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Determining Hiking Experience in Nature-Based Tourist Destinations

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Abstract

Visitor experiences in natural landscapes are considered integral components of visitor satisfaction research. Many studies have considered satisfaction as a cognitive process leading to an emotional state (J. Travel Res. 34(1) (1995) 11; Outdoor Recreation Benchmark 1988. Proceedings of the National Outdoor Recreation Forum, January, Tampa FL, pp. 422–438). Such emotional states are multidimensional and multisensory manifestations that are exhibited in numerous forms. At the same time they are influenced by preferences, values, beliefs and attitudes or in other words, social cognition of a visitor. Numerous techniques have been used to collect data showing the state of emotions/experiences. Techniques range from simple questionnaires administered in situ, to maintaining diaries of individual activities and experiences, to experiential sampling methods such as those adopted by Hull and Stewart (Environ. Behav. 27 (1995) 404). Recently, more expensive but effective instruments have been used such as video (Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas. Conference Proceedings, pp. 296–301) and sensors using counters (Monitoring and Management of Visitor Flows in Recreational and Protected Areas. Conference Proceedings, pp. 258–263).

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... Another technique for analyzing unstructured textual data is that of multidimensional scaling (MDS), the main purpose of which is that of a better graphical visualization of the data in order to facilitate the understanding of the text structure [22]. In the international literature, the applications of MDS in tourism studies are numerous [23,24]. MDS is usually associated with cluster analysis, a particular application of which is text clustering [6]. ...
... In the text analysis, MDS is a particularly valid automated computer algorithm. MDS is a data visualization technique based on the proximity of words and their spatial representation [23,24]. Another type of machine learning algorithm usually associated with MDS is that of cluster analysis, which is usually applied to transform unstructured word sets into structured clusters [21]. ...
... In this way, it is possible to deduce the main elements perceived by the users (e.g., reviewers), which should be taken into consideration for an effective and rational management of the protected areas. The ease of analysis application and result interpretation are among the main advantages of the MDS [23,24]. ...
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This study aims to conduct a survey of visitor reviews of the Plitvice Lakes National Park in Croatia to detect strengths and weaknesses of the park. In total, 15,673 reviews written in the period between 2007 and 2021 were scraped from the social media platform TripAdvisor. The research applies a comprehensive combination of multidimensional scaling, sentiment analysis, and natural language processing approaches to a sample area of international naturalistic interest. Analyzing the opinions of visitors, the authors identify: the main topics of interest related to the management of the park; and the strengths and weaknesses on the basis of definitely positive and decidedly negative reviews, respectively. The tested methodology is easily applicable for the analysis of different naturalistic contexts and protected areas, even in different countries, thanks to the use of translated reviews. The results obtained show that visitors to protected natural areas are not only interested in naturalistic and landscape aspects but also in issues such as accessibility and management of routes and visits.
... Some regional protocols are developed for guidance on how to monitor and estimate tourism in nature areas, which enables comparability to a higher extent, such as the coordinated effort of producing a visitor monitoring manual between the Nordic and Baltic countries (Kajala, 2007). The ecosystem service toolkit TESSA (Toolkit for Ecosystem Service Site-based Assessment) - Figure 4.1 -offers guidance on economic estimation of the impacts on NBR when changing from one land use or management to another (Bradbury et al., 2021) To assess the question of whether or not planting trees would actually decrease NBR tourism numbers to the case study area, we conducted a survey using in-situ non-probability convenience intercepts sampling (Chhetri et al., 2004;den Breejen, 2007;Newing, 2011;Kim & Weiler, 2013). Following the guidelines by the TESSA Toolkit (Peh et al., 2013), this was combined with a photovisualization approach (Kim & Weiler, 2013), which is commonly used and recommended in studies where attitudes towards changing landscapes are explored (Chhetri et al., 2004;den Breejen, 2007;Soliva & Hunziker, 2009). ...
... The ecosystem service toolkit TESSA (Toolkit for Ecosystem Service Site-based Assessment) - Figure 4.1 -offers guidance on economic estimation of the impacts on NBR when changing from one land use or management to another (Bradbury et al., 2021) To assess the question of whether or not planting trees would actually decrease NBR tourism numbers to the case study area, we conducted a survey using in-situ non-probability convenience intercepts sampling (Chhetri et al., 2004;den Breejen, 2007;Newing, 2011;Kim & Weiler, 2013). Following the guidelines by the TESSA Toolkit (Peh et al., 2013), this was combined with a photovisualization approach (Kim & Weiler, 2013), which is commonly used and recommended in studies where attitudes towards changing landscapes are explored (Chhetri et al., 2004;den Breejen, 2007;Soliva & Hunziker, 2009). This allows the participants to get a sense for a more detailed experience and sense of being within or immersed in the landscape under the different scenarios (Lange, 2001;Orland et al., 2001;Soliva & Hunziker, 2009). ...
Chapter
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Nature-based recreational tourism (NBRT) is increasing in upland regions and provides an important revenue to rural areas but relies on the aesthetic appearance of the landscape, cultural heritage and local perspectives. Woodlands are an important part of the solution to the climate and biodiversity crises. This raises emotive and (often) polarised arguments for and against increasing woodland cover. We carried out a survey of NBRT, using photovisualisation of different woodland scenarios in an upland landscape in the UK. We investigated tourist preferences for woodland levels, estimated the economic value of tourism, and assessed the likely impact on tourist visitor patterns should woodland cover increase. A qualitative Q-methodology investigation of local stakeholder perspectives elucidated both what such changes may entail to their local area and cultural identity, and the underlying values/emotions that influence opinions. The study offers a deeper understanding of this complex topic and shows that NBRT generates a substantial income to the area and visitor numbers will not decrease with up to a 75% increase in woodland cover. Combining quantitative and qualitative approaches identifies key concerns and conflicts and offers insights to address and/or alleviate concerns by appealing to both ‘head’ and ‘heart’ perspectives.
... Where there is a need to survey the views of a specific target participant (people that are visiting the area in question for NBR purposes), non-probability convenience intercepts sampling has shown to be beneficial. (Chhetri et al., 2004;den Breejen 2007;Newing, 2011;Kim & Weiler, 2013). A common and recommended approach in studies, where perceptions of a changing landscape are explored (Chhetri et al., 2004;den Breejen, 2007;Soliva & Hunziker, 2009;Kim & Weiler, 2013), is to carry out the sampling in-situ and combined with a visual aid of the landscape changes. ...
... (Chhetri et al., 2004;den Breejen 2007;Newing, 2011;Kim & Weiler, 2013). A common and recommended approach in studies, where perceptions of a changing landscape are explored (Chhetri et al., 2004;den Breejen, 2007;Soliva & Hunziker, 2009;Kim & Weiler, 2013), is to carry out the sampling in-situ and combined with a visual aid of the landscape changes. This allows the participants to get a sense for a more detailed experience and sense of being within or immersed in the landscape under the different scenarios (Lefebvre, 1991;Lange, 2001;Orland et al., 2001;Soliva & Hunziker, 2009). ...
Article
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Upland landscapes provide important ecosystem services (ES) to society. One cultural ES– nature-based recreational tourism (NBR) – is a growing industry in upland regions that provides an important revenue to areas where other industries are often in decline. NBR tourism is a service that relies partly on the aesthetic appearance of the landscape and changes in land management, such as increasing woodland cover, changes the appearance of the landscape and may therefore have a positive or negative impact on the economic value generated by NBR tourism. We tested this query, by carrying out a survey of NBR tourists, using photo visualisation of different woodland scenarios, in a pastoral upland landscape in a UK National Park. This was conducted to estimate the economic value of NBR tourism under different woodland scenarios and participant’s preferences. The findings presented in this paper suggest that NBR tourism generates a substantial income to the area and that the economic value would not decrease, if woodland cover were to increase up to 75%. The findings also make an important observation on how there is a difference between peoples’ preference for woodland levels and the probability of return visits.
... Tourists' emotional preference is usually generated by destination attractiveness (Yin et al., 2020). For nature-based destinations, tourists' emotions associate with high scenic attractiveness, a combination of various feelings and sensory properties of the perceived landscape (Chhetri et al., 2004). Loyalty is a moral emotion rather than just a behavior or an instrumental, making people feel they owe an obligation to someone or something (Connor et al., 2021). ...
... Therefore, protecting the natural resources is definitely necessary to trigger the tourists' AL and BL. Furthermore, based on the stimulus-organism relationship, the high natural attractiveness would stimulate nature-based tourists' moral emotions about the perceived natural landscape (Chhetri et al., 2004). That also echoes the finding of the DA-DL relationship. ...
Article
This study examined the causal relationships between destination attractiveness, attitudinal and behavioral loyalty, and environmentally responsible behavior based on the Stimulus-Organism-Response (SOR) model. Four hundred and eighty-six nature-based tourists were collected from Xitou Nature Education Area, Taiwan. Results show that the SOR model can effectively explain nature-based tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior generation. Tourists’ destination attractiveness would significantly trigger attitudinal and behavioral loyalty, and environmentally responsible behavior. Attitudinal and behavioral loyalty are the essential drivers to generate tourists’ environmentally responsible behavior. This study further contributes to the literature exploring destination loyalty as a mediator of environmentally responsible behavior.
... As momentary experience is still a developing concept in the built environment research, a generally accepted definition of it is lacking. Despite this, there is an agreement [28,64,65] that momentary experience can be defined as a short-term perception that ''covers a wide range of subjective meanings such as moods, emotions and feelings of individuals" [65]. Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in using momentary experiences influencing people's evaluation of the design aspects of urban environments [28]. ...
... As momentary experience is still a developing concept in the built environment research, a generally accepted definition of it is lacking. Despite this, there is an agreement [28,64,65] that momentary experience can be defined as a short-term perception that ''covers a wide range of subjective meanings such as moods, emotions and feelings of individuals" [65]. Recently, researchers have shown an increased interest in using momentary experiences influencing people's evaluation of the design aspects of urban environments [28]. ...
Article
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Although it has become increasingly recognized that the spatial design of public space plays an important role in the perceived quality of the built environment by users, there is still little known about the influences of specific attributes on individuals’ experiences. Therefore, this study aims at (1) identifying the factors underlying momentary experiences in public space given both cognitive (satisfaction) and affective (emotion) responses and (2) understanding the experiences as a function of green and design attributes and analyzing the heterogeneity in preferences. To achieve the research goals, this study innovatively introduced an online video-based stated preference experiment. A national sample of 316 individuals from the Netherlands were invited to complete the experiment. The results of a factor analysis indicate that the momentary experiences of the environments presented can be reduced to a single preference dimension capturing the cognitive as well as affective elements of experiences. The results of a latent class regression analysis furthermore show that there is substantial heterogeneity on how attributes are experienced. Three classes emerge which differ in terms of satisfaction with life and satisfaction with availability of green in the current living environment on dwelling, neighborhood, and city level. Presence of trees, vertical green on façades, and grass surfaces were found to be most important for individuals’ experiences generally. The paper provides a new understanding of how spatial attributes in neighborhood public spaces can influence individuals’ momentary experiences. For cities pursuing both greenification and densification, this study offers quantitative evidence to support the selection of design attributes of neighborhood public spaces which can evoke positive experiences.
... Previous studies that focused on exploring hiking tourists' benefits sought motivations [14], determinants of experience quality [15][16][17], satisfaction and behavior intention [18,19]. Despite various common experience elements that have been unveiled in prior studies, the preferences of hikers from different cultural backgrounds seem to be underexplored. ...
... Through hiking activities, tourists can obtain mobility experiences related to self-perception and personal growth [29]. Chhetri, Arrowsmith and Jackson [15] found that the hiking experience has four dimensions: desirable, impelling, apprehension and social interaction experiences. The desirable experience is desirable feelings, such as excitement, relaxation, etc. ...
