Article

Cultivation of Stevia [Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni]: A Comprehensive Review

Authors:
  • ICAR-Indian Institute of OIlseeds Research, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
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Abstract

Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni is one of the 154 members of the genus Stevia. It is a sweet herb of Paraguay. The leaves of the shrub contain specific glycosides, which produce a sweet taste but have no caloric value. For centuries, this herbal sweetener has been used by native Guarani Indians to counteract the bitter taste of various plant‐based medicines and beverages. Many countries have shown interest in its cultivation, and research activities have been initiated. Incorporation of this species in agricultural production systems, however, depends upon a thorough knowledge of the plant and its agronomic potential. The published literature on research and development of this crop is meager. The aim of this chapter is to describe the ecology, importance of the plant, and its production requirements, but major emphasis is given to the agronomic and management aspects of the plant to be grown as a crop. Further, this chapter represents an effort to compile the literature on S. rebaudiana and review the current status of understanding of the plant and its potential as an alternate source of cane sugar.

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... Stevia flowers have both reproductive organs are present in corymbs and coated with small 2-6 white florets" with "Stevia flowers have both reproductive organs present in corymbs coated with small 2-6 white florets [35]. Because of the several stages of flower development, the plant takes more than 30 days to achieve its full blooming [36,37]. The stevia flower has five little anthers and carries extremely allergenic pollen with a viability of 65 percent [38], while, the stigma is bi-lobed/bifurcated in the middle part and style is covered with anthers. ...
... Following that, Japan made significant efforts to establish stevia and its cultivation as a commercial crop, as well as to conduct various studies to assess stevia's potential [60]. Nowadays, Japan is the major market for the consumption of stevia all over the world [37] and China is the largest producer as well as exporter of stevia (approx. 2-3 billion/year) in the market [17]. ...
... So the generation of the segregated population with high genetic potential can be produced from these four clones which could provide for superior individuals' selection [104]. About 90 varieties have been developed throughout the world [29,37,105]. Criolla and Morita II are well studied and known varieties. ...
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Chapter
Stevia rebaudiana, a native of South America, is a perennial herb of the Asteraceae family, also known as a natural sweetener due to the presence of steviol glycosides (SGs) in the leaves. China is the largest producer and exporter of stevia, while Japan is the primary consumer. The increasing demand for natural low-calorie sweeteners in the medicine and food industry has increased the pressure over stevia cultivation. Still, its cultivation and region-specific agrotechnologies need to be developed. The major bottleneck in stevia production are the lack of region specific cultivation technologies, non-availability of quality planting material, and uncharacterized and not properly conserved plant genetic resources. All these constraints have limited the stevia production to some specific regions of the world. Development of high-yielding cultivars with enhanced SGs content using modern breeding techniques is of prime importance to meet its increasing demand. Among the glycosides present in the leaves, rebaudioside-A is the most desirable glycosides having 250-300 times sweeter than sucrose, while, after bitter taste is due to the presence of stevioside and dulcoside. Therefore, the development of varieties with high rebaudioside-A and low stevioside content is highly desirable. This chapter focused on the improvement of propagation methods, characterization and conservation of genetic resource in stevia and its utilization in crop improvement programs.
... -Participation à des rencontres avec les agriculteurs cultivant la stévia et Oviatis (2018Oviatis ( et 2020 - (Lewis, 1992). Le botaniste Moisés Santiago Bertoni fut le premier à étudier et décrire la stévia (Kinghorn, 2002;Ramesh et al., 2006). Il la nomma d'abord Eupatorim rebaudianum, mais en 1905 M. S. Bertoni identifie l'espèce comme appartenant au genre Stevia, sa dénomination change pour devenir celle utilisée de nos jours : Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (Bertoni, 1905). ...
... Elles sont composées d'un ensemble de fleurons entouré par un involucre et possèdent des poils externes (Ramesh et al., 2006). Le Les graines sont composées d'un petit endosperme et de poils fins disposés en corolle qui composent le pappus et facilitent la dispersion aérienne (Ramesh et al., 2006). ...
... Elles sont composées d'un ensemble de fleurons entouré par un involucre et possèdent des poils externes (Ramesh et al., 2006). Le Les graines sont composées d'un petit endosperme et de poils fins disposés en corolle qui composent le pappus et facilitent la dispersion aérienne (Ramesh et al., 2006). Lorsqu'elles sont vides et ne contiennent pas d'embryon leur couleur est pâle, en revanche les graines issues d'une vraie fécondation ont une couleur plus sombre Raina et al., 2013) (Figure 1.2.c). ...
Thesis
Le rejet des édulcorants de synthèse par les consommateurs a conduit ces derniers à privilégier les édulcorants naturels comme les glycosides de stéviol (SG). Ces molécules sont accumulées dans les feuilles de Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, plante pérenne originaire du Paraguay, et aujourd’hui cultivée sur tous les continents. Dans le Sud-Ouest de la France, une filière de production en Agriculture Biologique est en développement, sous l’impulsion de la société Oviatis. Ce travail de thèse sous contrat CIFRE s’intéresse à la caractérisation fine des ressources génétiques cultivées sur les traits d’intérêt, et au développement des connaissances et des outils génétiques sur cette culture. La performance agronomique de la stévia a été évaluée par l’étude des composantes du rendement en SG, de l’architecture de la canopée et de la réponse à un agent fongique. Ces travaux ont permis (1) l’adaptation de l’échelle de stades phénologiques BBCH à la culture de la stévia et sa transmission à la filière, (2) l’évaluation des traits du rendement en SG sur 15 ressources génétiques de Stevia rebaudiana phénotypées pendant quatre années sur une parcelle expérimentale, (3) l’évaluation de la variabilité de la réponse à une infection de septoriose de ces mêmes ressources génétiques en conditions contrôlées et le développement d’un test d’inoculation sur disques foliaires, (4) d’estimer les paramètres génétiques pour les traits du rendement sur quatre populations de stévia cultivées en plein champ pendant trois ans, (5) enfin de construire des idéotypes de stévia dans le contexte local de production. Ces résultats participent au développement de la stévia dans le Sud-Ouest de la France, et alimentent la mise en place d’un programme d’amélioration pour une production en Agriculture Biologique.
... Its cultivation has increased yearly to meet the increasing market demand. Most of the studies on stevia are focused on the plant growing parameters and its adaptation to different edapho-climatic zones (Rahmesh et al., 2006). Increasing yield of leaves as well as of sweeteners represents one of the important aims of stevia cultivation, where the profitability is influenced by genetic traits, agricultural practices, and edapho-climatic conditions. ...
... In terms of economic biomass productivity, these yields are considered in accordance with or higher than those reported by many authors in other countries (Brandle and Rosa, 1992;Rahmesh et al., 2006;Behera et al., 2013;Serfaty et al., 2013;Vasilakoglou et al., 2016;Xu et al., 2013;Parris et al., 2016). The dry leaf yield in the natural habitat in Paraguay is between 1.5 and 2.5 t/ha under dryland conditions and around 4.3 t/ha per year under irrigation (Rahmesh et al., 2006). ...
... In terms of economic biomass productivity, these yields are considered in accordance with or higher than those reported by many authors in other countries (Brandle and Rosa, 1992;Rahmesh et al., 2006;Behera et al., 2013;Serfaty et al., 2013;Vasilakoglou et al., 2016;Xu et al., 2013;Parris et al., 2016). The dry leaf yield in the natural habitat in Paraguay is between 1.5 and 2.5 t/ha under dryland conditions and around 4.3 t/ha per year under irrigation (Rahmesh et al., 2006). Leaf yields of 3 t/ha were obtained in Canadian Stevia cultivars (Brandle and Rosa, 1992). ...
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Article
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, is a perennial herbaceous plant native to Paraguay. This plant produces diterpene glycosides that are powerful natural lowcalorie sweeteners, about 300 times sweeter than saccharose. Stevia has now become an important agricultural crop for the production of a high-potency natural sweetener. Cultural practices are still in development and the productivity potential of desirable steviol glycosides in more or less stable proportions and under different agriculture conditions are largely unknown. Currently, commercial growers and processors all over the world are seeking to maximize the productivity of rebaudioside A, a steviol glycoside. The present study aimed to characterize the effects of region and varieties on stevia dry leaf yield, steviol glycoside content, and steviol glycoside yield under Moroccan conditions. The content of steviol glycosides obtained from dry leaves of four varieties of Stevia rebaudiana, compared to the edaphoclimatic conditions in six different areas in Morocco, was determined using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Dry leaf yield, leaf steviol glycoside content, and leaf steviol glycoside yield varied according to varieties and regions, with significant interaction of varieties by regions. Dry leaf yield varied from 1.57 to 7.86 t/ha. Stevioside yield ranged from 97.86 to 739.53 kg/ha and rebaudioside A yield varied between 44.48 and 619.77 kg/ha, with Reb A/STV ratios that reached up to 2.62. The total of steviol glycosides yield ranged from 163.21 to 1353.2 kg/ha with significant interactions between regions and varieties concerning sweet glycoside contents. Stevia offers great potential for introduction as a commercial crop producing a biological sweetener under Moroccan conditions.
... This method was used to multiply stevia due to the fact that the germination rate of the seeds is poor (Sairkar et al., 2009). According to Ramesh et al. (2006), stevia is difficult to be propagated through seeds and needs pollinators' help, but selfig can occur among certain plants (Yao et al., 1999). ...
... The yield of leaves may correlate with the number of nodes. Plants undergone long day treatment developed long internodes from a single main stem (Ramesh et al, 2006). The higher ratio of far-red to red light ratio enhances the internode growth (Rost et al., 2006). ...
... Lengthen daylight was conducted to enhance the growth and increase the yield. Lengthen daylight was reported to increase leaf area and weight (Ramesh et al., 2006). The authors also found a 50% increment of stevioside concentration in lighttreated plants. ...
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Conference Paper
Due to the increment of Malaysians suffering diabetes, there is an urge to find a healthier alternative of sugarcane-based sugar. This has made stevia, a plant with an ability to sweeten, becomes more popular. In order to transform it to commercial crop, it is important to study the plant biology. This research was conducted to characterize ten stevia accessions based on morpho-agronomic characteristics of leaf length, leaf width, number of nodes, inflorescent numbers, number of days to flower, number of branches, plant height, stem diameter, and leaf shape. A total of 86 cultivated clones propagated by using stem cuttings were analysed under 16 h of light treatment. The light treatment was done to delay flowering, increase leaf yield and enhance growth. A set of data on percentage of plants that remain vegetative, leaf yield and other morpho-agronomic traits was collected in three phases: initial treatment, one month treatment and post-treatment. Variable of positive responses observed. In conclusion, the extended daylength can delay the flowering and enhance the morpho-agronomic characteristics on several accessions.
... Besides variations in total SvGls level, their individual composition can also vary significantly, depending on genotype, ontogeny, and photoperiod. Various plant types with larger amounts of specific glycosides and several cultivars of better plant yield have already been released and/or patented around the world, including such countries as Korea, Japan, Indonesia, China, the USA, Canada, Taiwan, Russia and India (Ramesh et al. 2006;Yadav et al. 2011 S. rebaudiana is reported to be more vigorous when cultivated as a crop than in its native habitat, and since it has an immense adaptability to various environmental conditions, it has been successfully introduced to many countries around the world. Information on the cultivation of S. rebaudiana is available on regions from the equator (Indonesia), through Japan, Brazil, Korea, Mexico, the USA, Tanzania and India, to the northern latitudes 50-60°(Canada, Poland, Russia) and the southern 30°(Argentina) ones. ...
... Information on the cultivation of S. rebaudiana is available on regions from the equator (Indonesia), through Japan, Brazil, Korea, Mexico, the USA, Tanzania and India, to the northern latitudes 50-60°(Canada, Poland, Russia) and the southern 30°(Argentina) ones. At present, production of stevia has emerged mainly in China, while the primary market is in Japan (Brandle et al. 1998;Ramesh et al. 2006;Kim et al. 2011;Aladakatti et al. 2012;Kąkol et al. 2014;Gantait et al. 2015;Libik-Konieczny et al. 2018;Ciriminna et al. 2019). Stevia rebaudiana does not have high soil requirements, but a uniform moisture supply and good drainage should be provided. ...
