Article

Wireless Sensor Network Based Wearable Smart Shirt for Ubiquitous Health and Activity Monitoring

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Abstract

The smart shirt which measures electrocardiogram (ECG) and acceleration signals for continuous and real time health monitoring is designed and developed. The shirt mainly consists of sensors for continuous monitoring the health data and conductive fabrics to get the body signal as electrodes. The measured physiological ECG data and physical activity data are transmitted in an ad-hoc network in IEEE 802.15.4 communication standard to a base-station and server PC for remote monitoring. The wearable sensor devices are designed to fit well into shirt with small size and low power consumption to reduce the battery size. The adaptive filtering method to cancel artifact noise from conductive fabric electrodes in a shirt is also designed and tested to get clear ECG signal even though during running or physical exercise of a person.

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... Some properties of textile material are preferred for the realization of these electrodes to provide high comfort for the users while ensuring good quality of measurements, including sufficiently high conductivity, cotton-based fabric, fixed part of the clothes, and standard maintenance (washing and ironing) [24,25]. Therefore, some studies have proposed textile electrodes for electrocardiogram (ECG) measurement devices with high comfort for the users [26][27][28][29]. The textile electrodes belt for EIT has been commercialized by Sentec AG Switzerland [30][31][32]. ...
... We followed these properties of textile material in previous studies to provide high comfort for the users to design our textile-electrode belt [24][25][26][27][28][29]. First, textile material should have high conductivity to provide sensing of the electrical signal with high quality. ...
Article
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Electrical impedance tomography (EIT), a noninvasive and radiation-free medical imaging technique, has been used for continuous real-time regional lung aeration. However, adhesive electrodes could cause discomfort and increase the risk of skin injury during prolonged measurement. Additionally, the conductive gel between the electrodes and skin could evaporate in long-term usage and deteriorate the signal quality. To address these issues, in this work, textile electrodes integrated with a clothing belt are proposed to achieve EIT lung imaging along with a custom portable EIT system. The simulation and experimental results have verified the validity of the proposed portable EIT system. Furthermore, the imaging results of using the proposed textile electrodes were compared with commercial electrocardiogram electrodes to evaluate their performance.
... ECG offers advantages over PPG in terms of stability and reliability and is by far the most widely used cardiac monitoring method in healthcare. In recent years, with the development of wearable devices, many wearable ECG devices with both comfort and anti-interference have been developed, including vests, bracelets and chest belts [9][10][11]. The development of these non-invasive ECG devices is the basis for research on the daily monitoring of people's psychological stress. ...
Article
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In recent years, research on human psychological stress using wearable devices has gradually attracted attention. However, the physical and psychological differences among individuals and the high cost of data collection are the main challenges for further research on this problem. In this work, our aim is to build a model to detect subjects’ psychological stress in different states through electrocardiogram (ECG) signals. Therefore, we design a VR high-altitude experiment to induce psychological stress for the subject to obtain the ECG signal dataset. In the experiment, participants wear smart ECG T-shirts with embedded sensors to complete different tasks so as to record their ECG signals synchronously. Considering the temporal continuity of individual psychological stress, a deep, gated recurrent unit (GRU) neural network is developed to capture the mapping relationship between subjects’ ECG signals and stress in different states through heart rate variability features at different moments, so as to build a neural network model from the ECG signal to psychological stress detection. The experimental results show that compared with all comparison methods, our method has the best classification performance on the four stress states of resting, VR scene adaptation, VR task and recovery, and it can be a remote stress monitoring solution for some special industries.
... Diğer sensörlerden farkı, kişinin vücuda takılabilen yapıda olmasıdır. Sensörlü eldiven (Akpa, Fujiwara, Arakawa, Suwa & Yasumoto, 2018) ve yelek (Lee & Chung, 2009), akıllı bileklikler ya da ayakkabılar (Eskofier, Lee, Baron, Simon, Martindale, Gaßner & Klucken, 2017) giyilebilir sensörlere örnek olarak verilebilmektedir. Bu sensörler sayesinde sporcunun vücut sıcaklığı, elektrokardiyogram (EKG) sinyalleri, bir hareketi tamamlayabilme derecesi gibi konularda bilgi sahibi olunarak, hastalık ve yaralanmaları önleme hatta erken tanıda bulunabilme ihtimali artmıştır (Farrokhi, Farahbakhsh, Rezazadeh, & Minerva, 2021). ...
