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This study tests whether gratitude predicts psychological well-being above both the domains and facets of the five factor model. Participants (N = 201) completed the NEO PI-R measure of the 30 facets of the Big Five, the GQ-6 measure of trait gratitude, and the scales of psychological well-being. Gratitude had small correlations with autonomy (r = .17), and medium to large correlations with environmental mastery, personal growth, positive relationships, purpose in life, and self-acceptance (rs ranged from .28 to .61). After controlling for the 30 facets of the Big Five, gratitude explained a substantial amount of a unique variance in most aspects of psychological well-being (requivalent = .14 to .25). Gratitude is concluded to be uniquely important to psychological well-being, beyond the effect of the Big Five facets.
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Gratitude predicts psychological well-being above the Big Five facets
Alex M. Wood
a,*,1
, Stephen Joseph
b
, John Maltby
c
a
School of Psychological Sciences, University of Manchester, 1.18 Coupland Building 1, Room 1, Oxford Road, Manchester, England M13 9PL, United Kingdom
b
School of Sociology and Social Policy, University of Nottingham, England, NG7 2RD, United Kingdom
c
School of Psychology, University of Leicester, Leicester, England, LE1 9HN, United Kingdom
article info
Article history:
Received 8 September 2008
Received in revised form 12 November 2008
Accepted 17 November 2008
Available online 27 December 2008
Keywords:
Gratitude
Psychological well-being
Positive psychology
Big Five
Five factor model
Satisfaction with life
Eudaimonia
Facets
abstract
This study tests whether gratitude predicts psychological well-being above both the domains and facets
of the five factor model. Participants (N= 201) completed the NEO PI-R measure of the 30 facets of the Big
Five, the GQ-6 measure of trait gratitude, and the scales of psychological well-being. Gratitude had small
correlations with autonomy (r= .17), and medium to large correlations with environmental mastery, per-
sonal growth, positive relationships, purpose in life, and self-acceptance (rs ranged from .28 to .61). After
controlling for the 30 facets of the Big Five, gratitude explained a substantial amount of a unique variance
in most aspects of psychological well-being (r
equivalent
= .14 to .25). Gratitude is concluded to be uniquely
important to psychological well-being, beyond the effect of the Big Five facets.
Ó2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
1. Introduction
Throughout history, religious, theological, and philosophical
treatise have viewed gratitude as integral to well-being (Emmons
& Crumpler, 2000; Harpman, 2004). The systematic study of indi-
vidual differences in gratitude has traditionally been neglected in
psychology (McCullough, Kilpatrick, Emmons, & Larson, 2001),
probably due to a more general neglect of research into positive
emotions (Duckworth, Steen, & Seligman, 2005; Linley, Joseph,
Harrington, & Wood, 2006).
Conceptually, gratitude should be expected to be strongly re-
lated to well-being. Gratitude represents the quintessential posi-
tive personality trait, being an indicator of a worldview
orientated towards noticing and appreciating the positive in life
(Wood, Maltby, Stewart, & Joseph, 2008). Grateful people feel more
frequent and intense grateful affect (McCullough, Emmons, &
Tsang, 2002; McCullough, Tsang, & Emmons, 2004), have more po-
sitive views of their social environments (Wood, Maltby, Stewart,
Linley, & Joseph, 2008), utilize productive coping strategies (Wood,
Joseph, & Linley, 2007a), have more positive traits (McCullough
et al., 2002; Wood, Joseph, & Maltby, 2008; Wood, Linley, Maltby,
Baliousis, & Joseph, 2008), better sleep (Wood, Joseph, Lloyd, & At-
kins, in press), and continually focus on the positive in their envi-
ronments, with a greater appreciation of their life and their
possessions (Wood et al., 2008). Such a life orientation towards
the positive can be contrasted with a depressive worldview which
typically involves a focus on the negative aspects of the self, world,
and future (Beck, 1976). From a slightly different perspective,
Lyubomirsky, Sheldon, and Schkade (2005) see gratitude as inte-
gral to well-being, as it offers an alternative to the ‘‘hedonistic
treadmill”, where ever more possessions need to be purchased in
order to maintain short term gains in happiness. In contrast, grat-
itude may help to avoid the hedonistic treadmill by ensuring a dai-
ly appreciation of events. This perspective has achieved early
support from the studies showing that ‘‘counting your blessings”
has a causal effect on well-being (Emmons & McCullough, 2003).