... Stevia rebaudiana does not have high soil requirements, but a uniform moisture supply and good drainage should be provided. Full access to light is crucial, because even partial shade results in slower growth, delayed flowering, lower yield of leaves and content of SvGls (Ramesh et al. 2006). ...
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Article
Steviol glycosides (SvGls) are plant secondary metabolites belonging to a class of chemical compounds known as diterpenes. SvGls have been discovered only in a few plant species, including in the leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Over the last few decades, SvGls have been extensively researched for their extraordinary sweetness. As a result, the nutritional and pharmacological benefits of these secondary metabolites have grown increasingly apparent. In the near future, SvGls may become a basic, low-calorie, and potent sweetener in the growing natural foods market, and a natural anti-diabetic remedy, a highly competitive alternative to commercially available synthetic drugs. Commercial cultivation of stevia plants and the technologies of SvGls extraction and purification from plant material have already been introduced in many countries. However, new conventional and biotechnological solutions are still being sought to increase the level of SvGls in plants. Since many aspects related to the biochemistry and metabolism of SvGls in vivo, as well as their relationship to the overall physiology of S. rebaudiana are not yet understood, there is also a great need for in-depth scientific research on this topic. Such research may have positive impact on optimization of the profile and SvGls concentration in plants and thus lead to obtaining desired yield. This research summarizes the latest approaches and developments in SvGls production. Key points • Steviol glycosides (SvGls) are found in nature in S. rebaudiana plants. • They exhibit nutraceutical properties. • This review provides an insight on different approaches to produce SvGls. • The areas of research that still need to be explored have been identified.
... Se ha demostrado que la estevia tiene poca capacidad para competir con las malezas, las hierbas representan su principal competidor en tierra y limitante para el establecimiento en sus etapas iniciales y rendimiento general del cultivo (Ramesh et al., 2006;Angelini et al., 2018). Se estima que puede haber hasta una pérdida del 40 % de rendimiento como resultado de las malezas prin-cipalmente por especies de los géneros Amaranthus y Chenopodium (Angelini et al., 2018). ...
... N coloración amarilla en las hojas, P coloración verde oscura en las hojas y K clorosis y moteado en las hojas. Por su parte, la deficiencia de los micronutrientes calcio (Ca), magnesio (Mg) y Azufre (S) se observan como: necrosis apical, clorosis invertida, y la aparición de hojas pequeñas color verde pálido respectivamente (Ramesh et al., 2006). Katayama et al. (1976) reportó que la biomasa seca de Stevia rebaudiana, estaba constituida de 1.4 % N, 0.3 % P, y 2.4 % K. Por su parte, Kawatani et al. (1977) observó que el N aumentó el crecimiento, grosor del tallo y número de ramas; posteriormente, determinó que el K tenía efectos similares (Kawatani et al., 1980). ...
... Con respecto a los micronutrientes la Stevia rebaudiana parece tener un escaso requerimiento, su preferencia por suelos ácidos asegura la disponibilidad de los mismos (Ramesh et al., 2006). ...
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Thesis
The Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a tropical, perennial and bushy plant native from Paraguay. The main commercial interest is that it can be up to 300 times sweeter than cane sugar. Her secondary metabolites with low calorie content (rebaudiosides and steviosides) do not raise glucose and represent an alternative for the consumption of sugar in people with hypertension and diabetes. Furthermore, aeroponics is a soilless cultivation technique, where the roots of the plants are suspended in the air inside the dark container, where a nutrient solution is sprayed constantly. Aeroponics allows to reduce culture water consumption up to 95 %, his biggest advantage over hydroponics is oxygenation of the roots. In the present work, a low pressure recirculating aeroponic system was designed and characterized for the cultivation of Stevia rebaudiana. For that reason, an automatic system for irrigating and measuring modules for abiotic variables were developed using free software and hardware, which allowed monitor the behavior of the aeroponic system for its characterization. With the measuring modules, it was determined that exists a high and inversely linear correlation between temperature and humidity within the grow room (r = 0.88, r2 = 0.77). On the other hand, by the use of several temperature and illuminance sensors placed along the height of vertical compartment containing the roots, show that there are significant differences of temperature and illuminance (p < 0.05) according to the height where they were measured in the vertical compartment. In the same way, it is observed that the temperature is higher inside the root compartment compared to the growing room, as long as there is no irrigation, testing different irrigations it was observed that the temperature inside the vertical compartment can be reduced. Similarly, it was perceived that the variance in water temperature is less than the variance in air temperature within the compartment for all cases. It was concluded that, when the frequency of irrigation rises, the variance of the temperature inside the container decreases. Each spray carried out expresses a transfer of temperature from the water to the air. In a test with biological material, three nutritive solutions were evaluated in equivalent concentrations, Hoagland, Fertiplus and Triple 19, the three were dissolved in 20 liters of water each; after 35 days of culture, different morphometric variables were measured. During this time, no water exchange or nutrient addition was made. Although there are significant differences in the temperature and illuminance of the different heights of the vertical compartment, there is no evidence that they influence the growth of the crop. Therefore, the Nutritive Solutions have an important effect on the grown of the plants. With an ANOVA, it was determined that there are significant differences (p<0:05) between the nutritional solution treatments. However, for Triple 19 and Hoagland treatments there are no significant differences in the production of aerial biomass and leaf area, these being variables of greatest commercial interest. However, Hoagland has a cost 80 times higher than Triple 19. Finally it was concluded that it is possible to grow Stevia rebaudiana in a vertical aeroponic system even with the existence of light and temperature variations along the system column.
... Due to the day length sensitivity of S. rebaudiana, the advantages of long day conditions seemed promising since it is well known that it promotes vegetative growth (shoot length, leaf area, dry weight) and sweetener content (Metivier and Viana, 1979;Ramesh et al., 2006). Therefore, basic field trials were initiated in 2002 to investigate the performance and agronomic values, as well as the suitability of S. rebaudiana to the given temperate zone site conditions. ...
... The site did not influence shoot growth (Figure 3), but did on herbage yield, which was especially expressed in leaf dry weight ( Figure 4). Total yield, leaf yield and leaf percentage was better on the loamy sand soil of the farm land (Table 2) which was more comparable to the soil requirement of S. rebaudiana (Ramesh et al., 2006) than the rich sandy loam soil at the research station. The herbage yield (dry matter) in 5 y of studies varied from 3 t ha -1 in 2005 to 12 t ha -1 in 2004. ...
... Earlier findings showing that early growth of S. rebaudiana is poor (Ramesh et al., 2006) were also observed at both sites where it was grown in 2006 ( Figure 1 In 2006 the combined effects of two biological growth promoters (Promot ® WP and new product) and two different propagation substrates (compressed soil block and Jiffy pot™) were studied and the after-effects throughout the growing-season were observed. The results of these investigations have already been published (Lankes and Pude, 2007). ...
... This was correlated with the agronomic studies performed by Clemente et al. (2021), wherein, Stevia can be regarded as a semi-perennial crop and is grown in temperate areas of middle Italy. Moreover, crop rotation favors better plant growth, which reduces upon monoculture cultivation (Angelini et al., 2018;Ramesh et al., 2006). The plant grows well at an average temperature of 25 • C under long-day conditions, thus favoring the vegetative growth of the plant. ...
... Fresh seeds sown at an ambient temperature of 25 • C produces better germination rates. Long storage conditions, low temperatures and small seed size exaggerates loss in seed viability, negatively affecting its propagation (Ramesh et al., 2006;Randi and Felippe, 1981;Shock, 1982). Largescale cultivation of the plant via stem-cuttings is rather better alternative, possessing high survival rate. ...
Article
Stevia rebaudiana is one of the vastly acclaimed commercial plant in the world and belongs to Asteraceae family. The exclusive advantage of Stevia over artificial sweeteners is impeccable and targets its potentiality to the presence of diterpene glycosides. Moreover, the flaunting sweetness of steviol glycosides with associated medicinal benefits, turns the plant to be one of the most economic assets, globally. As compared to vegetative propagation through stem-cuttings, plant tissue culture is the most suitable approach in obtaining true-to-type plants of superior quality. During last few decades, significant in vitro propagation methods have been developed and still the research is ongoing. The present review discusses the tissue culture perspectives of S. rebaudiana, primarily focusing on the mineral nutrition, growth regulators and other accessory factors, motioning the optimum growth and development of the plant. Another crucial aspect is the generation of sweeter varieties in order to reduce the bitter-off taste, which is noticed after the consumption of the leaves. The in vitro cultures pose an efficient alternative system for production of steviol glycosides, with higher rebaudioside(s) content. Moreover, the review also covers the recent approaches pertaining to scale-up studies and genome editing perspectives. Key Message The review encircles around largescale propagation of S. rebaudiana, with emphasis on individual and cumulative effects of significant factors involved in regeneration of the plant and steviol glycoside content. Elaborative details on the genome editing and scale-up studies provide a deeper understanding for obtaining high steviol glycoside content.
... According to Zaman et al., (2015) stevia yield can be influenced by variation in soil type. In addition, stevia has a poor capacity to compete with weeds during the initial growth period (Ramesh et al., 2006), and weed control practices in stevia production are important to reduce the effects of the weeds that can also make complete yield loss. Taak et al., (2020) stated about a 25% stevia yield penalty due to weed competition. Hence, an appropriate weed control technique is important in order to reduce yield loss and related increases in production costs. ...
... According to Zaman et al., (2015) stevia yield can be influenced by variation in soil type. In addition, stevia has a poor capacity to compete with weeds during the initial growth period (Ramesh et al., 2006) and weed control practices in stevia production are important to reduce the effects of the weeds that can also make complete yield loss. Taak et al., (2020) stated about a 25% stevia yield penalty due to weed competition. Hence, an appropriate weed control technique is important to reduce yield loss and related increases in production costs. ...
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Article
Original Research Article The experiment was conducted during 2019/2020 at Wondogenet agricultural research center, Sidama region Ethiopia. It was initiated to find a critical weed competition period for Stevia rebaudiana production as weed management plays a great role in agriculture. The experiment was arranged in a randomized complete block design (RCBD) and consisted of three replication and fourteen treatments. Stevia rebaudiana growth and yield, as well as weed data, were assessed during the experiment and subjected to ANOVA using SAS computer software version 9.3, and differences between means were assessed at 5% probability level. Stevia plant height, branch number, and leaf yield were affected significantly due to treatments effects. Weed-free season treatment showed significantly higher stevia fresh yield (6.1 ton/ha) and dry yield (1.20 ton/ha) which was similar to the significantly higher results of the weedy for fifteen days after transplanting. Variation in the weedy period from fifteen days after transplanting (15DAT) to thirty days after transplanting (30DAT) resulted in 33.27% fresh stevia leaf yield reduction and 44.40% dry stevia leaf yield reduction. Weedy season treatment was used as a check and showed significantly lower stevia leaf yield which was also similar to the results of the weedy period for ninety days after transplanting (90DAT). On the other hand, the weedy period for fifteen days after transplanting (15DAT), the weed-free period for ninety days after transplanting (90DAT), and weed-free season treatments showed similar significantly lower weed density. An increase in the weedy period showed higher weed density and weed biomass results. Therefore, as weeds greatly affect stevia growth and yield, early weeding at 15DAT is important and recommended based on the present finding, however, for comprehensive results the experiment should be repeated over site and year.
... There are some reports that Stevia was already known in Spain in the 16 th century. However, other Europeans learned about the plant only in the late 19 th century, after Stevia was introduced and promoted by the botanist Moises Santiago Bertoni (Ramesh et al., 2006). Bertoni renamed it from Eupatorium rebaudianum to Stevia rebaudiana (Carakostas et al., 2008). ...
... In the 1970s, Stevia was introduced in Japan and research was started to evaluate its beneficial potential for human health. Since then, the Japanese actively use this sweetener in a variety of foods and Japan is one of the major producers of Stevia now (Ramesh et al., 2006). In 2013, the Coca-Cola Company started production of drinks containing Stevia instead of sugar and having 30 % less calories. ...