Chapter
Yapay Zekâ kısa sürede dünyamızı nasıl değiştirdi? Gelecekte bizi bekleyen yenilikler ve tehlikeler neler? Altın çağa doğru mu gidiyoruz yoksa yapay zekanın dünya için tehlike oluşturacağı, insanlığın sonunu getireceği kıyamet gününe doğru mu? Birçok distopik filme kaynak sağlayan ve insanı oldukça tedirgin eden bu soruların cevabını kestirmek şimdilik zor gibi gözükse de yapay zekâ alanında yapılan çalışmaları inceleyerek bilimsel bir kehanette bulunmak mümkün. Yapay zekânın hayatımızın her alanına nüksettiği göz önünde bulundurulduğunda büyük resmi bir seferde görmek ve bir çıkarımda bulunmak güçleşmektedir. Peki yapay zekanın geleceğini görmek neden önemli? Aslında yapay zekanın geleceği diye bir şey yok. Dünyamızın ve insanlığın geleceği var. Ve bu gelecek yapay zekâ çalışma alanında ortaya konulan ilerlemelerden doğrudan etkilenmektedir. Dikiş makineleri ilk çıktığında terziler işsiz kaldı ancak sonrasında dikiş makinesini kullanmayı öğrendiler. Aynı şekilde at arabacıları otomobilleri sürmeyi, yazarlar daktiloyu, gazeteciler sosyal medyayı kullanmayı, askerler makineli tüfekleri kullanmayı öğrenebildiler. Ancak bunların hepsini yapay zekâ yapmaya başladığında ne olacak? Terziler otomatik dikim makinelerinin, otomobil şoförleri insansız araçların yazılımını geliştirebilecek mi? Ya da bütün insanlık işini gücünü yapay zekâ algoritmalarına bırakıp sadece sanat yapmaya mı başlayacak? Ama sanat dalları da artık insanlığın tek elinde değil. Orta ve uzun vadede birçok iş, birçok sektör maalesef yok olacak. Evet farklı iş kolları ortaya çıkacak ama kaybolan ve uzmanlık gerektirmeyen onlarca işin yanında uzun süre eğitim alınması gereken sınırlı sayıda iş imkânı doğacağını söyleyebilirim. Bu geleceği şimdiden görüp pozisyon almak ve geleceğe yatırım yapmak bu yüzden çok önemli. Ayrıca eklemeyelim ki burada bahsettiklerim sadece iş kollarında beklenen ve herkesin aşağı yukarı hem fikir olduğu bir değişim. Ama yapay zekâ hayatımızın tüm alanlara şimdiden girdi ve gelecekte yaşantımızda köklü bir değişiklik meydana getirecek.
... The assistance of wearable technologies in monitoring healthcare is revolutionizing the medical field. The emergence of wearable devices has allowed real time monitoring of vital signs, including the heart rate, number of steps taken and other parameters, such as calories and elevation [1]. These devices enable the continuous and longitudinal monitoring of the above-mentioned physiological parameters. ...
Article
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Wearable devices use sensors to evaluate physiological parameters, such as the heart rate, pulse rate, number of steps taken, body fat and diet. The continuous monitoring of physiological parameters offers a potential solution to assess personal healthcare. Identifying outliers or anomalies in heart rates and other features can help identify patterns that can play a significant role in understanding the underlying cause of disease states. Since anomalies are present within the vast amount of data generated by wearable device sensors, identifying anomalies requires accurate automated techniques. Given the clinical significance of anomalies and their impact on diagnosis and treatment, a wide range of detection methods have been proposed to detect anomalies. Much of what is reported herein is based on previously published literature. Clinical studies employing wearable devices are also increasing. In this article, we review the nature of the wearables-associated data and the downstream processing methods for detecting anomalies. In addition, we also review supervised and un-supervised techniques as well as semi-supervised methods that overcome the challenges of missing and un-annotated healthcare data.
... Real-time monitoring (or diagnosis) applied to remote health monitoring, wireless sensor diagnosis, structural health monitoring, etc., is becoming ubiquitous today [1]- [3]. Most such systems consist of several sensors of different modalities that gather data from the environment. ...
Preprint
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We address the problem of monitoring a set of binary stochastic processes and generating an alert when the number of anomalies among them exceeds a threshold. For this, the decision-maker selects and probes a subset of the processes to obtain noisy estimates of their states (normal or anomalous). Based on the received observations, the decisionmaker first determines whether to declare that the number of anomalies has exceeded the threshold or to continue taking observations. When the decision is to continue, it then decides whether to collect observations at the next time instant or defer it to a later time. If it chooses to collect observations, it further determines the subset of processes to be probed. To devise this three-step sequential decision-making process, we use a Bayesian formulation wherein we learn the posterior probability on the states of the processes. Using the posterior probability, we construct a Markov decision process and solve it using deep actor-critic reinforcement learning. Via numerical experiments, we demonstrate the superior performance of our algorithm compared to the traditional model-based algorithms.
... Another FT is the 'e-textile' application in which the electronics is embedded into the stretchable garments/textile to perform actuating and sensing functions [94,95]. In healthcare, e-textile advantages are significant and have widely been adopted in monitoring physiological parameters [96][97][98], biosignals acquisition [99,100], gait and postural assessment [101,102], and prosthesis control [103]. Additionally, soft robotics is in high demand nowadays due to newly added features, including the high degree of freedom (DOF) and range of motion along with attained flexibility and portability, which has never been achieved with rigid-link robotics [104]. ...
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Objective: Stroke is one of the most common neural disorders, which causes physical disabilities and motor impairments among its survivors. Several technologies have been developed for providing stroke rehabilitation and to assist the survivors in performing their daily life activities. Currently, the use of flexible technology (FT) for stroke rehabilitation systems is on a rise that allows the development of more compact and lightweight wearable systems, which stroke survivors can easily use for long-term activities. Approach: For stroke applications, FT mainly includes the "flexible/stretchable electronics", "e-textile (electronic textile)" and "soft robotics". Thus, a thorough literature review has been performed to report the practical implementation of FT for post-stroke application. Main results: In this review, the highlights of the advancement of FT in stroke rehabilitation systems are dealt with. Such systems mainly involve the "biosignal acquisition unit", "rehabilitation devices" and "assistive systems". In terms of biosignals acquisition, electroencephalography (EEG) and electromyography (EMG) are comprehensively described. For rehabilitation/assistive systems, the application of functional electrical stimulation (FES) and robotics units (exoskeleton, orthosis, etc.) have been explained. Significance: This is the first review article that compiles the different studies regarding flexible technology based post-stroke systems. Furthermore, the technological advantages, limitations, and possible future implications are also discussed to help improve and advance the flexible systems for the betterment of the stroke community.
