manage their emotions, has been found linked with mental health problems (e.g., depression and anxiety) in previous studies. However, there is limited knowledge about the direction of the association between these factors among populations exposed to COVID-19. This study examined the possible mediation relationships between depression, anxiety, emotional competence, and COVID-19 exposure among Chinese adolescents. Methods: Responses from 7,958 Chinese adolescents who had previously taken part in a two-wave study before (December 23, 2019–January 13, 2020) and during COVID-19 (June 16, 2020–July 8, 2020) were analyzed (51.67% males, mean age = 11.74, SD = 2.15). Structural equation modeling with three covariates (i.e., age, gender, and ethnicity) was used to test the longitudinal mediation relationships between COVID-19 exposure and depression, anxiety via emotional competence. Results: Results indicated that the prevalence of depression (38.67 to 36.74%) and anxiety (13.02 to 12.77%) decreased from Time 1 to Time 2. The T2 emotional competence significantly mediated the relationship between T2 COVID-19 exposure and T2 anxiety (indirect effect [95% CI] = 0.011 [0.004–0.019], p < 0.05). T2 emotional competence also significantly mediated the relationship between T2 COVID-19 exposure and T2 depression (indirect effect [95% CI] = 0.013 [0.005–0.022], p < 0.05). The results indicated that T2 emotional competence had a significant and negative influence on T2 anxiety (β = −0.266, SE = 0.005, p < 0.001), and T2 depression (β = −0.326, SE = 0.029, p < 0.001). Conclusions: This longitudinal research study demonstrated the crucial role of emotional competence in influencing the severity of long-term mental health problems, and suggested that emotional competence interventions can be conducted to improve mental well-being among Chinese adolescents exposed to COVID-19.
... Although the contemporary view on this is more nuanced, showing that analytic thinking and emotional experiences complement each other (Damasio, 2001;Odaci, Değerli, & Bolat, 2017), there is a genuine historical tendency to perceive one's professional competencies predominantly in terms of rationality and cognition, thus downplaying the role of emotional competencies. Emotional competency can be defined as the individual ability to identify, describe, understand and deal with one's own and others' emotional experiences (Ciarrochi, Scott, Deane, & Heaven, 2003;Saarni, 1997). This echoes the basic premises of humanistic theory where it is explicitly underlined that the ability/willingness to recognise and understand others' emotions helps people to feel less isolated and leads to higher qualities of human interaction (Rogers, 1995). ...
Article
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There are surprisingly few studies analysing collaboration between special and general educators that has been proven to work well. The aim of the present study is to explore the perspectives of special and general educators on their collaborative efforts on teaching pupils who receive special education assistance. The study adopts a qualitative approach where interviews with eight educators have been analysed to identify underlying processes and mechanisms that are characteristic of successful collaboration between these two educational professions. The sampling was purposive and only educators who have been found to have achieved successful collaboration in the past were invited to participate. Three main themes emerged during the analysis: a meta-analytic approach to teaching, mutual recognition and enthusiasm, and inclusive education teaching. The overall conclusion of the findings indicates that successful collaboration is embedded in the type of instruction that supports the basic premises of inclusive education and appreciation of diversity. Educational professionals who are willing to come closer to one another in terms of their practice and professional identities are better equipped to succeed in co-teaching situations.
... A second core challenge in adolescence is the development of social competence (Rice and Dolgin 2005), which can be defined as the ability to work well with others to achieve goals (Durlak et al. 2010). Given robust links between social competence and a high quality of life (Argyle and Lu 1990a, b;Broadhead 2003;Bukowski et al. 2011;Ciarrochi et al. 2003;Rezaei and Jeddi 2018), the manner in which adolescents navigate the challenge of learning how to interact effectively with others may be critical for their future well-being. However, we know surprisingly little about the impact of adolescent social competence on adult happiness (Greve 2011;Olsson et al. 2013). ...
Article
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Academic and social success are key points of emphasis for adolescents. Yet, it remains unclear whether competence in these areas during adolescence leads to happiness in adulthood. We also know surprisingly little about the mechanisms by which these factors might influence future quality of life. The present study examined the relative impacts of social and academic success (measured in adolescence) on satisfaction with life approximately 16 years later. In addition, indirect pathways were assessed through life stress and social support in early adulthood. Participants (N = 157) were drawn from a sample of children born to low-income mothers followed from birth through age 39 years. Results showed a direct pathway from adolescent social competence to adult life satisfaction, and no such effect of high school graduation. Neither indirect effect was significant. These results extend and support previous cross-sectional research, and call into question the ability of the present K-12 education system to meet the expectations of modern parents.
... Istraživanja čiji je cilj bio utvrditi prediktivnu vrijednost emocionalne kompetentnosti za različite komponente subjektivne dobrobiti, većinom zadovoljstvo životom, ukazuju na to da je emocionalna kompetentnost značajan pozitivan prediktor subjektivne dobrobiti ( Bar-On, 2005;Gallagher i Vella-Brodrick, 2008). Istraživanja zaštitne uloge različitih dimenzija emocionalne kompetentnosti za psihološku dobrobit pojedinca ukazuju na važnost tri ključne dimenzije emocionalne kompetentnosti: sposobnost reguliranja i upravljanja emocijama, sposobnost izražavanja i imenovanja emocija te usmjerenost na rješavanje problema (Ciarrochi, Scott, Deane i Heaven, 2003). U prilog ovim nalazima idu i rezultati longitudinalne studije (Ciarrochi i Scott, 2006), gdje je utvrđen značajan doprinos navedenih dimenzija emocionalne kompetentnosti u objašnjenju razine anksioznosti, stresa i pozitivnih emocija; odnosno, pojedinci koji imaju razvijenije sposobnosti izražavanja i reguliranja emocijama manje su anksiozni te doživljavaju više pozitivnih emocija. ...
Article
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Istraživanja u području pozitivne psihologije nastoje odgovoriti na pitanja koji su to osobni i okolinski čimbenici koji doprinose sreći i zadovoljstvu u životu pojedinca. U okviru ovog istraživanja cilj je bio ispitati doprinose zasebnih dimenzija emocionalne kompetentnosti (sposobnost uočavanja i razumijevanja emocija, sposobnost izražavanja i imenovanja emocija, sposobnost reguliranja i upravljanja emocijama) i dimenzija privrženosti u različitim bliskim odnosima (partnerski, obiteljski, prijateljski) u objašnjenju subjektivne dobrobiti pojedinca. U istraživanju je sudjelovalo 245 ispitanika u dobi od 18 do 30 godina. Ispitivanje je provedeno putem online upitnika, koji su se temeljili na samoprocjeni ispitanika. Rezultati provedenih hijerarhijskih regresijskih analiza, između ostalog, pokazuju, da emocionalno kompetentniji pojedinci te pojedinci koji su manje skloni izbjegavanju u odnosu s obitelji pokazuju veće zadovoljstvo životom, veći osjećaj prosperiteta te učestaliji doživljaj pozitivnih, a rjeđi doživljaj negativnih iskustava. Uz to, ako je osoba bila muškog spola, mlađa osoba i osoba uspješnija u uočavanju i razumijevanju emocija bez obzira na spol, to je bio manji doživljaj negativnih iskustava. Ključne riječi: subjektivna dobrobit, emocionalna kompetentnost, privrženost
... In addition, recent research 15 concluded that alexithymic subjects demonstrated significant Facebook self-disclosure, a somewhat surprising finding considering the very nature of alexithymia, defined as the trouble identifying and describing emotions. 16 Another study 17 18 The questionnaire was then distributed to the randomly selected households, and data collected through face-to-face interviews. All individuals over the age of 18 were allowed to take part in the study. ...
Article
Purpose: To assess the relationship of smoking (cigarettes or waterpipe), alcohol drinking, alexithymia, self-esteem, anxiety, depression, stress, social phobia, emotional intelligence, impulsivity, insomnia, physical health, and loneliness with problematic social media use (PSMU) in a sample of Lebanese citizens. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 466 participants (January-May 2019). Results: Higher anxiety, alcohol use disorder, and social phobia were correlated with elevated PSMU, while older age was associated with lower PSMU. Emotional intelligence partially mediated the association between alexithymia and PSMU by 4.55%. Practical implications: Since these manifestations are preventable, spreading awareness through our schools, educational programs, and even health care professionals would considerably reduce the pace at which young adults are transforming into anxious and distorted individuals.
... Med andre ord er graden av emosjonell kompetanse hos gruppeveileder sentral i håndtering av de utfordringer som kan dukke opp i veiledningen. Emosjonell kompetanse kan defineres som et individs evne til å identifisere og beskrive emosjoner, evnen til å forstå og håndtere emosjoner og emosjonelle utfordringer (Ciarrochi, Scott, Deane & Heaven, 2003;Saarni, 1997). Grunnlaget for utviklingen av emosjonell kompetanse er å gi følelsene oppmerksomhet, sette ord på dem, og deretter handle ut fra følelsene (Gellerman, 1969;O'Meara, Knudsen, & Jones, 2013). ...