Considerable recent empirical work has focused on showing
empirically that gratitude is related to well-being (e.g., Emmons
& McCullough, 2003; Kashdan, Uswatte, & Julian, 2006;
McCullough et al., 2002, 2004, Park, Peterson, & Seligman, 2004;
Wood et al., 2007a). This research has suggested that gratitude is
as strongly correlated with well-being as are other positive traits
(Park et al., 2004), and has suggested that this relationship is causal
(Emmons & McCullough, 2003; Wood, Maltby, Gillett, Linley, &
Joseph, 2008). However, with one exception (Kashdan et al.,
2006), research has focused on subjective well-being (SWB) and
has ignored the potential relationship between gratitude and psy-
chological well-being (PWB).
0191-8869/$ - see front matter Ó2008 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/j.paid.2008.11.012
*Corresponding author. Tel.: +447790816407.
E-mail address: alex.wood@manchester.ac.uk (A.M. Wood).
URL: http://www.psych-sci.manchester.ac.uk/staff/alexwood (A.M. Wood).
1
This research was supported in part by a University of Warwick Research
Fellowship awarded to the first author.
Personality and Individual Differences 46 (2009) 443–447
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Personality and Individual Differences
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/paid
The distinction between subjective and psychological well-
being was first discussed by Aristotle (see Ryan & Deci, 2001). In
the Aristotelian view, well-being can be dissociated into hedonistic
and eudemonic components. Hedonistic well-being involves the
experience of momentary pleasure, whereas eudemonic well-
being involves acting in a way which is constructive, socially ben-
eficial, and leads to personal growth. In more recent conceptions,
hedonism is operationalized as SWB, and involves the frequent
experience of positive affect, a rare experience of negative affect,
and a feeling of satisfaction with life (Diener, 1984). In contrast,
PWB is normally operationalized as involving self-acceptance, po-
sitive relationships with others, personal growth, purpose in life,
environmental mastery, and autonomy (Ryff, 1989; Ryff & Keyes,
1995). A large number of factor analytic studies have shown that
PWB and SWB are correlated but distinct aspects of well-being
(e.g., Keyes, Shmotkin, & Ryff, (2002), McGregor & Little (1998),
which have different patterns of correlates (Waterman, 1993).
Conceptually, SWB measures an emotionally pleasant life, whereas
PWB measures a life full of meaning, constructive activity, and
growth.
In contrast to the large number of studies into gratitude and
SWB, only one previous study has shown that gratitude is related
to any aspect of PWB. Kashdan et al. (2006) showed that trait grat-
itude is related to daily self-regard, rewarding social activity, and
the pursuit of intrinsically motivating activity. These relationships
were shown to exist after removing the effects of dispositional po-
sitive and negative affect, suggesting that gratitude is not simply
related to these PWB variables due to affective valiance. We ex-
pand on this study by examining whether gratitude is related to
the full range of PWB variables, and by testing whether gratitude
has a unique relationship with PWB, or whether gratitude is only
related to PWB due to the confounding effect of the Big Five per-
sonality facets.
In the recent years, there has been a consensus that the Big Five
traits of extraversion, neuroticism, conscientiousness, openness,
and agreeableness represent most of personality at the highest le-
vel of abstraction (Goldberg, 1993; John & Srivastava, 1999). These
variables cover the breadth of personality, including such variables
as pro-sociality (under agreeableness); positive emotions, social-
outgoingness, and energy (under extraversion); and negative emo-
tions, depression, and anxiety (under neuroticism) (Costa & McC-
rae, 1995). As may be expected from a well-being variable,
gratitude is positively correlated with extraversion, agreeableness,
openness, and conscientiousness, and negatively correlated with
neuroticism (e.g., McCullough et al., 2004, Wood, Joseph, et al.,
2008; Wood, Maltby, Gillett et al., 2008; Wood, Maltby, Stewart
et al., 2008); together the Big Five variables explain between 21%
and 28% of the variance in gratitude (McCullough et al., 2002).