... However, a traditional ECG device requires electrodes to be attached to the patient's chest, and requires professional operating, which is inconvenient for daily operation. At present, many wearable devices for heart rate measurements have been developed, such as chest belts and vests [6][7][8][9][10][11]. These wearable devices are comfortable to wear; they are easy for operation, at any time or for long-term monitoring. ...
Article
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Heart rate is one of the most important diagnostic bases for cardiovascular disease. This paper introduces a deep autoencoding strategy into feature extraction of electrocardiogram (ECG) signals, and proposes a beat-to-beat heart rate estimation method based on convolution autoencoding and Gaussian mixture clustering. The high-level heartbeat features were first extracted in an unsupervised manner by training the convolutional autoencoder network, and then the adaptive Gaussian mixture clustering was applied to detect the heartbeat locations from the extracted features, and calculated the beat-to-beat heart rate. Compared with the existing heartbeat classification/detection methods, the proposed unsupervised feature learning and heartbeat clustering method does not rely on accurate labeling of each heartbeat location, which could save a lot of time and effort in human annotations. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method maintains better accuracy and generalization ability compared with the existing ECG heart rate estimation methods and could be a robust long-time heart rate monitoring solution for wearable ECG devices.
... Smart fitness can be mentioned as a subset of SST; fitness trackers and IoT-based gadgets play a major role in smart fitness scenarios. There are several scenarios for smart fitness like Virtual Reality (VR), wearable sensors, and also sensor embedded in the fitness machines scenarios named nonwearable sensors [14]. This section will explore the review of some of these scenarios in smart fitness. ...
Article
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The Internet of Things (IoT) provides opportunities for improving various aspects of human life and enhancing quality of life. It enables monitoring and controlling mechanisms to be more easier than it was in the past. One of the significant objects in people’s life is fitness and body activity. Using IoT and its related technologies like RFID (Radio Frequency Identification), AI (Artificial Intelligence), and WSN (Wireless Sensor Networks), can reduce cost and increase accuracy for fitness monitoring. The problem in current smart fitness and fitness monitoring systems is that there is not a complete monitoring and workout plan provider in these scenarios, especially in non-wearable sensors which are most placed on fitness devices. In this paper, an architecture is proposed that can monitor actions which is executed by sensor-embedded on fitness machines. The paper explores the implementation and examination for biceps and triceps actions. For processing data, Decision Tree Classifier (DTC) was used to reduce computational tasks and make decisions about future workout plans for each user.
... In this study, we will look at some of the physiological sensors worn by the user which able to collect patient vital sign. These different sensors: ECG, body temperature and pulse heart rate sensors are comfortable and easy to wear and use (Lee & Chung, 2009). These sensors collect physiological data and forward values to the Arduino microprocessor. ...
Book
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This edited book is comprised of original research that focuses on technological advancements for effective teaching with an emphasis on learning outcomes, ICT trends in higher education, sustainable developments and digital ecosystem in education, management and industries. The contents of the book are classified as; (i) Emerging ICT Trends in Education, Management and Innovations (ii) Digital Technologies for advancements in education, management and IT (iii) Emerging Technologies for Industries and Education, and (iv) ICT Technologies for Intelligent Applications. The book represents a useful tool for academics, researchers, industry professionals and policymakers to share and learn about the latest teaching and learning practices supported by ICT. It also covers innovative concepts applied in education, management and industries using ICT tools.
... Indeed, sensors able to continuously monitor a patient vitals and alert emergencies if needed can facilitate the patient care [Stojmenović 2005]. Chronically-ill patients can also be helped by WSNs to monitor constantly the biological signs linked to the illness like hypertension, heart disease, diabetes [Martins et al. 2004;Zhang et al. 2016;Darwish and Hassanien 2011;Lee and Chung 2009]. The development of wireless sensor nodes due to the reduction in size and in power consumption of electronic devices raises the question of their power supplying. ...
Thesis
The lack of reliable, safe and low-cost energy source seems to delay the blooming of the internet of things (IoT) and wireless sensors nodes. Thermoelectric harvesters feature those key advantages. Silicon presents the advantages to be most abundant, less environmental harmful and to benefit from facilities and technological processes for low cost thermoelectric harvesters mass production compared to the conventional materials (bismuth telluride alloys). However, silicon is a poor thermoelectric material due to its high thermal conductivity ( ). The possibility to reduce the thermal conductivity while preserving electrical conductivity and Seebeck coefficient is the key to upgrade silicon as an efficient thermoelectric material. To that end, efforts are oriented towards the phononic part of heat transport, which is the dominant contribution in semiconductors. The researches carried out during this thesis dealt with the integration of phonon engineered silicon membranes into thermoelectric harvester demonstrators and their characterizations with respect to the state of the art. The results demonstrated the feasibility of a silicon based thermoelectric harvester exhibiting performance (from few µW/cm2 for ΔT~5-10K to few mW/cm2 for ΔT>100K) sufficient for autonomous sensor nodes’ power supplying and comparable performance with the bismuth telluride state of the art harvester according to the harvesters’ cooling conditions. Moreover, this thesis demonstrated, in addition to the energy harvesting, the possibility of developing silicon based thermoelectric coolers, opening the way to possible integration of thermoelectric coolers in silicon based micro-electronic devices.
... These electrodes are highly stretchable and flexible due to the nature of interlocking stitching patterns. Gold-or silver-coated yarn [103] as well as stainless yarn [104] are commonly used due to their high conductivity and the fact that they are readily available in the market [39]. However, the drawback is to build up a firm contact between skin and electrode surface without applying too much compression force through a strap. ...