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Article
Stevia rebaudiana is a South American plant, the cultivation of which is increasing worldwide due to its high content of sweet compounds. Stevia sweetness is mainly due to steviol glycosides, that are ~250-300 times sweeter than sucrose. Many studies have suggested the benefits of Stevia extract over sugar and artificial sweeteners, but it is still not a very popular sugar substitute. This review summarizes current data on the biological activities of S. rebaudiana extract and its individual glycosides, including anti-hypertensive, anti-obesity, anti-diabetic, antioxidant, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial effects and improvement of kidney function. Possible side effects and toxicity of Stevia extract are also discussed. © 2021, Leibniz Research Centre for Working Environment and Human Factors. All rights reserved.
... With the increasing importance of SGs in the food and Table 3 Effect of exogenous sucrose spraying on the leaf contents of total potassium (TK), total nitrogen (TN), total carbon (TC) and C/N ratio of stevia plants medical fields, the improvement of SGs productivity by optimizing fertilization management has become increasingly important (Ramesh et al. 2006;Sun et al. 2020b). K is a crucial nutrient element that affects crop quality in general, but a causal relationship between K fertilization and stevia production is still largely unclear. ...
... K is one of the necessary nutrients for plant life, which can account for 1-5% of the plant dry weight and play vital roles in plant growth, physiological metabolism and pathogen/pest resistance (Römheld and Kirkby 2010;Wang et al. 2013). The stevia plant has a high demand for K nutrition during the growth process, however, K fertilization has always been disregarded by farmers in actual management due to the high fertilizer prices (Ramesh et al. 2006;Brunelle et al. 2015). Such management results in a physiological K deficiency in the crops, and thereby influence plant metabolism. ...
Article
The steviol glycosides (SGs) in stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) leaves are becoming increasingly valuable due to its high sweetness but low calorific value, which is driving the development of stevia commercial cultivation. Optimizing fertilization management can effectively increase SGs productivity, but knowledge on the relationship between potassium (K) fertilization and SGs production is still lacking. In this study, pot experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effect of K deficiency on SGs synthesis in stevia leaves, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that when compared with standard K fertilization, K deficiency treatment has no significant effect on the biomass of stevia plant grown in a given soil with high K contents. However, K deficiency critically decreased leaf SGs contents as well as the expression of SGs synthesis-related genes. The contents of different sugar components decreased and the activities of sugar metabolism-related enzymes were inhibited under the K deficiency condition. Moreover, spraying sucrose on the leaves of stevia seedlings diminished the inhibitory effect caused by K deficiency. Our results also revealed the significant positive correlations between sucrose, glucose and SGs contents. Overall, our results suggest that K deficiency would suppress the synthesis of SGs in stevia leaves, and this effect may be mediated by the leaf sugar metabolism. Our findings provide new insights into the improvement of SGs production potential.
... Queda prohibida la reproducción total o parcial del texto de la presente obra en cualquiera de sus formas, electrónica o mecánica, sin el consentimiento previo y escrito del autor [Bertoni] Bertoni) es un cultivo originario del Paraguay y se constituye como una alternativa importante para los pequeños agricultores paraguayos debido a que genera ingresos para más del 30% de las familias rurales y actualmente es el segundo mayor productor mundial (Casaccia et al. 2016). Las propiedades nutracéuticas y como edulcorante natural para su uso en alimentos, así como sus características agronómicas del cultivo de estevia han permitido que este cultivo se extienda por todo el mundo, teniendo un gran un impacto agrícola en países como Japón, China, Taiwán, Corea, México, Estados Unidos, Tailandia, Malasia, Indonesia, Australia, Tanzania, Canadá (Ramesh et al., 2006). ...
... Las investigaciones en estevia se han centrado mayormente en mejorar la calidad del dulzor por medio del mejoramiento genético. Sin embargo, las consideraciones agronómicas deben ser objeto de estudio constante debido a que el inminente cambio climático y la necesidad de hacer mejor uso de los recursos naturales exigen que la producción de cultivos se desarrolle de manera sostenible y eficiente (Ramesh et al. 2006). ...
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Conference Paper
La estevia (Stevia rebaudiana) es un cultivo importante para los agricultores paraguayos, que genera ingresos para más del 30% de las familias rurales. El objetivo de este trabajo fue identificar áreas prioritarias de investigación para factores que limitan la producción de la estevia y conocer la percepción de los investigadores, extensionistas y tomadores de decisiones en Paraguay. Se realizaron encuestas sobre los temas agronómicos con prioridad de investigación para la producción de estevia, en la Facultad de Ciencias Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Asunción, Paraguay y el otro en la Facultad de Agronomía ―Universidad Católica Nuestra Señora de la Asunción‖, María Auxiliadora, Itapúa, Paraguay. Se proporcionó a los encuestados una lista de áreas prioritarias de investigación y se les pidió clasificarlas de 1 (prioridad alta) a 10 (prioridad baja). Participaron un total de 40 sujetos, entre extensionistas, profesores, investigadores públicos, productores de estevia, consultores privados y estudiantes graduados con experiencia en agronomía e investigación de la estevia. La mayoría de los encuestados consideraron enfermedades transmitidas por el suelo como un tópico de alta prioridad de investigación. Enfermedades causadas por virus y nematodos se consideraron de baja prioridad. Para la categoría insectos plaga no se observó un patrón definido de preferencia. Por otro lado, nutrición del cultivo, producción de semillas, manejo orgánico fueron considerados por la mayoría del grupo de encuestados como tópicos más prioritarios que mejoramiento genético.
... Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni), a perennial short-day plant, belongs to the family of Asteraceae, which is grown for its sweet leaf. Stevia is native to Paraguay and now being commercially cultivated in several parts of the world such as Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, India, Indonesia, Japan, Korea, Mexico, Russia, Tanzania, and USA (Brandle et al., 1998;Ramesh et al., 2006;Pal et al., 2015a). Now, stevia cultivation is steadily increasing in different parts of India as a remunerative crop. ...
... In maize, the plant population influences the vertical distribution of light within the canopy, which ultimately governs photosynthetic efficiency and growth (Woli et al., 2014). Though few reports are available on plant population of stevia for particular location (Chalapathi et al., 1997;Ramesh et al., 2006;Talei et al., 2012) the information is incomplete and sporadic. Thus, maintaining optimal plant population is one of the important agronomic factors for better utilization of light, moisture, nutrients and space, and ultimately higher yield. ...
Article
Stevia rebaudiana is being cultivated in many parts of the world for its industrial uses as a low-caloric natural sweetener. However, the effects of plant population and nitrogen (N) levels and their interactions on biomass yield and steviol glycosides accumulation are not properly known in the mild-temperate conditions. Therefore, an experiment was laid out with ten treatment combinations having two plant densities (50,000 and 100,000 plants ha⁻¹) and five N levels (0 to 160 kg ha⁻¹). The overall dry leaf yield of stevia ranged from 1.74 to 3.35 Mg ha⁻¹, while total steviol glycosides (SGs) concentration of the stevia leaf varied from 7.6 to 9.3%. The dense population (100,000 plants ha⁻¹) registered about 64.9 and 71.8% higher dry leaf yields compared with thin population (50,000 plants ha⁻¹) during 2014 and 2015, respectively. Irrespective of plant density, N at 120 kg ha⁻¹ recorded significantly (P ≤ 0.05) higher dry leaf yields (3.35 and 2.83 Mg ha⁻¹) compared with control during both the experimental years. However, substantially higher apparent N-recovery and agronomic N-efficiency were registered with lower doses (40−80 kg ha⁻¹) of N. The total SGs yield (g plant⁻¹) was not reduced with dense plantation. Similarly, the significantly higher total SGs yield was recorded with the application of N at 120 kg ha⁻¹. The response curve suggests that the dense plantation and N up to 143 kg ha⁻¹ can be practiced to increase dry leaf yield of stevia without sacrificing the production of total SGs under mild temperate conditions.
... In this regard, Ceunen and Geuns [31] observed large amounts of SVglys within the upper leaves during the budding phase and, as more and more buds become flowers, leaves contained lower amounts of SVglys. This is important for the choice of best harvesting time, since the maximum SVglys concentration is reached in the physiological stage of flowering-bud formation [32,33]. Flowering and, in general, plant growth are also affected by the photoperiod and temperature. ...
... The accumulation of polyphenols during the beginning of flowering stage could be related to the ecological roles of these compounds, such as intensifying antifungal defenses and attracting pollinators [32]. In addition, since different interactions among environmental and agronomic factors may occur, it is difficult to select individual stimuli that can influence a single metabolic pathway. ...
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Article
Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) is a promising medicinal and aromatic plant for Mediterranean agroecosystems given its positive agronomic attributes and interesting quality features. It has both food and pharmaceutical applications, since its leaves contain sweet-tasting steviol glycosides (SVglys) and bioactive compounds, such as phenolics, flavonoids, and vitamins. We evaluated the agronomic and qualitative performances of nine stevia genotypes cultivated, in open field conditions, for two consecutive years under the Mediterranean climate of central Italy. Growth, biomass production, and accumulation of bioactive compounds (SVglys, polyphenols, and their related antioxidant activities) were evaluated, considering the effect of harvest time and crop age (first and second year of cultivation). The results showed high variability among genotypes in terms of both morpho-productive and phytochemical characteristics. In general, greater leaf dry yields, polyphenol accumulation, and antioxidant activities were found in the second year of cultivation, harvesting the plants in full vegetative growth. On the other hand, total SVglys leaf content reached the highest values in the first year when plants were at the beginning of the reproductive phase. On the other hand, although the SVglys profile (Rubusoside, Dulcoside A, Stevioside, Rebaudioside A, C, D, E, and M) remained stable over harvest times, it differed significantly depending on the crop age and genotype. Our findings provide useful information on the influence of crop age and harvest time in defining quanti-qualitative traits in stevia, with PL, SL, BR5, and SW30 being the best performing genotypes and thus suitable for breeding programs. Our study highlighted that stevia, in the tested environment, represents a promising semi-perennial crop which offers new solutions in terms of cropping system diversification and marketing opportunities.
... L'accumulation maximale en édulcorants dans les feuilles est atteint avant la floraison (Ceunen & Geuns, 2013), définissant le stade récolte. Ces besoins photopériodiques rendent idéale la culture de la Stévia en conditions tempérées avec des jours longs en été (Ramesh et al., 2006). Suivant les pays de production, la durée de la croissance végétative varie et amène à différentes stratégies de récolte, allant d'une récolte par an , à plusieurs récoltes par an pour obtenir le meilleur rendement. ...
... Sa culture s'est étendue à l'ensemble des continents (Figure I.1.3), avec une production majoritaire en Asie et en Amérique (Ramesh et al., 2006;. La Chine est très nettement le premier pays producteur depuis les années 1980. ...
Thesis
La consommation excessive de sucres conduit à l’augmentation de désordres métaboliques, tels que l’obésité et le diabète. Les consommateurs souhaitent une alimentation plus saine à base de produits d’origine naturelle. Stevia rebaudiana, l’herbe sucrée du Paraguay, accumule dans ses feuilles des glycosides de stéviol (SGs) considérés comme des édulcorants naturels intenses, dont le marché est en pleine expansion au niveau mondial. Dans ce contexte, la société Oviatis implante une filière BIO de Stevia rebaudiana en Nouvelle-Aquitaine. Les objectifs de cette thèse CIFRE sont de caractériser la variabilité phénotypique d’une collection de cette espèce en vue de la mise en place future d’un programme de sélection. Les composantes du rendement, de biomasse foliaire, de quantité et qualité des SGs et de la réponse à Septoria sp. ont été finement décrites en condition de production pluriannuelle et multi-sites ou en conditions contrôlées. Ces travaux ont permis de 1) développer des outils de phénotypage métabolique, pathologique et au champ, 2) évaluer la variabilité phénotypique de cette collection de Stevia rebaudiana en condition de production et identifier les descripteurs de cette variabilité, 3) identifier les facteurs ontogéniques, abiotiques et culturaux impliqués dans la variabilité de cette collection, 4) évaluer la variabilité de réponses face à la septoriose. Ces résultats permettent d’identifier les critères de sélection de cette espèce pour une production BIO en Nouvelle Aquitaine, ainsi que des génotypes d’intérêt. Ils constituent les bases de la mise en place d’un programme d’amélioration variétale.