The Big Five variables are correlated with PWB (Schmutte & Ryff,
1997), raising the possibility that gratitude is only linked to PWB
because of the third variable effects of the Big Five. The Big Five
traits represent some of the most studied variables over the last
50 years (Goldberg, 1993; John & Srivastava, 1999). McCullough
et al. (2002) argued that for gratitude research to have an impact
on personality psychology it is necessary to show that the variable
has incremental validity above the effects of the Big Five personal-
ity traits.
This paper reports on a test of whether gratitude is linked to
PWB after removing the effects of the facets of the Big Five. Several
previous studies have shown that gratitude is related to social and
well-being variables after controlling for the domains of the Big
Five (e.g., McCullough et al., 2002, 2004; Wood, Maltby, Gillett
et al., 2008; Wood, Maltby, Stewart et al., 2008). However, in the
five factor model personality is assumed to be hierarchically orga-
nized, with other personality traits existing underneath each of the
Big Five (McCrae & Costa, 1999). In the NEO PI-R operationalization
(Costa & McCrae, 1992), six personality facets are measured for
each of the five domains, with a total of 30 personality measures
assessing the facet level of personality. For example, the domain
‘‘agreeableness” has the six facets of trust, straightforwardness,
altruism, compliance, modesty, and tender-mindedness. As grati-
tude is expected to be at the facet not the domain level of person-
ality, a stronger test of the incremental validity of gratitude would
control for the 30 NEO PI-R facets, rather than just the five do-
mains. A large literature is developing which shows that a variety
of outcomes can be better predicted by measuring each of the 30
facets rather than just using global measures of the Big Five do-
mains (e.g., Ekehammar and Akrami (2007), Paunonen, Haddock,
Forsterling,and Keinonen (2003), Reynolds and Clark, 2001). Show-
ing that gratitude is related to well-being above the effects of the
domains may simply be a result of including a facet level variable
in the regression equation.
In the only previous study to show that gratitude is related to
any variable above the effects of the Big Five facets, Wood et al.
(2008) showed that gratitude has an unique relationship with sat-
isfaction with life. To show an incremental validity above the ef-
fects of the Big Five facets, it is necessary to select outcome
variables which are not confounded with the facets (for example
depression would not be an appropriate outcome variable as it is
one of the facets of neuroticism). Satisfaction with life is one such
variable (Schimmack, Oishi, Furr, & Funder, 2004), and Wood et al.
(2008) identified PWB as a similarly appropriate variable for future
research. Thus, in addition to testing whether gratitude is uniquely
related to PWB, the current paper provides one of the first tests of
whether gratitude can predict any outcome above the effects of the
facets of the Big Five. If gratitude was only linked to outcome vari-
ables because of shared variance with the Big Five facets, then the
study of gratitude may still be valuable in understanding how peo-
ple with particular Big Five facet configurations view the world (cf.,
McCullough et al., 2002). However, for gratitude to have an unique
impact on personality psychology, it is necessary to show that grat-
itude can explain variance in outcome variables above the Big Five
facets.
2. Methods
2.1. Participants and procedure
Participants were 201 undergraduate students (128 female and
73 male). Ages ranged from 18 to 26 and ethnicity was predomi-
nantly white (75%) or Indian (13%). After agreeing to complete
the study, participants were directed to a secure university web-
site where all measures were completed in a single sitting.
2.2. Measures
Gratitude was assessed with the gratitude questionnaire-6 (GQ-
6: McCullough et al., 2002). Six items assess the frequency and inten-
sity of gratitude, as well as the range of events which cause the emo-
tion. Items are rated on a 1 (‘‘strongly disagree”) to 7 (‘‘strongly
agree”) scale. The GQ-6 has a unifactorial structure (shown through
three confirmatory factor analyses), non-significant correlations
with social desirability, good convergent validity with well-being
and peer-ratings, and high test-retest reliability (McCullough et al.,
2002; Wood, Maltby, Gillett, Linley, and Joseph, 2008).