Article
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During the pregnancy, fetal electrocardiogram (FECG) is deployed to analyze fetal heart rate (FHR) of the fetus to indicate the growth and health of the fetus to determine any abnormalities and prevent diseases. The fetal electrocardiogram monitoring can be carried out either invasively by placing the electrodes on the scalp of the fetus, involving the skin penetration and the risk of infection, or non-invasively by recording the fetal heart rate signal from the mother’s abdomen through a placement of electrodes deploying portable, wearable devices. Non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram (NIFECG) is an evolving technology in fetal surveillance because of the comfort to the pregnant women and being achieved remotely, specifically in the unprecedented circumstances such as pandemic or COVID-19. Textiles have been at the heart of human technological progress for thousands of years, with textile developments closely tied to key inventions that have shaped societies. The relatively recent invention of smart textiles is set to push boundaries again and has already opened the potential for garments relevant to medicine, and health monitoring. This paper aims to discuss the different technologies and methods used in non-invasive fetal electrocardiogram (NIFECG) monitoring as well as the potential and future research directions of NIFECG in the smart textiles area.
... The design of mobile smart terminals. Mobile smart terminals are mainly used to aggregate and process user health parameters collected by the collection terminal, and then upload the data to the cloud server for data analysis and processing through mobile network, Wi-Fi and other communication methods; According to the different system modes, mobile smart terminals adopt different hardware solutions to meet the needs of individual users and group users [3]. ...
Article
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At present, in China’s higher education institutions, with the rapid progress of software engineering theory, this paper adopts the signal monitoring system method and derives the mathematical analog signal strength monitoring system. It is optimized in combination with the software engineering wearable system. By using the heart rate acquisition module to improve the performance, using the temperature acquisition module empirical formula, and finally through the software engineering statistical comparison analysis, it is proved that the student basic signal monitoring system has a significant effect and can play a role in preventing students from fainting or sudden death. positive effect.
... In the future, intelligent fabrics are expected to be integrated with cloud computing. For example, patients with a homecare medical device could send vital signals to their doctor to diagnose their health condition [4,5]. ...
Article
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The continuous and long-term measurement and monitoring of physiological signals such as electrocardiography (ECG) are very important for the early detection and treatment of heart disorders at an early stage prior to a serious condition occurring. The increasing demand for the continuous monitoring of the ECG signal needs the rapid development of wearable electronic technology. During wearable ECG monitoring, the electrodes are the main components that affect the signal quality and comfort of the user. This review assesses the application of textile electrodes for ECG monitoring from the fundamentals to the latest developments and prospects for their future fate. The fabrication techniques of textile electrodes and their performance in terms of skin–electrode contact impedance, motion artifacts and signal quality are also reviewed and discussed. Textile electrodes can be fabricated by integrating thin metal fiber during the manufacturing stage of textile products or by coating textiles with conductive materials like metal inks, carbon mate-rials, or conductive polymers. The review also discusses how textile electrodes for ECG function via direct skin contact or via a non-contact capacitive coupling. Finally, the current intensive and promising research towards finding textile-based ECG electrodes with better comfort and signal quality in the fields of textile, material, medical and electrical engineering are presented as a perspective.
... Vital Jacket® t-shirt, and (7) Moov the nanoscale so that they can be introduced into the body [112]. The ear accessory device is another class of wearable device. ...
... Jog Falls [23] provides a platform for diabetes management, through a system that performs activity recognition (accelerometer and heart rate data) to estimate energy expenditure and promote activity goals. Gyroscopes and accelerometers have been also used to analyze motion patterns in older adults [34,35], while in another study accelerometer data from RFID readers have been used to recognize activities and correlate them with calorie intake [36]. ...
... This classification and detection enables ergonomic exposure assessment systems and helps prevent occupational injuries. [5] developed a sensor node with integrated textile sensors. Conductive threads in the shirt are used as electrodes in order to be able to make statements about the state of health of a test person based on ECG data and values from an acceleration sensor. ...
Article
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With the continuing development in integrating electronics into textiles in the field of smart textiles and wearables, new innovations for monitoring the human environment and new possibilities for human-machine interaction are constantly emerging. Depending on the type of sensor technology used, monitoring human motion and its environment allows applications in various fields, like occupational safety, protection and rehabilitation in the form of protective work clothing. In this paper the development of a sensor shirt is described, which records the movement and position of the upper body by several inertial sensors and transmits the sensor values via Wi-Fi. Based on the developed prototype, this paper shows the typical problems in the development of intelligent clothing and presents possible concepts which can be implemented already in the design phase. First measurements of the prototype show the potential of the shirt as well as possible future applications in the field of occupational safety and human-machine interaction.
... Wearable sensors can generate data continuously without causing any discomfort 1,2 or interruptions to daily activity, thus enhancing the self-monitoring compliance of the wearer and improving the quality of patient care [2][3][4] . Monitoring of single physical parameters, such as the electrocardiogram [5][6][7] and blood pressure (BP) [8][9][10] , as well as biochemical parameters, such as glucose [11][12][13][14][15] , using non-invasive wearable sensors has been reported. The importance of integrating multiple sensors on a single device has been demonstrated 16 , where multiple chemical sensors were integrated into a single wrist band. ...
Article
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Monitoring the effects of daily activities on the physiological responses of the body calls for wearable devices that can simultaneously track metabolic and haemodynamic parameters. Here we describe a non-invasive skin-worn device for the simultaneous monitoring of blood pressure and heart rate via ultrasonic transducers and of multiple biomarkers via electrochemical sensors. We optimized the integrated device so that it provides mechanical resiliency and flexibility while conforming to curved skin surfaces, and to ensure reliable sensing of glucose in interstitial fluid and of lactate, caffeine and alcohol in sweat, without crosstalk between the individual sensors. In human volunteers, the device captured physiological effects of food intake and exercise, in particular the production of glucose after food digestion, the consumption of glucose via glycolysis, and increases in blood pressure and heart rate compensating for oxygen depletion and lactate generation. Continuous and simultaneous acoustic and electrochemical sensing via integrated wearable devices should enrich the understanding of the body’s response to daily activities, and could facilitate the early prediction of abnormal physiological changes.