Article
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Hiking is now one of the most popular activities amongst adventure travelers. Although recent studies have highlighted the differences between Chinese adventure tourists and their international counterparts, few studies have comprehensively explored the differences in hikers’ interests and concerns for experience elements between these two groups. Topic modeling is adopted for an analysis of the online reviews of the Mutianyu Great Wall to identify attributes influencing hikers’ experiences and behavior. Using a large-scale review dataset, the latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) technique was applied to construct a comprehensive list of the topics posted by hikers. The findings revealed that Chinese and non-Chinese hikers have common concerns regarding the degree of challenges, scenery, tour services and crowding during hiking. Nevertheless, their perceptions of cultural resources are presented in a different way. These findings are beneficial for understanding the similarities and differences between Chinese and non-Chinese hikers’ perceptions, in addition to improving domestic and international markets’ management and marketing strategies.
... Hiking tourism can be described as tourism that promotes a slow consumption of territory through adapted routes, which in their immediate vicinity are equipped with heritage sources and specialized tourist services and facilities (Gómez-Martín, 2019). Hiking tourism aims to bring tourists closer to nature and to enable them to find out more about the area through which they are walking by discovering diverse heritage and ethnographic features, situated on or near the paths or tracks (Chhetri, Arrowsmith, & Jackson, 2004;Svarstad, 2010). Briefly explained, the aim of hiking is not just walking for the sake of walking, but walking to meet a range of needs and instincts of varying degrees of importance to different people, which develop over time as a result of various factors such as social, economic, environmental and personal factors (Gómez-Martín, 2019; Kay & Moxham, 1996). ...
... If experiences are relaxing, pleasing or exciting it will result in satisfaction. On the other hand, boring or frustrating activities lead to the oppositedissatisfaction (Chhetri et al., 2004). The experience of a satisfying hike is associated with certain motivational needs (Nordbø & Prebensen, 2015) but also potentially resolved by other factors such as the consumption or leisure (Chen, Li, & Chen, 2013). ...
Article
Nature-based tourism has become one of the most popular leisure activities in the world. Activities in nature-based sites bring tourists closer to nature and enable them to find out more about the area through which they are walking by discovering diverse heritage and ethnographic features, situated on or near the hiking trails. It brings a wide range of individual benefits such as boosting mood, improving mental health, reducing stress, calming anxiety, and can lead to a lower risk of depression. Hiking accounts for a significant share of nature-based tourism especially now during the COVID- 19 pandemic. This paper aims to explore the main motives that drive people to hike. Motivation is a key concept in determining and understanding the reasons for leisure and outdoor activities. Using the data collected in March 2021, the findings underline the importance of Relaxation, Discovery and Enjoyment as the factor that shows the greatest hiker’s motivation. In addition, Creativity, Learning and Control and Socializing have also proven to be important motivating factors. On the other hand, Recognition has been shown to be the least motive for hiking activities and people do not go on hiking to be recognized or show others that they can do it, except in some cases with younger and less experienced hikers. The paper concludes with research limitations and implications for destination management organizations and tourism service providers.
... Tourist activities such as visits, entertainment, learning, and enjoyment [53], are both physical and psychological experiences [54]. Tourists strengthen their relationship with a destination and generate positive emotions with, and attachment to, the destination through behavioral participation and interaction [55]. Tourist experiences generate pleasure states which form different dimensions [56]. ...
... Nature bonding focuses on the natural environment of the destination and the emotional connection between the tourist and environment [50]. In contrast, education experience emphasizes the cultural aspects of the destination [55]. Qianshan Mountain is home to many natural and ecological landscapes that enable tourists to experience feelings inspired by the beautiful aesthetics, while the landscapes with cultural aspects and knowledge elements are likely to attract tourists' attention. ...
Article
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Mountain tourism is an important part of China’s tourism market. Tourist behavior is essential to environmental protection and the sustainability of destinations. This paper takes environmentally responsible behavior (ERB) as an important tourist behavior. It breaks down the dimensions of the traditional tourism experience, such as hedonism, participation, novelty; or hedonism, involvement, novelty, local culture; and analyzes the influence of entertainment, education, aesthetics, and escape on place attachment from the nature of the tourism experience. It then incorporates nature bonding into the system of place attachment and analyzes the relationship with place attachment, tourist experiences, and ERBs in Qianshan Mountain, a 5A scenic spot in China. Partial least squares structural (PLS) equation modeling is used to analyze the data of 410 valid questionnaires. The results found that tourist experiences affect ERBs through place attachment. Nature bonding is the key factor of ERBs. The results are as follows: escape and aesthetics influence ERB through nature bonding; entertainment influences general ERB through place identity and nature bonding; education has a positive impact on general ERB through place identity and place dependence. Entertainment and education experiences partially affect place attachment. Place identity and nature bonding affect general ERB, but particular ERB is related only to nature bonding. The internal psychological mechanism of ERB is identified. In addition, mountain landscapes can be designed from the perspective of entertainment experiences, landscape aesthetic, leisure atmosphere and educational functions, so that tourists can spontaneously pay attention to environmental issues and engage in the practical activities of environmental protection.
... The third aspect is mental benefits. Studies have identified that hikers could escape from daily life and peacefulness by hiking (Chhetri et al., 2004;Mills, 2001;Roberson & Babic, 2009;Saayman & Viljoen, 2016). The fourth aspect is the information related to hiking trails, such as maps, tourism information and the culture or history of the trails (Nordbø & Prebensen, 2015). ...
... The landscape properties, which are suitable for ecotourism, were evaluated and classified in the sense of their tourist attraction. The view shed analysis was done to determine the scenic attractiveness by Chhetri et al. (2004). In this study, high visibility values near range (> 6) were ranked as high suitable, middle visibility values middle range (3-6) were ranked as moderate, low visibility values far range (1-3) were ranked as marginal, and (0-1) invisible were ranked as not suited for ecotourism development, as described by Bunruamkaew and Murayama (2011) and Suryabhagavan and Balakrishnan (2015). ...
Article
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Potential ecotourism site suitability evaluation for sustainable natural resource management in Kafta Sheraro National Park (KSNP), north-western Tigray, Ethiopia
... The landscape properties suitable for ecotourism were evaluated and classified as tourist attractions. Chhetri et al. [58] used viewshed analysis to determine scenic attractiveness. According to Bunruamkaew & Murayama [45] and Suryabhagavan & Balakrishnan [50], high visibility values between 6 and 9 are highly suitable, middle visibility values between 3 and 6 are moderate, low visibility values between 1 and 3 are marginal, and visibility values between 0 and 1 are unsuitable for ecotourism development ( Fig. 3k and Table 5). ...
Article
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The East Hararghe Zone (EHZ) is one of the eastern Ethiopian zones most endowed with diverse landscapes and abundant resources to promote and use for ecotourism development. Potential ecotourism sites have, however, hardly ever been explored so far. The objective of this study was to model and identify potential ecotourism sites by combining Geographic Information System (GIS)-based Multi-Criteria Decision-Making (MCDM) and Analytical Hierarchy Process (AHP) methods. Six criteria, including landscape and naturalness, wildlife, topography, accessibility, geology, and climate, were established based on experts' preferences and literature, and the thematic factors for suitability modeling were derived from freely accessible satellite imagery and existing geospatial data and combined using a weighted linear combination (WLC) method. The results reveal that about 26.19% were highly suitable, 35.34% were moderately suitable, 25.28% were marginally suitable, and 13.17% were not suitable. Most areas with high to marginal suitability were found in the southeast, southwest, and uplands in the northern part, while the southernmost extent had the highest proportion of areas unsuitable for ecotourism development. The area under the curve (AUC) assessment has verified the model's performance, resulting in an overall AUC of 74.96%. This suggests that a model-driven map is a reliable spatial support tool for sustainable ecotourism development in areas with diverse landscapes and resources.
... Las regiones de montaña y los espacios protegidos generan especial interés desde el punto de vista del ocio y del turismo (Beedie y Hudson, 2003;Chhetri et al., 2004;Margaryan y Fredman, 2017;Sievänen et al., 2011). Durante el año 2019 en Finlandia el impacto económico del turismo rural en los 40 parques nacionales fue de 219,3 millones de euros, mientras que en las 5 zonas senderistas ha sido de 13,1 millones de euros (Metsähallitus Organisation, 2019). ...
Thesis
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Resumen Introducción La tesis doctoral "El senderismo como propuesta turística para luchar contra la despoblación: el caso del interior de la provincia de Castellón" representa un estudio del fenómeno de la despoblación en relación con una de las actividades más importantes de la economía regional, nacional e internacional, el turismo. Al mismo tiempo, se relaciona con una de las actividades de mayor éxito en el ámbito turístico, las actividades deportivas en la naturaleza, más concretamente, el senderismo. Todo ello está enmarcado en una región concreta de la Comunidad Valenciana: el interior de la provincia de Castellón. Una zona única que, por sus características naturales, patrimoniales y culturales, puede representar un perfecto banco de pruebas que genera un punto de inflexión para la aplicación y réplica de productos y servicios turísticos en el resto de las regiones españolas. Metodología Para este estudio se ha diseñado una metodología cualitativa. Por un lado, se han realizado un total de 18 entrevistas semiestructuradas, con una duración de entre 40 y 70 minutos. Los perfiles de las personas entrevistadas incluían diversos agentes implicados en el turismo deportivo tanto en el ámbito privado como en el público. Estos agentes tienen contacto directo con los usuarios/excursionistas a través de los diferentes servicios y/o productos que ofrecen. Además, se han realizado 2 grupos focales con perfiles similares a las entrevistas, incluyendo miembros de la población local. Todo el trabajo de recogida de información se ha llevado a cabo entre septiembre de 2019 y noviembre de 2021. Tanto las entrevistas como los grupos focales se realizaron en un espacio tranquilo, para no tener ningún elemento que distorsionara la opinión de cada uno de los participantes. Con el fin de seguir cuidadosamente la literatura científica sobre técnicas de trabajo, se explicaron a los informantes una serie de normas en función de la técnica utilizada. Los perfiles seleccionados responden al doble criterio geográfico y profesional. Por un lado, en cuanto a los criterios profesionales, se han seleccionado los diferentes perfiles de participantes implicados en el ámbito del turismo y el patrimonio. Por otro lado, en cuanto a los criterios geográficos, se ha intentado representar al mayor número de localidades de la zona de investigación. Para llevar a cabo el procedimiento de análisis de la información, se elaboró y normalizó el guion en función de una serie de variables establecidas que permitieron a los investigadores averiguar qué elementos patrimoniales son los más utilizados para mejorar la calidad de la experiencia, así como qué tipo de estrategias de promoción se estaban aplicando. Resultados En la sección de resultados se analizan cuatro grandes bloques de información. La conjunción de estas categorías interdependientes y complementarias permite dar respuesta y realizar una construcción lo más científica posible de la intersección entre el fenómeno de la despoblación, el turismo deportivo y el senderismo. En primer lugar, se ha establecido cualitativamente el perfil sociodemográfico de los visitantes del destino estudiado. El estudio de las distintas variables es necesario para caracterizar los diferentes perfiles que visitan la zona. Esta información permite a los distintos grupos de interés segmentar servicios y productos adaptados a sus necesidades. Al mismo tiempo, también representa un buen indicador del estado de especialización de los diferentes alojamientos excursionistas de la zona. En segundo lugar, siguiendo la literatura científica sobre factores de atracción turística, se han analizado 4 elementos clave en esta relación: la accesibilidad al lugar, las opciones de alojamiento disponibles, la calidad y cantidad de la oferta de ocio y la novedad del territorio. En tercer lugar, y siguiendo con la idea anterior, es muy importante el análisis de la gran variedad de elementos patrimoniales existentes. Conocer el entorno y las posibilidades que ofrece puede suponer una ventaja competitiva para los diferentes alojamientos excursionistas. Por último, se ha analizado el papel que juegan las nuevas tecnologías en la gestión y promoción de los destinos. Conclusiones A partir del análisis de toda la información, se han extraído una serie de conclusiones muy interesantes. El subsector del turismo deportivo ha experimentado un crecimiento muy fuerte en cifras totales en los últimos años. Este crecimiento se ha observado también en zonas geográficas muy concretas como son las zonas rurales y de montaña, crecimiento que se ha visto potenciado por la crisis sanitaria COVID-19. Entre la variedad de actividades en el ámbito del turismo deportivo, el senderismo es una de las más interesantes por varias razones. En primer lugar, es una actividad que puede ser practicada por la gran mayoría del público. En segundo lugar, puede vincularse a otras actividades culturales y sociales, lo que enriquece aún más la actividad. El senderismo, como actividad turística, representa un elemento diferenciador de la experiencia turística. A pesar de todo, la información obtenida de los informantes ha confirmado la escasa especialización del sector del turismo deportivo y más aún de los productos relacionados con el senderismo. Este factor tiene varias interpretaciones: por un lado, los alojamientos pueden utilizar otros recursos o factores de atracción para llegar a un mayor número de visitantes. Por otro, existe el riesgo de perder este flujo de visitantes en favor de otros destinos más especializados. En relación con lo anterior, este factor puede representar al mismo tiempo una gran oportunidad para el sector del turismo deportivo mediante la gestión y aplicación de diversas estrategias. En primer lugar, la segmentación de clientes. Conocer el perfil sociodemográfico del visitante es una de las tareas más importantes de la industria turística. En segundo lugar, las herramientas digitales se han desarrollado enormemente en los últimos años. Su vinculación con los distintos ámbitos y sectores productivos ha sido muy potente. En el ámbito del turismo, la digitalización está muy presente y representa uno de los grandes retos de futuro, para conseguir un turismo más sostenible y de mayor calidad. En el ámbito más práctico del turismo, las herramientas digitales permiten mejoras en el campo de la promoción y el marketing, ya que se puede llegar a más clientes potenciales; y en el campo de la gestión interna, agilizando algunas de las tareas de gestión. En tercer lugar, una de las principales motivaciones de los turistas es el atractivo del paisaje cultural y natural que rodea al alojamiento. En este sentido, los propietarios de los establecimientos hoteleros deberían promocionar este patrimonio para mejorar la satisfacción de los clientes. Hemos detectado un bajo nivel de promoción del patrimonio natural y cultural asociado al territorio de los establecimientos. Recomendamos a los responsables de los establecimientos turísticos que valoren y promocionen este patrimonio cultural. Los aspectos positivos de esta actividad turística en el medio rural pesan más que las posibles amenazas al patrimonio, que en cualquier caso no deben subestimarse. Esta estrategia aumentará el número de visitantes y mejorará su satisfacción.