PWB was measured with the 18-item scales of psychological
well-being (Ryff & Keyes, 1995). Items assess self-acceptance, posi-
tive relationships with others, personal growth, purpose in life,
environmental mastery, and autonomy. Items are rated on a 1
(‘‘strongly disagree”) to 7 (‘‘strongly agree”) scale. These scales
have been used extensively in the previous research, which has
444 A.M. Wood et al. / Personality and Individual Differences 46 (2009) 443–447
shown their independence from the measures of SWB (Keyes et al.,
2002; Ryff & Keyes, 1995).
The domains and facets of the Big Five were measured with the
NEO-PI-R (Costa & McCrae, 1992). The 240-item measure provides
domain scores for extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, open-
ness, and conscientiousness. Additionally, six facet level sub-scales
are provided for each domain (see Table 1), resulting in 30 facet
scores which cover the entire Big Five domain (Costa & McCrae,
1995). Participants rate items on a 0 (‘‘strongly agree”) to 4
(‘‘strongly disagree”) scale. The NEO-PI-R is one of the most widely
used measures of the Big Five. The measure has six-year test-retest
reliability ranging from .63 to .83, strong consensual validity be-
tween, self, peer, and spouse reports, and has good convergent
validity with other personality and well-being measures (Costa &
McCrae, 1992).
2.3. Statistical analysis
We first computed zero-order correlations between gratitude,
PWB, and the Big Five. Incremental validity was then tested with
six two-step hierarchical multiple regressions, respectively pre-
dicting each of the PWB variables. For each of these regressions,
in the first step the 30 Big Five facets were entered. In the second
step, gratitude was entered in addition to the 30 facets. As the
inclusion of gratitude represents the only change between the
steps, any changes in the prediction of the outcome can only be
due to the effect of gratitude.
2.4. Power analysis
Power was calculated with the GPOWER software (Erdfelder,
Faul, & Buchner, 1996). Power calculations are discussed in Cohen,
1988; 1992, and the power issues in multiple regressions are dis-
cussed by Green (1991).InMcCullough et al. (2002, Study 4) anal-
ysis, in 20 of 22 cases gratitude correlated with well-being at
r> .20. With 201 participants we had power >.89 to detect effects
of this size. Regarding the overall significance of the multiple
regressions predicting PWB from the Big Five facets, we had power
>.95 to detect a multiple R
2
> .17. Previous research has shown that
the Big Five predict more than double this amount of variance in
PWB (Schmutte & Ryff, 1997). In the only previous test investigat-
ing the incremental validity of gratitude above the facets of the Big
Five, Wood et al. (2008) showed that (a) the Big Five facets pre-
dicted 34% of the variance in life satisfaction, and (b) that gratitude
increased prediction by
D
R
2
= .08. The present study, respectively
had a power of 1.00 and >.98 to detect these effects.
3. Results
3.1. Correlations between gratitude and the Big Five
Correlations between the Big Five facets, gratitude, and PWB are
presented in Table 1. Overall, gratitude was positively correlated
with certain facets from the extraversion, openness, agreeableness,
and conscientiousness domains, and negatively correlated with
certain neuroticism facets. In line with Wood et al. (2008), grati-
tude appeared to show a distinctive pattern of correlations with
the Big Five facets, correlating most strongly with the facets which
represented subjective well-being and social life (absolute correla-
tions were strongest with positive emotions, depression, warmth,
and altruism). The Big Five facets were also strongly correlated
with PWB, highlighting the importance of covarying the facets
when examining the relationship between gratitude and PWB
Table 1
Correlations between the facets of the Big Five and gratitude and PWB.