... Wearable devices have been widely used in healthcare context such as influenza surveillance (Konty et al., 2019), quantifying influenza-related outcomes among the patients with Type 2 diabetes (Samson et al., 2018), improving state-level real-time influenza-like surveillance (Radin, Wineinger, Topol, & Steinhubl, 2020), weight loss (Granado-Font et al., 2015), Parkinson disease (Giansanti, Macellari, & Maccioni, 2008), measurement of heart rate and respiratory rate (Chiarugi et al., 2008), monitoring of human falls (Lin, Hsu, Lay, Chiu, & Chao, 2007), and patients with end-stage renal failure (Davenport et al., 2007). The wearable health monitoring systems that use medical sensors in-home and outside the hospital can help residents and caregivers by continuous and non-invasive health monitoring with minimal interactions between doctors and patients (Lee & Chung, 2009). This research aimed to investigate what factors are important for improving the behavioural intention to use wearable healthcare devices during the COVID-19 outbreak. ...
Article
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Wearable devices have attracted a great deal of attention and popularity among academics and decision-makers in the last decade. The potential of wearable technology to improve health efficiency and cut healthcare costs has been demonstrated in several studies. Wearable devices have a great value for detecting, tracking, and controlling the spread of infectious diseases such as COVID-19. Based on the confirmation of expectations and technology acceptance theories, this study has developed a theoretical model to study user perceptions of wearable healthcare devices. The data collected from 163 study samples were examined using the Classification and Regression Tree (CART) technique. The study results showed that the security and privacy factor is important for the adoption of wearable healthcare devices in the event of COVID-19.
... A smart shirt-based biosensor was designed to measure electrocardiogram (ECG) and acceleration signals for continuous and real-time health monitoring [93]. In a typical design of the shirt, it consists of a sensor for real-time monitoring of the health data and a conductive fabric as electrodes to obtain the body signal. ...
Article
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With the increasing prevalence of growing population, aging and chronic diseases continuously rising healthcare costs, the healthcare system is undergoing a vital transformation from the traditional hospital-centered system to an individual-centered system. Since the 20th century, wearable sensors are becoming widespread in healthcare and biomedical monitoring systems, empowering continuous measurement of critical biomarkers for monitoring of the diseased condition and health, medical diagnostics and evaluation in biological fluids like saliva, blood, and sweat. Over the past few decades, the developments have been focused on electrochemical and optical biosensors, along with advances with the non-invasive monitoring of biomarkers, bacteria and hormones, etc. Wearable devices have evolved gradually with a mix of multiplexed biosensing, microfluidic sampling and transport systems integrated with flexible materials and body attachments for improved wearability and simplicity. These wearables hold promise and are capable of a higher understanding of the correlations between analyte concentrations within the blood or non-invasive biofluids and feedback to the patient, which is significantly important in timely diagnosis, treatment, and control of medical conditions. However, cohort validation studies and performance evaluation of wearable biosensors are needed to underpin their clinical acceptance. In the present review, we discuss the importance, features, types of wearables, challenges and applications of wearable devices for biological fluids for the prevention of diseased conditions and real-time monitoring of human health. Herein, we summarize the various wearable devices that are developed for healthcare monitoring and their future potential has been discussed in detail.
... Ubiquitous healthcare (UH) (or smart healthcare) is the application of smart technologies to assist medical and health care. 1 Smart technologies are based on miniaturized (or unobtrusive) smart devices that can transmit the collected data over wireless networks, thus supporting remote or mobile users. 2 Common smart technologies that support UH include wearable devices, 3 body area networks, 4 smart phones, 5 three-dimensional (3D) printing, 6 cloud computing, 7 telemedicine, 8 mobile web services or apps, 9 etc. This study aims to discuss the application of 3D printing technologies in dentistry 10 because of the following reasons: ...
Article
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A ubiquitous healthcare (UH) system of multiple 3D printing facilities is established in this study for making dentures. The UH system receives orders from dental clinics, and then distributes the dentures to be printed among 3D printing facilities to save time. Compared with existing systems for similar purposes, the UH system has two novel features. The first is the consideration of the possibility of reprinting in formulating the plan to avoid replanning. The other is the cooperation with home delivery services that have gradually become popular during the COVID-19 pandemic to save transportation time. The new features are subject to considerable uncertainties. To account for the uncertainties, both printing time and transportation time are modelled using interval type-II trapezoidal fuzzy numbers. Subsequently, an interval type-II fuzzy mixed integer-linear programming (FMILP) model is formulated and optimized to plan the operations of the UH system. A case study has been conducted to illustrate the applicability of the proposed methodology. According to experimental results, the proposed methodology was able to shorten the order fulfillment time by up to 9%.
... Hyland and his collaborators described the development of wearable thermoelectric generators (TEG) for harvesting the heat of the human body that advanced the power of wearable electronics (Hyland et al., 2016). Additionally, a smart shirt-based biosensor was designed to measure the acceleration signals and electrocardiogram for real-time and regular health tracking (Lee and Chung, 2009). These wearable sensors have been developed to fit comfortably into a shirt with low power consumption and tiny size to decrease the battery size. ...