Article
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Emosjonell kompetanse hos gruppeveiledere er viktig for å kunne håndtere egne følelser og samtidig evne å forstå andres følelser på en konstruktiv måte. Hensikten med denne studien er å utforske hvordan gruppeveiledere opplever og intensjonelt anvender sin emosjonelle kompetanse i veiledning av grupper. Datamaterialet er basert på dybdeintervjuer med tre gruppeveiledere og analysert ved bruk av den konstant komparative metode. Tre hovedtema ble identifisert: (1) emosjonelle responser, (2) empatisk tilstedeværelse, og (3) fasilitering av emosjonell kompetanse hos veisøkere. Resultatene understreker betydningen av selvbevissthet og empatisk tilstedeværelse hos veilederen som danner grunnlag for konstruktiv kommunikasjon med og mellom gruppemedlemmene.
... Ciarrochi et al. (2003) compreendem a competência social como a capacidade de interagir habilmente com os outros para atingir os objetivos ou necessidades e a capacidade de se comunicar de forma clara, fato que permite aos indivíduos experimentarem interações positivas e, assim, resolverem os conflitos efetivamente. Além disso, os autores chamam a atenção para a questão de a competência social não ser só percebida pela qualidade das interações com as outras pessoas, mas também, à capacidade de criar e manter o suporte social. ...
Article
Full-text available
A competência é um fenômeno que vêm ganhando espaço como forma de gerir nas organizações, principalmente alinhada à gestão de pessoas. Assim, considerada a amplitude da competência em um contexto organizacional são apresentadas tipologias para o fenômeno, dentre as quais está à competência social. Nessa direção, reconhecido o pressuposto de que o profissional de secretariado tem competências para atuar como um gestor nas organizações, este estudo tem como objetivo verificar, em linhas teóricas, de que modo às competências sociais estão associadas ao contexto das competências secretariais. Para alcançar tal propósito, desenvolveu-se uma pesquisa descritiva, de abordagem qualitativa e bibliográfica/documental quanto à estratégia. Observa-se que essa última escolha se materializa nas técnicas de coleta de dados. Os resultados apontaram que a profissão secretarial transmutou, agregando, com o passar dos anos, mais funções e valores, o que fez com que as atividades tecnicistas do passado se transformassem em competências técnicas e comportamentais. Essas últimas, conforme análise deste estudo alinham-se às concepções da competência social. Nessa direção propõe-se ao final desta reflexão, que seja inserido ao contexto secretarial, conexa às competências comportamentais, as competências sociais.
... Past studies have suggested that implementing prosocial interventions focused on developing emotional and social skills in the beginning of adolescence may be one of the most effective ways to prevent early onset of socioemotional disturbances and risky behaviours throughout life [39,45]. Perception of personal skills has been considered an important variable influencing mental health adjustment [46]. Students who display high levels of personal skills show better social and interpersonal relations, psychological wellbeing and academic achievement [37]. ...
Article
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Significant progress has been made in developing intervention programmes for adolescents at high risk of delinquency, school failure and emotional problems. The most effective programmes incorporate behavioural and skills training aimed at changing attitudes and promoting psychosocial and emotional skills in adolescents. This study examined the effectiveness of a school-based intervention programme based on the Reasoning and Rehabilitation V2 (R&R2). R&R2 is a cognitive behavioural programme developed using psychological theories about the aetiology of delinquency, as well as the cognitive, behavioural and socioemotional deficits in high-risk youth populations. A sample of 142 students (aged 13–17 years old) who were attending alternative education provision in Spain were randomly assigned to two experimental conditions (68 experimental group, 74 control group). The results showed that the R&R2 improved participants’ self-esteem, social skills, empathy and rational problem-solving with a medium–large effect size (η2 = 0.08 to 0.26). The effects of the programme were significant after controlling for age and the pre-test scores in baseline. These findings confirm the effectiveness of the Reasoning and Rehabilitation V2 programme in Spanish adolescent students and offer additional evidence regarding the implementation of the R&R2 programme in both alternative educational and mainstream school settings.
... Some studies showed that a low level of emotional competence is related to poor health (Martins et al., 2010;Mavroveli et al., 2007;Nelis et al., 2011). Social and emotional competencies were found to be a predictor of physical and mental health (Ciarrochi et al., 2003). These studies found that social and emotional competencies are related to health, but their cross-sectional designs do not make it possible to establish the temporal order between the somatic symptoms and social and emotional competencies. ...
... En este orden de ideas, la competencia social puede ser entendida como un concepto que comprende las diferentes habilidades emocionales, conductuales y cognitivas; sujeta a procesos de aprendizaje, lo cual implica la posibilidad de entrenamiento (McFall, 1982;Waters & Sroufe, 1983;Gresham, 1988;Gresham & Elliott, 1993;Monjas, 1999;Mahar & Sullivan, 2002, Buckley, Storino & Saarni, 2003Bisquerra, 2003;Ciarrochi, Scott, Deane & Heaven, 2003;Jalongo, 2006). ...
Article
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Las problemáticas socio-económicas y culturales actuales requieren de diversos actores sociales que aporten soluciones de manera proactiva a través de diversas estrategias, una de las cuales es el voluntariado; que constituye una de las formas más innovadoras y efectivas para el desarrollo social de un país. Por ello, se investigaron las diferencias en las actitudes y las estrategias cognitivas sociales entre jóvenes vinculados y no vinculados a programas de voluntariado de la ciudad de Bogotá. La investigación se enmarcó dentro del contexto de un modelo de competencia social. Se utilizó un diseño descriptivo-comparativo. Se trabajó con dos muestras intencionales, la primera muestra fue de 219 jóvenes vinculados a Instituciones de voluntariado y la segunda de 237 jóvenes que no se encuentren realizando voluntariado; los dos grupos estuvieron constituidos por hombres y mujeres con edades comprendidas entre los 11 y los 18 años. Se aplicó la prueba de «Actitudes y Estrategias Cognitivas Sociales» (AECS) de Moraleda, González & García (1998), que previamente se ajustó a las características de la población en estudio. Teniendo en cuenta el nivel de medición de cada una de las variables se presenta el análisis descriptivo comparativo. Se encontraron diferencias significativas en 8 de las 19 sub-escalas de la prueba AECS; logrando identificar en estas escalas elementos diferenciales y característicos de la conducta prosocial.
... The initiation and development of successful family and peer relationships depend on social competence and interpersonal relationships in turn facilitate social skill acquisition and advancement over time, creating a symbiotic relationship (Merrell, 1999). Consequently, strong social competence is linked to more satisfying and supportive relationships with friends and family (Buhrmester, 1990;Buhrmester et al., 1988;Festa et al., 2012;Smart & Sanson, 2003), a larger social support network (Bierman & McCauley, 1987) and better quality interactions with others (Ciarrochi, Scott, Deane, & Heaven, 2003). These qualities and the ability to initiate and maintain social support then offer further opportunities for social engagement. ...
... These results seem to suggest that reporting not having had certain emotional experiences is related to inability to tact one's emotional experience and deficits in emotional awareness, and/or attempting to suppress or avoid certain emotional experiences or unwanted feelings. There is considerable evidence in the literature in support of this, particularly in adolescent populations (Ciarrochi, Heaven, & Supavadeeprasit, 2008;Ciarrochi, Kashdan, Leeson, Heaven, & Jordan, 2011;Ciarrochi, Scott, Deane, & Heaven, 2003). ...
Article
The importance of a healthy sense of self for adolescent mental health is well documented. According to Relational Frame Theory there are three distinct self-discriminations, as well as three corresponding senses of other. Recent evidence suggests that in naturally occurring speech these discriminations are predictive of lower distress, as well as increased well-being, and psychological flexibility. The present study investigates these self and other discriminations in a sample of 76 adolescents using a mixed methods design with opened-ended questions and quantitative measures of mental health, well-being, and experiential avoidance. Participants’ responses to the open ended questions were coded for occurrences of the three senses of self, other, and rule governed behavior using the Functional Self-Discrimination Measure (Atkins & Styles, 2016). The findings indicated that different patterns of relating to the self and others were associated with higher levels of well being, better mental health and higher psychological flexibility. The findings are considered in relation to the benefits of using a behavioral measure of self-relating in adolescents.
... Our results pave the way for further research, particularly in the field of emotions. For example, several studies have found that emotion regulation disorders, such as alexithymia, are often closely intertwined with the depressive and/or anxious symptomatology (Ciarrochi, Scott, Deane, & Heaven, 2003;Honkalampi, Hintikka, Tanskanen, Lehtonen, & Viinamäki, 2000;Mikolajczak, Quoidbach, Kotsou, & Nelis, 2009) we observed in our female students with IPV exposure. Furthermore, Zarling et al. (2013) demonstrated that emotional dysregulation has a mediating effect on the link between domestic violence and children's internalizing and externalizing disorders. ...
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Objective: We sought to show that the adjustment of young women who witnessed mutual intimate partner violence (IPV) as children is influenced by their current perceptions of relations with their parents. Method: Our sample comprised 793 young female university students, 623 of whom had been exposed to IPV during childhood. Of these, 289 had witnessed severe violence and 334 minor violence. All participants completed an online battery assessing perceived IPV (CTS2-CA), perceived parent child relations (QERPE), predisposition to aggression (Aggression Questionnaire), and anxious and depressive symptomatology (HADS). Results: Results revealed that young women with IPV exposure exhibited a higher level of anxiety than those with no such exposure, and perceived their relations with their parents more negatively. Those who had witnessed severe, as opposed to minor, violence displayed higher levels of anxiety, depression and aggression. They also had more negative perceptions of their relations with their parents. More generally, perceived maternal rejection was a decisive factor for the presence of internalizing and/or externalizing problems among participants with IPV exposure. Conclusion: Where there is a history of mutual IPV, the quality of parent child relations has a major impact on young women’s adjustment. We discuss the study’s limitations, as well as prospects for future research. Keywords: child witnesses; exposure to domestic violence; situational couple violence; parent child relationship; internalizing and externalizing disorders; young adults
... Emotional awareness (EA) has been defined as the ability to identify, label, and describe individual emotions [29]. It is a fundamental skill, essential for the proper psychological, emotional, and social development of an individual. ...