Gratitude Autonomy Environmental mastery Personal growth Positive relationships with others Purpose in life Self-acceptance
N1: Anxiety .03 .16
a
.53
c
.15
a
.13 .09 .21
b
N2: Anger hostility .20
b
.07 .31
c
.23
b
.27
c
.03 .21
b
N3: Depression .31
c
.10 .64
c
.20
b
.35
c
.06 .56
c
N4: Self-consciousness .12 .13 .54
c
.16
a
.25
c
.09 .42
c
N5: Impulsiveness .02 .14
a
.13 .01 .06 .08 .02
N6: Vulnerability .27
c
.22
b
.61
c
.40
c
.29
c
.26
c
.44
c
E1: Warmth .44
c
.09 .22
b
.36
c
.47
c
.18
a
.39
c
E2: Gregariousness .26
c
.12 .20
b
.14
a
.34
c
.14 .25
c
E3: Assertiveness .16
a
.24
b
.35
c
.22
b
.17
a
.30
c
.36
c
E4: Activity .24
c
.13 .26
c
.27
c
.22
b
.18
a
.39
c
E5: Excitement seeking .12 .07 .16
a
.15
a
.18
a
.04 .23
b
E6: Positive emotions .51
c
.17
a
.43
c
.37
c
.45
c
.09 .62
c
O1: Fantasy .13 .24
b
.08 .01 .08 .00 .03
O2: Aesthetics .01 .20
b
.13 .29
c
.05 .03 .00
O3: Feelings .33
c
.20
b
.05 .36
c
.34
c
.21
b
.24
b
O4: Actions .03 .12 .13 .25
c
.09 .04 .02
O5: Ideas .15
a
.40
c
.04 .41
c
.04 .21
b
.09
O6: Values .18
a
.29
c
.04 .29
c
.17
a
.07 .13
A1: Trust .26
c
.11 .23
b
.10 .38
c
.17
a
.20
b
A2: Straightforwardness .17
a
.06 .07 .11 .26
c
.02 .10
A3: Altruism .40
c
.14 .12 .40
c
.55
c
.27
c
.27
c
A4: Compliance .06 .20
b
.08 .09 .19
b
.05 .04
A5: Modesty .02 .01 .20
b
.02 .01 .06 .29
c
A6: Tender-mindedness .18
a
.00 .12 .14
a
.20
b
.06 .11
C1: Competence .24
b
.22
b
.35
c
.40
c
.21
b
.48
c
.34
c
C2: Order .055 .01 .046 .010 .054 .23
c
.061
C3: Dutifulness .28
c
.09 .16
a
.29
c
.27
b
.34
c
.15
a
C4: Achievement striving .20
b
.10 .22
b
.32
c
.20
b
.51
c
.24
b
C5: Self-discipline .27
c
.09 .29
c
.22
c
.29
c
.39
c
.29
c
C6: Deliberation .038 .06 .11 .10 .04 .25
c
.06
a
Note:p< 0.05.
b
p< 0.01.
c
p< 0.001.
A.M. Wood et al. / Personality and Individual Differences 46 (2009) 443–447 445
(for example, vulnerability was correlated with both gratitude and
each of the PWB variables at between r= |.27| and |.61|).
3.2. Correlations between gratitude and PWB
Cohen, 1988; 1992 defined effect sizes as small at r= .10, med-
ium at r= .30, and large at r= .50. Adopting these definitions, grat-
itude had a small zero-order correlation with autonomy (r= .17,
p< .05), medium correlations with environmental mastery
(r= .38, p< .001) and purpose in life (r= .28, p< .001), and large
correlations with personal growth (r= .50, p< .001), positive rela-
tionships with others (r= .54, p< .001), and self-acceptance
(r= .61, p< .001). These correlations suggest that gratitude is an
important predictor of PWB.
3.3 Incremental validity of gratitude in predicting PWB
Table 2 shows the result of six hierarchical multiple regressions
testing whether gratitude can improve the prediction of PWB be-
yond what can be predicted by the 30 Big Five facets. Gratitude im-
proved the prediction of personal growth, positive relationships
with others, purpose in life, and self-acceptance (R
2
increased by
between .02 and .08, equivalent to an incremental increase of be-
tween r= .14 and .25). Such values are conventionally interpreted
as substantial incremental validities (Hunsley & Meyer, 2003).
However, gratitude did not uniquely predict autonomy or environ-
mental mastery.