Article
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An individual's health is one of the essential aspects of life, but due to the limited technology at health care centers, many people face various restrictions during their treatment. These days, Internet-of-Things (IoT) is the most fascinating topic that provides solutions to these limitations in various ways. The IoT is utilized in various healthcare conducts that include detection, treatment, and monitoring of diseases. Wearable devices are a part of IoT that is proposed for helping patients to get the correct treatment. The conventional communication networks developed for humans-based applications face many issues like stringent latency, restricted computing capability, and short battery life. On the other hand, the onset of 5G has developed a new set of technologies that offer the vital "backbone” for connecting to the billions of devices for the upcoming IoT that would completely modify our professional and private lives. Due to the data capabilities, intelligent management, and superfast connectivity of 5G, this network has enabled new health care opportunities that include treatment, data analytics, diagnostics, and imaging. In the current review, a systematic literature survey of IoT, IoT-based wearable devices, and the role of 5G in IoT for healthcare is described in detail. Furthermore, we have explained the usage of wearable devices in detecting the issue in terms of healthcare, such as curing, monitoring, and detection of disease. Nevertheless, this review article also emphasizes the employment of IoT architecture and its wearable devices in addition to the upcoming research challenges related to this area.
... Wearable sensors are gaining wide attention in personal health monitoring, as they can continuously track health status changes in time for early treatment intervention. With a relatively simple design, the existing wearable sensors are centered on the monitoring of physical and electrophysiological parameters such as heart rate [1], blood pressure [2], electrocardiograms [3], and body motion [4]. Although these are needed, there is an urgent need for the development of wearable devices that can provide biochemical information at a molecular level to retrieve the complete physiological conditions of the wearer. ...
Article
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Wearable sweat sensors are a rapidly rising research area owing to their convenience for personal healthcare and disease diagnosis in a real-time and noninvasive manner. However, the fast and scalable fabrication of flexible electrodes remains a major challenge. Here, we develop a wearable epidermal sensor for multiplexed sweat analysis based on the laser-induced graphene (LIG) technique. This simple and mask-free technique allows the direct manufacturing of graphene electrode patterns on commercial polyimide foils. The resulting LIG devices can simultaneously monitor the pH, Na+, and K+ levels in sweat with the sensitivities of 51.5 mV/decade (pH), 45.4 mV/decade (Na+), and 43.3 mV/decade (K+), respectively. Good reproducibility, stability, and selectivity are also observed. On-body testing of the LIG-based sensor integrated with a flexible printed circuit board during stationary cycling demonstrates its capability for real-time sweat analysis. The concentrations of ions can be remotely and wirelessly transmitted to a custom-developed smartphone application during the period in which the sensor user performs physical activities. Owing to the unique advantages of LIG technique, including facile fabrication, mass production, and versatile, more physiological signals (glucose, uric acid, tyrosine, etc.) could be easily expanded into the LIG-based wearable sensors to reflect the health status or clinical needs of individuals.
... The data will be sent to the ambulance, which will cut down on the time it takes to check the patient. Researchers [21] stated that smart shirts may be used to examine and monitor data processing equipment in a research paper. Sports and fitness, wearable sensors used in clothing must be very thin, flexible, and adaptive to the textile, according to research, or they must be created using textile technology or novel fibers with specific qualities such as electrical, mechanical, and optical features. ...
Chapter
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Biosensors are one of the emerging fields that deals in the development of new sensors to identify the biological process. Biosensors were the first time used platinum electrodes to analyze the presence of oxygen in the environment. In recent years, biosensors are widely used to identify different diseases. With the emergence of information technology, several wearable devices were developed that used widely biosensors and interact with the body. In this book, the chapter author has discussed the biosensor how they developed, and what the advancement is going on. The Author has highlighted the different use of biosensors in different fields. The first part of the manuscript describes the introduction and the characteristic like stability, reproducibility, selectivity, and sensitivity in a biosensor. The principle of biosensors contains the working and the functionality of a biosensor. The electrochemical biosensor, amperometric biosensor, etc. have been discussed later in the manuscript. In the last section, there is a discussion about machine learning in biosensors and how we can use machine learning tools in the development of biosensors and efficient data analysis using these artificial intelligence tools.
... The used material with unique properties based on sensing sweat, temperature, pressure, strain [3,4]. Internet of things (IoT) based miniaturized devices integrate the wireless transmission module onto textile to allows a continuous transfer of physiological information to a remote terminal for further processing [5,6]. The performance of the biopotential monitoring system measure in terms of advancement in electrodes [7]. ...
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The ion sensitive bio-potential amplifier is the critical block in the biomedical instrument. Electrical parameters depend on material properties such as dielectric constants, charge carriers and presence of positive and negative ions. Multiple architectures are available in the literature, have a primary limitation of power consumption, bandwidth, and noise. The different circuit topologies of internal components are capable to provide acceptable value. In this work, 4 topologies of the current mirror have been explored with the primary motivation of reduction in power consumption towards nw. Simulation result of operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) with mod-Wilson current mirror combination attains the minimum power of 437 nW and achieves the input-referred noise to 2.55μV/√Hz which is minimum among different topology of the current mirror. Input referred noise found maximum with simple current mirror 2.9655μV/√Hz. The circuit has been optimized with supply voltage ±0.5V for a mid-band gain.
... [4] Analysed proactive and reactive protocols which provide reliability to wireless sensor network and concluded that proactive protocols are reliable protocols. [5] Smart shirt is proposed. [7] Goodness of the data sent to the sink is measured. ...
