Article

Technology's influence on physical activity and exercise science: The present and the future

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

Background and purpose. Research and application in the physical activity and exercise area are increasingly impacted by technology. The exponential growth of World Wide Web access and the proliferation of personal computers highlight the importance of this development. The purpose of this article is to discuss the current impact of technology on different aspects of physical activity interventions and potential future applications.Methods. Relevant literature is reviewed within each of the areas being discussed.Results and conclusions. Technology has contributed to a secular decline in physical activity; however, it allows a) the proactive recruitment of large populations, b) the individualization of interventions on a large scale, and c) the delivery of activity promoting interventions to large populations via differing channels. Support is emerging for individualized interactive physical activity interventions delivered to large samples. Yet-untested areas where technology may have a beneficial impact on physical activity adoption and maintenance are interactive TV and virtual reality. With the increased focus on environmental strategies, technology could also be used to modify home environments to facilitate incorporating physical activity into everyday life. Technology is also increasing its role in the business of physical activity/exercise. For example, web-based health sites are now listed on the stock market. Health and fitness centers are adopting high-tech entertainment capabilities to serve each client. Combining the individualized technology used in the adoption and maintenance research with the existing infrastructures in health and fitness centers could increase adherence within these centers. Currently, however, there is limited research and utilization of this technology for the promotion of physical activity and exercise at the population level.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Men try to compete and win, while women use the computer only to help them attain their goal (Eck, Hale, Ruff, & Tjelmeland, 2002). Nigg (2003) indicated that technological advantages have helped the development of highly physical activity interventions, allowing large populations to participate in them. ...
... The surveys conducted in the field of PE and PA are influenced by the field of technology. Access to World Wide Web (www) and personal computers highlight the meaningfulness of this development (Nigg, 2003). Nigg (2003) examined the influence of technology on different aspects regarding physical activity. ...
... Access to World Wide Web (www) and personal computers highlight the meaningfulness of this development (Nigg, 2003). Nigg (2003) examined the influence of technology on different aspects regarding physical activity. After retrospection in bibliography, it was shown that technology contributed to a temporary decrease in the occupation with physical activity. ...
Article
Full-text available
1512 students from the University of Murcia responded to the Motivations and Interests related to Physical Exercise and Sport Questionnaire (MIAFD) to ascertain the gender differences in opinion about physical activity and sport and University programmes among university students. The study's most significant findings was that most males do some sort of physical activity; but women do less at this time. We can also say that men prefer physical activities in their spare time, whereas women divide their free time between social activities and personal interests. Finally, men confer higher importance to competition sports, which contrasts with women's attitudes towards the health aspects of sport.
... It has been noted that there is a trend towards alternative modes of intervention delivery (Allen & Morey, 2010), signifying the importance of exploring new ways of enhancing adherence and preference towards such programmes to improve their effectiveness. Improvements in information and communications technology such as the Internet, computer kiosks and mobile phones, offer the possibility of reducing the attrition rate of physical activity intervention programmes (Nigg, 2003). Studies have indicated that the use of information and communications technology has many advantages, including flexible time schedules (Nigg, 2003), access to a large population (Marcus, Nigg, Riebe, & Forsyth, 2000), and delivery of individualised feedback and social support for exercise participants (Lau et al., 2011). ...
... Improvements in information and communications technology such as the Internet, computer kiosks and mobile phones, offer the possibility of reducing the attrition rate of physical activity intervention programmes (Nigg, 2003). Studies have indicated that the use of information and communications technology has many advantages, including flexible time schedules (Nigg, 2003), access to a large population (Marcus, Nigg, Riebe, & Forsyth, 2000), and delivery of individualised feedback and social support for exercise participants (Lau et al., 2011). A review also showed that many eHealth intervention initiatives yielded positive results in encouraging participation in physical activities (Norman et al., 2007). ...
... eHealth can be broadly understood as the utilization of the information and communication technology (ICT) to promote health and health care (Eng, 2001). The advantage of eHealth intervention over the conventional face-to-face intervention includes more proactive approach in participant recruitment in a large population, more individualized intervention cater for large population, as well as the capability of delivering the intervention through a variety of channels (Nigg, 2003). The effectiveness of eHealth intervention in promoting physical activity has been supported by systematic review whereby most studies had significant improvement at post-intervention (Lau, Lau, Wong, & Ransdell, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