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Poor emotional awareness (EA) seems to play an important role in the aetiology of functional somatic complaints featuring pain as a form of somatisation. The aim of this study was to shed more light on this relationship by investigating the links between pain, somatisation, and emotional awareness in a nonclinical population of 445 children aged 6–10. Assessing pain through the Children's Somatisation Inventory (CSI), a very high percentage of the entire sample complained of experiencing pain at least one site (84.07%) over the preceding 2 weeks. Although no difference in the prevalence of pain (whole) was found when the sample was subdivided by Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale-Children (LEAS-C), a relationship between low level of LEAS-Self and prevalence of headache (H) was detected (𝜒2=7.69, p=0.02). LEAS (Self) was correlated with the intensity of back pain (BP) (r=- 0.12; p< 0.05), H (r=-0.12; p< 0.05) but not with abdominal pain (AP). Pain worsened QoL, and the greatest negative correlation with total KidScreen-10 was found for abdominal pain (r=-0.14; p< 0.01). Our results suggest that low EA is a predictor of somatisation, BP severity, H, and severity of pain in general, but not AP.
... Kwako, Szanton, Saligan, and Gill (2011) found significantly lower levels of ability EI in a clinically depressed sample compared to healthy controls. Conversely, most studies have shown a relation between EI and symptoms of depression, with studies showing both trait and ability EI to be negatively correlated to measures of depression (Ciarrochi, Scott, Deane, & Heaven, 2003;Dawda & Hart, 2000;Palmer, Donaldson, & Stough, 2002;Saklofske, Austin, & Minski, 2003;Schutte et al., 1998) and psychological distress (Slaski & Cartwright, 2002). ...
Chapter
Current educational trends reflect an increased focus on developing social and emotional competencies of school children as a means of reducing underachievement and school violence and promoting positive development and well-being. Atypically developing children—those with a diagnosed mental health condition, intellectual exceptionality, or history of maltreatment—are at an increased risk for experiencing academic, social, and/or emotional difficulties. Further, the challenges associated with atypical development may impede the acquisition and/or application of core socioemotional skills. In this chapter, we provide an overview of the current research on emotional intelligence (EI) and social-emotional learning (SEL) with an explicit focus on students’ mental health. After briefly outlining the concepts of SEL and EI, we review relevant research with several atypical populations, including children with Autism Spectrum Disorder, Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder, Specific Learning Disorder, intellectual giftedness and disability, history of maltreatment, or behavioral and social-emotional difficulties. Descriptions of selected SEL and mindfulness-based school programs that target socioemotional competencies of both children and teachers are presented, followed by a discussion of their utility and challenges in addressing the needs of both typical and atypical learners.
... Alexithymia may be present in various clinical populations, including individuals with diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder, psychosomatic disorders, and substance use disorders (Pedinielli, 1992). It may be linked to various symptoms (most notably, anxiety) but also to risky behaviors (Ciarrochi, Scott, Deane, & Heaven, 2003;Honkalampi, Hintikka, Tanskanen, Lehtonen, & Viinamäki, 2000). A study of substance users showed that alexithymia could be a mediating variable between affectivity and risky behaviors (Bonnet, Bréjard, & Pedinielli, 2013). ...
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Objectives for this study were, first, to describe individual differences in risk taking among scuba divers. Differences were examined on personality dimensions and psycho-affective variables, including positive and negative affect, as well as alexithymia. In addition, the study examined contributors to two types of behavior associated with scuba diving—deliberate risk taking and controlled participation in a high-risk sport (non-risk-taking). A cross-sectional design was used, and 131 participants were assessed on extraversion-neuroticism, affectivity, and alexithymia. The broad dimensions of personality and affectivity explained risk taking among divers. Alexithymia differentially predicted two types of risk taking behavior (direct or short-term and indirect or long-term) and was associated significantly with short-term risk-taking behavior.
... Alexithymia may be present in various clinical populations, including individuals with diagnoses of posttraumatic stress disorder, psychosomatic disorders, and substance use disorders (Pedinielli, 1992). It may be linked to various symptoms (most notably, anxiety) but also to risky behaviors (Ciarrochi, Scott, Deane, & Heaven, 2003;Honkalampi, Hintikka, Tanskanen, Lehtonen, & Viinamäki, 2000). A study of substance users showed that alexithymia could be a mediating variable between affectivity and risky behaviors (Bonnet, Bréjard, & Pedinielli, 2013). ...
Article
Objectives for this study were, first, to describe individual differences in risk taking among scuba divers. Differences were examined on personality dimen- sions and psycho-affective variables, including positive and negative affect, as well as alexithymia. In addition, the study examined contributors to two types of behavior associated with scuba diving—deliberate risk taking and controlled participation in a high-risk sport (non-risk-taking). A cross-sectional design was used, and 131 participants were assessed on extraversion-neuroticism, affectivity, and alexithymia. The broad dimensions of personality and affectivity explained risk taking among divers. Alexithymia differentially predicted two types of risk- taking behavior (direct or short-term and indirect or long-term) and was associated significantly with short-term risk-taking behavior.
... Research indicates that emotional self and other-awareness and social understanding are linked to prosocial behaviour (Denham, 1998;Roberts & Strayer, 1996), emotion regulation (Southam-Gerow & Kendall, 2002), and positive interpersonal relationships (Eisenberg & Miller, 1987). Conversely, difficulties in identifying emotions in self and others and a lack of social understanding are related to emotional problems (Ciarrochi, Scott, Deane, & Heaven, 2002), hyperactivity (Kats-Gold & Priel, 2009), conduct disorders (Emond, Ormel, Rene, & Oldehinkel, 2007), and social rejection (Dodge et al., 2003;Slaughter, Dennis, & Pritchard, 2002). Thus, although the primary aim of the EMOscope is to foster children's emotional self and other-awareness and social understanding, indirect effects on children's behaviour regulation, prosocial behaviour, and interactions with peers can be expected. ...
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The aim of the study was to determine the effectiveness of a brief, teacher-led intervention (EMOscope) developed to promote children’s socioemotional competence. Our sample consisted of 339 Polish pupils and their 16 teachers from 16 third grade classrooms. Teachers in the experimental condition (8 teachers) were trained to deliver the EMOscope intervention. Data were collected at pre-test and post-test. Performance tests were administered to measure children’s social understanding and emotional awareness. Furthermore, peer ratings were used to measure children’s cooperative behaviour and teachers’ reported on children’s prosocial behaviour, hyperactivity, emotional problems, conduct problems, and peer problems. Multilevel regression analysis revealed that children in the experimental condition improved significantly on emotional self- and other-awareness and on social understanding. Moreover, they decreased in teacher-rated hyperactivity, conduct problems, and total difficulties. No effects were found, however, on teacher-rated prosocial behaviour, emotional problems, peer problems, and peer-rated cooperative behaviour.
... Research showed that adolescents with higher levels of resilience (Gooding et al. 2012;Hjemdal et al. 2012;Johnson et al. 2010;Mo et al. 2014;Sun and Shek 2010) and spirituality (Abdollahi and Talib 2015;Khan et al. 2011) showed higher life satisfaction and lower hopelessness. Similarly, social competence (Ciarrochi et al. 2003) and positive identity (Johnson et al. 2010;Shek 2010, 2013) were related to adolescent subjective well-being. ...
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This pioneer study investigated the longitudinal development of adolescent subjective well-being (SWB) in terms of life satisfaction and hopelessness. The concurrent and longitudinal influence of different socio-demographic characteristics (i.e., age, gender, economic disadvantage, and family intactness), individual qualities (i.e., resilience, social competence, positive identity, and spirituality), and familial characteristics (i.e., family functioning, and parent-child relationship) on these two aspects of SWB were examined. A total of 3328 Hong Kong students from 28 secondary schools participated in a 6-year longitudinal study. While adolescent life satisfaction showed a declining trend, hopelessness gradually increased across the six years. Resilience, social competence, family functioning, and father-child relational qualities were significant predictors of life satisfaction at the initial status, whereas gender, mother-child relational qualities, positive identity and spirituality predicted changes in life satisfaction over time. Regarding hopelessness, gender, family intactness, resilience, social competence, father-child relational qualities, and mother-child relational qualities were significant correlates at the initial slope, but spirituality and family functioning were the longitudinal predictors of hopelessness over the adolescence period. While the present study showed that some existing Western findings can be replicated in the Chinese context, there are some novel and puzzling observations deserving further scrutiny.
... In their attempt to avoid the term " intelligence " , which refers to ability rather than a trait, they use alternatively the term "emotional self-efficacy " recognizing thereby the inherent subjectivity of the emotional experience (Petrides, 2011). Similarly, other researchers (Ciarrochi, Scott, Deane, & Heaven, 2003; Saarni 1997) use alternatively the term " emotional competence " to define the individual differences in how people manage effectively emotions and emotionally charged problems. According to Saarni (2000) emotional competence skills follow a developmental path, since each manifests differently at different ages (Saarni, 2011). ...