... In addition, this sport is associated with other definitions, such as bush-walking, tramping, trekking, jogging, or simply walking; it can last several hours or days, or even weeks, on or off trails [7]. Moreover, this activity has become the most important recreational activity in the mountains-based regions due to the natural landscape view [22]. ...
Article
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Adventure tourism is a popular and growing segment within the tourism industry that involves, but is not limited to, hiking, running, and climbing activities. These activities attract investment from foreign travelers interested in practicing sports while exploring other countries. As a result, many software companies started developing Artificial Intelligence solutions to enhance tourists' outdoor adventure experience. One of the leading technologies in this field is recommender systems, which provide personalized recommendations to tourists based on their preferences. While this topic is actively being researched in some sports (running and hiking), other adventure sports disciplines have yet to be fully explored. To standardize the development of intelligence-based recommender systems, we conducted a systematic literature review on more than a thousand scientific papers published in decision support system applications in three outdoor adventure sports, such as running, hiking, and sport climbing. Hence, the main focus of this work is, firstly, to summarize the state-of-the-art methods and techniques being researched and developed by scientists in recommender systems in adventure tourism, secondly, to provide a unified methodology for software solutions designed in this domain, and thirdly, to give further insights into open possibilities in this topic. This literature survey serves as a unified framework for the future development of technologies in adventure tourism. Moreover, this paper seeks to guide the development of more effective and personalized recommendation systems.
... Although GIS has been used for tourism studies, there are several studies that specifically use GIS as a method/methodology to support the decision-making process for tourism studies [24]. An integrated GIS approach is required to assess tourism potential [25,[31][32][33][34][35]. ...
Article
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Indonesia is rich of nature, culture, customs, culinary, and religions spread over many regions. The majority of Indonesia territory is rural areas. The existing potentials and attractions in rural areas make a lot of villages developed into tourist villages. One region that has quite a high number of tourist villages is Semarang Regency, Central Java, Indonesia. The high number of tourist villages that belongs to Semarang Regency is actually not in line with the high length of stay of the visiting tourists. Therefore, it requires the right method to develop the rural tourism potential, which is cluster-based rural tourism development. The purpose of this research is to develop a methodology for identifying the potential area of rural tourism clusters in geographic feature. The method used is Geographic Information System (GIS) based Kernel Density Estimation (KDE). The analysis brings to a map that identifies regions with strong cluster potential to develop the informative rural tourism. The map generated clearly indicates that the regions with strong potentials to become tourist village cluster in Semarang Regency are the combined cluster areas of Ungaran and Bergas District and Sumowono District. Hopefully the generated map will be informative for the stakeholders, the policy makers, and the tourism development area organizers.
... Based on these results, the greater the experience of flow experienced by adventure tourists, the greater the satisfaction of their trip. This study confirmsChhetri et al. (2004), who showed that flow conditions are essential in understanding customer satisfaction. Similarly,Bilgihan et al. (2015), in the context of online ticket ordering, stated that experience flow was related to satisfaction and loyalty. ...
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Adventure tourism has received significant attention recently because it offers unique sensations. Managers of adventure tourism objects need to understand the determinants of satisfaction in adventure tourism. This study aims to examine the effect of intrinsic motivation and flow theory on extreme and non-extreme adventure tourists’ satisfaction in Indonesia. This study uses a quantitative approach. The sample includes 405 tourists engaged in adventure tourism activities (extreme adventure tourism activities – 200 respondents, and non-extreme adventure tourism activities – 205 respondents). Structural Equation Modeling-Partial Least Square (SEM-PLS) was used to analyze the data. The results show that autonomy and competence influence flow experience (p-value < 0.05). This applies to extreme adventure and non-extreme adventure tourism. Furthermore, flow experience has a positive effect on adventure tourist satisfaction. In the context of extreme adventure tourism, autonomy does not affect the satisfaction of extreme adventure tourists (path coefficients = 0.025 and p-value = 0.761). In the context of non-extreme adventure tourism, competence does not affect the satisfaction of non-extreme adventure tourists (path coefficients = –0.036 and p-value = 0.682). This study recommends that managers of non-extreme tourism spots add challenging aspects to tour packages because they are believed to increase tourist satisfaction.
... As people become more involved in hiking, they are more likely to be specialized in hiking in terms of skill, knowledge, and behavioral commitment. For example, they may try to explore more challenging and diverse slopes (e.g., wilderness areas), purchase new hiking equipment (e.g., sturdier boots), and develop hiking techniques (e.g., breathing in rhythm with steps, maintaining a pace) (Chhetri et al., 2004). Such strong commitments to leisure activities can contribute to subjective well-being (Heo, Lee, McCormick, & Pedersen, 2010). ...
Article
Prior studies have challenged the notion that recreationists progress along the specialization continuum over time. Using a sample of 443 Korean hikers, this study aimed to determine whether the relationship of specialization to leisure involvement, leisure satisfaction, and happiness is linear or curvilinear. Further, we examined the potential moderating effect of specialization on the relationship between leisure satisfaction and happiness. Results indicated that hikers showed greater specialization as their behavioral involvement increased to a certain point, beyond which specialization decreased. There were also inverted U-shape curvilinear relationships of specialization to levels of leisure satisfaction and happiness. Moreover, there was a significant moderating effect of specialization on the relationship between leisure satisfaction and happiness. Our findings provide deeper insights into the relationship between specialization, leisure satisfaction, and happiness among hikers. Furthermore, managerial implications for public leisure agencies to improve leisure satisfaction and psychological well-being of hikers were discussed.
... The flow experience has been introduced as the main factor in learning consumer satisfaction (Chhetri et al., 2004;Kim and Ko, 2019). The flow experience can be a motivator to anticipate user satisfaction (Bilgihan et al., 2014;Chang and Zhu, 2012;Kim and Thapa, 2018;Shin, 2006), loyalty (Huang et al., 2017) and behaviour (Kim and Thapa, 2018). ...
... Only when tourists are actively remembered and recalled after experiencing tourism activities or events can they be called memorable travel experiences (Kim et al., 2012). Thus, memorability is the key result of tourism experiences (Chhetri et al., 2004). Working memory, short-term memory, and long-term memory are all components of the complex cognitive system known as memory (Kim and Chen, 2021). ...
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“Welcome Back Tourism” is an important marketing strategy to help overseas Tourism destinations quickly recover from the crisis and enhance their core competitiveness. How to translate the memorability of tourists to revisit intention is the core key to open “Welcome Back Tourism.” This study takes local residents in Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Foshan as the research objects, and tries to explore the influence relationship between memorability of a previous travel experience, nostalgia, destination attachment and revisit intention. The results of 291 valid data showed that memorability of a previous travel experience had positive influence on revisit intention; Nostalgia has a positive effect on destination attachment. Nostalgia and destination attachment play a mediating role in the influence of memorability of a previous travel experience on revisit intention. The contributions and management Recommendations of these findings are discussed.
... The terrain can vary from flat to very steep. Hiking tours include short hikes and daily excursions [1][2][3]. ...
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The aim of the study was to analyze the wellbeing profiles in a group of Polish mountain hikers. The study involved 242 young people (M = 23.50; SD = 4.40) who completed various wellbeing scales: The Oxford Happiness Questionnaire (OHQ), Meaning of Life Questionnaire (MLQ), Positive and Negative Affect Scale (PANAS), Time Satisfaction Scale (TSS), Hope Scale, General Self-Efficiency Scale, Ego Resiliency Scale, Revised Life Orientation Test (LOT-R), and Adventure-Seeking Behavior Scale. Cluster analyses revealed two types of mountain hikers: hard adventure hikers and soft adventure hikers, with different profiles of subjective wellbeing. Hard adventure hikers most often revealed high levels of life satisfaction, control of life, meaning of life, and positive emotions, along with low levels of negative emotions. Moreover, these hikers revealed high levels of satisfaction in various time perspectives (past, present, and future) and a high level of psychological capital. On the other hand, soft adventure hikers most often revealed an average level of satisfaction with life, control of life, and positive emotions, average satisfaction in the past and present time perspective, and average levels of psychological capital. Soft adventure hikers also revealed higher levels of negative emotions and satisfaction in the future time perspective. The present research indicated that mountain hikers are not a homogenous group. The profiles of wellbeing in the hikers varied depending on the type of stimulating behavior in a natural environment.
... Within the framework of nature exploration, we can focus on the nature of the landscape itself, which consists of relief and its forms, its coverage, orography and hydrography, topography, flora and fauna, geological development of the area, special geological forma- tions, and nature protection. Hiking is usually the most important recreational activity in mountainous areas and protected areas [33,45,46]. It has the potential to provide important tourism revenues to the local population [47]. ...