4. Discussion
The study provided the first indication that gratitude is related
to a full range of PWB variables, supporting theoretical positions
that gratitude is related to a life that is meaningful rather than sim-
ply hedonistically pleasant (Emmons & Crumpler, 2000). The rela-
tionship between gratitude and several PWB variables (i.e.,
personal growth, positive relationships, purpose in life, and self-
acceptance) was independent of the effects of the 30 facets of the
five factor model, suggesting that gratitude may be uniquely
important to PWB.
The size of the correlations between gratitude and PWB was
notable. Zero-order correlations ranged from r= .17 to .61. Adopt-
ing conventional definitions (Cohen, 1988; 1992), gratitude had
small correlations with autonomy (r= .17), and medium to large
correlations with environmental mastery, personal growth, posi-
tive relationship, purpose in life, and self-acceptance (rs ranged
from .28 to .61). Correlations of this size suggest that gratitude is
an important predictor of PWB. Additionally, the incremental
validity after controlling for the 30 Big Five facets was reasonably
substantial. Gratitude explained between 2% and 6% additional var-
iance in PWB (equivalent to rs between .14 and .25). Whilst these
would be considered small to medium zero-order correlations,
Hunsley and Meyer (2003) argue that incremental validities of
.15 should be considered ‘‘a reasonable contribution” (p. 451) as
they represent estimates of the unique contribution of a variable,
whereas conventional definitions of effect size assume that corre-
lation includes both unique contribution and the contribution due
to third variables. Adopting these definitions, gratitude made a rea-
sonable incremental contribution to both purpose in life and posi-
tive relationships with others, and a contribution to self-
acceptance and personal growth of a magnitude almost twice what
Hunter and Murray would consider reasonable.
4.1. The nature of the relationship between gratitude and well-being
It is increasingly becoming clear that gratitude is strongly corre-
lated with various aspects of well-being (e.g., McCullough et al.
(2002, 2004), Wood, Joseph, and Linley (2007a), Wood, Joseph,
and Maltby (2008)). This leads to the question whether gratitude
is a predictor of well-being or actually a fundamental aspect of
well-being in itself. Thus, the present research could be used to
conclude (a) that gratitude is a personality trait that is related to
well-being above the effect of 30 other personality traits, or (b)
that gratitude is a specific aspect of well-being that is related to
other aspects of well-being above the effects of 30 other personal-
ity traits. Investigating incremental validity would be important
regardless of the conceptualization of gratitude. The 30 Big Five
personality facets are as likely an explanation of the relationship
(a) between two aspects of well-being, as (b) between another per-
sonality trait and well-being. In either case, incremental validity
would need to be demonstrated to show the value of studying grat-
itude, given that such a vast literature already exists based on the
Big Five. However, the question of whether gratitude is a predictor
or aspect of well-being has wider importance for the interpretation
of gratitude research. This issue is complex, as the definition of
what does and does not constitute well-being is in part a social
construction based on the wider views of society (Joseph & Linley,
2006; Ryan & Deci, 2001). Further, the demarcation between per-
sonality and stable aspects of well-being is perhaps more due to
convention than the inherent nature of the variables (for example,
neuroticism would be conventionally considered a personality
trait, whereas stable levels of depression would not). However,
irrespective of the definition of gratitude, the recent research has
suggested that gratitude does act as a predictor of well-being.
For example, gratitude leads to lower levels of stress and depres-
sion over time, controlling for prior levels of both variables (Wood,
Maltby,Gillett, Linley, and Joseph, 2008). The present research con-
tributes to this line of research by suggesting that the relationship
between gratitude and well-being, however defined, is not simply
due to the Big Five traits.
4.2. Limitations and conclusions
The study had some limitations, particularly the reliance on self
report. Future research should examine whether the findings per-
sist when using peer-reports (cf., Schimmack et al., 2004)or behav-
ioral ratings of gratitude (cf., Tsang, 2006). The sample consisted
purely of students and the findings may not generalize to other
samples. With positive psychology constructs increasingly being
considered in clinical settings (Duckworth et al., 2005), we encour-
age tests of whether gratitude contributes unique variance to PWB
in diverse populations. Finally, the methodology can only show
incremental validity with regard to the particular variables in-
cluded in the study. The 30 facets of the Big Five seemed the opti-
Table 2
Summary of six hierarchical multiple regressions to test the incremental validity of
gratitude.