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Chapter
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Chapter
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Chapter
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Chapter
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Activity monitoring is a technique for assessing the physical activity that a person undertakes over some time. Activity Index (AI) is a metric that summarizes the raw measurements from tri-axial accelerometers, often used for measuring physical activity. Our research compared the Activity Index for different activity groups and hand usage [1]. We also tested this metric as a classification feature, and how different data acquisition and segmentation parameter configurations influence classification accuracy. Data acquisition was done with a previously developed system that includes a smartwatch on each wrist and a smartphone placed in the subject’s pocket; raw data from smartwatch accelerometers was used for the analysis. We calculated the Activity Index for labeled data segments and used ANOVA1 statistical test with Bonferroni correction. Significant differences were found between cases of hand usage (left, right, none, both). In the next analysis phase, the Activity Index was used as the classification feature with three supervised machine learning algorithms-Support Vector Machine, k-Nearest Neighbors, and Random Forest. The best accuracy (measured by F1 score) of classifying hand usage was achieved by using the Random Forest algorithm, 50 Hz sampling frequency, and a window of 10 s without overlap for AI calculation, and it was 97%. On the other hand, the classification of activity groups had a low accuracy, which indicated that a specific activity group can’t be identified by using only one simple feature.
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Chapter
This chapter discusses the concepts of integrated and technology enabled care in respiratory disease management. The chapter begins with providing an understanding about the rationale of integrated care as an approach for efficient care coordination in the face of global health challenges. It also provides an overview of the various definitions of integrated care and its potential benefits and importance for respiratory care management and the current state of care for respiratory patients and care pathways. The chapter then continues to provide an understanding of the role of technology which has been increasingly recognized as an opportunity to promote the management of people with long-term complex health and social care needs and support the future of integrated care. Perceptions of different stakeholders toward technology incorporation in care, in addition to barriers encountered, are also considered.
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We present TinyOS, a flexible, application-specific operating system for sensor networks. Sen-sor networks consist of (potentially) thousands of tiny, low-power nodes, each of which ex-ecute concurrent, reactive programs that must operate with severe memory and power con-straints. The sensor network challenges of limited resources, event-centric concurrent appli-cations, and low-power operation drive the design of TinyOS. Our solution combines flexible, fine-grain components with an execution model that supports complex yet safe concurrent op-erations. TinyOS meets these challenges well and has become the platform of choice for sensor network research; it is in use by over a hundred groups worldwide, and supports a broad range of applications and research topics. We provide a qualitative and quantitative evaluation of the system, showing that it supports complex, concurrent programs with very low memory requirements (many applications fit within 16KB of memory, and the core OS is 400 bytes) and efficient, low-power operation. We present our experiences with TinyOS as a platform for sensor network innovation and applications.
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Wearable physiological monitoring system consists of an array of sensors embedded into the fabric of the wearer to continuously monitor the physiological parameters and transmit wireless to a remote monitoring station. At the remote monitoring station the data is correlated to study the overall health status of the wearer. In the conventional wearable physiological monitoring system, the sensors are integrated at specific locations on the vest and are interconnected to the wearable data acquisition hardware by wires woven into the fabric. The drawbacks associated with these systems are the cables woven in the fabric pickup noise such as power line interference and signals from nearby radiating sources and thereby corrupting the physiological signals. Also repositioning the sensors in the fabric is difficult once integrated. The problems can be overcome by the use of physiological sensors with miniaturized electronics to condition, process, digitize and wireless transmission integrated into the single module. These sensors are strategically placed at various locations on the vest. Number of sensors integrated into the fabric form a network (Personal Area Network) and interacts with the human system to acquire and transmit the physiological data to a wearable data acquisition system. The wearable data acquisition hardware collects the data from various sensors and transmits the processed data to the remote monitoring station. The paper discusses wireless sensor network and its application to wearable physiological monitoring and its applications. Also the problems associated with conventional wearable physiological monitoring are discussed.
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This paper describes an advanced care and alert portable telemedical monitor (AMON), a wearable medical monitoring and alert system targeting high-risk cardiac/respiratory patients. The system includes continuous collection and evaluation of multiple vital signs, intelligent multiparameter medical emergency detection, and a cellular connection to a medical center. By integrating the whole system in an unobtrusive, wrist-worn enclosure and applying aggressive low-power design techniques, continuous long-term monitoring can be performed without interfering with the patients' everyday activities and without restricting their mobility. In the first two and a half years of this EU IST sponsored project, the AMON consortium has designed, implemented, and tested the described wrist-worn device, a communication link, and a comprehensive medical center software package. The performance of the system has been validated by a medical study with a set of 33 subjects. The paper describes the main concepts behind the AMON system and presents details of the individual subsystems and solutions as well as the results of the medical validation.
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A novel, unobtrusive and wearable, multiparameter ambulatory physiologic monitoring system for space and terrestrial applications, termed LifeGuard, is presented. The core element is a wearable monitor, the crew physiologic observation device (CPOD), that provides the capability to continuously record two standard electrocardiogram leads, respiration rate via impedance plethysmography, heart rate, hemoglobin oxygen saturation, ambient or body temperature, three axes of acceleration, and blood pressure. These parameters can be digitally recorded with high fidelity over a 9-h period with precise time stamps and user-defined event markers. Data can be continuously streamed to a base station using a built-in Bluetooth RF link or stored in 32 MB of on-board flash memory and downloaded to a personal computer using a serial port. The device is powered by two AAA batteries. The design, laboratory, and field testing of the wearable monitors are described.