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Leisure time and its quality use is becoming increasingly important in society. We can spend it primarily on physical activity, which offer many options, as it provides an entertainment and has a complex effect on our physical and mental health. Walking as a basis for hiking is the most accessible form of physical activity. Hiking is known as a low-level adventure activity, making it popular, and therefore, it presents an important tourism product around the world. The aim of hiking is the improvement of spiritual wealth, physical capabilities, mental resilience, and the general health of a person. An essential activity of hiking is the exploration of natural beauties and monuments. The tourist chooses a certain attractive place based on the route by which he can arrive there. The aim of this study is to provide a better understanding of the motivations of mountain hikers and to discuss the issue in wider contexts. This study examines the individual components comprising the decision-making process when choosing a hiking trail, such as slope of a terrain, relief, hiking trail surface, difficulty level of hiking trail, natural monuments, environmental attractiveness, and hiker’s internal motivation. The study contributes to contemporary literature on soft adventure hiking. Definitively, the findings provide important data in the creation of attractive and sustainable tourism products tailored to and planning for sustainable development of the territory in terms of tourism.
... The entertainment and enjoyment are the very important which improve the experience of tourists [54]. Through behavioral involvement and connection, tourists improve association along with destination and also maintain an important emotions and attachments (Chhetri, Arrowsmith, & Jackson, 2004;Sims, 2009). Tourist experiences produce a variety of enjoyment states that take on different dimensions (Kim, Ritchie, & McCormick, 2012).The visitor experience was separated into four dimensions by Paulauskaite, Powell, Coca-Stefaniak, and Morrison (2017) and Lebrun, Su, and Bouchet (2021): entertainment, education, aesthetics, as well as escape. ...
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The current research had identified the contributing sources for the substance of environmental responsible behavior (ERB) in mountain tourism in Kampaengpet Province, Thailand. Kampaengpet Provinces, Thailand's economy grew significantly as a result of its involvement. This development could be maximized if the environmental responsible behavior is increased. Various studies mentioned in the literature that tourist experience and place attachment played an important role to enhance the environmental behavior. Consequently, the present research objective was to evaluate the moderating effect of place attachment between the association of tourist experience and environmental responsible behavior. To get this objective, the data was collected from the tourist which were came for visit. The key findings had shown that tourist responsible behavior directly positively and significantly effect by tourism experience. While place attachment has a moderating influence on the association between tourist experience and environmentally responsible behavior, it also has a moderating effect on the relationship between tourist experience and environmental responsibility. Theoretically, the present study tested a moderating effect of place attachment which also has a significant moderating between the association of tourist experience and tourist environmental experience.
... Through-hiking means walking an established long-distance trail end-to-end within one hiking season. We have also dog hiking or glacier hiking [3][4][5]. ...
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To assess personal resources: Core Self Evaluations and Psychological Capital (HERO) of 95 winter Hikers (M age = 27.10 yrs.; SD = 7.30) and 98 summer Hikers (M age = 25.30 yrs.; SD = 5.40) visiting the Tatra National Park (Poland). The hikers filled in seven scales. These were: the Delta Questionnaire for measure Locus of Control, the Neuroticism scale (from the NEO-FFI), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES), the Hope Scale, The Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES), the Ego Resiliency Scale, and The Life Orientation Test Revised (LOT-R). The results indicated significant differences between winter and summer hikers in the Tatras. The winter hikers scored higher on self-esteem, hope, self-efficacy, resilience, and optimism, and lower on external locus of control and neuroticism than summer hikers. This study also examined the factor structure of the personal resources in the hikers' samples. The results suggested that the scales extracted two factors: Cognitive Resources and Affective Reactivity. These factors discriminate between winter and summer hikers. The Cognitive Resources factor is more important in effective adaptation to the wild world of nature than Affective Reactivity.
... After the trip, memory affects tourist perception of short-term and long-term experiences again (Marschall, 2012a). In fact, tourism helps people construct stories and collect memories (Kahneman, 2011), and memorability is considered to be an important result of the travel experience (Pine and Gilmore, 1998;Chhetri et al., 2004). For this reason, Marschall (2012a) proposed "Personal Memory Tourism, " which was considered as a form of tourism driven by one's past memories. ...
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This paper evaluates a theoretical model based on hypothesized relationships among four constructs, namely, autobiographical memory (memory rehearsal and memory impact), and place attachment as antecedents of revisit intention and recommendation intention in the context of rural tourism in China. The results of 301 Chinese tourists show that the two dimensions of tourists’ autobiographical memory (memory rehearsal and memory impact) affect the tourists’ intention to revisit and recommend. Place attachment plays an intermediary role among tourists’ autobiographical memory, revisit intention, and recommendation intention. This study is the first to apply the structural dimension of autobiographical memory has been applied to rural tourism in China. Theoretical and managerial implications are discussed based on the study results.
... The entertainment and enjoyment are the very important which improve the experience of tourists [54]. Through behavioral involvement and connection, tourists improve association along with destination and also maintain an important emotions and attachments (Chhetri, Arrowsmith, & Jackson, 2004;Sims, 2009). Tourist experiences produce a variety of enjoyment states that take on different dimensions (Kim, Ritchie, & McCormick, 2012).The visitor experience was separated into four dimensions by Paulauskaite, Powell, Coca-Stefaniak, and Morrison (2017) and Lebrun, Su, and Bouchet (2021): entertainment, education, aesthetics, as well as escape. ...
Article
Full-text available
The current research had identified the contributing sources for the substance of environmental responsible behavior (ERB) in mountain tourism in Kampaengpet Province, Thailand. Kampaengpet Provinces, Thailand's economy grew significantly as a result of its involvement. This development could be maximized if the environmental responsible behavior is increased. Various studies mentioned in the literature that tourist experience and place attachment played an important role to enhance the environmental behavior. Consequently, the present research objective was to evaluate the moderating effect of place attachment between the association of tourist experience and environmental responsible behavior. To get this objective, the data was collected from the tourist which were came for visit. The key findings had shown that tourist responsible behavior directly positively and significantly effect by tourism experience. While place attachment has a moderating influence on the association between tourist experience and environmentally responsible behavior, it also has a moderating effect on the relationship between tourist experience and environmental responsibility. Theoretically, the present study tested a moderating effect of place attachment which also has a significant moderating between the association of tourist experience and tourist environmental experience.
... Contrary to residents, whose travel and walking behavior is often characterized by constraints in time, frequently taken paths, and ample knowledge about the topographical features of the city, tourists are often found to wander about with an exploratory attitude (Gorrini and Bertini 2018), moving at a lower speed, and consequently making distance and streetscape character more relevant (Vojnovic 2006). During the last few decades there has been an increase in research on walking tourism and recreational walking, such as hiking, trekking, and longdistance walking in natural and rural areas (Murray and Graham 1997;Allaire 1998;Coble et al. 2003;Chhetri et al. 2004;den Breejen 2007;Cutler et al. 2014). However, little attention has been paid to walking tourism in urban areas or, more precisely, relatively short-distance walking in the built environment and in cultural settings (Yun et al. 2018), even though walking is a fundamental, universal, and significant tourist activity (Ashworth and Dietvorst 1995;Thornton et al. 1997;Shaw et al. 2000;Davies 2018;Hall and Ram 2019). ...
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One of the most common activities among tourists is walking, providing visitors with a range of different experiences of the places they visit. These experiences can vary, depending on the time of the year, weather, and, most importantly, the motivations of the individual. Much attention has gone into understanding the ways in which built and natural environments create opportunities for people to walk. However, the motivations and walking behaviors of tourists can differ from those of local residents. This paper explores walkability by adopting a systematic review of literature on different databases. The descriptive theme is focused on the general importance of walkability and four major themes on tourist walking studies are identified. The findings from the studies and their limitations point toward a need for further study, with a focus on local residents and tourists in order to understand whether there are differences and to understand the attributes that may affect their walking behaviors and experiences.
... Indeed, the main language of the platform, English, serves as a gatekeeper and excludes other cultural and linguistic communities. It is important to keep this limitation in mind given that perception and emotional responses to the environment depend upon the understanding and awareness of the historical and cultural background of the landscape as well as the observer's own knowledge and cultural background [10]. Local populations, and Māori in particular, might have profoundly different relations with their ecologies in the context of nature-based recreation-for example, a more rooted sense of place [51,62]. ...
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A boom in volunteered geographic information has led to extensive data-driven exploration and modeling of places. While many studies have used such data to explore human-environment interaction in urban settings, few have investigated natural, non-urban settings. To address this gap, this study systematically explores the content of online reviews of nature-based recreation activities, and develops a fine-grained hierarchical model that includes 28 aspects grouped into three main domains: activity, settings, and emotions/cognition. It further demonstrates how the model can be used to explore the variation in recreation experiences across activities, setting the stage for the analysis of the spatio-temporal variations in recreation experiences in the future. Importantly, the study provides an annotated corpus that can be used as a training dataset for developing methods to automatically capture aspects of recreation experiences in texts.
... However, experience is a very complicated psychological process, so many different definitions have emerged (Quinlan Cutler & Carmichael, 2010). Chhetri et al. (2004) state that despite many attempts to define the concept of tourist experience, there is no single theory that could encompass its broadness and complexity. Cultural experience is a vital factor for cultural tourists ( ...
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Purpose: This paper discusses tourists’ attitudes towards sustainable marketing factors in the context of cultural tourism. It aims to examine the influence of tourists’ attitudes on satisfaction with the overall cultural experience and perceived ecological, social, and economic effects and their impact on satisfaction. Methodology: The survey was conducted in Croatia in 2020 on a sample of 205 domestic tourists. Based on previous research, two sets of marketing items were defined: items closely related to sustainability (CRS) and items not closely related to sustainability (NCRS). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was applied to extract factors, followed by Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Multiple linear regression analysis was used to test the factors’ impact on satisfaction and perceived cultural tourism effects. Results: The results of factor analysis generated two CRS factors (Sustainable destination policies, Propensity for sustainable behaviour) and two NCRS factors (Respect for cultural heritage, Servicescape). The two CRS factors and the factor Respect for cultural heritage have a statistically significant influence on overall satisfaction. Moreover, the results imply that Propensity for sustainable behaviour and Respect for cultural heritage positively contribute to overall satisfaction. Among all the observed factors, only Sustainable destination policy does not significantly influence any perceived cultural tourism effects. In contrast, the perceived socio-cultural and economic effects have a positive influence on tourist satisfaction. Conclusion: The research results underpin the influence of sustainable marketing factors on satisfaction with the overall cultural experience and perceived tourism effects and their impact on satisfaction. The findings provide new insights into marketing theory and guidelines for marketing managers regarding sustainability in cultural tourism.
... The visitors' satisfaction is produced by the assessment of perceptible quality of the offering services to visitor [2]. Indirectly, visitors' satisfaction is measured by experiences that visitors received during the time of ecotourism in national park [18,19]. The gap analysis help the managerial team to evaluate visitors' behavior and determine what should be prioritized for the improvement actions [2]. ...
Article
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This study aimed to analyze the gap between visitors’ perception and expectation for better development of ecotourism potential in Bantimurung Bulusaraung National Park (BBNP). The gap analysis approach used a descriptive survey to 200 respondents selected by non-probability sampling in November 2018. Several ecotourism potentials assessed were accessibility, accommodation, cultural attractions, public facilities, human resources, information and natural attractions. The result showed that there is a higher expectation rather than perception of visitor in BBNP. The highest gap value was found in public facility [-1.71], while the lowest gap value was found in accessibility [-0.97]. Thus, public facility should be prioritized to develop in order to meet the visitor s’ expectation. In term of public facility, the highest gap value was found in communication facilities (telephone, fax, internet), while the lowest gap value was found in garbage dump and clean water availability. Therefore, the top priority to improve was the quality and quantity of communication facilities (telephone, fax, internet).