Article
The present study examined the relationship between emotional intelligence, academic achievement and schoolclimate among primary school students. The purpose of the study was to investigate the impact of social andemotional learning programs on the emotional intelligence and the academic achievement of 143 students in the 5thand 6th grade of primary school, who attended relevant programs compared with the corresponding number ofstudents (163) in the same grades, who did not attend such educational programs. Students completed theTEIQue-CSF and a questionnaire with demographic data; in addition, the scores they received in the last quarter(April-June) of the academic year 2011-2012 were taken into account. Combined with the above, a questionnaire wasconstructed based on the "Checklist for the assessment of the quality of classroom and school climate", in order toinvestigate the views of the respective teachers on the impact of school climate on the emotional competence ofstudents. The comparative results of the present study showed that there is a positive relationship among thevariances. The findings must be taken into account from the Ministry of Education in Greece when designing thecurricula in order to create caring, responsible, emotionally and psychosocially balanced students.
... Extremera, Fernández-Berrocal, 2005;Jain, Sinha, 2005;Matczak, Knopp, 2013;Palmer, Donaldson, Stough, 2002;Schutte, Malouff, Simunek, McKenley, Hollander, 2002), szeroko rozumianym przystosowaniem i prawidłowym funkcjonowaniem społecznym (por. Austin, Saklofske, Egan, 2005;Ciarrochi, Deane, Wilson, Rickwood, 2002;Ciarrochi, Scott, Deane, Heaven, 2003;Engelberg, Sjöberg, 2004;Lopes, Salovey, Straus, 2003;Van der Zee, Thijs, Schakel, 2002), czy też sukcesami szkolnymi i zawodowymi (Barchard, 2003;Brackett, Mayer, Warner, 2004;Gerits, Derksen, Verbruggen, Katzko, 2005;Gil-Olarte Marqeuz, Palomera Martin, Brackett, 2006;Gumora, Arsenio, 2002;Mestre, Guil, Lopes, Salovey, Gil-Olarte, 2006;Parker, Creque i in., 2004;Parker, Summerfeldt, Hogan, Majeski, 2004;Petrides, Frederickson, Furnham, 2004;Qualter, Whiteley, Hutchinson, Pope, 2007;Van Rooy, Viswesvaran, 2004). ...
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The article elaborates on the construct of emotional intelligence, wherein it focuses on both—explaining the causes of the enormous popularity of this concept and outlining the major issues and concerns associated with it. Presenting the basic assumptions of the ability model by Salovey and Mayer and the most popular mixed models (Goleman’s and Bar-On’s) has pointed out the huge differences in the adopted definitions and a proposed structure of emotional intelligence. The advantages and short comings of these models were described too. The article has also highlighted the problems associated with the measurement of emotional intelligence, as well as insufficient knowledge of its circumstances and dynamics of development. The reflection on the functional importance of emotional intelligence is a significant part of the article, which also attempted to confront popularizers’ claims with available empirical data. W artykule podjęto rozważania nad konstruktem inteligencji emocjonalnej, przy czym skoncentrowano się w nim zarówno na wyjaśnieniu przyczyn ogromnej popularności tego pojęcia, jak również nakreśleniu głównych problemów i wątpliwości z nim związanych. Przedstawiając podstawowe założenia modelu zdolnościowego Saloveya i Mayera oraz najpopularniejszych modeli mieszanych (autorstwa Golemana oraz Bar-Ona), wskazano na ogromne rozbieżności w przyjmowanych w ich ramach definicjach i postulowanej strukturze inteligencji emocjonalnej. Opisano również zalety oraz niedoskonałości wspomnianych modeli. Zwrócono uwagę na problemy związane z pomiarem inteligencji emocjonalnej, a także niewystarczającą wiedzę o jej uwarunkowaniach i dynamice rozwojowej. Znaczącą część artykułu stanowią rozważanianad funkcjonalnym znaczeniem inteligencji emocjonalnej, w których podjęto próbę konfrontacji tez popularyzatorów pojęcia z dostępnymi danymi empirycznymi.
... There is thus a need to set up intervention programmes aimed at training in emotional competences (both interpersonal and intrapersonal). We must stress the need for emotional training using techniques that encourage empathy, emotional self-knowledge, recognition of the emotions, and emotional expression, understanding and regulation (Buckley et al. 2003;Ciarrochi et al. 2003). The intervention should also be aimed at developing functional communicative resources in the adolescents which would allow them to create effective relationships in their social interactions. ...
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This research analyses the emotional competence difficulties (measured through emotional intelligence and empathy) and social communication disorders of young victims of abuse. These minors are in residential care centres with protective measures after suffering maltreatment and/or neglect. The relation between their emotional competence and social communication is analysed, as well as the contribution of empathy and emotional intelligence in predicting their social communication. The results indicate that a lack of emotional competence is related to and can predict their difficulties in social communication. The study manifests a scarcity of emotional intelligence, affecting attention, emotional repair and clarity of feelings, as well as a deterioration in affective and cognitive empathy. The minors’ scarce ability to put themselves in the place of others, to understand others’ intentions and emotional states, limits their use of language in social interactions. The research stresses the need to set up intervention programmes aimed at training in interpersonal and intrapersonal emotional competences which can encourage social communication.
... Por el contrario, la población normativa recurre a estrategias adaptativas de afrontamiento, esto es, más competentes socialmente. En suma, la población de penados por violencia de género muestra incompetencia en un componente de las funciones ejecutivas, las destrezas para la resolución de problemas (Ciarrochi, Scoot, Deane, y Heaven, 2003), y, dado que dicha incompetencia implica estrategias cognitivas y comportamentales, la intervención requiere indefectiblemente de una aproximación multimodal, o sea, en las cogniciones y en el comportamiento, prestando así apoyo a las predicciones de Arce y Fariña (2010) para el tratamiento de maltratadores. ...
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Resumen La competencia socio-cognitiva se describe por la capacidad del individuo para usar los recursos personales y ambientales, facilitadores de comportamientos normalizados. Así, aunque no contamos con una taxonomía consensuada de qué destrezas la definen, existe acuerdo en señalar que la competencia cognitiva se compone, entre otras, de la capacidad de resolución de problemas. En este sentido, se señala que el nivel de competencia cognitiva se relaciona con el grado de comportamiento antisocial y delictivo. Así, estamos interesados en conocer cuáles son las estrategias de afrontamiento que emplean los penados por violencia de género en fase de ingreso penitenciario, en contextos estresantes y propicios para la violencia de género. Para ello, efectuamos un estudio de campo en el que fueron evaluados un total de 250 condenados por violencia de género, al ingreso en el programa de tratamiento penitenciario. Los resultados obtenidos revelan que los penados por violencia de género afrontan los problemas y situaciones estresantes propicias para la violencia de género mediante estrategias de afrontamiento desadaptativas, que son propias de incompetencia social y vinculadas con comportamientos antisociales y delictivos. Abstract Socio-cognitive competence is described as the individual's ability to use personal and environmental resources to facilitate normalized behaviour. Though there is no consensually agreed taxonomy defining the relevant skills, it is widely accepted that cognitive competence consists of problems solving and other skills. Moreover, the level of cognitive competence appears to be related to the degree of antisocial and delinquent behaviour. Thus, the aim of this study was to determine the coping strategies used by convicted male intimate-partner violence (IPV) offenders before entering prison, which is a stressful context that may trigger further gender violence. A field study was undertaken to assess a total of 250 male detainees sentenced for gender violence, who were admitted to a prison treatment programme. The results reveal that IPV offenders cope with stressful problems and situaciones conducive to gender violence by employing desadaptative coping strategies, which are characterisitic of social incompetence and associated to antisocial and delinquent behaviour.
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In this research work, the investigators analyze the relationship between anxiety, emotional intelligence, and emotional competence among college students. A sample of 100 BPSMV college students in the age group 16-21 years from Sonepat district, Haryana, was selected for the study. According to the findings, most college students had high levels of anxiety. On the other hand, a large number of students had a low level of emotional intelligence. Overall emotional competence score reveals that most college students scored average. It also indicates that college students are fairly adapted to understanding and monitoring their emotions. The study's findings also revealed that there is no significant difference in anxiety, emotional intelligence, and emotional competence based on the location (rural/urban). The result shows a weak positive relationship between anxiety and the emotional intelligence of college students. Moreover, regression analysis was performed to determine the impact of emotional intelligence and emotional competence on anxiety. Results revealed that emotional intelligence contributes to variation in anxiety.
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Good health refers to the mind and body's soundness and the state in which its tasks are carried out properly and effectively. Health is described by the World Health Organization as "a condition of complete physical, mental, and social well-being". There are a variety of elements that influence health in developing nations like India, such as poverty, food insecurity, food pricing and malnutrition, pollution and deterioration of the environment, occupational and reproductive health issues, cost prices of private health care systems, public health care delivery systems, and so on. The health of mothers, new-borns, and children is currently the prime agenda of multilateral organizations, international cooperation agencies, and governments around the world. Children are our future, and maintaining their health, development, and growth should be the top priority for all nations. Malnutrition, infectious diseases, being born underweight, maternal or neonatal or infant mortality, and other factors make new-borns and children more susceptible. This paper looks at the changes in the Mental Health Act 1987 to the new legislation of 2017 for the treatment and care of a mentally ill person and analyzes the various provisions of it from a psycho-socio-legal perspective.