Outcome variable Step 1 Step 2 Change statistics
R
2
F(30,
170)
R
2
F(31,
169)
D
R
2
F(1,
169)
r
equivalent
Autonomy .40 3.72
c
.40 3.60
c
.00 0.287 .03
Environmental mastery .62 9.08
c
.62 9.04
c
.01 3.655 .09
Personal growth .54 6.55
c
.60 8.18
c
.06 27.06
c
.25
Positive relationships
with others
.54 6.70
c
.56 7.06
c
.02 8.82
b
.15
Purpose in life .46 4.80
c
.48 5.01
c
.02 6.55
a
.14
Self-acceptance .62 9.31
c
.68 11.72
c
.06 32.45
c
.25
Note: In Step 1 the outcome variable is regressed on the 30 Big Five facets, in Step 2
the outcome variable is regressed both onto the 30 Big Five facets and gratitude.
a
p< .05
b
p< .01
c
p< .001.
446 A.M. Wood et al. / Personality and Individual Differences 46 (2009) 443–447
mal selection of variables to use as covariates as the five factor
model has become an integrative force in personality psychology
(Watson, Clark, & Harkness, 1994), and these variables represent
some of the most studied variables in the last 50 years of person-
ality psychology (McCrae & Costa, 1999). Given this, any other
selection of variables would have been somewhat arbitrary, and
different researchers would always have compiled different lists
of variables to be included. However, future research should devel-
op a theory as to which other variables should be studied alongside
gratitude, to see whether gratitude has a direct, confounded, or
mediated relationship with PWB and other variables.
The current study suggests that gratitude is strongly related to
the aspects of PWB, and that this relationship is at least partially
independent of the 30 facets of the five factor model. The study
of gratitude is still in its infancy (Wood, Joseph, & Linley, 2007b),
and future research should concentrate on the direction of the rela-
tionship between gratitude and PWB, the conditions under which
both constructs develop, and how gratitude and PWB operate in di-
verse life contexts.
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... The use of evidence-based positive interventions has been shown in previous studies to have desirable associations with relevant outcome measures, such as functional coping with stress (Layous et al., 2014), subjective well-being (Wood et al., 2009;Rash et al., 2011;Allan et al., 2013;Datu, 2013) or social relationships (Emmons and McCullough, 2003). Recent metaanalytic evidence suggests that positive interventions have at least small to medium-sized positive effects on well-being (Donaldson et al., 2021) and when used in workplace settings resulted in small to medium effects on both desirable (e.g., engagement, prosocial behavior) and undesirable outcomes (e.g., stress; Donaldson et al., 2019). ...
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... En este orden, el estudio de la relación de la gratitud con el sentido de la vida se ha llevado a cabo con la intención de profundizar en estos dos conceptos como actitudes que disponen al hombre a vivir mejor, y que ejercen así de factores protectores de la salud mental (Alarcón, y Rodríguez, 2015;Bernabé-Valero, 2012;Emmons y Mishra, 2011;Emmons y McCullough, 2004;Méndez, Serra, Barrabas y Bernabé-Valero, 2014;McCulloug et al., 2002;Watkins et al., 2003;Wood, et al., 2009Wood, et al., , 2010. Estas investigaciones han intentado aunar dos conceptos que se sitúan dentro de aquellas fortalezas del carácter que tienen que ver con el aspecto trascendental del ser humano. ...
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... These gratitude lists bring attention to what has gone well, which might encourage clients to repeat the activity in the coming day. In general, positive correlations between gratitude and behavioral activity have been reported (Wood et al., 2008(Wood et al., , 2009. This association may be causal given the following pathway: Gratitude improves affect (Dickens, 2017), and positive affect encourages more frequent and more diverse types of activity (Fredrickson, 2004b). ...