... Despite the importance of littering for park management, there are relatively few published studies examining recreationists' LNL intention and behavior (Hu et al., 2019). Furthermore, very few studies targeted hikers although globally hiking has long been one of the largest segments in nature-based tourism (Chhetri et al., 2004). According to Cheung & Ni (2019), approximately 47% of visitors indicated that hiking was their primary activity when visiting country parks in Hong Kong. ...
Article
Along the line that “Leave No Litter” (LNL) in protected areas is promoted globally, Hong Kong launched its LNL campaign in 2016. The success of the campaign is critically dependent on the compliance of the park visitors. Because behavioral intention is influenced by determinants of different domains, this study adopted a multilevel perspective to examine how demographic, psychological, and situational variables affected LNL intention using a voluntary response sample of 374 hikers in Hong Kong. The results indicated that attitude, perceived behavioral control, and preparedness were significant predictors of LNL intention, indicating the direct associations between them. Furthermore, preparedness mediated the effects of attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control on LNL intention. The findings of this paper may contribute to the body of knowledge on pro-environmental behavior of recreationists by providing a novel understanding of LNL intention of Hong Kong hikers. Furthermore, this study may cast light on the sustainable management of protected areas in Hong Kong as well as cities around the world.
Chapter
Tourism activities in the tropics region are significantly different from other parts of the world due to its distinctive features such as a mean annual temperature of 25 degrees Celsius, an abundance of sunshine, heavy precipitation which occasionally can induce monsoonal rainfall, high levels of humidity, dense vegetation of the rainforest, and diverse marine life. Although forest hiking has become one of the attractive interests in this wide area, the liveliness of enjoying a jungle walk might be discouraged by fear of getting lost, fear of unreachable locations by emergency vehicles, and fear of natural disasters which might lead to unpredictable subject anxiety. In this paper, we propose a conceptual model of the Internet of Things (IoT) system to support a forest hiking tourism experience. It consists of three functional sub-systems i.e., environmental monitoring sensors, tracking and tracing beacons, and early warning sensors. We propose to employ Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) architecture and communication protocols to deal with long-distance data transmission. The proposed system can provide benefits for online operational monitoring and tracking visitors’ movements to quickly detect any disruption in the field such as missing persons. The system can also be used as an early warning system when a disaster like a landslide, tsunami, wildfire, volcano eruption, or flood takes place. Several other aspects related to the security, privacy, and interoperability of the proposed system will be addressed to achieve its optimum functionality. The proposed system including both hardware and software interface will be designed and developed using co-design methods. The iterative process and stakeholder engagements used in the co-design may lead to systems that are more acceptable and relevant to the needs of an individual in a unique environment like the tropics forest.KeywordsInternet of thingsCo-designUsabilityForest hikingTropics tourismTracking and tracingEarly warning systemUser experience design
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Günümüzde tüketiciler, sıradan hizmet alma düşüncesinden vazgeçerek kendisini şaşırtan ve uyaran mal veya hizmetleri tercih etmektedir. Tümsel, özgün ve hatırlanabilir deneyimlere fırsat veren duyuşsal ve zihinsel olarak geliştirilmiş hizmetleri tüketme yoluyla deneyimler aramaya yönelmiştir (Ferrari ve Gilli, 2015; Morgan ve diğ, 2010). Bir deneyimin meydana gelebilmesi için öncelikle tüketicinin bir destinasyon, ürün veya hizmet ile ilgili olumlu veya olumsuz bir tecrübeye sahip olması gerekmektedir. Yaşanan deneyim beklentiyi karşılamadığında yani olumsuz olduğunda tatminsizlik yaşanmaktadır. Deneyimin olumlu olması turistlerin memnuniyet yaşamasına ve deneyimin akılda kalıcı olmasına etki etmektedir. Ancak deneyimin yalnızca olumlu olması akılda kalıcı olması için yeterli olmayabilir. Bir deneyim olumlu olmasının yanında etkili ve benzersiz olmalı, duyuşsal, bilişsel ve sosyal faktörleri barındırmalı, kişisel ve aynı zamanda unutulmaz olmalıdır. Ancak o zaman hatırlanabilir turizm deneyimi gerçekleşebilmektedir.
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DIDIM’DE YAŞAYAN INGILIZLERIN TÜRK MUTFAĞINA BAKIŞ AÇISI
Chapter
People who hike are more likely to be physically active and spend time in nature, which is a cost-effective strategy. Physical movement, exposure to natural elements, stress reduction, and improved mental and emotional well-being are just some of the health advantages that may be reaped by spending time in the great outdoors. Sabah was a popular hiking destination before the COVID-19 outbreak shut down all tourism activity. Hiking paths can be used to promote sustainable tourism. Hiking has grown in popularity as a means of discovering a new place, and it contributes to the long-term well-being of the area in question. The purpose of this research is to discover and examine the demographic features, the service quality and perceived value of visitors who hiked in Kundasang, Sabah, while on holiday. Questionnaire was designed and consist of SERVQUAL (Akbaba 2006) and SERV-PERVAL (Petrick 2004) for this study. This research was conducted with 232 participants on 12 hiking trails near Kundasang, Sabah. Inferential statistical methods were used to examine the data. This study's finds relationship among service quality, perceived value, satisfaction, and revisit intention in hiking industry. Understanding the demographics and perceived worth of hikers, as well as refining the marketing tactics for both the local and international markets through sustainable tourism, is a benefit of these findings.KeywordsHikingSustainable tourismService quality perceived value
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JUSTIFICATION: The tourism sector is one of the primary sources of memorable experiences because, by its very nature, tourism generates knowledge, fun, feelings, and emotions among individuals. These experiences influence tourist behavioral intention, which can deliver benefits for destinations. Furthermore, analyzing tourist behavior can help destinations to devise strategies and actions that improve the visitor experience. Within this analysis of consumer behavior, spatio-temporal behavior is of particular relevance. AIM: The aim of this thesis is to analyze how the spatio-temporal sequence of a visit to a cultural destination is configured and how this configuration influences the tourist experience. The main antecedent of both these variables is tourist motive for visiting the destination in question. The study also analyzes the impact of a) tourism product quality and b) the possibility of sharing experiences via social media on the tourist experience. Finally, the consequences of the tourist experience for the destination are studied in terms of destination image and tourist intention to sustain loyal behaviors (revisit and recommendation intention). METHODOLOGY: A sample of 299 tourists is used, recruited at the beginning of their visit to a cultural destination (Granada). A preliminary survey is conducted, and subsequently the tourists are each given a mobile phone that they must carry with them throughout their stay. The device is programmed to record the different zones of the city they visit, the length of the visit to each zone, and the order in which the zones are visited. At the end of their stay, the sample participants are contacted again to collect data measuring the overall experience and its consequences. RESULTS: Two broad segments of tourists were identified, based on their spatiotemporal behavior at the destination: one that chose to visit more zones of the city with a relatively high concentration of cultural attractions, and one that preferred stay mainly in the area where the hotel is located. Within the former segment, three sub-segments were identified, all of which generated a superior (more positive) tourist experience, compared to the segment that stayed in the hotel zone. The tourist experience can also be explained in terms of the different motives for undertaking tourism—particularly intellectual and social. Furthermore, the tourist’s motives for the visit shape their typical behavior once at the destination in terms of visit cultural orientation and number of zones visited. Other variables, such as the expected tourism product quality or the use of social networks to obtain or share information during the stay, also positively influenced the experience of the cultural tourist.
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Walory geoturystyczne nie zawsze były odpowiednio doceniane przez krajoznawców. W przeszłości podczas wyznaczania szlaków turystycznych zwykle skupiano się na zamkach, kościołach lub punktach widokowych, nie poświęcając zbyt wiele uwagi geoatrakcjom, z wyjątkiem najbardziej widowiskowych formacji skalnych (np. w Karkonoszach, Rudawach Janowickich lub Górach Stołowych). W wyniku takiego podejścia wiele ciekawych z punktu widzenia geodziedzictwa miejsc znanych było jedynie wąskiej grupie entuzjastów (zwłaszcza interesujących się reliktami górnictwa). Dopiero dzięki rozwijającej się w ostatnich latach sieci szlaków walory geoturystyczne stały się bardziej dostępne, co przypadło zarazem na czas wzrostu popularności samej geoturystyki. Celem artykułu jest prześledzenie zmian w udostępnieniu geoatrakcji w wybranych pasmach Sudetów (Góry Sowie, Bystrzyckie, Orlickie i Suche) wraz z rozwojem sieci szlaków pieszych. Autor zwraca uwagę na związany z tym rozwój środków przekazu treści w zakresie nauk o Ziemi. Zmiany układu tras analizowano za pomocą metod zaczerpniętych z teorii grafów, natomiast analizę dostępności geodziedzictwa przeprowadzono poprzez porównanie map i przewodników turystycznych z różnych okresów oraz badania terenowe. Na tej podstawie określono przebieg szlaków względem wybranych walorów geoturystycznych. Największe pozytywne zmiany w zakresie udostępnienia geodziedzictwa przez szlaki piesze odnotowano w Górach Sowich, Bystrzyckich i Orlickich, zaś w Górach Suchych nie nastąpiła w tym zakresie większa poprawa. Znakowane trasy coraz częściej docierają do geoatrakcji o pochodzeniu antropogenicznym, jak relikty kopalń i kamieniołomy. Pomimo wyraźnej poprawy w zakresie udostępnienia geodziedzictwa w Sudetach wiele walorów geoturystycznych nadal pozostaje poza istniejącą siecią szlaków turystycznych, co oznacza, że możliwości rozwoju w tym zakresie nie zostały wyczerpane.
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Tujuan penelitian ini untuk menjelaskan 1) obyek wisata berpengaruh terhadap keputusan berkunjung wisatawan mancanegara; 2) promosi berpengaruh terhadap keputusan berkunjung wisatawan mancanegara; 3) sarana dan prasarana berpengaruh terhadap keputusan berkunjung wisatawan mancanegara; 4) faktor eksternal berpengaruh terhadap keputusan berkunjung wisatawan mancanegara; 5) segmen-segmen pasar wisata diidentifkasi berdasarkan persepsi wisatawan terhadap manfaat yang dicari; 6) terdapat hubungan yang bermakna antara sejumlah variabel deskriptor (segmen descriptor) dengan segmentasi pasar wisata Sulawesi Selatan; 7) implikasi dari masing-masing segmen pasar wisata terhadap strategi penentuan pasar sasaran (targeting) dan strategi memposisikan (positioning) daerah tujuan wisata di Sulawesi Selatan. Penelitian ini mengkaji hubungan antar variabel sehingga termasuk dalam explanatory research. Lokasi penelitian ini adalah daerah tujuan wisata Sulawesi Selatan dengan target populasi wisatwan mancanegara. Ada tiga Kabupaten/kota yang dipilih sebagai daerah tujuan wisata. Populasi penelitian adalah wisatawan mancanegara yang datang berkunjung pada daerah tujuan wisata di kabupaten/kota yaitu sebanyak 165 orang. Analisis Statistik yang digunakan adalah analisis regresi, analisis factor, dan analisis cluster. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa: 1) atraksi wisata, promosi, sarana dan prasarana serta factor eksternal mempunyai pengaruh secara signifikan terhadap variabel keputusan berkunjung; 2) dari 34 manfaat yang dicari terbentuk 10 faktor daya tarik wisata; 3) dari 165 kasus yang diungkap terbentuk 4 segmen pasar yang potensial bagi daerah tujuan wisata Sulawesi Selatan; 4) persepsi wisatawan mengenai posisi daerah tujuan wisata Sulawesi Selatan terhadap para pesaing utamanya dan harapan para wisatawannya sebelum datang ke Sulawesi Selatan, secara umum di benak pasarnya Sulawesi Selatan ternyata paling ideal diposisikan (positioning) sebagai daerah tujuan wisata etnis dan pantai (beach destination). Akan tetapi mengingat besarnya potensi pasar dari kedua segmen pasar yang lainnya, kedua segmen pasar wisata tersebut perlu dipertimbangkan untuk diraih sebagai sasaran pemasaran (target markets) dengan upaya-upaya mereposisikannya (repositioning).