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The prevalence of self-harm and the relative emotional influences are well understood, but certain cognitive factors such as working memory, rumination, and self-criticism are not fully explored. The aim of the current study is to examine specific aspects of cognition to explore their influence on self-harming behaviors. Participants included 101 undergraduates from a British University. Factors were measured using the Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale, the Depressive Experiences Questionnaire, Ruminative Response Scale, and the Automated Working Memory Assessment. Findings indicated a greater incidence of self-harming behaviors among those who demonstrated higher depressive symptoms, but depression scores were not significantly related to self-harm. Additionally, a binary logistic regression indicated that self-criticism was associated with the presence of self-harming behavior, and a Classification and Regression Trees found that the single strongest predictor of self-harming behavior was a belief that love needs to be continually earned from others. Incorporating treatments that reduce self-criticism, such as improving self-compassion with Compassionate Mind Training, may address underlying mechanisms that trigger self-harm behavior. Keywords: rumination, depression, self-criticism, working memory, self-harm
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The paper investigates the photocurrent spectra of p-n junctions of GaAs-based diodes before and after photochemical surface doping with sulfur. It is shown that photochemical surface alloying with sulfur increases the magnitude of the photocurrent on the sample surface. An additional chemical compound was detected by the spectral method on the sample surface after photochemical surface alloying with sulfur. The width of the forbidden zone was measured for this connection.
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The objective of the work presented is to develop emotional competencies in higher-education students by following Bisquerra’s five-block model. With the methodological support of adventure pedagogy and gamification, students improve their emotional competencies, as well as the basic competencies of the degree in Physical Activity and Sport Sciences and the specific ones of the subject. The proposal, which is entitled “In search of my Avatar”, aims to make sure that, in their future as sports professionals, they will be able to serve their customers in a fully competent way. The work presented proposes different activities of emotional education to work transversally in higher education, ranging from conflict management and the use of language to improve the relationship with oneself and with others. The proposal was developed for the Degree in Sports Science and for the subject of Physical Activity and Sport in the Natural Environment, but with certain adaptations, it could be transferred to any university-degree subject.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the research on wellbeing related to children and youth. Several definitions of these subjective aspects of quality of life are discussed in relation to children of pre-school age, elementary school age, middle-school age, adolescents, and college students. There are at least three major theories employed by wellbeing researchers to explain how these different population groups experience a sense of wellbeing. These include social development theory, attachment theory, and ecological theory. The chapter also highlights factors affecting the sense of wellbeing of these population groups—situational factors, personality factors, demographic and psychographic factors, and socio-economic and socio-cultural factors. The chapter concludes with a discussion of indicators of children wellbeing and public policy implications.
Chapter
Schwierigkeiten in der Gestaltung interpersoneller Beziehungen sind ein häufiger Risikofaktor für die Entstehung und Aufrechterhaltung psychischer Störungen. Diese Schwierigkeiten können in der Wahrnehmung und im Ausdruck eigener oder fremder Emotionen oder in der Beurteilung der Angemessenheit sowie der Ausführung sozialen und kommunikativen Verhaltens begründet sein. Dementsprechend bilden Trainings emotionaler, sozialer und kommunikativer Fertigkeiten eine häufig angewendete Gruppe therapeutischer Programme, die auf intra- und interpersoneller Ebene ansetzen können und verschiedene Interventionen zum Aufbau von Fertigkeiten nutzen. Dazu zählen sowohl Verhaltensübungen und Rollenspiele als auch kognitive und Entspannungstechniken. Häufig stellen Fertigkeitstrainings einen Baustein in einem komplexen Behandlungsprogramm psychischer Störungen, sie können jedoch auch einzeln, vor allem im Rahmen von Prävention oder Rehabilitation eingesetzt werden.
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Background and Aim: Our insights on attachment quality in BAP individuals can provide support for autism models, as well as research on the cognitive, social, and behavioral relationships of BAP individuals can help to improve the understanding of autism-related disorders and promote our knowledge of the development of disorders. The purpose of this study was to describe the attachment styles of people who differ in BAP and determine the role of empathy in these attachment styles. Materials and methods: In this study, the relationship between BAP, empathy and adult attachment was studied in a sample of Tehran University students. 254 students in Tehran universities were selected by random cluster sampling method. Then, the ECR-R, Autism Quotient (Short-Form) (AQ-S), and Empathy Quotient (Short-Form) (EQ-S) was distributed to collect data. Results: Using the Lertab software, the Autism Quotient (Short-Form) (AQ-S), and Empathy Quotient (Short-Form) (EQ-S) scale were evaluated for psychometric properties. The results of exploratory factor analysis revealed five factors for the autism scale and one factor for the empathy scale, and confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the results of exploratory factor analysis. Also, Cronbach's alpha for the total Autism Quotient (Short-Form) (AQ-S), was 95/0 and for the component of social skills 0.92, routine 0.48, imagination 0.94, switching 0.88, and number pattern were 0.89. Cronbach's alpha for the total Empathy Quotient (Short-Form) (EQ-S) scale was estimated to be 0.73. Pearson correlation coefficient showed that there is a significant relationship between the components of autistic traits with empathy, and avoidance and anxiety attachment. Also, there was a significant relationship between empathy with avoidance and anxiety attachment. Chi-square, GFI, AGFI, CFI, RMSEA, NFI, IFI, and SRMR showed that the conceptual model of research was fitted with data and empathy mediates the relationship between the autistic traits and the anxiety and avoidance attachment styles. Conclusion: The validity and reliability of the Autism Quotient (Short-Form) (AQ-S), and Empathy Quotient (Short-Form) (EQ-S) scales were approved among the student sample. Also, there was a positive relationship between the components of autistic traits with empathy and negative relationship with anxiety and avoidance attachment. There was a negative relationship between empathy and anxiety, avoidance attachment. The main hypothesis of the research is that empathy mediates the relationship between the autistic traits and the anxiety and avoidance attachment also approved.
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Although previous research showed that discrete social-emotional skills such as empathy, motivation, and social relationships in school significantly predict achievement, students tend to use various social-emotional skills in combination. As such previous investigations cannot comment on how different combinations or profiles of students’ social-emotional skills predict achievement relative to discrete skills. Likewise, little is known about cross-national comparisons of social-emotional skill profiles (SESP), and the extent to which SESP differ on their academic achievement. The purposes of this study were three-folded: 1) to determine whether a four-factor social-emotional skills model could be used for cross-national comparisons; 2) to identify social-emotional profiles in 15-year-old students from four different countries – Canada, the United States, China, and Singapore; and 3) to evaluate how different profiles predict students’ reading, maths, and collaborative problem-solving (CPS) test scores. Our results showed multigroup measurement invariant in the structure, loadings, and thresholds of the four-factor social-emotional skills model. We identified three profiles labelled Sociable, Reserved and Withdrawn in Canada, Singapore, and the United States; whereas, we found three profiles labelled Solitary, Team-oriented, and Reserved in students in China. Finally, the way each profile associated with reading, maths and CPS in each country appeared to align with the cultural expectations of learning.
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Changes in Level of Aggression can affect ones Emotional Competence and its dimensions. College students who are Day Scholars (living at home) and Boarders (living in hostels, PGs, Rented Flats) may have different types of stressors and issues which in turn may affect ones level of aggression. The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between level of aggression and emotional competence among day scholars and boarders. The dimensions of emotional competence include Adequate Depth of Feeling (ADF), Adequate Expression and Control of Emotions (AECE), Ability to Function with Emotions (AFE), Ability to Cope with Problem Emotions (ACPE), Enhancement of Positive Emotions (EPE). The sample consists of 120 college students of Delhi/NCR (60 day scholars and 60 boarders) which were selected using purposive sampling technique. For the purpose of data collection, questionnaire of Aggression Scale by Dr. G.P. Mathur and Dr. Rajkumari Bhatnagar and Emotional Competence Scale by Dr. Harish Sharma and Dr. Rajiv Lochan Bhardwaj were used. The quantitative analysis was done by the help of Pearsons Product Moment Correlation. The findings revealed significant negative correlation between level of aggression and emotional competence.
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The present research was aimed to study the relationship of social competence of adolescents with their emotional intelligence and self-esteem. The significance of gender and locale differences between these relationships were also studied. Apart from this, the significance of the differences between the social competence of adolescents having high and low emotional intelligence and having high and low self-esteem were found out. For this purpose, a sample of 600 adolescents was drawn from six randomly selected districts of the Punjab state of India. Mainly the statistical techniques of t-test, Pearson's coefficient of correlation, fisher's z, and Z-observed were used to conduct the study. Significant positive relationships between social competence and the variables of emotional intelligence as well as self-esteem were found.
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Introduction: The aim of this study was to consider the cognitive emotion regulation strategies, neuroticism and extravertion with obsession-compulsion symptoms in non-clinical people. Methods: The present study was a descriptive-causal study. 400 students from Tabriz University were selected by multistage clustering. The Cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire, Neo-FFI personality inventory, and the Maudzly questionnaire were completed by students. Results: Path-analysis were used for analyzing the data. Results showed that positive reappraisal, refocusing on planning, and extraversion perspective-taking changed the obsession-compulsion symptoms in mediation negatively. Also, self-blame and extraversion rumination changed the obsession-compulsion symptoms in mediation positively. In addition self-blame, rumination, catastrophizing through neuroticism changed obsession-compulsion symptoms in mediation of neuroticism positively. Acceptance strategies, positive reappraisal, positive refocusing, refocusing on planning, and extraversion perspective-taking changed obsession-compulsion symptoms in mediation of neuroticism negatively. Conclusion: These findings indicated that cognitive emotion regulation strategies with a mediator of extraversion and neuroticism can be predicted as obsession-compulsion symptoms. These findings have empirical implication in clinical interventions.