This study identified the relationship between self-compassion and meaning in life among Korean baby boomers and examined the double mediating effect of family support and family relationship satisfaction on this relationship. For this purpose, data were collected from 400 baby boomers (born between 1955–1963) using the self-compassion, meaning in life, family support, and family relationship satisfaction scales. PROCESS Macro 3.5 Model 6 was used to analyze the double mediating effects. The results revealed that first, there was a significant correlation between the self-compassion, meaning in life, family support, and family relationship satisfaction of this study. Second, in the relationship between self-compassion and the meaning in life, family support, and family relationship satisfaction were found to have a partial mediating effect and a double mediating effect. The implications and limitations of these findings are also discussed.
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The article analyzes discussions about whether gratitude is an experience or a personal trait and part of the worldview. It is shown that the researchers focused on two components of gratitude: cognitive one (rational assessment of the actions usefulness of other or certain events) and affective one (experiencing a set of positive emotions: joy, admiration). Recently, the idea that gratitude is a personality trait has become widespread. In our opinion, gratitude is a basic life guideline, which is manifested in the cognitive aspect – assessing what a person has, awareness of the time perspective of life, understanding the manifestations of positivity (implicit theory of the positive world), in the affective aspect – experiencing specific emotions, reverence, admiration, affection) during the meeting with certain objects, which, in fact, chooses the person himself, in the behavioral aspect – control of their own attention to focus on the positive in the current moment, as well as choosing more optimal response strategies. Researches of the gratitude impact on the experience of well-being and its individual aspects have shown that there are complex interrelationships between gratitude and the parameters of personal well-being. On the one hand, gratitude contributes to the formation of positive relationships, because the person encourages others to justify his hopes. On the other hand, gratitude reduces hedonistic adaptation and encourages the individual not to take the positive aspects of his life for granted, and thus becomes a personal resource when experiencing stress. There are formalized social practices of gratitude – certain rituals of expression of gratitude on clearly defined “holidays”. The actual implementation of the act of gratitude has a relatively low effect. The most effective personal practices of gratitude are considered to be cognitive – the actualization of the experience of gratitude by increasing attention to small details and awareness of their importance while reducing the focus on fair exchange with the world. In particular, making various forms of lists of things and phenomena for which a person is grateful, solving hypothetical situations, writing letters of gratefulness, and so on. When applying such practices, their diversity is important to maintain the motivation of an individual to use them. Key words: gratitude, well-being personality, positive emotion, gratitude practice, optimal functioning.
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The effect of a grateful outlook on psychological and physical well-being was examined. In Studies 1 and 2, participants were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 experimental conditions (hassles, gratitude listing, and either neutral life events or social comparison); they then kept weekly (Study 1) or daily (Study 2) records of their moods, coping behaviors, health behaviors, physical symptoms, and overall life appraisals. In a 3rd study, persons with neuromuscular disease were randomly assigned to either the gratitude condition or to a control condition. The gratitude-outlook groups exhibited heightened well-being across several, though not all, of the outcome measures across the 3 studies, relative to the comparison groups. The effect on positive affect appeared to be the most robust finding. Results suggest that a conscious focus on blessings may have emotional and interpersonal benefits.
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In four studies, the authors examined the correlates of the disposition toward gratitude. Study 1 revealed that self-ratings and observer ratings of the grateful disposition are associated with positive affect and well-being prosocial behaviors and traits, and religiousness/spirituality. Study 2 replicated these findings in a large nonstudent sample. Study 3 yielded similar results to Studies 1 and 2 and provided evidence that gratitude is negatively associated with envy and materialistic attitudes. Study 4 yielded evidence that these associations persist after controlling for Extraversion/positive affectivity, Neuroticism/negative affectivity, and Agreeableness. The development of the Gratitude Questionnaire, a unidimensional measure with good psychometric properties, is also described.
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This personal historical article traces the development of the Big-Five factor structure, whose growing acceptance by personality researchers has profoundly influenced the scientific study of individual differences. The roots of this taxonomy lie in the lexical hypothesis and the insights of Sir Francis Galton, the prescience of L. L. Thurstone, the legacy of Raymond B. Cattell, and the seminal analyses of Tupes and Christal. Paradoxically, the present popularity of this model owes much to its many critics, each of whom tried to replace it, but failed. In reaction, there have been a number of attempts to assimilate other models into the five-factor structure. Lately, some practical implications of the emerging consensus can be seen in such contexts as personnel selection and classification.