... With the increasing importance of SGs in the food and medical fields, the improvement of SGs productivity by Table 2 Effect of K deficiency on plant biomass and the leaf contents of total potassium (TK), total nitrogen (TN), total carbon (TC) and C/N ratio of stevia plants optimizing fertilization management has become increasingly important (Ramesh et al. 2006;Sun et al. 2020b). K is a crucial nutrient element that affects crop quality in general, but a causal relationship between K fertilization and stevia production is still largely unclear. ...
... K is one of the necessary nutrients for plant life, which can account for 1-5% of the plant dry weight and play vital roles in plant growth, physiological metabolism and pathogen/pest resistance (Römheld and Kirkby 2010;Wang et al. 2013). The stevia plant has a high demand for K nutrition during the growth process, however, K fertilization has always been disregarded by farmers in actual management due to the high fertilizer prices (Ramesh et al. 2006;Brunelle et al. 2015). Such management results in a physiological K deficiency in the crops, and thereby influence plant metabolism. ...
Article
The steviol glycosides (SGs) in stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) leaves are becoming increasingly valuable due to its high sweetness but low calorific value, which is driving the development of stevia commercial cultivation. Optimizing fertilization management can effectively increase SGs productivity, but knowledge on the relationship between potassium (K) fertilization and SGs production is still lacking. In this study, pot experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effect of K deficiency on SGs synthesis in stevia leaves, as well as the underlying mechanisms. Our results showed that when compared with standard K fertilization, K deficiency treatment has no significant effect on the biomass of stevia plant grown in a given soil with high K contents. However, K deficiency critically decreased leaf SGs contents as well as the expression of SGs synthesis-related genes. The contents of different sugar components decreased and the activities of sugar metabolism-related enzymes were inhibited under the K deficiency condition. Moreover, spraying sucrose on the leaves of stevia seedlings diminished the inhibitory effect caused by K deficiency. Our results also revealed the significant positive correlations between sucrose, glucose and SGs contents. Overall, our results suggest that K deficiency would suppress the synthesis of SGs in stevia leaves, and this effect may be mediated by the leaf sugar metabolism. Our findings provide new insights into the improvement of SGs production potential.
... Its flowers are pentamerous and hermaphrodite and can be classified as tube flowers (Soejarto, 2002). These white flowers are organised in capitulum inflorescences and their corolla present external hair (Ramesh et al., 2006). The seeds are contained in achenes, and their wind dispersion occurs through a hairy corolla, called the pappus (Ramesh et al., 2006). ...
... These white flowers are organised in capitulum inflorescences and their corolla present external hair (Ramesh et al., 2006). The seeds are contained in achenes, and their wind dispersion occurs through a hairy corolla, called the pappus (Ramesh et al., 2006). Fertile seeds are black, while unfertile seeds remain light in colour (Raina et al., 2013;Yadav et al., 2011). ...
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Article
Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) is a perennial crop belonging to the Asteraceae family. Its main agronomic and industrial interest is the accumulation in its leaves of steviol glycosides (SG), natural acaloric sweeteners which are 300 times sweeter than sucrose. In order to expand phenotyping knowledge on this emerging crop, researchers and breeders need a universal scale to describe the development of this plant. The objective of this study was to describe the phenological growth stages of stevia through the use of the Biologische Bundesanstalt Bundessortenamt and Chemical Industry (BBCH) scale to provide a standard scale for stevia grown under temperate conditions of production and climate. The observation of phenological stages was performed on genetic resources and validated on stevia progenies grown in field conditions. The ten phenological stages, namely germination, bud development, foliar development, side shoots appearance, stems elongation, development of harvestable part of the crop, inflorescence emergence, flowering, development of fruit, seeds ripening and senescence, were used to describe the stevia, supplemented with pictures. The chronology and duration of each stage were also observed and described according to the accumulation of degree days during the growing season. This study presents the first BBCH scale established for Stevia rebaudiana cultivated in temperate conditions and a chronology of phenological stages based on the accumulation of thermal time, through growing degree day calculation (°C/d). This work provides a tool that can be widely used by farmers, breeders and researchers leading to better agronomic management and scientific communication. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Stevia was first introduced into Malaysia in the 1970s (Tan et al. 2008). Stevia has gained its popularity as one of the main sources of non-caloric sugar due to being 300 times sweeter than sugarcane sugar (Ramesh et al. 2006). Among the 180 species in the genus Stevia, only Stevia rebaudiana produces the sweetest extract due to the sweet diterpenoid glycosides. ...
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Article
Hybridization is an important method to widen variations and to develop novel varieties in plants. The increasing interest in Stevia rebaudiana over the last decade soared by its potential as an alternative source of sugar. In this study, improvement in stevia has been conducted through hybridization using Trigona for the development of stevia hybrids. Trigona, which consists of small to medium-sized bees, is usually found in tropical and subtropical parts of the world. They are common visitors to flowering plants and pose an important function as crop pollinators. A field experiment was conducted using 17 stevia accessions (From Malaysia and Paraguay), and F1 hybrids were morphologically and chemically evaluated. Among the F1 individuals, a wide range of variability with regards to qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters was observed. A selection of F1 hybrids namely MS007HYB1, MS007HYB2, LangatHYB, EireteIIHYB, NilaiHYB1, NilaiHYB2, and NilaiHYB3 was made based on their promising features. Improvements were observed in total stevioside content for MS007HYB1 (45%) and MS007HYB2 (30%), rebaudioside content for MS007HYB2 (4.2%), NilaiHYB2 (3.8%), NilaiHYB3 (3.6%) and LangatHYB (14.4%), and delay in flowering for MS007HYB1 (46 days), MS007HYB2 (46 days), LangatHYB (51 days), EireteHYB (47 days), NilaiHYB1 (49 days), NIlaiHYB2 (46 days) and NilaiHYB3 (46 days) when compared to their respective mother plants.
... They reported higher rebaudioside-A content (7 per cent) in open area grown plants than plants grown in shaded conditions. As per Ramesh et al. (2006), stevia is extremely sensitive to the day length and requires 12-16 hours of sunlight to maximize the accumulation of stevioside in the leaves. The results indicated a positive correlation of maximum and minimum temperatures with plant height, leaf weight, herbage yield, and steviol glycoside content. ...
... Seeds of stevia are inside slender achenes about 3 mm in length. The reproduction takes place by the seeds, although the seed viability is very poor and exhibits variability [14]. It is a self-incompatible plant, pollinated by insects, i.e., highly cross-pollinated. ...
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Article
Steviol glycosides (SvGls) are plant secondary metabolites belonging to the class diterpenes. SvGls naturally derived from non-calorie sugar have therapeutic properties for diabetics, carcinogens, and anti-microbials. Over the past few years, SvGls have been extensively researched because of their extraordinary sweetness without side effects. SvGls are classified into several types based on the number of sugar bases attached to the steviol. Due to the difference in glycosylation, different SvGls have different sensory properties. One of the main obstacles is the mass production of SvGls. Novel physical and chemical treatments and advanced biotechnological approaches are introduced to increase the production of SvGls. Extraction of high-purity SvGls from plants is difficult, so researchers have manipulated the metabolic pathways of engineered microorganisms for bulk production of SvGls. There are many aspects related to the biochemistry and metabolism of SvGls, but their functional relationship with the S. rebaudiana is not well understood. Thus there is a need for in-depth research in this area. This review provides the readers with an overview of the research gaps and possible promising methodologies that can be utilized in the future. To trigger more research, this review encompasses the recent developments in SvGls production and marketing.
... This genus of medicinal plant originates from South America (Gaweł-Bęben et al., 2015). The steviol glycosides present in its leaves are responsible for producing a sweet taste, but with the characteristic of having no caloric value (Ramesh et al., 2006). In a study by Khalil and others (2015), it was found that at an irradiation dose of 15 kGy, the steviol glycoside content increased slightly to 0.251 mg/g-DW (Dry Weight) compared to the control, which had 0.232 mg/g-DW. ...
Chapter
Foods contain a wide variety of bioactive compounds in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains. These bioactive compounds include polyphenols (flavonoids, etc.), carotenoids, anthocyanins, micronutrients, and vitamins Therefore, the present trend is to utilize these natural plant products for both preventive and therapeutic purposes. There are several studies investigating the bioactive compound fate in fruits and vegetables as a the specific ionizing technology, the fruit type and the ionizing radiation dose. Some studies show that total phenolic content of fruits can increase up to a threshold dose and then decrease thereafter. On the other hand, anthocyanins and carotenoids can increase with increasing ionizing doses. Ionizing irradiation can be used as an alternative to preserve vegetables and fruits under certain irradiation conditions. The concentration of bioactive compounds increased depending on the irradiation source, the dose level, the presence/ absence of physical damages in the plant product, and its storage conditions after irradiation, as well as transport conditions, among other factors. Bioactive compounds in grains and rhizomes can also increase or decrease based on the ionizing dose and the target commodity.
... g. They contain a small amount of endosperm that spread in the environment along with the wind (Ramesh et al., 2006). Generally, the seeds have low viability and great variation . ...
... The leaves of stevia are the source of steviol glycosides, stevioside and rebaudioside, which estimated to be 300 times sweeter than sugar besides have no effect on blood sugar. (Soejorto 2002, Ramesh et al. 2006. It nourishes pancreas and thereby helps to restore its normal function. ...
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The experiment was conducted to study the effects of different cultivation methods on growth, yield and nutrient content of stevia at the experimental farm of Bangladesh Sugarcrop Research Institute, Pabna, Bangladesh. The treatments were T 1 : Field cultivation, T 2 : Under mango tree cultivation and T 3 : Pot cultivation. The experiment was laid out in Complete Randomized Design (CRD) with five (5) replications. Data were recorded on the following parameters plant height (cm), number of branch plant-1 , number of leaves plant-1 , leaf area plant-1 (cm 2), fresh weight plant-1 (g), dry weight plant-1 (g), fresh leaf yield plant-1 (g), dry leaf yield plant-1 (g), N (%), P (%), K (%), S (%), Ca (%), Mg (%) and Zn (µg g-1) contents of Stevia leaf. Significant different was recorded among different cultivation methods. Significantly the highest plant height was obtained in T 2 (under mango tree cultivation) treatment (127.93 cm) at 147 DAT. The highest primary and secondary branches at 147 DAT were recorded in T 1 (field cultivation) treatment (12.72) and (31.83), respectively. The number of leaf plant-1 and leaf area plant-1 of stevia were significantly influenced by different cultivation methods and the highest was recorded in T 1 treatment. The highest fresh weigh (165.92 g plant-1) and dry (44.15 g plant-1) plant-1 were obtained from T 1 treatment. Significantly the highest fresh leaf yield (91.37 g plant-1 and 4512.12 kg ha-1) and dry leaf yield (24.83 g plant-1 and 1226.17 kg ha-1) were obtained from T 1 treatment also. The N content in stevia leaf ranged from 1.62 to 1.71%. The highest (0.128%) and the lowest (0.085%) Phosphorus content was obtained in T 1 and T 2 treatment, respectively. The K content in stevia leaf ranged from 0.13 to 0.14%. The highest Sulphur content was recorded in T 1 treatment (0.25%).The Ca and Mg content in stevia leaf ranged from (1.12 to 1.24%) and (0.102 to 0.104%), respectively. The highest Zn content was recorded in field cultivation (62.87 µg g-1). Results indicated the strong possibilities of field cultivation of stevia in Bangladesh.
... Compost enhanced the OM and nutritional content such as P and K of the soil, which had a good influence on Stevia yield, as had been reported in other crops [10]. Stevia has reduced nutritional requirements and can be easily adapted in poor soil quality [11]. On the other hand, a nutrient deficit can be harmful [12]. ...