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This study attempts to more exactly trace tourists’ perceptions of hiking experiences by measuring perceptions in the early, middle, and late stages of a 4-hour hiking trip. A total of 339 respondents participated in this survey while hiking in Jeju Olle, South Korea. A survey was conducted three times using the same respondents and the same questionnaire. A total of 301 questionnaire sets, matched for all three stages of the experience, were used for further data analysis. Hikers indicated differences in their psychological states between the three points in time. In terms of benefits sought, environmental experience, and place attachment, they reported a higher level of immersion in experiential dynamics. However, regarding perceived mood, they became less excited and less rushed, while feeling more bored and relaxed. Four clusters generated after conducting cluster analysis demonstrated differences in perception of the psychological variables across the clusters.
Article
Tourism research has flourished over the last decade, providing novel insights and deepening the literature on destination branding and tourism experiences. Consequently, the initial conceptualization of destination brand experience (DBE) as a four-dimension concept may not fully capture the field’s expanded knowledge-base. The present study seeks to extend the conceptualization of DBE into six main dimensions (i.e., relational; spiritual, sensory, cognitive, affective, and behavioral) and provide empirical support for this extended conceptualization from a sample of tourists at Lake Malawi in Africa. The study contributes by providing support to the relevance of “relational” and “spiritual” dimensions as additional components of DBE. It offers insights to destination marketing organizations toward facilitating relational and spiritual dimensions that may be particularly relevant when tourists seek recovery and social experiences as travel and tourism re-emerges from the pandemic.
Thesis
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Bu çalışma, Side destinasyonunu ziyaret eden yerli turistlerin seyahat motivasyonları, deneyimleri, destinasyon imaj algıları ve memnuniyetleri arasındaki ilişkiyi araştırmayı amaçlamaktadır. Çalışma üç bölümden oluşmaktadır. Birinci bölüm turistlerin seyahat motivasyonunu ve turizm deneyimini, ikinci bölüm destinasyon imajı ve turist memnuniyetini, üçüncü bölüm ise araştırmanın yöntemini, bulgularını ve sonuçlarını kapsamaktadır. Çalışmada nicel araştırma yöntemi kullanılmış olup, veri toplama aracı olarak birincil veri toplama yöntemlerinden ölçek formu kullanılmıştır. Çalışmada seyahat motivasyonunun deneyim, destinasyon imajı ve destinasyona yönelik memnuniyet üzerindeki etkisi ile deneyim ve imajın destinasyona yönelik memnuniyetin üzerindeki etkisi ölçülmeye çalışılmıştır. Araştırmanın evrenini Side destinasyonunu veri toplama sürecinde ziyaret eden ve ulaşılabilen yerli turistler oluşturmaktadır. Bu kapsamda Side destinasyonundaki yerli turistlere 468 anket formu yüz yüze olarak dağıtılmıştır. Anketler 14 Haziran - 18 Eylül 2021 tarihleri arasında toplanmıştır. Geri dönüş sağlanan ölçeklerden 19 tanesi eksik kodlanmıştır, dokuz tanesi manipüle edilmesi ve sekiz tanesi %50’sinden fazlasının boş bırakılması nedeniyle analiz dışı bırakılmıştır. Sonuç olarak 432 ölçek formu araştırmanın değerlendirme kısmına dâhil edilmiştir. Elde edilen veriler analiz edilirken SPSS Statistics 26 ve Smart PLS 3 programlarından yararlanılmıştır. Kavramsal çerçeveden yola çıkılarak, araştırılan konuya ilişkin hipotezler geliştirilmiştir. Analizler sonucunda seyahat motivasyonunun, turist deneyimi, destinasyon imajı ve destinasyona yönelik memnuniyet üzerinde anlamı ve olumlu bir etkiye sahip olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Turist deneyiminin yalnızca destinasyon imajı üzerinde anlamlı düzeyde ve olumlu yönde etkiye sahip olduğu belirlenmiştir. Ayrıca destinasyon imajının destinasyona yönelik memnuniyet üzerinde anlamlı ve olumlu yönde bir etkiye sahip olduğu belirlenmiştir. Çalışmanın bir diğer önemli sonucu ise turist deneyiminin destinasyona yönelik memnuniyet üzerinde doğrudan bir etkiye sahip olmadığı ve hipotezin reddedildiğidir. Çalışmanın sonuçlar ve tartışma bölümünde ise turizm sistemi içinde yer alan farklı paydaşlara dair sonuçlar verilmiştir ve öneriler sunulmuştur. Anahtar Sözcükler: Seyahat Motivasyonu, Turist Deneyimi, Destinasyon İmajı, Destinasyon Memnuniyeti, Side.
Article
This case recounts how Parkbus, a social innovation organization founded in 2010 in Ontario, Canada, simultaneously improved access for people with less mobility to experience nature, and reduced carbon emissions and congestion. Through partnerships with key Canadian organizations such as the Toronto Dominion Bank, Mountain Equipment Co-op and Parks Canada, this case highlights a sustainable transportation and tourism innovation, as well as positive externalities and opportunities that can be created by small but well-placed and well-timed initiatives. Information © Rachel Dodds 2021
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The present research aims to determine the relationship between the construct of autonomy, intrinsic motivation, and tourist experience, as well as loyalty in the context of wellness and spa tourism. The exploratory–descriptive design was adopted in the present research. A research instrument was developed based on previous literature and was tested for a pilot study to check validity and reliability. A purposive sampling technique was used to collect the data from tourists who have gained spa experience. A total of 264 usable responses were received after distributing 400 questionnaires. The data were screened, processed, and analyzed using the SPSS 22.0 and Smart-PLS 2.0. The investigation showed that intrinsic motivation, autonomy, and experience positively impact positive emotions and life satisfaction. Besides, it also supported that positive emotions, experience, and life Satisfaction lead to loyalty. Furthermore, the present study tested the mediating role of experience, positive emotions, and life satisfaction; it was also found that experience mediates the relationship between autonomy, positive emotions, and life satisfaction. Positive emotions and life satisfaction were mediators in the relationship between experience and loyalty. Finally, the findings showed that destination images moderated the relationship between experience, positive emotions, and life satisfaction. The results of this investigation can be helpful for both the research community and marketers interested in investigating the well-being of tourists and destination loyalty.
Article
The aim of this research is to investigate the interplay of tourists, nature, learning and memorable yet sustainable wildlife experiences in order to understand how, why, and where learning occurs during a tour, and what may hinder the learning process experienced. Participant observation and interviews of 67 tours and 122 interviews over a three-year period using Critical Incident Technique and narrative methods to identify the 10 case studies used in this paper. Interviews covered visitors and guides and thematic analysis was used to identify three main themes and ten sub-themes. These led to the development of a model of learning opportunities through wildlife tours. The model situates visitor experience in terms of the temporal nature of the wildlife tour and four key zones that impact on the ability of visitors to learn during their tour – zones of infrastructure and services; Guide-Visitor-Interaction; perceived constraints and interaction with wildlife. Learning, experiencing, reinforcement or stasis are the four states connected to the experiential outcomes of interpretation. The findings demonstrate the complexity involved in how visitors cognitively interpret, evaluate, and appraise their tour experiences and confirm the need to use an approach that captures the dynamic nature of tourist experiences.
Conference Paper
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ABSTRACT The government is committed to improving the health system by providing universal coverage to all South Africans as articulated in national health policies. The biggest threat facing the health sector today is the shortage of well-trained healthcare workers and the increasing demand for healthcare services. A quantitative study was used to examine the role of task-shifting as response to human resource crisis facing the Ngwelezana Tertiary Hospital in KwaZulu-Natal. Data was analysed using descriptive statistics, chi-square tests of association and the Cramer’s V test. The results show that task-shifting was adopted to address staff shortages, delays in serving patients, long waiting periods for patients, increased risks of error and patient mortality. However, task-shifting presented its own challenges such as legal and professional risks and staff morale issues. The paper concludes that task shifting should be used as a relief measure for reducing the impact of staff shortages in hospitals.
Chapter
This chapter develops a theoretical framework for conceptualising natural landscapes into categories and domains that shows their mappable properties and the spatial relations between them. The process of perceiving and experiencing landscapes is widely understood in the extant literature; however, the mappability of perceived landscapes is neither thoroughly investigated nor theorised from a multi-disciplinary perspective. This chapter argues for integrating the process of sensing, perceiving and cognising the sum total of biophysical characteristics of geographic space as a unified construct, which is referred here as landscape. Tourists’ perception is used as a surrogate to represent and reflect the process of constructing landscape. It is acknowledged that landscapes are constructed through perception and cognition, notwithstanding the importance of geographic space as a milieu for guiding and stimulating the interest of observers to participate, interact and engage with its constituent components should also be recognised to help understand human behaviour in natural areas.KeywordLandscape perceptionGeographic spaceConstructivismTourist destination
Article
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Bu araştırmanın amacı, Kaz Dağları’nda yapılan aktivitelere katılan yerli turistlerin seyahat motivasyonlarının ortaya konulmasıdır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, Kaz Dağları’nda bulunan doğa temelli turistik uygulamalara sahip tesislerde konaklayan turistlere yüz yüze anket uygulanmıştır ve bunun sonucunda 134 adet kullanılabilir ankete ulaşılmıştır. Araştırma nicel araştırma yöntemleriyle yürütülmüştür. Araştırma verileri Ağustos 2017 ile Eylül 2018 tarihleri arasında kolayda örnekleme tekniği ile toplanmıştır. Katılımcılardan toplanan veriler normal dağılmadığı için rassal olmayan (Mann Whitney/U ve Kruskal/Wallis Testleri) analizler uygulanmıştır. Araştırma sonuçlarına göre; katılımcıların yaşı ve yerel halkla etkileşimlerine göre seyahat motivasyonu boyutları arasında anlamlı farklılıklar bulunmuştur. Bununla birlikte cinsiyet, medeni durum, bölgeye geliş şekli, gelir düzeyi değişkenleri açısından seyahat motivasyon boyutları arasında anlamlı bir farklılık tespit edilememiştir. Elde edilen sonuçlar kapsamında sektörel uygulayıcılara ve akademisyenlere birtakım öneriler sunulmuştur.
Article
Globally the importance of the tourism sector for economic and sustainable development has already been acknowledged. Namibia is no exception. Endowed with natural beauty wildlife, deserts, and beautiful beaches the tourism sector is clearly acknowledged in the development policies and plans. Despite this, there are few comprehensive studies that deal with strategic aspects of neither the tourism sector nor frameworks to enhance innovative tourism for sustainable development. Due to such precincts and lack of comprehensive research, strategic management of tourism and its development to the fullest potential is difficult. Tourism is a powerful vehicle for economic growth and job creation is a reckoned global phenomenon. International tourist arrivals to SSA have been on increase making it one of the fastest-growing regions in the world. Hence, adopting an exploratory approach with a systematic literature review with contextual analysis this study aims to fill this gap and deliberates on the requisite strategic framework for innovative tourism and sustainable development in Namibia.
