Effect of sucrose concentrations on somatic embryogenesis in carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.)

Department of Horticulture, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University, Hamadan, Iran
Scientia Horticulturae (Impact Factor: 1.37). 11/2006; 110(4):340-344. DOI: 10.1016/j.scienta.2006.07.029


The effect of sucrose concentration on callus induction followed by differentiation of embryogenic callus derived from petal explants of four carnation cultivars (Nelson, Sagres, Spirit and Impulse) was investigated. Embryogenic calli were produced on Murashige and Skoog [Murashige, T., Skoog, F.A., 1962. Revised medium for rapid growth and bioassays with tobacco tissue cultures. Physiol. Plant 154, 73–479] basal medium (MS) culture medium containing six concentrations of sucrose (3, 6, 9, 12, 15 and 18%, w/v) all supplemented with 9 μM 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) and 0.8 μM 6-benzyladenine (BA). Maximum frequency of embryogenic callus was obtained from the media containing 9 and 12% sucrose. Somatic embryos were induced on a hormone-free MS media containing the seven concentrations of sucrose. Development of somatic embryos was enhanced by increasing sucrose concentration from 1.5 to 12%, while it was reduced in higher concentrations of 15 and 18%. However, normal embryos were not developed in the media containing 1.5 and 3% sucrose. Ninety-five percent of somatic embryos were regenerated to form the entire plantlets when they transferred onto the half-strength hormone-free MS culture medium containing 3% sucrose. Plantlets were also continued to grow normally under greenhouse condition.

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    • "Regenerated plants obtained from somatic embryos had normal phenotype and rooted easily in in vitro condition. In an indirect embryogenesis carnation system (Frey et al. 1992 ;Iantcheva et al. 2005 ;Karami et al. 2006Karami et al. , 2008), induction of embryogenic callus tissue was achieved on a medium supplemented with synthetic auxin 2,4-D alone or in combination with cytokinin.Karami and Kordestani ( 2007 )obtained embryogenic callus from two cvs . Impulse and Sagre in the presence of auxin picloram at different concentrations. "

    Full-text · Chapter · Jan 2016
    • "The availability of sucrose (or other sugars) in the culture medium has been found to affect SE (Gaj 2004). This mainly resulted when sucrose concentration was raised (to 6.8 or 12 %), resulting in osmotic shock (Lou and Kako 1995; Karami et al. 2006; Nakagawa et al. 2001). However, in Linum usitatissimum, Cucumis melo and Passiflora spp., no more than 3 % sucrose resulted in maximum SE induction (Cunha and Fernandes-Ferreira 1999; Gray et al. 1993; Ferreira et al. 2015). "
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    ABSTRACT: The effect of explant type (etiolation, age, length), physical (photoperiod, darkness) and chemical (sucrose and mineral salt concentrations) factors on somatic embryogenesis efficiency and sporophyte development in Cyathea delgadii was evaluated. Five-month-old cultures of sporophytes, which had developed 4–5 leaves, were used as a source of explants. The percentage response of stipes and the average number of somatic embryos were calculated after 2 months of culture. Etiolation of sporophytes used for culture initiation, was a critical factor in SE induction. Other factors studied significantly affected the production of somatic embryos. Optimum results were obtained when explants measuring 2.5 mm in length were excised from the youngest leaf of an etiolated sporophyte. Maximum SE efficiency (84.0 % response in explants; 42.3 somatic embryos per explant) was obtained on half-strength Murashige and Skoog medium supplemented with 1 % sucrose, under photoperiod conditions. However, light stimulated two different morphogenetic responses in explant cells: SE and apospory. In darkness, the number of somatic embryos was reduced to 32.9 per explant, but this was the only morphogenetic response observed. The presence of light alone was sufficient for somatic embryos growing on plain agar gel to reach maturity, but further development stopped shortly thereafter. The presence of both light and sucrose was necessary for the development of an embryonic leaf and root. For further sporophyte growth, mineral salts were essential. The micropropagation system described here is the first investigation into factors responsible for SE in ferns.
    No preview · Article · Aug 2015 · Plant Cell Tissue and Organ Culture
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    • "Carnation multiplication is done by stem cutting, seed multiplication, and micropropagation . Efficient systems have been reported for the regeneration of plants from leaf and stem segments (Kantia and Kothari 2002) and for the induction of direct somatic embryogenesis from leaf, petal, and anther explants (Pareek and Kothari 2003; Karami et al. 2006; XiaoPeng et al. 2008), but more efficient protocols are needed to increase the number of plants in a shorter period of time. "
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    ABSTRACT: This paper reports on the optimum concentrations of naphthalene acetic acid (NAA) and 6-benzyladenine (BA) to stimulate callus growth and NAA; kinetin and silver nitrate (AgNO3) for callus redifferentiation in Dianthus caryophyllus L. Meristems were excised and placed in MS medium with 30g l−1 sucrose and 9.0μM 2,4-d. Callus clusters were transferred to MS medium containing NAA (0, 1.7, 3.3, and 5.0μM) and BA (0, 1.7, 3.3, and 5.0μM) for proliferation and to MS medium with 30g l−1 sucrose, 2.5g l−1 phytagel, kinetin (0, 33, and 66μM); NAA (0, 7.95, and 15.9μM) and AgNO3 (0, 23.54 and 47.08μM) for shoot and root induction. Treatments were applied according to a Box–Behnken design. After callus growth and redifferentiation, plants were incubated in the greenhouse at 18 ± 2°C for 4wk and at 20–26°C for 4wk. Finally, plants were changed to near-commercial greenhouse conditions with different day (30–35°C) and night (16–24°C) temperatures. Results showed better callus growth at higher NAA concentrations. A maximum callus weight was found with 5.0μM NAA but without BA. A maximum of 78% calluses with shoots was obtained with 15.9μM NAA, 47.08μM AgNO3, and 0.74μM kinetin and 58% with roots with 15.7μM NAA and 47.08μM AgNO3, but without kinetin. The shoots obtained showed little hyperhydricity. Vigorous plants were obtained after gradual acclimatization with an 80% survival rate under nursery conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2010 · In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology - Plant
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