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The ability to accurately identify and label emotions in the self and others is crucial for successful social interactions and good mental health. In the current study we tested the longitudinal relationship between early language skills and recognition of facial and vocal emotion cues in a representative UK population cohort with diverse language and cognitive skills ( N = 369), including a large sample of children that met criteria for Developmental Language Disorder (DLD, N = 97). Language skills, but not non-verbal cognitive ability, at age 5–6 predicted emotion recognition at age 10–12. Children that met the criteria for DLD showed a large deficit in recognition of facial and vocal emotion cues. The results highlight the importance of language in supporting identification of emotions from non-verbal cues. Impairments in emotion identification may be one mechanism by which language disorder in early childhood predisposes children to later adverse social and mental health outcomes.
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Purpose This paper aims to discuss how emotional intelligence (EI) can be incorporated into the tourism sector to enhance the tourist experience through managing the service encounter between tourism service representatives and tourists. Design/methodology/approach A review of the relevant literature on EI and tourism is undertaken to understand the link between EI and tourist experience. The paper begins by explaining the evolution and conceptualisations of EI and discusses its empirical evidence in various contexts. Findings EI is proposed to be incepted into the tourism context through its influence on the service encounter between tourism service representatives and tourists. The service encounter is diagnosed as being emotionally charged through discussing tourism offerings, emotional labour performance and tourist attributions. Originality/value This paper provides a fresh look into the link between EI and tourism service encounters and suggests the application of EI into the tourism context to enhance the tourist experience.
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The present research compares the emotional competence of government and private medical employees. The current study also explored differences between male and female medical employees with regards to their emotional competence. Overall emotional competence scores of medical professionals are treated to statistical analysis to observe differences. Investigator administered Emotional Competence Assessment Scale (ECAS) on sample of 42 medical employees (20 male and 22 female) in public and private hospitals. Male (M=83.10, SD=11.56) and female (M=83.73, SD=14.37) medical employees were found to have almost equal emotional competence both in public (M=82.30, SD=12.06) and private (M=84.45, SD=13.91) hospitals supporting the retention of null hypotheses. The findings confirm the contributions of medical profession which equalize the male and female participants for their emotional competence abilities who work working in public and private hospitals[10].
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Artykuł ma charakter przeglądowy. W jego pierwszej części dokonano krótkiego opisu najważniejszych modeli inteligencji emocjonalnej oraz poruszono zagadnienie kwestionariuszowego i testowego pomiaru tego konstruktu. W dalszej części omówiono specyfikę pomiaru inteligencji emocjonalnej u dzieci, koncentrując się zarówno na pewnych ograniczeniach rozwojowych, które wpływają na rodzaj używanych narzędzi, jak też na aspektach etycznych tego rodzaju badań. Zasadniczą część artykułu stanowi przegląd typów zadań, które można zastosować w badaniach zdolności emocjonalnych u dzieci. Zadania te podzielono na dwie grupy – zadania służące do pomiaru komponentu poznawczego i działaniowego inteligencji emocjonalnej.
Article
L’objectif de cette étude était de mettre en évidence la présence de variables émotionnelles telles que l’alexithymie et l’intensité des émotions ressenties et des variables psychopathologiques, telles que symptomatologie dépressive et/ou anxieuse dans les conduites tabagiques. Notre échantillon était constitué de 222 étudiants, 86 fumeurs et 136 non-fumeurs. Ils ont rempli un protocole permettant d’évaluer, par des échelles d’auto-évaluation, l’alexithymie (TAS-20), l’intensité émotionnelle (AIM) et la symptomatologie anxieuse et dépressive (HAD). Les résultats montrent que les fumeurs sont plus anxieux que les non-fumeurs et présentent un niveau général d’alexithymie inférieur. Néanmoins, les fumeurs ont plus de difficultés à identifier leurs émotions. Enfin, l’analyse des corrélations et de régression met en évidence des relations positives significatives entre nos variables. Ces résultats vont dans le sens de la littérature et notre évaluation du fonctionnement émotionnel dans les conduites tabagiques met en exergue le rôle que joue la consommation de tabac dans la régulation des émotions. Les limites et les perspectives de l’étude sont discutées.
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We examined the relations between the components of problem solving appraisal and trait affectivity in three separate studies. According to the social problem solving model, a positive problem orientation wards off negative affect and promotes positive affect to facilitate effective problem solving (D'Zurilla & Nezu, 1989). It was then reasoned that two factors on the Problem Solving Inventory (PSI; Heppner, 1988)—Problem Solving Confidence and Personal Control over emotions when problem solving—constitute facets of the problem orientation component. Therefore, these factors should be consistently associated with trait affectivity. Multiple regression was used to determine the association between the two problem orientation factors and measures of trait positive and negative affectivity from the Eysenck Personality Inventory (Eysenck & Eysenck, 1968; Study 1, N = 99), the NEO-Personality Inventory (Costa & McCrae, 1985; Study 2, N = 194), and the Positive and Negative Affective Schedule (Watson, Clark, & Tellegen, 1988; Study 3, N = 341). The Personal Control and Problem Solving Confidence factors were consistently predictive of negative affectivity: the Confidence factor was the single best predictor of positive affectivity is each study. These findings support the basic tenets regarding the problem orientation component in the social problem solving model. Results are discussed as they relate to the unresolved theoretical and measurement issues in the assessment of social-cognitive constructs and trait levels of affectivity.
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Self-reports figure prominently in organizational and management research, but there are several problems associated with their use. This article identifies six categories of self-reports and discusses such problems as common method variance, the consistency motif, and social desirability. Statistical and post hoc remedies and some procedural methods for dealing with artifactual bias are presented and evaluated. Recommendations for future research are also offered.
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We examined the relations among problem-solving appraisal, self-reported study habits, and academic performance for 63 college students enrolled in a developmental course for academically unprepared students. The participants completed measures of self-appraised problem-solving ability and study habits. Indexes of academic ability and performance were also collected. Regression analyses revealed that problem-solving appraisal was significantly predictive of study habits and semester grade-point average. The results indicate that problem-solving appraisal is related to study habits and academic performance among academically at-risk students, and they suggest that problem-solving appraisal encompasses more than social skill. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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W. Wilson's (1967) review of the area of subjective well-being (SWB) advanced several conclusions regarding those who report high levels of "happiness." A number of his conclusions have been overturned: youth and modest aspirations no longer are seen as prerequisites of SWB. E. Diener's (1984) review placed greater emphasis on theories that stressed psychological factors. In the current article, the authors review current evidence for Wilson's conclusions and discuss modern theories of SWB that stress dispositional influences, adaptation, goals, and coping strategies. The next steps in the evolution of the field are to comprehend the interaction of psychological factors with life circumstances in producing SWB, to understand the causal pathways leading to happiness, understand the processes underlying adaptation to events, and develop theories that explain why certain variables differentially influence the different components of SWB (life satisfaction, pleasant affect, and unpleasant affect). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study examined the relations between everyday problems, social problem solving, and depression and anxiety in middle-aged and elderly community residents, using a multidimensional measure of social problem-solving ability that assesses positive problem orientation, negative problem orientation, rational problem solving, impulsivity/carelessness style, and avoidance style. While problem-solving deficits were found to be significantly related to depression and anxiety in both age samples, no support was found for a moderator hypothesis which assumes that problem-solving ability interacts with everyday problems to reduce depression and anxiety. On the other hand, support was found in both samples for a mediational model which assumes that problem solving is an intervening variable that accounts to a significant degree for the causal relations between everyday problems and depression and anxiety. Although all five problem-solving dimensions were significantly related to depression and anxiety, negative problem orientation was found to contribute most to the significant mediating effect.
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This study investigated the relationship between emotional rumination and cortisol secretion during stress. Subjects were 51 student nurses undergoing a written examination as part of their training and urinary-free cortisol was assayed from samples taken immediately after the examination and again three weeks later. Cortisol difference scores were obtained, expressed as a function of creatinine, assayed simultaneously, and baseline cortisol levels. Subjects completed the Eysenck Personality Inventory (EPI) and the Emotion Control Questionnaire (ECQ) and results showed that cortisol differences were associated with the rehearsal (or rumination) scale from the ECQ and to a lesser extent ECQ emotional inhibition and EPI neuroticism.
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Can emotional intelligence (EI) be reliably and validly measured in adolescents? One-hundred and thirty-one students (aged 13 to 15) completed a self-report measure of emotional intelligence (SEI) [Schutte, N., Malouff, J., Hall, L., Haggerty, D., Cooper, J., Golden, C., & Dornheim, L. (1998). Development and validation of a measure of emotional intelligence. Personality and Individual Differences, 25, 167–177.] and a number of other, theoretically relevant measures. They were then induced into either a positive, negative, or neutral mood and asked to complete a task that assessed mood management behaviour. We found that EI was reliably measured in adolescents, was higher for females than males, and was positively associated with skill at identifying emotional expressions, amount of social support, extent of satisfaction with social support, and mood management behaviour. These relationships held even after controlling for two constructs that potentially overlap with EI, namely self-esteem and trait anxiety. This study offers evidence that the SEI is a distinctive and useful measure.