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Conference Paper
Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) is a plant species belonging to the family Asteraceae. It contains natural intense sweeteners while presenting low carbohydrate content. Its insignificant effect on blood glucose makes its consumption possible for diabetic and hypoglycemic diets. Chemical fertilizers have a negative impact on the stevia leaves quality. Organic farming has become essential in producing medicinal plants such as Stevia to boost stevia growth with stevioside and rebaudioside-A content. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of four compost doses, i.e., 0, 10, 20, and 30 t/ha on Stevia yield and soil fertility. This experiment was conducted in the Melk Zhar experimental domain, Belfaa of the National Institute of Agronomic Research (INRA), Agadir, Morocco during the period of February-June 2020. The obtained results revealed that increased compost doses significantly increased yield and soil fertility i.e., phosphorus; P, potassium; K and organic matter; OM contents. The highest yield (2.19 t/ha) was observed under treatment using 30 t/ha of compost followed by 20 t/ha (1.67 t/ha), and the lowest (1.50 t/ha) under control conditions. The highest OM content (1.02%) was found under treatment with 30 t/ha of compost while the lowest (0.85%) was under the control. The soil analysis also showed that the application of compost at 20 t/ha resulted in the highest P (28.68 ppm) and K (125.5 ppm). In the light of finding, it is concluded that the application of compost at 30 t/ha is the most effective recommended rate for improving Stevia yield and soil fertility
... However, a hot semi-arid climate (Bsh), dry-hot continental climate (Dsa), and hot-humid continental climate are much less productive. According to Ramesh et al. [9], stevia can be cultivated in a variety of climates, including semi-humid, subtropical, and temperate zones. Therefore, stevia yield has increased in temperate zones of Central and South Europe [10]. ...
... Similar to the findings of this study, Das, Dang, and Shivananda (2009) stated that the stevioside content in the stevia leaf becomes higher with organic fertilizer applications. A number of studies also reported significant levels of stevioside (leaves of stevia contain about ten sweetening glycosides, which are Stevioside) 3-10% (Ramesh, Singh, and Megeji 2006), 7.8% (Umesha et al. 2011) and 11.05% (Zaman et al. 2018). The average stevioside content was 12.3% in the first harvest and 10.96% in the second harvest. ...
Article
Stevia is an important medicinal plant that is used as a natural sweetener. Fertilizers are increasing crop yield, preserving and improving soil fertility. This current study has been conducted in the 2019–2020 period to determine the yield, macro and micro-nutrient intake and agronomic performances of stevia. As a plant material criolla seedling was used. 20-20-20 and urea fertilizer have been used as inorganic fertilizers. Organic fertilizers, leonardite, vermicompost and animal manure, were applied in same doses (10 ton ha⁻¹). The results of study are presented as average values of the 2-year period. Fertilizer applications and harvesting time were found to be statistically significant at **P ≤ 0.01 on total stevioside glycoside (TSG). Organic fertilizers affect the stevioside content. The highest total dry plant weight in first harvest was obtained from leonardite (3537 kg ha⁻¹). Fertilizer applications did not have any statistical effects on plant height, number of branches, total fresh plant, total dry plant weight and dry leaf/stem. Harvest times were significant at a level of **P ≤ 0.01 on plant height, total fresh plant and fresh plant weight. The statistical results of Nitrogen (N), Phosphorus (P), Potassium (K) were affected by fertilizer applications when compared to control application, but Zinc (Zn), Cupper (Cu), Iron (Fe) and Mangan (Mn) results were not affected with any fertilizer applications in the first harvest. There were no statistical differences in parameters between chemical fertilizers and organic fertilizers. It is believed that an organic fertilizer that is suitable under producer conditions is important for stevia and sustainable agriculture.
... Stevia has several phytochemical characteristics which makes it a crop of interest for the food industry -as sweetener, antioxidant, and dietary supplement-and for the pharmaceutical industry -for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, since it does not produce a glycaemic response. The leaves of S. rebaudiana can achieve a zero-calorie natural sweetness higher than sucrose (Ramesh and Megeji, 2006); they have a unique composition in the presence of labdane, phenolic acids, sterols, triterpenoid, chlorophyll, organic acids, monosaccharide, and disaccharide (Gardana et al., 2010;Tavarini and Angelini, 2013). ...
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Article
L Objective: Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a crop that can meet the demand for natural sweeteners; however, this demand requires a sustainable production, as a result of the inclusion of its steviol glycosides or active ingredients in the food and pharmaceutical industries. Design/methodology/approach: Modern agriculture implies the integrated use of valid natural resources, such as the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF). These microorganisms establish a symbiotic relationship with, at least, 80% of the plants, to which they provide multiple benefits. They can directly and indirectly improve crop productivity, through nutrient (particularly, phosphorus) translocation of the soil solution. Results: As a sustainable alternative for the production of S. rebaudiana, they improve its nutritional state, resulting in a higher biomass production and glycoside concentration —fundamental yield parameters. Additionally, they promote resistance to biotic and abiotic stress factors and improve soil quality. Limitations/implications: It is worth mentioning that this fungi-plant mutualism is approximately 400 million years-old; however, it has only aroused interest during the last few years. Findings/conclusions: Although arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) are an exploitable resource, their communities are threatened by biotic factors —such as the interaction with other microorganisms— and abiotic factors —which involve bad agricultural practices.
... A high level of variation is usually found among sexually propagated plants with regard to the glycoside content as well as leaf mass growth. A perennial in its native environment, in Europe cultivated stevia can be grown as an annual or perennial (Ramesh et al., 2006). Stevia is a short-day plant that flowers from January to March in the southern hemisphere and from September to December in the northern hemisphere. ...
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Article
Stevia leaves are important as a new source of natural sugar substitute which makes it one of the most valuable new crops for Europe. The development of in vitro vegetative propagation strategies, to secure availability of well characterised and healthy clonal accession of plant material capable of providing an economically accepted level of leaf and stevioside harvest, becomes an agricultural priority. Growth and development of new plantles were strongly influenced by the type of in vitro plant support and by the presence of exogenous plant growth regulators added to the medium, the best combination was that of auxin (IBA 0.5 mg/l) and cytokinin (Kin 0.2 mg/l). The sponge-like structure of the fruits of Luffa cylindrica were used as plant support for liquid media. Results confirm that an in vitro multiplication of plant material is a reliable system for mass production of seedling to be cultivated in the field condition. The liquid system allows a superior root system formation. The use of Luffa cylindrica for ex vitro transfer proved to be a technological like approach, the ligno-skeleton cube replacing the usual giffy-pot system.
... Stevia is a native plant from the Amambay mountain range located between southern Brazil and northern Paraguay [1] [2], This is a region where the original Guaraní people are located and the plant is known as Ka'a He'ë (sweet herb) which has been used for centuries, for the Guarani tribes of Paraguay and Brazil as sweetener to counteract the bitter taste of medicines and in yerba mate tea. It is also used as medicinal infusions to treat stomach acidity, glycemic regulation and hypertension [3] [4] [5] [6] [7]. ...
... The rooted seedlings were obtained and developed as described above (day 0). Fourteen days after transplanting, all plants were subjected to first leaf harvest since this process has proved to promote flowering [27]. After the first leaf harvest, all S. rebaudiana plants were stayed to promote the first flower budding. ...
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Article
The Stevia market is estimated to be USD 1.14 billion in 2028 due to its acceptance in the food and beverage industry. Stevia rebaudiana and its two more relevant edulcorants: stevioside (St) and rebaudioside A (Reb-A) can reach 450-fold sweeter than sucrose. The species is considered a long night plant, promoting flowering and shortening vegetative growth. Thus, to increase the leaf area and St and Reb-A increase, we broke the long night with a short light pulse, here called night interruption (NI). In this study, three NI times and two S. rebaudiana genotypes were tested to promote larger vegetative growth, flowering delay, and higher synthesis of steviol glycosides (SvGly). The main goal of this study was to demonstrate that NI increased net photosynthesis (9% to 20%), the internode length (59%), the leaf area (25%), while delays in 4 to 10 days of the flowering phase, impacting in 17% to 25% more St and Reb-A, respectively. Here we describe an inexpensive flowering delay, elongation of vegetative growth, allowing extended harvesting, which could yield four to five annual harvesting of leaves, increasing the production in 21% to 24% more St and Reb-A yield (kg ha −1).
... It is commonly known stevia that belongs to the family Asteraceae and mostly considered as shrubby and herbaceous plant [4]. It is an indigenous plant and found to be perennial throughout the year in the highland, north east regions of South America [4,5]. S. rebaudiana is the only specie out of 230 others, besides Stevia phlebophylla, that is reported to possess the unique ability of accumulating low-calorie sweetening agents called steviol glycosides (SGs) and is considered as the most common and commercially important plant for food and health sector [6][7][8]. ...
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Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is commonly called stevia and mostly found in the north east regions of South America. It is an herbaceous and shrubby plant belonging to the Asteraceae family. Stevia is considered as a natural sweetener and a commercially important plant worldwide. The leaves of S. rebaudiana contain steviol glycosides (SGs) which are highly potent and non-caloric sweeteners. The sweetening property of S. rebaudiana is contributed to the presence of these high potency, calorie free steviol glycosides. SGs are considerably suitable for replacing sucrose and other artificial sweetening agents which are used in different industries and pharmaceuticals. SGs amount in the plant mostly varies from 8% to 10%, and the enhancement of SGs is always in demand. These glycosides have the potential to become healthier alternatives to other table sugars for having desirable taste and zero calories. SGs are almost 300 times sweeter than sucrose. Being used as alternative sugar intensifier the commercial value of this plant in bio-pharmaceutical, food and beverages industries and in international market is increasing day by day. SGs have made stevia an important part of the medicinal world as well as the food and beverage industry, but the limited production of plant material is not fulfilling the higher global market demand. Therefore, researchers are working worldwide to increase the production of important SGs through the intercession of different biotechnological approaches in S. rebaudiana. This review aims to describe the emerging biotechnological strategies and approaches to understand, stimulate and enhance biosynthesis of secondary metabolites in stevia. Conventional and biotechnological methods for the production of steviol glycosides have been briefly reviewed and discussed.
... The content of different SGs in the leaves of wild stevia varieties, calculated on a dry mass, is respectively: stevioside (5-10%), rebaudioside A (2-5%), rebaudioside C (1%), dulcoside A (0.5%), rebaudiosides D, E, F (0.2%), steviolbioside (0.1%) (Ceunen and Geuns, 2013). Stevioside extracted from stevia plants is almost 300 times sweeter than sugar and is noncaloric (Nepovim and Vanek, 1998;Gardana et al., 2003;Ramesh et al., 2006;Goyal et al., 2010;Lemus--Mondaca et al., 2012). The big potential of SGs as an alternative to traditional sugar is associated with a specific way of metabolizing glycosides by the human organism, i.e. all SGs are metabolized to steviol which is then removed from the organism in the form of steviol glucuronide and therefore SGs can be used by diabetics (Hutapea et al., 1997;Gardana et al., 2003;Geuns, 2003;Geuns et al., 2004). ...
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Seed germination in Stevia rebaudiana is poor and seedlings are difficult to achieve, thus the generative reproduction of this plant is limited. The aim of our studies was to investigate the stages of female and male gametophyte development along with pollen viability and pollen germination. Although our results showed the proper way of stevia male and female gametophyte development and a high viability of mature pollen grains, the lack of pollen tube formation followed by difficulties in seed development were still observed. We hypothesize that trouble with propagation of S. rebaudiana by seed might be caused by the unsuitable level of gibberellins (GAs) that are commonly recognized as signaling factors during the transition from the vegetative to the generative developmental phase. We found the decrease in the concentration of some GAs during plants flowering and we concluded that this might cause the inability of pollen tube germination. Moreover, S. rebaudiana plants exhibit a high concentration of steviol glycosides (SGs) that are synthesized in the biosynthetic pathway sharing some steps with the GAs formation. Therefore, the redirection of the metabolic pathway into secondary metabolites biosynthesis might be a reason for the failure in stevia pollen grains proper function.
... Increasing health-consciousness among consumers is the major cause of increasing demand of natural sweeteners as a substitute for sucrose and other artificial sweeteners which acts as nutritional terrorist such as saccharine, aspartame etc. Stevia is a medicinal herb commonly known as sugar leaf, honey leaf; belongs to Asteraceae family. It is a low calorie natural sweetener; native of northeastern Paraguay, cultivated as a cash crop in China, Brazil, Mexico, Russia, India, Canada and Argentina (Ramesh et al., 2006). Presently total annual production of stevia in India is about 600 tonnes with an average yield of 2500 to 2700 kgs of dried leaves per acre. ...