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Virtual reality (VR) has been making inroads into medicine in a broad spectrum of applications, including medical education, surgical training, telemedicine, surgery and the treatment of phobias and eating disorders. The extensive and innovative applications of VR in medicine, made possible by the rapid advancements in information technology, have been driven by the need to reduce the cost of healthcare while enhancing the quality of life for human beings. In this paper, we discuss the design, development and realisation of an innovative technology known as the Georgia Tech Wearable Motherboard™ (GTWM), or the “Smart Shirt”. The principal advantage of GTWM is that it provides, for the first time, a very systematic way of monitoring the vital signs of humans in an unobtrusive manner. The flexible databus integrated into the structure transmits the information to monitoring devices such as an EKG machine, a temperature recorder, a voice recorder, etc. GTWM is lightweight and can be worn easily by anyone, from infants to senior citizens. We present the universal characteristics of the interface pioneered by the Georgia Tech Wearable Motherboard™ and explore the potential applications of the technology in areas ranging from combat to geriatric care. The GTWM is the realisation of a personal information processing system that gives new meaning to the termubiquitous computing. Just as the spreadsheet pioneered the field of information processing that brought “computing to the masses”, it is anticipated that the Georgia Tech Wearable Motherboard™ will bring personalised and affordable healthcare monitoring to the population at large.
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Application specific design requirements for wireless sensor network have posed new challenges and need for revision of existing designs for its implementation in healthcare systems. These requirements are different from that needed for environmental, agricultural and industrial purposes. The proposed paper discusses the design issues in implementation of Query driven Healthcare monitoring system using wireless sensor network. Various MAC layers designs have been studied for their usefulness and compatibility with the requirements in the healthcare system. Topology and network layer design have also been discussed. Further the low and computational capabilities of wireless sensor nodes itself adds to the design complexity. Therefore some compromises have to be made in both the domains. We aimed to implement a healthcare system using wireless sensor node based on the above study. A hardware platform was designed for the use as wireless sensor node. In this system, a wireless sensor node attached on the human body provides ECG (Electrocardiogram) and body temperature from multiple patients in an ad-hoc network. A mote-based 3-lead ECG and body temperature monitoring system operates in wireless sensor network. Health data from multiple patients can be relayed wirelessly using multi-hop routing scheme to a base-station, following IEEE 802.15.4 standard for wireless communication. Unique id assigned to each mote is used to identify each patient in the network.
Research on the design and development of a Sensate Liner for Combat Casualty Care has led to the realization of the world's first Wearable Motherboard or an "intelligent" garment for the 21st Century. This Georgia Tech Wearable Motherboard (GTWM) provides an extremely versatile framework for the incorporation of sensing, monitoring and information processing devices. The principal advantage of GTWM is that it provides, for the first time, a very systematic way of monitoring the vital signs of humans in an unobtrusive manner. Appropriate sensors have been "plugged" into this motherboard using the developed Interconnection Technology and attached to any part of the individual being monitored, thereby creating a flexible wearable monitoring device. The flexible data bus integrated into the structure transmits the information to monitoring devices such as an EKG Machine, a temperature recorder, a voice recorder, etc. The bus also serves to transmit information to the sensors (and hence, the wearer) from external sources, thus making GTWM a valuable information infrastructure. GTWM is lightweight and can be worn easily by anyone--from infants to senior citizens. GTWM has enormous potential for applications in fields such as telemedicine, monitoring of patients in post-operative recovery, the prevention of SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome), and monitoring of astronauts, athletes, law enforcement personnel and combat soldiers.
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We examined the functionality and reliability of a wearable physiological monitoring system (LifeShirt) during normal daily activities and in a hospital operating room (OR) environment. The garment collects physiological data such as oxygen saturation, and stores them in a recorder from which it can be read afterwards. Ten normal subjects wore the shirt continuously for 8 h per day. Feedback from the testers was quite positive, although the collected data varied in quality. Ten hospital patients also wore the shirt during endoscopy. The data collected during the hospital stay were qualitatively adequate. Measuring respiratory function caused the biggest problems. The study showed that intelligent garment technology could be used in an OR environment for patient monitoring, albeit not in realtime. It may also be useful in home follow-up.
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The wearable physiological monitoring system is a washable shirt, which uses an array of sensors connected to a central processing unit with firmware for continuously monitoring physiological signals. The data collected can be correlated to produce an overall picture of the wearer's health. In this paper, we discuss the wearable physiological monitoring system called 'Smart Vest'. The Smart Vest consists of a comfortable to wear vest with sensors integrated for monitoring physiological parameters, wearable data acquisition and processing hardware and remote monitoring station. The wearable data acquisition system is designed using microcontroller and interfaced with wireless communication and global positioning system (GPS) modules. The physiological signals monitored are electrocardiogram (ECG), photoplethysmogram (PPG), body temperature, blood pressure, galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate. The acquired physiological signals are sampled at 250samples/s, digitized at 12-bit resolution and transmitted wireless to a remote physiological monitoring station along with the geo-location of the wearer. The paper describes a prototype Smart Vest system used for remote monitoring of physiological parameters and the clinical validation of the data are also presented.
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An overview of the key challenges facing the practice of medicine today is presented along with the need for technological solutions that can "prevent" problems. Then, the development of the Wearable Motherboard™ (Smart Shirt) as a platform for sensors and monitoring devices that can unobtrusively monitor the health and well being of individuals (directly and/or remotely) is described. This is followed by a discussion of the applications and impact of this technology in the continuum of life-from preventing SIDS to facilitating independent living for senior citizens. Finally, the future advancements in the area of wearable, yet comfortable, systems that can continue the transformation of healthcare - all aimed at enhancing the quality of life for humans - are presented.
Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs)
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, PART 15.4: Wireless Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications for Low-Rate Wireless Personal Area Networks (LR-WPANs), The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc., Tech. Rep., 2006.