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The Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) is based on a new cognitive-developmental model of emotional experience. The scale poses evocative interpersonal situations and elicits descriptions of the emotional responses of self and others which are scored using specific structural criteria. Forty undergraduates (20 of each sex) were tested. Interrater reliability and intratest homogeneity of the LEAS were strong. The LEAS was significantly correlated with two measures of maturity: the Washington University Sentence Completion Test (SCT) of Ego Development, and the Parental Descriptions Scale-a cognitive-developmental measure of object representation. In addition, the LEAS correlated positively with openness to experience and emotional range but not with measures of specific emotions, repression or the number of words used in the LEAS responses. These findings suggest that it is the level of emotion, not the specific quality of emotion, that is tapped by the LEAS.
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Administered a scale designed to quantify hopelessness to 294 hospitalized suicide attempters, 23 general medical outpatients, 62 additional hospitalized suicide attempters, and 59 depressed psychiatric patients. The scale had a Kuder-Richardson-20 internal consistency coefficient of .93 and correlated well with the Stuart Future Test (SFT) and the pessimism item of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI; .60 and .63, respectively). The scale was also sensitive to changes in the patient's state of depression over time, as evidenced by a correlation of .49 with change scores on the SFT and .49 with the change scores on the BDI. Findings also indicate that depressed patients have an unrealistically negative attitude toward the future and that seriousness of suicidal intent is more highly correlated with negative expectancies than with depression. A principal-components factor analysis revealed 3 factors which tapped affective, motivational, and cognitive aspects of hopelessness. (16 ref)
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In a longitudinal study of 253 bereaved adults, people with poorer social support, more concurrent stressors, and higher levels of postloss depression reported more rumination than people with better social support, fewer stressors, and lower initial depression levels. Women reported more rumination than men. People with a ruminative style at 1 month were more likely to have a pessimistic outlook at 1 month, which was associated with higher depression levels at 6 months. People with a more ruminative style were more depressed at 6 months, even after controlling for initial depression levels, social support, concurrent stressors, gender, and pessimism. Additional stressors and high depression scores at 1 month were also associated with higher levels of depression at 6 months.
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A previous paper described the development of the twenty-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20) and reported preliminary evidence of reliability and factorial validity of the scale. This paper describes a study that further evaluated the construct validity of the TAS-20 by examining its relationship with measures of personality traits theoretically related or unrelated to the alexithymia construct, as well as its relationship with an observer-rated measure of alexithymia. Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity of the TAS-20 was demonstrated in samples of university students by a pattern of correlations with the scales of the NEO Personality Inventory and separate measures of psychological mindedness and need-for-cognition that was consistent with theoretical predictions. The concurrent validity of the scale was demonstrated by positive correlations with observer-ratings of alexithymia in a sample of behavioural medicine out-patients.
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The view that emotional intelligence should be included within the traditional cognitive abilities framework was explored in 3 studies (total N = 530) by investigating the relations among measures of emotional intelligence, traditional human cognitive abilities, and personality. The studies suggest that the status of the emotional intelligence construct is limited by measurement properties of its tests. Measures based on consensual scoring exhibited low reliability. Self-report measures had salient loadings on well-established personality factors, indicating a lack of divergent validity. These data provide controvertible evidence for the existence of a separate Emotion Perception factor that (perhaps) represents the ability to monitor another individual's emotions. This factor is narrower than that postulated within current models of emotional intelligence.
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Individuals often suppress emotional thoughts, particularly thoughts that arouse negative emotions, as a way of regulating mood and reducing distress. However, recent work has highlighted the complexities and unexpected cognitive and physiological effects of thought suppression. In a study designed to examine the short-term immunological effects of thought suppression, participants wrote about either emotional or nonemotional topics with or without thought suppression. Blood was drawn before and after each experimental session on 3 consecutive days. Results showed a significant increase in circulating total lymphocytes and CD4 (helper) T lymphocyte levels in the emotional writing groups. Thought suppression resulted in a significant decrease in CD3 T lymphocyte levels. The implications of the results for the role of the expression and suppression of emotion in health are discussed.
Article
Describes the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ) and 4 empirical studies employing it. The SSQ yields scores for (a) perceived number of social supports and (b) satisfaction with social support that is available. Three studies (N = 1,224 college students) dealt with the SSQ's psychometric properties, its correlations with measures of personality and adjustment, and the relation of the SSQ to positive and negative life changes. The 4th study (40 Ss) was an investigation of the relation between social support and persistence in working on a complex, frustrating task. The research reported suggests that the SSQ is a reliable instrument and that social support is (a) more strongly related to positive than negative life changes, (b) more related in a negative direction to psychological discomfort among women than men, and (c) an asset in enabling a person to persist at a task under frustrating conditions. Clinical implications are discussed. (47 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
Cross-sectional studies of attitude-behavior relationships are vulnerable to the inflation of correlations by common method variance (CMV). Here, a model is presented that allows partial correlation analysis to adjust the observed correlations for CMV contamination and determine if conclusions about the statistical and practical significance of a predictor have been influenced by the presence of CMV. This method also suggests procedures for designing questionnaires to increase the precision of this adjustment.
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It was hypothesized that women are more vulnerable to depressive symptoms than men because they are more likely to experience chronic negative circumstances (or strain), to have a low sense of mastery, and to engage in ruminative coping. The hypotheses were tested in a 2-wave study of approximately 1,100 community-based adults who were 25 to 75 years old. Chronic strain, low mastery, and rumination were each more common in women than in men and mediated the gender difference in depressive symptoms. Rumination amplified the effects of mastery and, to some extent, chronic strain on depressive symptoms. In addition, chronic strain and rumination had reciprocal effects on each other over time, and low mastery also contributed to more rumination. Finally, depressive symptoms contributed to more rumination and less mastery over time.
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The Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology studies the burgeoning field of positive psychology, which, in recent years, has transcended academia to capture the imagination of the general public. The book provides a roadmap for the psychology needed by the majority of the population-those who don't need treatment, but want to achieve the lives to which they aspire. The articles summarize all of the relevant literature in the field, and each is essentially defining a lifetime of research. The content's breadth and depth provide a cross-disciplinary look at positive psychology from diverse fields and all branches of psychology, including social, clinical, personality, counseling, school, and developmental psychology. Topics include not only happiness-which has been perhaps misrepresented in the popular media as the entirety of the field-but also hope, strengths, positive emotions, life longings, creativity, emotional creativity, courage, and more, plus guidelines for applying what has worked for people across time and cultures.
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This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
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The authors examined the relation of problem-solving appraisal to health complaints and health-related expectancies among 321 undergraduates. Results indicated that self-appraised effective problem solvers reported fewer current physical symptoms during the 3 weeks prior to assessment and fewer health problems on the day of assessment than did ineffective problem solvers. Self-appraised effective problem solvers also had greater internal and lower chance expectancies for health outcomes than did ineffective problem solvers. Ineffective self-appraised problem solvers reported more negative health perceptions 3 months later during the week of final examinations. Personal control over emotional experiences when engaging in problem solving was significantly predictive of health perceptions. Results are integrated with theoretical models of problem solving and behavioral health. Implications for counseling are discussed.
Article
The SWLS consists of 5-items that require a ratingon a 7-point Likert scale. Administration is rarely morethan a minute or 2 and can be completed by interview(including phone) or paper and pencil response. The in-strumentshouldnotbecompletedbyaproxyansweringfortheperson.Itemsofthe SWLSaresummedtocreatea total score that can range from 5 to 35.The SWLS is in the public domain. Permission isnot needed to use it. Further information regardingthe use and interpretation of the SWLS can be foundat the author’s Web site http://internal.psychology.illinois.edu/∼ediener/SWLS.html. The Web site alsoincludes links to translations of the scale into 27languages.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of individual differences on heart-rate reactivity and recovery following exposure to a laboratory stressor (performance on the Stroop task). The personality scales used were EPI Extraversion and Neuroticism and four subscales comprising the Emotion Control Questionnaire (ECQ). Contrary to predictions the EPI scales were unrelated to the physiological indices, but there were significant correlations between the Benign Control scale of the ECQ and heart rate reactivity and between the Rehearsal scale and heart-rate recovery.
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An intelligence must meet several standard criteria before it can be considered scientifically legitimate. First, it should be capable of being operationalized as a set of abilities. Second, it should meet certain correlational criteria: the abilities defined by the intelligence should form a related set (i.e., be intercorrelated), and be related to pre-existing intelligences, while also showing some unique variance. Third, the abilities of the intelligence should develop with age and experience. In two studies, adults (N=503) and adolescents (N=229) took a new, 12-subscale ability test of emotional intelligence: the Multifactor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS). The present studies show that emotional intelligence, as measured by the MEIS, meets the above three classical criteria of a standard intelligence.
Article
We frequently try to appear less emotional than we really are, such as when we are angry with our spouse at a dinner party, disgusted by a boss’s sexist comments during a meeting, or amused by a friend’s embarrassing faux pas in public. Attempts at emotion suppression doubtless have social benefits. However, suppression may do more than change how we look: It also may change how we think. Two studies tested the hypothesis that emotion suppression has cognitive consequences. Study 1 showed that suppression impaired incidental memory for information presented during the suppression period. Study 2 replicated this finding and further showed that suppression increased cardiovascular activation. Mediational analyses indicated that physiological and cognitive effects were independent. Overall, findings suggest that emotion suppression is a cognitively demanding form of self-regulation.