Conference Paper
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Procuring and Disposing Entities (PDEs) in state departments are challenged with missing records, inadequate training, poor enforcement mechanisms, limited funding and poor reports. Taking into account the huge government investment into public contracts, research to understand factors enabling contract compliance is imperative. This study explored the enabling factors for contract compliance in PDEs in Uganda. A qualitative study of twenty-nine telephone interviews and focus group discussions via Zoom were conducted. Thematic and content analysis were used to identify the fourteen major themes. Findings suggest capacity building, funding, reporting, evaluation, contract management, records management, institutional structure, enforcement, legal and regulatory framework, communication, openness, compliance checks, ethical orientation and stakeholder involvement as enablers for a suitable contract compliance environment in state departments in Uganda. The proposed conceptual framework serves as a valuable resource for researchers and practitioners especially those involved in public procurement.
Article
Kafta Sheraro National Park is endowed with richest biodiversity and physical resources. These resources have a great potential contribution to the development of ecotourism. However, so far there have been no well-identified and mapped potential ecotourism sites. This study is aimed to identify potential ecotourism sites using a combination of Geographic Information System and Analysis Hierarchy Process method. In this paper, an integrated geospatial baseline data, such as biophysical features, wildlife, topography, climate, culture, and accessibility, were considered as main independent factors. Eleven criteria were designed based on 22 discussions with experts, as well as literatures, intensive field surveys, satellite imageries, and exiting thematic maps. The overall analysis result indicates that 27.63% of the area was highly suitable, 35.49% moderately suitable, 26.22% marginally suitable, and 10.66% not suitable. Most of the highly suitable areas lie in the western, north western, and some parts of the south eastern of the park. But, the moderately suitable areas are found in the central and southern parts of the park. Model area under the curve in the training data is 86.15%. Therefore, the output of this study can use as a basis for evaluating the suitability ecotourism development by governmental policy makers.
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Contemporary studies of tourism see the tourist experience as either something essentially spurious and superficial, an extension of an alienated world, or as a serious search for authenticity, an effort to escape from an alienated world. It is argued that neither of these views is universally valid. A more discriminating distinction between five types of tourist experiences is proposed, based on the place and significance of tourist experience in the total world-view of tourists, their relationship to a perceived `centre' and the location of that centre in relation to the society in which the tourist lives. It is proposed that the resulting continuum of types of tourist experience is both more comprehensive than alternative conceptual frameworks and capable of reconciling and integrating the conflicting interpretations arising from earlier studies.
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The problem of false consciousness and its relationship to the social structure of tourist establishments is analyzed. Accounts of travelers are examined in terms of Erving Goffman's front versus back distinction. It is found that tourists try to enter back regions of the places they visit because these regions are associated with intimacy of relations and authenticity of experiences. It is also found that tourist settings are arrenged to produce the impression that a back region has been entered even when this is not the case. In tourist settings, between the front and the back there is a series of special spaces designed to accommodate tourists and to support their beliefs in the authenticity of their experiences. Goffman's front-back dichotomy is shown to be ideal poles of a continuum, or a variable.
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The natural landscape is an arena for a wide array of recreational activities. Recent changes in hiking behaviour in wilderness settings have been attributed to changes in tourists' attitudes, personalities and life styles. Modern tourists are not only looking for quality but also a variety of leisure products and experiences and a style of product delivery compatible to their life style. Tourists patronise those areas that offer diversity of natural and cultural attractions and a variety of experiences in an easily legible, navigable and accessible geographic space.This paper investigates characteristics of terrain surfaces in order to develop a spatial model of hiking experiences around the Pinnacle walking track in the Grampians National Park. In situ measurements of feelings and experiences were determined via a questionnaire administered to a group of adolescent aged students hiking on a track. The paper shows the development of a set of predictors derived from surface features and surface cover that can be used to predict potential hiking experience. Factor analysis has been used to identify a smaller set of dimensions that explain most of the variance among input variables. Finally, a predictive spatial model of hiking landscapes has been developed from input maps over the entire geographic space. The developed spatial model of probable hiking experiences is suggested as an alternative strategy to ease mounting pressure around existing walking tracks.
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This paper addresses the need to better understand tourist pressure in selected regions of the Shetland Islands, United Kingdom, using measures of space, time, perception, region, and core-periphery. Normally an economic theory, core-periphery was applied in the context of this study as a locational and mental construct in examining tourism group movement (behavior). Respondents were placed into two groups on the basis of their activitybased motivations for visiting Shetland and asked to complete a daily space-time budget regarding their use of attractions, facilities, accommodation, and transportation. It was discovered that both groups differed marginally in their space-time use of the aforementioned variables within the various regions of Shetland.RésuméUn budget touristique espace temps aux îles Shetland. Cet article aborde la question de la pression touristique aux îles Shetland, en Ecosse, en utilisant des mesures d'espace, temps, perception, région et centre-périphérie. Le concept du centre-périphérie, qui vient du domaine de l'économique, est appliqué comme construction mentale de localisation pour examiner le mouvement (comportement) de groupes de touristes. Les personnes interrogées ont été distribuées dans deux groupes selon leurs activités et leurs motivations pour visiter les îles Shetland. Ils ont rempli chaque jour un formulaire de budget espace-temps au sujet de leur utilisation des éléments suivants: attractions, aménagements, logement et transports. Les deux groupes ont différé très légèrement sur leur utilisation espace-temps de ces éléments dans le différents endroits des îles Shetland.
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The purpose of this article is to describe the process by which tourist roles are conceptualized, and measured, using three-dimensional scaling analysis. The findings indicate the existence of at least 13 leisure- based tourist roles that include the drifter, the escapist, and the independent mass tourist, among others. A three-dimensional solution suggests that people enact preferred tourist roles in destinations which provide an optimal balance of familiarity-strangeness, stimulation-tranquility, and structure-independence. A theoretical perspective is developed that addresses the possible relationship among tourist roles, psychological needs, and optimal destination characteristics.RésuméLes rôles que jouent les touristes. L'objet de ce dossier est de décrire, en utilisant une analyse d'échelle à trois dimensions, le processus par lequel les comportements de touristes sont conceptualisés et mesurés. Les résultats démontrent l'existence d'au moins treize différents comportements touristiques basés sur la façon dont les loisirs sont approchés: ils incluent, entre autres, le Vagabond, celui qui Echappe et le Touriste Indépendant. Une solution à trois dimensions suggère que les gens adoptent leurs comportements touristiques préférés quand ils sont dans des endroits où ils trouvent un équilibre optimal entre familiarité et étrangeté, stimulation et tranquillité et structure et indépendance. Une approche théorique est développée au sujet d'une possible relation entre les comportements touristiques, les besoins psychologiques et les caractéristiques de destinations optimales.
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This paper examines the leisure and tourist experience from three perspectives. While leisure researchers have identified the major ingredients of subjective definitions of leisure, little research has been done on tourism from the "definitional" perspective. From the "post-hoc satisfaction" standpoint, theory and research suggest that psychological benefits of leisure and tourist experience emanate from the interplay of two motivational forces: to escape from routine and stressful environments and to seek recreational opportunities. The "immediate conscious experience" approach is committed to the value of monitoring the actual, on-site, real-time nature of the experience itself. Although scholars have analyzed the anatomy of the leisure experience, immediate conscious tourist experiences have not been subjected to scientific analysis. Thus, it is not possible to conclude when and under what conditions tourist experience becomes leisure experience.
Chapter
The variety of visitor attractions is large and there are endless variations in terms of the product concept. However, the latter is inextricably bound up with the assessment of market potential and vice-versa. Thus, while there is a clear demand for entertainment attractions, success is related to the creativity of the design and its appeal, namely the ‘imagescape’. Location is also linked to market assessment and the imagescape; heritage attractions may have little choice as to their location, whereas created entertainments have the possibility of locating where they can maximise visitor potential. The pattern of ownership has a major influence on the market structure and pricing. That said successful attraction development is about the creation of imagescapes that have strong associations for visitors, conform to taste and fashion, and are flexible enough to encourage repeat visits. © 2013 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd. All rights reserved.
Article
PRELIMINARIES. Geographical Data, Information, and Decision Making. Introduction to GIS. Introduction to Multicriteria Decision Analysis. SPATIAL MULTICRITERIA DECISION ANALYSIS. Evaluation Criteria. Decision Alternatives and Constraints. Criterion Weighing. Decision Rules. Sensitivity Analysis. MULTICRITERIA-SPATIAL DECISION SUPPORT SYSTEMS. Spatial Decision Support Systems. MC-SDSS: Case Studies. Glossary. Selected Bibliography. Indexes.
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Alternative conceptualizations of the quality and satisfaction constructs are presented from both the leisure/tourism and the marketing literatures, and differences between them are noted. The predictive validity of seven alternative operationalizations of quality that were suggested by the literature were measured by evaluating them against an overall measure of quality in the context of a festival. Results showed that the most valid measures of quality were the performance-based operationalizations; the least valid were the disconfirmation-based operationalizations; and the inclusion of importance weights did not improve predictive validity of the measures. There was no significant difference between first-time and frequent visitors to the festival on any of the seven alternative operationalizations. Implications of the findings are discussed.
Article
Traditionally, images of tourist regions have been described by way of (a) content analysis of respondents' answers to open-ended questions about their per ceptions of various tourist areas and (b) through comparison of averages and per centages of responses to statements measured along some sort of Likert-type scale andlor semantic differential. This article describes a new approach to portraying images of tourist regions through use of J. B. Kruskal's multidimensional scaling program called M-D-SCAL 5-a technique hitherto unreported in the tourism and travel literature.
Article
An operational definition is developed for the landscape encountered and experienced while hiking a natural area. Participant photography and experience sampling methods were combined and modified to enable sampling and exploration of this landscape. At various times during a hike, people were interrupted and instructed to photograph what they were looking at, to rate the scenic beauty of the view in question, and to report their current satisfactions and moods. Views were categorized by the type of object that was the focus of attention (trail, vegetation, water, ephemeral, people, terrain) and by the distance of the object from the viewer. Results suggest that attention was focused most frequently on objects near the trail, within 15 meters; neither scenic nor ugly views attracted undue attention; ephemeral features were often the focus of attention and rated as scenic; the quality of the hiking experience (as represented by mood and satisfaction) was partially explained by the landscape views encountered; and more similarities than differences were found in what people viewed while hiking.
Article
The circumplex model of affect, with major axes of pleasure and arousal, provides a complete and parsimonious description of people's affective evaluations of environments. This model is used to evaluate the affect experienced by persons in different suburban parks simulated by photographs. The parks' tree densities, understory vegetation densities, and the presence or absence of pathways are used to explain persons' evaluations of affect. Evaluations of pleasure are influenced more than evaluations of arousal by variations in these physical characteristics. In general, pleasure increases as tree density increases and understory density decreases. Arousal increases with increasing understory vegetation density, which may be because way finding is more difficult without pathways. Interactions among all variables are present and significant. It is suggested that persons visit parks to experience an affect different than what is available from other environments. The relationship between affect produced by a park and persons' preferences for the park is examined. In general, people prefer parks that are both pleasant and arousing. People differ slightly in the affect they associate with different park characteristics but not in the level and type of affect they prefer to experience in parks. Results suggest considerable control over affect can be exercised through manipulation of a park's physical characteristics. Further, the circumplex model of affect seems a useful tool for the study of environment and behavior relationships.
Article
It is argued that general assessments of satisfaction are insensitive to a variety of differences in subjective experiences. The flow-simplex is introduced as an alternative method to provide differentiated information about the tourist experience. Data from on-site experiences were gathered by questionnaires at six Norwegian attractions. With regard to overall satisfaction, only minor differences were found among the six attractions. The flow-simplex, on the other hand, revealed a meaningful and differentiated pattern of affective responses to these attractions. The results show interesting differences among tourists from different countries, and lend support to fundamental assumptions made by cognitive theory concerning the relationship between cognition and affect.