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Background: Stevia is a natural sweetener plant with zero calorie content which is used as an alternative source of sugar. Stevioside extract from stevia is considered to be 300-350 times sweeter than sugar. It is safe for use by both diabetics and hypo glycaemics due to its low glycaemic index. Stevia has some bitter aftertaste along with sweetness due to the presence of some essential oils, tannins and flavonoids. Methods: Field experiment was conducted at Eastern Block of Crop Research Farm, Department of Agronomy, Naini Agricultural Institute, Prayagraj during Zaid 2018. The experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design comprising of three N levels i.e. 50, 75 and 100 kg N/ha and inter row spacing of 30, 40 and 50 cm with 20 cm of plant to plant spacing. The study was carried out to find out response of nitrogen levels and spacing on stevia. Result: Maximum plant height (51.24 cm), leaf area (4596.99 cm 2) was observed with treatment 100 kg N ha-1 at 50 cm x 20 cm spacing and leaf area index (7.30), total soluble solids (TSS) (18.73 o Brix) was noticed with treatment 100 kg N ha-1 at 30 cm x 20 cm spacing, whereas the maximum Leaf number (342.52) was recorded with treatment 100 kg N ha-1 at 40 cm x 20 cm spacing. The results of this experiment revealed that increased dose of nitrogen with narrow spacing gave maximum quality.
... Stevia rebaudiana originates from semi-humid environments with moderate to high rainfall areas in Paraguay that are optimal for its growth; hence, it is naturally prone to moisture stress (Ramesh et al. 2006) but it is now being grown in many different regions in the world. However, suitable environments in places such as South Africa for its commercial production have yet to be defined. ...
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Plants under different environmental regimes exhibit phenotypic plasticity, sometimes producing more secondary metabolites when microenvironmental conditions are manipulated but these responses may be species, cultivar and/or genotype dependent. To test the hypothesis of whether in vitro plants of S. rebaudiana Bertoni would accumulate higher amounts of steviol glycosides when plants were growing under salt and drought stress, cultivar ST2100 plants were used. We thus applied 25 to 100 mM NaCl and polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG) at 2.5% to 10.0% (w/v) to generate different Murashige and Skoog (Physiol Plant 15:473–497, 1962) media. Microplant cultures were also profiled for stevioside, rebaudioside A and steviol via LC–MS. Essential oil chemicals and fatty acids were assessed using GC–MS. Finally, a chemometric analysis of ethanolic extracts produced from treated and control plants is presented from MSE fragmentation data and various phenolic acids were tentatively identified using ion fragmentation patterns. Increasing amounts of both NaCl and PEG led to poor growth and development in cultures of S. rebaudiana. For example, the 25 and 50 mM NaCl-treated plants had fewer roots in comparison to controls and at even higher concentrations (75 and 100 mM NaCl), plants did not to root. Poor in vitro organogenesis was more pronounced with PEG. For instance, when plants were placed on a 10% PEG-medium, the ability for shoot regeneration was lost and callus became more apparent. Increasing levels of NaCl and PEG were also correlated to lowered levels of rebaudioside A and stevioside. In relation to the control plants that had 0.054 mg g⁻¹ FW of steviol, the 25 mM NaCl treatment group had highest levels of this compound, recorded at 0.156 mg g⁻¹ FW. All other salt treatments led to trace amounts of this chemical (0.005–0.009 mg g⁻¹ FW) and it was not detected in any of the PEG-treated plants, except for the controls. The PCA loadings plots exposed stevioside, rebaudioside E and a steviol glycoside derivative as the MS signals that contributed to discriminant clusters segregating controls from the NaCl-treated groups. For PEG, segregation in the PCA is mostly influenced by dicaffeoylquinic acid as a marker ion, separating the controls from the treatment groups. PEG-treatments caused more prominent changes to the essential oil chemistry of Stevia plants. This was evident when 7.5 or 10% PEG was applied as sabinene, α-terpinolene, n-amyl isovalerate, 7-octen-4-ol, α-bergamotene, junipene, (+)-calarene, α-cadinol, β-pinene, α-bergamotene, (+)-calarene and junipene became undetectable. Changes of this nature may be undesirable when aromatic oils of S. rebaudiana are targetted for commercial markets as our data suggest adjustment to stresses may negatively impact volatile compounds leading to a loss of bioactive aromatic compounds. This study reports, for the first time, the effects of salinity and drought conditions in vitro on changed essential oil profiles of S. rebaudiana, providing new insights into the effects of stress on the essential oil chemistry of S. rebaudiana.
... Year ranged from 1.6 to 1.9 Ton ha − 1 whereas locations ranged from 1.34 to 1.77 Ton ha − 1 , similar to those reported in Paraguay of 1.5-2.5 Ton ha -1 per year, and China of 1.3-1.4 Ton ha -1 (Midmore and Rank, 2002;Ramesh et al., 2006). Our yields were lower than some locations reported in the US (3.6 Ton ha − 1 ), Malaysia (2.8 Ton ha − 1 ) (Tan et al., 2008), Canada (2.8 Ton ha − 1 ), Russia (1.4-5.5 Ton ha − 1 ), and India (4 Ton ha − 1 ) (Midmore and Rank, 2002;Parris et al., 2016). ...
Article
Currently, stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) seeds are available to growers from many sources, but the origin of these populations is often unknown. Since stevia is a natural outcrosser, populations are heterozygous and heterogeneous. We were interested to characterize germplasm from 16 sources of stevia seeds for traits including yield, glycosides, and plant morphology, and then identify trait correlations. The cultigens evaluated were obtained from garden seed companies and commercial sources, and the trials were conducted for two years at two field locations. To quantify plant morphological traits, objective measurements were collected at two intervals to determine stem height, branching width, and leaf area. In addition, we screened for lodging and disease resistance, and yield before flowering stage. The cultigens tested were highly variable for yield and steviol glycosides, suggesting that a diverse genetic base is found among the population which is readily available to growers and breeders. High-yielding cultigens for biomass and glycoside concentration were identified. Cultigens with the highest yield and stability over years were seed-derived progeny from ‘Katupyry’, sourced from Stevia Store, and represent genetics useful in breeding for increased biomass. Cultigens with the highest glycoside level were NC-1003 and NC-1022, seed grown from Seed Savers, and could be used to improve desirable glycosides. This study highlights readily available seed cultigens that can be used to develop elite breeding populations.
... The leaves of this plant contain vitamins C and A [4]. Important characteristics of stevia in agriculture can be perennial and cold resistance, economical production of stevia leaf [5]. Nanotechnology, with the help of new tools, is capable of food absorb in plant. ...
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This study investigated the photocatalytic effect of titanium dioxide nanoparticles on some physiological and phytochemical properties of stevia plant. Stevia plant was treated with eight concentrations of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100, 200 and 400 μL.L-1). After 3 weeks of plants treatment, samples were collected for analysis of chlorophyll, PAL enzyme activity, total phenol and flavonoid content. Also extraction of plant for assessment of steviosides and rebaudiosides glycosides by HPLC was performed. The results showed that treatment of titanium dioxide nanoparticles at 400 μL.L-1 concentration had the highest and at control had the lowest effect on chlorophyll content of leaves, total phenol, total flavonoid and Phenylalanine ammonia lyase enzyme activity. Glycoside content showed that treatment of nanoparticle at 200 μL.L-1 concentration had the highest and control concentration had lowest effect on stevioside content. Rebaudiosides content showed that, nanoparticle at 400 μL.L-1 had highest effect and at 20 and 40 μL.L-1 had lowest effect on rebaudioside A and B content. But, nanoparticle at 80 μL.L-1 had maximum effect, and at 20 and 40 μL.L-1 had lowest effect on rebaudioside C and F content. It was concluded that varied concentration of nanoparticles has different effect on glycosides content that this results could applied for further technologies in agriculture industry.
... Stevia rebaudiana, a medicinal plant in the family Asteraceae [1], has considerable economic value due to its high content of valuable natural and dietary sweeteners in the leaves [2][3][4]. It is a rich source of diterpene glycosides [2], namely Rebaudiosides (Rebaudioside A, B, D, M, X) and Stevioside. ...
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RP-HPLC-PDA method has been developed and validated for the quantification of Steviol glycoside: Rebaudioside A in aqueous extract of Stevia rebaudiana plant leaf. Rebaudioside A was separated on a Phenomenex Luna C18 analytical column with column temperature 40 °C using an isocratic solvent system consisting (70:30 v/v) mixture of 10 mmol/L sodium phosphate buffer and acetonitrile having pH-2.6 at 1.0 mL/min flow rate with detection at 210 nm wavelength. The method has been validated for linearity, precision, accuracy, detection limit, quantitation limit and robustness. The proposed method linearity for Rebaudioside A with a regression coefficient of 0.9999 was obtained within the range of 0.0005-1.5 mg/mL. The relative standard deviation was less than 2.0% in intra-day and inter-day precision. The proposed method's accuracy was determined by a three different level recovery study. The recovery average was between 95.20 and 96.77 percent. Rebaudio-side A levels of LOD and LOQ were 0.01 and 0.05 mg/mL respectively. The leaves from eight different Indian territories were extracted by sonication extraction method. Rebaudioside A content obtained in the dried leaves was within the range of 2.39-7.53 percent w/w. The method proposed is simple, rapid and reproducible; therefore, it is appropriate for routine analysis of Rebaudioside A in plant material as well as finished products which are used commercially as high-intensity sweeteners across the globe to replace sugar.
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Diterpenoids are 20 carbon terpenes (four C5 units) belong to secondary metabolites, associated with defense activities in plants. Some of the diterpenoids are super sweet in taste with negligible or zero calorie energy and ingrained with antioxidant, antifungal and antibacterial attributes. The following diterpenoids – super sweet principles have been identified so far.
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The objective of this study was to determine the effect of replacing isonitrogenous and isoenergetic basis alfalfa hay (AH) with stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) hay in dairy cow diets on nutrient digestion, milk performance, rumen fermentation, and nitrogen (N) utilization. In this study, 24 healthy Holstein lactating dairy cattle with a similar milk yield of 33.70 ± 2.75 (mean ± SD) kg, days in milk 95.98 ± 23.59 (mean ± SD) days, and body weight 587.75 ± 66.97 (mean ± SD) kg were selected and randomly allocated into three groups. The constituents of the three treatments were (1) 30.0% AH, and 0% stevia hay (SH) for the AH group; (2) 24.0% AH, and 6% SH for the 6% SH group; (3) 18.0% AH, and 12% SH for the 12% SH group. The substitution of AH with SH did not affect dry matter intake (DMI), gross energy (GE), and other nutrients intake but increased the digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF). Compared with the AH diet, the cows fed the 6% SH diet had a higher milk yield and concentration of milk fat. Fecal and urinary nitrogen (N) were lower in cows fed a 6% SH diet than in cows fed the AH diet. Milk N secretion and milk N as a percentage of N intake were higher in cows fed a 6% SH diet than in cows fed AH diets. The concentration of ruminal volatile fatty acids, acetic acid, and ammonia-N were higher in cows fed a 6% SH diet than in cows fed an AH diet. By comparison, the 12% SH group did not affect milk yield, milk composition, N utilization, and rumen fermentation compared with the AH and 6% SH groups. In conclusion, it appears that feeding 6% SH, replacing a portion of AH, may improve lactation performance and N utilization for lactating dairy cows.