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This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The Social Problem-Solving Inventory (SPSI) is a 70-item, multidimensional, self-report measure of social problem-solving ability that is based on the prescriptive model developed previously by D'Zurilla and his associates. The SPSI consists of 2 major scales and 7 subscales. The 2 major scales are the Problem Orientation Scale (POS) and the Problem-Solving Skills Scale (PSSS). Subsumed under the POS are 3 subscales: the Cognition subscale, the Emotion subscale, and the Behavior subscale. The PSSS is divided into 4 subscales: the Problem Definition and Formulation subscale, the Generation of Alternative Solutions subscale, the Decision Making subscale, and the Solution Implementation and Verification subscale. From samples of undergraduate college students and middle-aged community residents, preliminary data concerning the reliability and validity of the SPSI are presented. Collectively, these data suggest strongly that the SPSI has sound psychometric properties, is a promising multicomponent measure of social problem-solving ability, and can be useful for both research and clinical assessment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
There has been a proliferation of new measures of individual differences in emotional processing, but too little research that evaluates the distinctiveness and utility of such measures. We critically evaluated the Level of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS), which is a measure of people's awareness of emotions in both the self and others. Across two studies, university students (N=124 and 107 for study 1 and 2, respectively) completed the LEAS, as well as a battery of personality measures and ability tests, and a mood-induction task. The LEAS was statistically distinct from a wide variety of personality measures, emotional intelligence tests, and self-report ability measures. In addition, both studies demonstrated that people high in emotional awareness were less likely than others to show mood congruent biases in their judgments (e.g. when bad moods lead to negative judgments and good moods to good judgments). The LEAS appears to be both distinctive and useful in understanding mood-relevant processes.
Article
In an earlier study, Roger and Nesshoever (Person. individ. Diff.8, 527–534, 1987) reported the construction and validation of a scale for measuring emotion control entitled the Emotion Control Questionnaire (ECQ). Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure comprising Rehearsal, Emotional Inhibition, Aggression Control and Benign Control, which was replicated on an independent sample of subjects. The earlier study also presented the relationships between the ECQ factors and a variety of other personality scales. Subsequent work has shown that one of the ECQ factors in particular (Rehearsal) is significantly related to both heart-rate recovery and urinary cortisol elevations following stress. However, one of the disadvantages of the ECQ was the brevity of the factors, two of which (Emotional Inhibition and Benign Control) comprised just nine items each, and the present study was aimed at extending the range of behaviour sampled by the scale. Factor analyses of an expanded item pool confirmed the structure of the earlier scale and resulted in a new scale comprising 56 items, fourteen in each of the four factors. Other findings for the new scale (ECQ2) indicate that it is psychometrically equivalent to the original, and further data on the concurrent validation of the emotion control construct are presented.
Article
Despite a great deal of popular interest and the development of numerous training programs in emotional intelligence (EI), some researchers have argued that there is little evidence that EI is both useful and different from other, well established constructs. We hypothesized that EI would make a unique contribution to understanding the relationship between stress and three important mental health variables, depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation. University students (n=302) participated in a cross-sectional study that involved measuring life stress, objective and self-reported emotional intelligence, and mental health. Regression analyses revealed that stress was associated with: (1) greater reported depression, hopelessness, and suicidal ideation among people high in emotional perception (EP) compared to others; and (2) greater suicidal ideation among those low in managing others' emotions (MOE). Both EP and MOE were shown to be statistically different from other relevant measures, suggesting that EI is a distinctive construct as well as being important in understanding the link between stress and mental health.
Article
Describes the Social Support Questionnaire (SSQ) and 4 empirical studies employing it. The SSQ yields scores for (a) perceived number of social supports and (b) satisfaction with social support that is available. Three studies (N = 1,224 college students) dealt with the SSQ's psychometric properties, its correlations with measures of personality and adjustment, and the relation of the SSQ to positive and negative life changes. The 4th study (40 Ss) was an investigation of the relation between social support and persistence in working on a complex, frustrating task. The research reported suggests that the SSQ is a reliable instrument and that social support is (a) more strongly related to positive than negative life changes, (b) more related in a negative direction to psychological discomfort among women than men, and (c) an asset in enabling a person to persist at a task under frustrating conditions. Clinical implications are discussed. (47 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study critically evaluated the Emotional Intelligence (EI) construct (the ability to perceive, understand, and manage emotions), as measured by the Multi-factor Emotional Intelligence Scale (MEIS in press). We administered the MEIS to Australian undergraduates along with a battery of IQ, personality, and other theoretically relevant criterion measures, including life satisfaction and relationship quality. We also induced moods in the students and examined whether people high in EI were better than others at managing their moods and preventing their moods from biasing their social judgments. Analyses revealed that EI was not related to IQ but was related, as expected, to specific personality measures (e.g., empathy) and to other criterion measures (e.g., life satisfaction) even after controlling for IQ and personality traits. EI was also related to people's ability to manage their moods, but not to their ability to prevent moods from biasing their judgments. IQ was surprisingly related to both these mood processes. The results suggest that the EI construct is distinctive and useful, but that traditional IQ may also be important in understanding emotional processes.
Article
The standard life events methodology for the prediction of psychological symptoms was compared with one focusing on relatively minor events, namely, the hassles and uplifts of everyday life. Hassles and Uplifts Scales were constructed and administered once a month for 10 consecutive months to a community sample of middle-aged adults. It was found that the Hassles Scale was a better predictor of concurrent and subsequent psychological symptoms than were the life events scores, and that the scale shared most of the variance in symptoms accounted for by life events. When the effects of life events scores were removed, hassles and symptoms remained significantly correlated. Uplifts were positively related to symptoms for women but not for men. Hassles and uplifts were also shown to be related, although only modestly so, to positive and negative affect, thus providing discriminate validation for hassles and uplifts in comparison to measures of emotion. It was concluded that the assessment of daily hassles and uplifts may be a better approach to the prediction of adaptational outcomes than the usual life events approach.
Article
This article describes a multiphase developmental process and psychometric evaluation of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory for Adolescents (SPSI-A). The SPSI-A consists of the following three scales: Automatic Process, Problem Orientation, and Problem-Solving Skills. The three subscales of the Problem Orientation Scale include Cognition, Emotion, and Behavior. The four subscales of the Problem-Solving Skills scale consist of Problem Identification, Alternative Generation, Consequence Prediction, and Implementation/Evaluation/Reorganization. Preliminary internal consistency, stability, content, construct, and criterion validity data are presented for freshmen and sophomore high school students. Collectively, the data provide evidence that the SPSI-A is a promising measure of adolescent problem-solving skills and motivation.
Article
When individuals are asked to write or talk about personally upsetting experiences, significant improvements in physical health are found. Analyses of subjects' writing about traumas indicate that those whose health improves most tend to use a higher proportion of negative emotion words than positive emotion words. Independent of verbal emotion expression, the increasing use of insight, causal, and associated cognitive words over several days of writing is linked to health improvement. That is, the construction of a coherent story together with the expression of negative emotions work together in therapeutic writing. Evidence of these processes are also seen in specific links between word production and immediate autonomic nervous system activity. Implications for therapy and for considering the mind and body as fluid, dynamic systems are discussed.
Article
This study investigated the construct validity of the Positive and Negative Problem Orientation scales of the Social Problem-Solving Inventory-Revised (SPSI-R) by examining the relations between these scales and measures of optimism, pessimism, and trait affectivity. Consistent with expectations based on social problem-solving theory, positive problem orientation was found to have a relatively large amount of variance in common with optimism and positive affectivity, and negative problem orientation was found to share a large amount of variance with pessimism and negative affectivity, but not enough to be considered redundant in either case. Positive problem orientation was found to add significant incremental validity to the prediction of adaptive problem-engagement coping even after partialing out the variance associated with optimism and positive affectivity. In addition, negative problem orientation was found to add unique variance to the prediction of psychological distress even after controlling for pessimism and negative affectivity.
Article
Although clinical observations suggest that alexithymic individuals have a deficit in their ability to recognize emotional stimuli and that this deficit is not simply due to a problem in verbal labeling, these two hypotheses have not been empirically confirmed. Three hundred eighty participants in a community survey without current or past histories of psychiatric disorder completed two independent measures of alexithymia [the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS) and the Toronto Alexithymia Scale (TAS-20)] and the Perception of Affect Task (PAT), a 140-item measure of the ability to match emotion stimuli. The PAT includes four subtasks that require the subject to match verbal or nonverbal emotion stimuli with verbal or nonverbal emotion responses. The subtasks include matching sentences and words (verbal-verbal), faces and words (nonverbal-verbal), sentences and faces (verbal-nonverbal), and faces and photographs of scenes (nonverbal-nonverbal). Across the entire sample, higher (alexithymic) TAS-20 and lower LEAS scores were both correlated with lower accuracy rates on each of the subtasks of the PAT (p < .001), accounting for 10.5% and 18.4% of the variance, respectively. Fifty-one subjects met TAS-20 criteria for alexithymia. Alexithymic individuals scored lower than other subjects on purely nonverbal matching, purely verbal matching, and mixed verbal-nonverbal matching (all p < .001). These results suggest that alexithymia is associated with impaired verbal and nonverbal recognition of emotion stimuli and that the hallmark of alexithymia, a difficulty in putting emotion into words, may be a marker of a more general impairment in the capacity for emotion information processing.