Article
This paper argues that tourist experiences are essentially individualistic, although it is possible to discern consensual realties. It follows the viewpoint that positivistic research methodologies contain limitations in not being able to define the nature of individual tourist experience, and suggests that phenomenographic analysis may be one approach that permits both a revelation of individual experience while permitting model building of the shared consensus of what is actually happening. More tentatively it is suggested that, when allied with the use of current developments in software, such as that of CATPAC™, a post-positivist paradigm of research results. Some results of research using this approach are indicated. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Book
Landscapes develop and evolve through an interacting series of processes - climatic, geological, ecological and cultural - over varying periods of time. These processes shape the structure and character of the landscapes which we experience. Over time, distinctive patterns emerge - ranging in scale from the distribution of small plants to the sculptured sides of a huge canyon. Our perception of these patterns goes beyond just their visual appreciation - beautiful though they may be - into a richer understanding of how we experience our environment. By understanding this complex pattern-process interaction we can obtain a deeper awareness of landscape and our place in it - as inhabitants and as shapers. The book explores the nature of patterns and ways of classifying them before studying the nature of perception (primarily visual but including other senses), then proceeds to relate this perception to aesthetics and from there to the design process. From this point the main driving processes in landscape are introduced alongside the resulting patterns, these being climatic, landform, ecosystem and cultural aspects. It is this integrative approach of looking at landscape as a kind of self-organising system, overlaid by conscious human planning activities and the unity of pattern and process, which makes this book unique. Landscape draws from a wide range of neighbouring disciplines, of which the landscape planner or designer needs to be aware, but which are often taught as distinct elements. Bell binds these fundamentals together, which enables the landscape to be 'read', and this reading to be used as the basis for planning and design. This second edition updates and refreshes the original material with added sections and new photos, particularly making use of the developments in satellite photography. Featuring full colour throughout, this textbook is ideal for anyone studying landscape architecture or any of the disciplines which intersect with the landscape, and which affect it.
Article
This study defines the dynamic variables affecting landscape perception. Twenty‐five respondents were taken along a trail in southern Indiana through sixteen representative settings, providing preference ratings for each. They were also asked to articulate their feelings about the sites. The same group repeated the study in a laboratory using slides. The resulting data were analysed to determine to what extent dynamic variables were affecting preference for experiences in the landscape and in the simulated environment. Results clearly illustrate that multi‐sensory variables have a profound impact on preference for certain environments not found in standard, laboratory research.
Article
Provides an overview of contemporary landscape-quality assessment (LQA) methods, defining LQA as the application of human aesthetic standards to the visual impression of a landscape. Five models of LQA—ecological, formal aesthetic, psychophysical, psychological, and phenomenological—are discussed. Each model is described in terms of reliability, sensitivity, validity, and utility; illustrative methods; and implications for valuation. (73 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In a problem solving experiment, predictions were based upon a theory of motivation and action, the scheme theory, and a psychometric model for the component analysis of rating data, the sector model (Eckblad, 1981; 1980). Pattern guessing tasks were presented to 32 students, 8 to each subject, in individual sessions lasting more than one hour. Number of errors, rated attractiveness, and guessing latencies (the process variables) were recorded during each task. After completion of each task, the affective reaction to it was assessed by means of ratings on six scales, including the scales Pleasant, Interesting, and Complex. On the basis of the sector model, an index of assimilation resistance was computed from the ratings of each task/subject unit, and the index was used to predict mean values and gradients for the process variables. Results show that the sector structure is clearly present in the rating data, that the process variables fit into the structure in the predicted manner, and that mean values and gradients for the process variables differ highly significantly and as predicted among tasks of different levels of assimilation resistance.
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Growth management is an approach to planning which seeks to capture the benefits of growth while mitigating the consequences. In this paper, the application of growth management techniques to mountain tourism communities is examined. Many mountain environments have experienced escalating demand from tourists in recent decades which has threatened not only the environmental quality of such places but also the social fabric of communities. An examination of two mountain resort communities, Aspen, CO, USA and Whistler, Canada, both of which have employed growth management practices, serves to highlight techniques used in such settings to address problems associated with rapid growth. The paper concludes by identifying information that mountain resort communities must acquire if they are to be successful in applying growth management strategies.
Article
During the last decade recreational use of Spanish national parks has grown considerably, and is now posing a threat to nature conservation and the possibility of offering a satisfactory recreational service. There is a great variety of landscapes in Spain's national parks and this is one of the most attractive aspects for visitors to these unique areas. In this article we look at the preferences visitors have for the landscape of the park they are visiting, compared with the landscapes of other parks.Four Spanish national parks were compared. Different visitor types were distinguished by cluster analysis of 50 items relating to behaviour, expectations and attitudes. Landscape preference factors were obtained from a survey composed of random pairs of photographs of landscapes from the four national parks.Visitors expressed different degrees of interest, knowledge and dedication to their visits. Landscape preferences were significantly different amongst visitors to different national parks and, within each park, amongst groups of users.The results show that the landscape preferences of more casual visitors do not correspond to the features of the park they visit when these landscapes do not conform to those generally thought of as ‘beautiful’ (mountains, water and vegetation). The implications of the massive influx of visitors on the state of conservation of valuable areas such as national parks leads us to contemplate the importance of visitor management. Special attention should be paid to those visitors who are more casual and less sensitive to the landscape of the areas they visit.
Article
This paper examines five Korean destinations in terms of psychological or perceptual assessment of their attributes. The attribute identifications, along with the perceptual positions of destinations, were investigated using the multidimensional scaling analysis. A spatial configuration was constructed from a Korean tourist sample to analyze whether the attributes determining destinations and the situational variable of different seasons had an impact on their destination image in the perceptual map. The results from a correspondence analysis indicate that each destination had a correlatory relationship with a specific season during which the tourists were most likely to visit it. Further, each destination exhibits somewhat different patterns in tourists' perception of attribute factors.RésuméLa perception de l'attraction des destinations coréennes. Cet article examine cinq destinations coréennes en pensant surtout à l'évaluation psychologique ou perceptive de leurs caractéristiques. On a examiné les caractéristiques et les situations perceptives des destinations en utilisant l'analyse par échelle multidimensionnelle. On a construit une configuration spatiale à partir d'une enquête par sondage des touristes coréens pour déterminer si les caractéristiques des destinations et les variables situationnelles des différentes saisons avaient un impact sur l'image de destination dans la carte perceptive. Les résultats d'une analyse par correspondance indiquent que chaque destination a une relation corrélative avec une saison spécifique pendant laquelle le tourisme est le plus probable. En plus, chaque destination s'associe à un schéma différent des perceptions touristiques des caractéristiques.
Article
This study reports a cluster analysis derived from the Leisure Motivation Scale of Beard and Ragheb as applied to a sample of 1,127 UK holidaymakers. In a pilot study of the full Scale the factors of the original research were replicated and an abbreviated version was then used to enable a gap analysis to be undertaken between items thought important and perceptions of the last holiday, while based on this a cluster analysis was undertaken. Clusters had different appreciations of holiday destination attributes.RésuméL'application au tourisme d'une échelle de motivation des loisirs. Cette étude rapporte une analyse par groupes tirée de l'Échelle des Motivations des Loisirs et appliquée à un échantillon de 1.127 vacanciers du Royaume-Uni. Dans une étude pilote de l'échelle entière, on a reproduit les facteurs de la recherche initiale. Puis on a utilisé une version abbréviée pour faire une analyse d'écart entre les éléments considérés comme importants et les perceptions des vacances précédentes. En général, les vacanciers étaient satisfaits des possibilités pendant leurs vacances de détente physique, qu'ils ont jugée importante. L'échelle a permis une analyse par groupe, et on a trouvé que les groupes avaient des évaluations différentes des attributs des destinations.
Article
This paper sets out to consider present approaches to the measurement of satisfaction. It does this within the context of tourist satisfaction with a holiday. The result - HOLSAT - utilizes and modifies previous work in the area to develop a research instrument which approaches satisfaction attitudes using expectations/performance analysis. In order to test this instrument, an exploratory study was conducted in Varadero, Cuba during June 1996. Given the developmental nature of the instrument, the results reported, whilst reflecting the views of the study population, must not be viewed as having wider significance beyond the study sample. This paper explores the emerging limitations and suggests how to improve the validity of future studies which seek to utilize this new method of measuring ‘holiday’ satisfaction.
Article
This article examines the concept of carrying capacity, the calculation and control of which has not been taken seriously by developers, whether public or private, especially in developing countries. This has resulted in many cases in overcapacity within the areas developed for tourism, causing the destruction or near-destruction of historical landmarks and even of the natural environment. Thus it is necessary for the concept of tourism carrying capacity to be included in the planning for tourism as initiated by governments and other developers, in spite of difficulties in measurement.
Article
This study assessed the incremental validity of different media for representing landscapes with significant dynamic elements. The experimental design independently varied the presence of motion and sound in different representations of a wild and scenic river in order to evaluate the adequacy or sufficiency of the surrogate to reflect physical changes in the landscape. Three representational conditions were identified: (1) video/sound, (2) video/no sound, and (3) static/no sound. A pilot study assessed the ability of the static images to represent river flow levels per se, and confirmed comparability with prior results (Brown & Daniel, 1989, Journal of Environmental Psychology, 7, 233–250). Scenic beauty judgments were then collected within each representational condition. Multiple regression analyses were used to determine the relationship of flow level to perceived scenic beauty for each representation condition. The results demonstrated that motion and sound, individually and conjointly, influenced judgements of scenic beauty for a landscape with a significant dynamic element.
Article
Scholars of many persuasions have recognized the experiential features of geography, such as the consciousness arising from the spatial and temporal bonds between people and places. Until recently, however, tourism researchers have largely overlooked those features. In partial response to this omission, this article presents a phenomenological exploration of leisure tourism experience. By describing the lived experiences of Canadian tourists traveling to and within China on two separate package tours, this article discusses if and how geographical consciousness influences the tourists’ experiences. Its main purpose is to provide insights for research and application.RésuméLa conscience géographique et l’expérience du tourisme. Des chercheurs représentant beaucoup de points de vue ont reconnu les particularités expérientielles de la géographie, par exemple la conscience qui surgit du lien spatial et temporel entre les personnes et les endroits. Jusqu’à ces derniers temps, les chercheurs en tourisme ont largement oublié ces caractéristiques. Un peu en réponse à cette omission, cet article présente une exploration phénoménologique de l’expérience du tourisme d’agrément. En décrivant les expériences vécues de deux groupes de touristes canadiens qui ont visité la Chine en voyage organisé, l’article examine comment et à quel degré la conscience géographique influence les expériences des touristes. Le but principal est d’ouvrir de nouvelles perspectives pour la recherche et pour les applications.
Article
The rationale for a general three-dimensional approach to measuring emotions (the Pleasure-Arousal-Dominance, PAD, Emotional-State Model) is described. Evidence bearing on two early versions of the PAD scales is reviewed, and three studies report additional development and refinement of a final set of PAD scales. Factor analysis of 58 PAD items in Study 1, 41 PAD items in Study 2, and 34 PAD items in Study 3 consistently yielded three nearly orthogonal Pleasure, Arousal, and Dominance factors. The final 16-item State Pleasure, 9-item State Arousal, and 9-item State Dominance scales had alpha reliability coefficients of .97, .89, and .80, respectively. Across Studies 2 and 3, intercorrelations among the latter three scales did not exceed .09 in absolute value, showing that the scales provided a parsimonious base for the general assessment of emotional states. Discriminant and construct validity evidence for the scales were reviewed. Potential applications of the scales were noted.
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