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Abiotic stresses adversely affect agricultural productivity worldwide. In the arid and semi-arid areas, water is one of the most basic ecological units, which determines the growth and development of plants. Therefore, efficient use of water resources should be considered in order to achieve desirable plant growth. Aside different effective factors, minerals such as silicon are the most essential affecting the growth and development of plants. Silicon has beneficial effects on many crops, especially under biotic and abiotic stresses. Silicon can affect biochemical, physiological, and photosynthetic processes, consequently ameliorates drought stress. However, the effects of silicon on stevia (Stevia rebaudiana L.) plants under drought stress has not well known. Stevia is a branched bushy shrub of the Asteraceae family and originated from South America, and its cultivation has spread worldwide. Stevia is well known for its high content of sweet components. Materials and Methods The purpose of this research was to determine the effects of different silicon concentrations on physiological and morphological characteristics of stevia under drought stress conditions. The treatments were four levels of drought stress including: 25%, 50%, 75%, 100% pot capacity and three levels of silicon concentrations consisted of 0, 1, 1.5 mM, which arranged in a factorial experiment based on completely randomized design with three replications. After the plants establishment, drought treatments were imposed. After 40 days of applying drought treatments, silicon was twice sprayed with 7 dyas interval. The leaves of plants were sampled one week after the last spraying and transferred to the laboratory and the amount of soluble sugars, proline and chlorophyll concentrations were measured. In order to analysis data, analysis two-way ANOVA were used and Duncan test compared means after normality test. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS software, and Excel software was used for drawing the charts. Results and Discussion Applying experimental treatments had only significant effect (p<0.01) on plant height, shoot fresh weight, canopy diameter, and canopy volume, while had no significant effect on shoot dry weight and number of leaves. The effect of silicon foliar application was significant on plant height, canopy diameter and canopy volume at 1% probability level and on shoot fresh weight and shoot dry weight at 5% probability level. The interaction between stress and silicon only was significant (p<0.01) on shoot dry weight, diameter and volume canopy, but had no significant effect on other traits. The results also showed that in no spraying, 1 and 1.5 mM silicon treatments under 25% FC significantly increased soluble sugars compared to 100% PC, so that the maximum amount of soluble sugars found in 25% FC and 1.5 mM silicon. Since the sugars are made from compatible osmolytes and its accumulation lead to osmotic adjustment, keep the cellular turgor and stability of protein. Thus increasing in soluble sugars such as sucrose, glucose and fructose as a result of environmental stresses, particularly drought are considered as a strategies of plants to tolerate adverse environmental conditions. Increasing drought stress to 25% PC significantly increased proline of stevia by 74% compared to the three levels of 100%, 75% and 50% PC. The results of several studies showed the positive effect of drought stress on proline, so that proline content is greater in drought stress than normal conditions. Increasing proline content in stress conditions might be due to increasing in activity of enzymes are responsible for the synthesis of this material, reducing the proline oxidation to glutamate and/or decreasing in consumption of proline in the process of making proteins. The results of evolution of different treatments of drought stress on chlorophyll content of stevia plant showed that the effect of drought stress was significant (p<0.01) on chlorophyll b, so that the most of chlorophyll b was observed in 75% PC treatment, which had no significant difference to 50% and 25% PC treatments, and the lowest was observed in 100% PC. Increasing inconsiderably chlorophyll b in drought stress conditions showed that chlorophyll pigments are somewhat tolerance to water loss. Conclusions The results of this experiment showed that height, shoot fresh weight of, diameter and volume of canopy, root volume, dry and root fresh weight of, and chlorophyll b were significantly decreased with increasing in drought stress level, however, using of both different silicon concentrations, especially 1 mM modulated damages of drought stress on stevia. Generally, the results of this research revealed the positive role of silicon in decreasing the negative effects of drought
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Experimental study of extraction of sweetener from Stevia leaves.
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Dünyada ve ülkemizde her geçen gün ekolojik sorunlar artarken, doğal varlıkların yaşamsal sınırları hızla azalmaktadır. Tarım, gıda zincirinin başlangıç noktasıdır. Bir yanda tarımda verimliliği artırırken toprağı ve doğal tarım kaynaklarını korumak, çiftçinin yaşam kalitesini yükseltmek, ama en önemlisi hızla artan dünya nüfusunun ihtiyacı olan yeterli ve kaliteli gıda maddesini temin ederek gıda ve besin güvenliğini sağlamak, tarımda sürdürülebilirliğin temel kavramlarıdır. Beslenme ve gıda güvenliği, insanlığın geleceği için anahtar konulardan biridir. Açlık, kapımıza dayanmadan, tarım topraklarının birim alanından maksimum ve en kaliteli verimi sağlamak için bilinçli tarım yapmak zorundayız. Her yıl verimli tarım alanları artan nüfusun ihtiyaçları doğrultusunda giderek azalmaktadır. Buna ilaveten her yıl erozyon başta olmak üzere farklı nedenlerle daha fazla toprak kayıpları meydana gelmektedir. Özellikle ülkemizde mevcut olan tarım alanlarında; yanlış uygulamalar, aşırı kimyasal kullanımı vb. alışkanlıklar neticesinde topraktaki organik madde başta olmak üzere bitkilere yararlı olan besin maddeleri azalmakta, hatta yok olmaya yüz tutmakta, tarımsal üretim miktar ve kalite olarak düşerken, üreticilerin gelirleri de azalmaktadır. Bu haliyle geleneksel tarım “yoğun girdili tarım” modeline doğru kaymakta, ekolojik sistem zarar görmekte ve çevre kirlenmektedir. Bunların yanında, kişi başına düşen atık miktarları artmakta, özellikle israfa bağlı organik atıklar ile çevresel sorunlar oluşmaya başlamaktadır. Topraklardaki verimlilik kapasitesinin düşmüş olması neticesinde son yıllarda kırsal kesimden kentlere doğru hızlı bir insan kaynağı geçişinin olduğu görülmekle beraber, bu durum köyde sadece yaşlı nüfusun kalmasına ve tarımsal üretim istatistiklerimizin düşmesine yol açmaktadır. Bu durumun daha ileri boyutu gıda açlığı olarak karşımıza çıkmadan, gerekli önlemlerin “topraktan başlayarak” alınmasına büyük ihtiyaç vardır. Toprak, geri kazanılması neredeyse imkânsız olan, uzun zamanda oluşan en değerli doğal kaynaklarımızın başında gelir. Tarımsal üretimin geleceği, verimli tarım topraklarının oranına bağlıdır. Çevre dostu üretim için toprak kalitesini artıran, organik atıkları değerlendiren sürdürülebilir-iyi tarım-akıllı tarım uygulamaları önemli hale gelmiştir. Sağlık düzeyimizin belirlenmesinde beslenmenin oynadığı rolün önemi giderek daha da iyi anlaşılmaktadır. Hele de 2020 ve 2021 yıllarında yaşanan baş belası pandemi nedeniyle evlerinden çıkamayan insanların olduğu bu zor zamanları düşündüğümüzde, sağlıklı yaşam için sağlıklı beslenme gerektiği konusunda tüm insanlık hem fikir olmuştur. Günlük hayatta kullandığımız bazı besinlerin çok çeşitli hastalıklara neden olabileceği gibi, bu hastalıkları önleyebileceği de kabul edilmektedir. Bu konu ile ilgili araştırmalar giderek artmaktadır. Sağlıklı beslenmeyi sağlayacak en önemli öneri, kullandığımız besinlerin topraktan sofraya geçirdiği evreler hakkında bilgi sahibi olmaktır. Bu kitapta yer alan tüm eserlerin emeği geçen yazarlar ve editörler adına tüm okurlara yararlı olacağı temennilerimizle çevrenin temiz, toprakların bereketli, tüm canlıların sağlıklı olmasını dileriz.
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Dünyadaki gıda kıtlığı, giderek artan nüfus artışı, ciddi toprak besin kaybı, sınırlı toprak ve su kaynakları, iklim değişikliği, artan hastalık ve böcek zararlıları ve zirai kimyasalların biyo akümülasyonu ile gıda üretimini artırma girişimleri en büyük küresel zorluklardır. Bu büyük tehditlerin üstesinden gelmek için, yüksek verimli çeşitler, gübreler, sentetik böcek ilaçları, hibrit tohumlar ve transgenik mahsuller gibi farklı teknolojik yenilikler geliştirilmektedir. Bu da küresel tarımsal sürdürülebilirliğin geliştirilmesine katkıda bulunmaktadır. Ne yazık ki, bu yeniliklerin aşırı ve/veya bilinçsiz kullanımı mikrobesin dengesizliği, nitrat kirliliği ve ötrofikasyon aşırı veya yanlış uygulanan gübreleme faaliyetleri gibi sonuçların ortaya çıktığı birçok kötü etkiye katkıda bulunmaktadır. Benzer şekilde, yoğun pestisit kullanımı, insanlar da dahil olmak üzere hedef olmayan organizmalar için en büyük riski oluşturmaktadır. Günümüzde insan sağlığının, çevrenin ve biyolojik çeşitliliğin korunması ön plandadır, bu yüzden modern bir yaklaşımla, zararlı türlerle mücadele ederken tüm faktörlerin çevresiyle birlikte düşünülmesi gerekir. Çevresel kirlilik, kalıcılık, organizmalardaki biyomagnifikasyon, besin zincirinde yükselme ve hedef organizmaların dirençli popülasyonlarının ortaya çıkması, faydalı mikroorganizmalar, faydalı böcekler, kuşlar, solucanlar ve suda yaşayan canlılar için risk, dahası, biyolojik büyütme, pestisit direncinin gelişmesi ve böcek popülasyonlarının yeniden canlanması pestisit kullanımıyla ilişkili ciddi problemlerdir. Yüksek verimli mahsullerin biyotik faktörlere duyarlılığı, gübre ve pestisit kullanımını yoğunlaştırmıştır. Genetiği değiştirilmiş (GDO) organizmalar, kimyasal işlemleri en aza indirmeye yönelik en büyük girişimlerden birisi olmuştur. Maalesef, birçok pestisite karşı zaten direnç geliştirdikleri için, zararlılar genetiği değiştirilmiş mahsullere karşı da direnç geliştirebilmektedirler. Gıda güvenliği ve tarıma yönelik bu kaçınılmaz riskler, gelişmekte olan ülkelerde daha fazla soruna davetiye çıkarmaktadır. Kimyasal mücadelenin yapılmadığı tarımsal üretim alanlarında hastalık ve zararlı yoğunluğunun yıldan yıla değişmekle birlikte doğal dengenin korunmaktadır. Bu nedenle insan ve çevre sağlığının korunması açısından üreticilere biyoteknik yöntemler ve kültürel mücadele konusunda bilinçlendirilmelidir. Gıdanın verimini ve kalitesini artırmak ve geleneksel pestisitlerin çevre üzerindeki baskısını azaltmak için nanopestisitler ortaya çıkmış ve tarımsal maliyetleri düşürmedeki, tarımsal ürünlerin üretimini artırmadaki büyük rolleri nedeniyle yaygın olarak kullanılmaya başlanılmıştır. Nanopestisitler, pestisit kullanımıyla ilişkili olarak, sürdürülebilir tarım, dayanıklılık ve kullanılması gereken aktif bileşenlerin miktarlarında azalma yani çevre koruma dahil olmak üzere bir dizi fayda sağlayabilen yeni bir teknolojik gelişmeyi temsil etmektedir. Pestisitlerin çevresel etkisi, nanoformülasyonlarla değiştirilebilir, ancak değişiklikler mutlaka çevresel etkinin azaltılması anlamına gelmeyebilir. Şu anda, literatürde nanopestisitlerin saha koşullarında etkinliğini ve çevresel etkisini değerlendiren kontrolleri içeren kapsamlı bir çalışma bulunmamaktadır. Bu çok önemli bir bilgi açığıdır ve bu nedenle nanopestisitlerin mevcut ürünlere göre temsil ettiği faydaların ve yeni risklerin sağlıklı bir şekilde değerlendirilmesi için daha fazla çalışma gerekmektedir.
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Stevia acknowledged as a sweet herb of Paraguay, and it belongs to the family Asteria, the stevia is recognized for the sweetness which is 100-300 instances sweeter than sucrose, Europe has a big demand potential for this herbal sweetener due to the fact of growing diabetic and obese population and by and large, consume sugar in food and liquids in this article an effort is made to talk about the plant profile and to discuss and to bring together information on safety issues and approval made through the European Union to use stevia glycoside in food merchandise produce and consumed within EU countries
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Stevia rebaudiana consumption in food and medicinal industries is increasing globally. S. rebaudiana is a potentially suitable crop for cultivation in a wide range of agro-ecological environments. This chapter describes different propagation methods of Stevia. One of the main problems in the propagation of S. rebaudiana is a poor seed germination rate, which demands the application of vegetative propagation techniques in favor of plant cultivation on a large scale. The main objective of improving the Stevia propagation method is to obtain higher leaf biomass and steviol glycosides along with the lower cost. Cutting stems and micropropagation have been introduced as successful techniques for Stevia propagation, but they have disadvantages including the poor rooting rate of cuttings and the high cost of tissue culture. For the successful cultivation of Stevia, the optimal environmental conditions such as light, soil structure and composition, irrigation, and nutrients are illustrated based on the plant requirements. In order to improve the leaf yield along with steviol glycoside content, long daylight periods, light-textured soil with adequate drainage, proper irrigation based on the heat and air humidity, application of inorganic fertilizers in combination with organic fertilizers, and pinching practice are suggested. Stevia agronomy also faces various problems including weeds, diseases, pests, and abiotic stresses, which adversely affect its yield. Fungal infections are some of the main Stevia diseases, and can be avoided by controlling warm and moist conditions. It is illustrated that high and low temperatures, salinity, drought, and heavy metals should be avoided because of their adverse effects on Stevia yield. The infestation of weeds is another threat to Stevia productivity, which can be controlled by weeding and hoeing, covering plots with black plastic mulch, or herbicides. It is shown that selecting the best variety of S. rebaudiana in addition to applying the best propagation method, providing optimal agricultural conditions, and adequate control of agronomical problems can provide farmers with high commercial benefits by replacing the cultivation of other crops with the sweet herb of Stevia.
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This study was carried out in the 2nd year of the experiment, which was established in 2016 summer gowing period, at the GAP Agricultural Research Institute, Talat Demirören Research Station, to determine the yield and some agricultural characters on Stevia rebaduiana Bert. under the Harran Plain conditions. According to results of the trial the 1st harvest, average flowering days number was 127.32 day, plant height 68.90 cm, branches number 5.72 pieces plant-1, green herb weight 256.92 g plant-1, green leaf weight 161.52 g plant-1, dry leaf weight 53.13 g plant-1, dry leaf ratio 66.47%, water dissolved dry matter ratio in leaf 2.93% and in stem 2.26%. In the second harvest, flowering days number was 30.83 day, plant height 31.14 cm, number of main branches 5.59 pieces plant-1, green herb weight 29.82 g plant-1, green leaf weight 21.70 g plant-1, dry leaf weight 6.71 g plant-1, dry leaf ratio 76.25%, water dissolved dry matter ratio in leaf 1.86% and in stem 1.57%. As a result of the correlation, it was positive and significant relationship between the dry herb weight and plant height, number of leaves per plant, stems number, green herb weight, dry leaf ratio and dissolved matter in water ratio. When the results were evaluated in general; It could be said that two harvests can be taken annually the Stevia plant, but wilt disease can be seen before in the first harvest and the plants can be adversely affected by the high tepmparature in the second harvest period in the Harran Plain conditions.
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Background As a sugar substitute, stevia has attracted increasing attention because of reduced calories and natural origin. Recent studies have showed that stevia has numerous healthcare properties. Scope and approach The importance of good practices for stevia used in foodstuffs is described as both a potential healthcare product and a sweetener. Based on recent reports, this work reviews the health-related characteristics from positive and negative sides, the current administrative standards for stevia-containing products, and the engineering techniques. Key Findings and Conclusions: Stevia demonstrates therapeutic benefits as a joint nutraceutical in the management of chronic diseases including overweight and obesity, diabetes mellitus, fatty liver, cardiac fibrosis, liver fibrosis, inflammatory bowel disease, certain types of cancer, hypertension, and chronic kidney diseases. Adverse effects mainly involve disorders of human metabolism and intestinal microbiota, genotoxicity, chronic toxicity, carcinogenicity, hypersensitivity, allergenicity and so forth. Although debate exists, the results obtained from current studies are in favour of recognizing stevia as a recommended substitute to sugar without obvious potential adverse effects on metabolic health. Based on daily safe intake levels of 4.0–4.4 mg/kg (as steviol equivalent), many countries have released administrative standards for the use of stevia in foodstuffs. The state-of-the-art production techniques are introduced from harvest, dehydration, grinding, extraction, purification and drying aspects. The future trends of research contain finding new healthcare properties and side effects, designing stevia-containing products (for improved taste) and improving engineering techniques.
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Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) is a salt-sensitive herb with sweet leaves without side effects for diabetic patients. The present research was conducted to investigate the effect of endophytic fungus Piriformospora indica and two bacterial isolates, namely of Streptomyces sp. (kj152148) and (kj152149) with Stevia host plants. These microbial isolates were utilized as growth-promoting agents for induction of salt stress tolerance and secondary metabolite accumulation in inoculated plants. The present experiment was designed as factorial basis experiment based on a completely randomized design with six replications undertaken in two consecutive years (2016-2017). Treatments included three levels of salinity [0.85 (control), 1.5 and 3 dS/m] and four levels of plant growth-promoting microorganisms [no-inoculation, Piriformospora indica, Kj152148 Streptomyces sp (S1) and K152149 Streptomyces sp (S2)]. Under stress and non-stress conditions, endophytic fungus and bacterial isolates had significant positive effect on the recorded biochemical and physiological parameters of stevia. Inoculation of fungus and bacterial isolates reduced the negative effects of salinity stress by increasing antioxidant enzymes and free radical scavenging activity, phenol and flavonoid accumulation and total glucose and proline concentrations. From the results it may be concluded that, indicated a positive effect of applied fungus and bacterial treatments on the resistance of stevia plant to the salinity stress and due to the relative susceptibility of stevia to salinity, pre-treatment of the plant using of the desired microbes is recommended before planting in soil areas susceptible to salinity.
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The leaf content of the sweetener stevioside was investigated with regard to the morphological characteristics of plants of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni grown in one of the most productive areas of Paraguay. The HPLC quantitative determination of stevioside was carried out on dried leaves of 13 morphologically different types of plants. The average levels of stevioside in the dried leaves varied from 102.3 to 134.6 g kg(-1). This variability (about 30% in respect to the minimum value), related to the ratio of the weight of the leaf to that of the whole aerial part, has furnished the first useful information for purposes of associating the types of growth habits with stevioside output.
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First Report of Septoria steviae on Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana) in North America. N. M. Lovering, Royal Sweet Intl. Technol. Ltd., P.O. Box 186, Delhi, Ontario, Canada, N4B 2W9 . R. D. Reeleder, Pest Management Research Centre, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, P.O. Box 186, Delhi, Ontario, Canada, N4B 2W9. Plant Dis. 80:959. Accepted for publication 28 May 1996. Copyright 1996 The American Phytopathological Society. DOI: 10.1094/PD-80-0959D. Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, family Asteraceae) is the source of highly sweet glycosides that arc popular low-caloric sweeteners in southeast Asia. In 1995, diseased stevia plants were observed in British Columbia and Ontario, Canada. Symptoms included depressed, angular, shiny olive-gray foliar lesions that rapidly coalesced and were often surrounded by a chlorotic halo. Leaves quickly became necrotic and often dropped off the plant. Septoria was consistently isolated from diseased leaves on acidified potato dextrose agar, and on water agar amended with streptomycin sulfate and chlortetracycline. Single-spore isolates were made on V8 agar. Pycnidia from these cultures were black, spherical, partially immersed, and measured 60.0 to 300.0 µm in diameter. Conidia were hyaline, filiform, and measured 1.3 to 2.5 x 33.6 to 126.0 µm. This description is consistent with that given for Septoria steviae Ishiba, Yokoyama, & Tani (1). Isolates from British Columbia and\Ontario were morphologically indistinguishable. To confirm pathogenicity, a mixed conidial suspension was prepared from four isolates (two from each province). Six- and 9-week-old stevia plants were inoculated with a conidial suspension (one million spores per ml), placed in a dew chamber for 72 h, and then in a growth chamber for 10 days (240C during the day and 200C at night). The inoculated plants developed angular shiny, olive-gray lesions, often bounded by a vein, and surrounded by a chlorotic halo. S. steviae was re-isolated from diseased tissue. This is the first report of Septoria steviae on Stevia rebaudiana in North America. Reference: (1) C. Ishiba et al. Ann. Phytopathol. Soc. Jpn 48:34, 1982.
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One experiment was carried out to verify the influence of 20, 25 and 30°C on the performance of seed germination of Stevia (Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni). Data sets from cumulative frequencies, at intervals of 12 hrs, were combined with the cumulative distribution of Weibull using three parameters. The best performance was verified at 25°C. The seeds required 101.36 hours to germinate 63.21% of the maximum. The performance of the parameters of the cumulative distribution of Weibull was close to linearity in temperatures of 20 and 25°C and reasonably close to linearity in temperatures of 30°C. In this case, the parameter c was asymmetric and had high percentage of bias.
Article
Plants were regenerated from anthers of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni cultured in vitro under defined conditions. Anthers (containing uninucleate microspores were induced to form callus when aseptically cultured on Murashige and Skoog liquid medium supplemented with 0.1 mg.L-1 and 1 mg.L-1 BAP. Regeneration of shoots was readily achieved by transferring pieces of callus to fresh solid medium with the same composition. Shoots were induced to form roots upon transfer to medium with 0.1 mg.L-1 NAA. Plantlets were successfully potted. Citologycal studies of root tips from regenerated plants revealed a normal diploid number of chromosomes (2n=22).
Article
The amount of the sweetener stevioside in leaves of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni was investigated with regard to the morphological characteristics of plants grown in the Minga Guazu region of East Paraguay. Seedlings were taken from the region of Yby Ya'u (northeastern Paraguay) which is considered one of the most productive areas of the country. The quantitative determination of stevioside was carried out on dried leaves from plants of 16 different plots, using a new analytical method based on an HPLC/ELSD (Evaporative Light Scattering Detector) coupled system. The average levels of stevioside varied from 43.6 to 98.9 g kg(-1). The results indicate that environmental and agronomic factors have more influence on stevioside production than the growth habit.
Article
Thirteen species of plants accumulating nonsaccharides as the sweet principles have been identified in India: most species being indigenous. The active sweet principles stored in these plants can be grouped under: terpenoides, steroidal saponins, dihydroisocoumarins, dihydrochalcones, proteins, etc. in nature.These are not only low in calorific values and therefore health compatibile but also are 100-10,000 times sweeter than sucrose on a unit weight basis. Common and scientific names of these plants along with their popular names in Indian languages; salient information on their distribution, propagation, morphological features; and the corresponding chemical structure of the sweet principles have been presented in this paper.
Article
The effects of growth regulators such as NAA, 2,4-D, kinetin, and benzyladenine (BA) on calluso-genesis and growth of stevia (Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni) cultured cells were investigated. It was found that, on leaf blades, callus two-three times as large as on stem fragments was formed. NAA appeared to be more effective for cell culture growth than 2,4-D, while BA exhibited a stronger effect than kinetin. A significant retardation of callus growth and complete inhibition of organogenesis took place at 2,4-D concentrations ranging from 0.2 to 1.0 mg/l, whereas NAA, at similar concentrations, markedly stimulated callus growth. The rate of primary callus growth on leaf and stem explants was the highest at NAA to BA ratios of 2.0 mg/l/2.0 mg/l and 4.0 mg/l/1.0 mg/l, respectively. Analogous concentrations of these growth regulators were also found to be effective for further stevia cell subculturing. The combination of NAA and BA was also most suitable for induction of shoot formation by stevia explants, but, in this case, the optimal concentration of these compounds was tenfold lower (0.1-0.2 mg/l). The addition of gibberellic acid to callus and suspension cultures resulted in a significant increase in their fresh weight because of cell expansion and hydration.
Article
The content of stevioside in leaves of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni was compared in plants propagated by stem cuttings and plants grown from seeds. Further on, the content of stevioside during the cultivation period in dependence on temperature and rainfall conditions in the climate of the Czech republic was compared. It was found that the content of stevioside did not depend on the type of propagation. The best yield of stevioside per gram of dried leaves was found in the beginning of July (6,5%) and the highest yield (per whole plant) was found in the beginning of September (131 mg stevioside per plant with the content of stevioside 5,2% in dried leaves).
Article
Stevia rebaudiana is a member of the Compositae, native to Paraguay. It produces a number of high-potency low-calorie sweeteners in its leaf tissue. The sweeteners are diterpene glycosides and range between 30 and 320 times sweeter than sugar. Increasing consumer interest in natural food ingredients means that products like stevia sweeteners will be subject to increasing demand. Such demand will need to be supported by a modem mechanised production system. The purpose of this review is to summarize the existing agricultural, chemical and biochemical literature to provide a baseline for new research.