The use of information and communications technology in physical activity intervention programmes has been found to be effective in some instances. We conducted a field study to examine the changes to activity level and psychological consequences of incorporating social network interactions into physical activity intervention programme using the self-determination theory framework. Sixty-two students from a local university in Singapore were allocated into four groups comprising a control group, a 3 hours physical activity intervention group, a 3 hours physical activity intervention group linked via Facebook, and a 1 hour physical exercise intervention group linked via Facebook. Measures on the level of physical activity, perceived autonomy, competency, relatedness, enjoyment and vitality were taken before and after the intervention programme. Repeated ANOVA and MANOVA analyses were conducted. The results showed that participants in the two groups with the 3 hours physical activity intervention reported a significant increase in the level of physical activity level compared to participants in other groups. Although the use of social network sites did not have any material effect on the physical intervention programmes, it enhanced competence and enjoyment in the activity. This suggests that the use of social network sites in physical activity intervention programmes yielded some positive psychological effects but the maximization of benefits need to be studied further.
... Sedentary lifestyles, amongst other factors have been seen as contributing to the rise in weight levels [2]. The activity habits of children have been seen as particularly affected by the increase in technology entertainment through activities such as video games and playing on computers [2,12]. ...
... More recently researchers have been investigating whether technology could become part of a solution rather than a contributing factor [2,12,13]. Technologies such as pedometers, mobile phones and heart rate monitors are being used to encourage participation and performance in physical activity [13]. Interactive games such as Nintendo Wii and Dance Dance Revolution have entered the market, requiring some form of body movement to play the game. ...
... Receiving messages that are specific to the individual is considered to increase the likelihood that the message is read and also then applied to personal behavioral change [12,21]. However, literacy is something that may need to be considered when targeting a wide proportion of the population, spoken messages are thus considered as beneficial for such groups or indeed for those who may prefer such communication techniques rather than the written word [12]. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Levels of overweight and obese individuals have been seen as rising across the globe. This has caused concerns with regard to how active individuals are and realization that a high percentage of the population do not meet the weekly requirement of physical activity. Current focus has been on the capabilities that new technologies can offer as an intervention technique. This paper offers an initial investigation into one such technology, namely the iPod Nike+ kit, which acts as a tracker for running behaviors. This scoping study was conducted via a questionnaire and analysis of customer reviews. Participants were assessed on their stage of change for physical activity behavior, based on the Transtheoretical Model of Change (TTM), before and after using the technology. The results from this study showed that the technology was received positively from those who used it and the predominant outcome was that individuals were more enthusiastic about running.
... Tailored interventions are optimal for subgroups and suboptimal for other groups (Kreuter and Holt 2001). In other words, an intervention matched to one stage should be mismatched to a different stage (Nigg 2003). By confirming this assumption experimentally, the results support the existence of the stages. ...
... Second, the intervention, the prerehab stage, postrehab intentions, and action plans are significantly predictive of postrehab behavior. With this knowledge, improved tailored and effective interventions may be designed (see Nigg 2003). Third, the problem of handling missing data and keeping as much information as possible was included. ...
... This points to the benefit of including stage-specific analyses of intervention effects. The existence of stage-specific effects would allow the design of more effective, stage-tailored interventions (Nigg 2003). For rehabilitation settings, the assessment of stages can save resources by targeting those patients who would benefit from a planning intervention. ...
Article
Achieving a recommended level of physical exercise is a difficult self-regulatory task for many patients in rehabilitation. Psychological interventions are designed to improve initiation and maintenance of exercise. A challenging research question is whether such interventions can be tailored to the special needs of patients at different stages of behavioral change. In particular, this article investigates whether action planning is beneficial for those patients who have the intention to exercise but do not perform physical activities at the recommended level. In a longitudinal (4 waves) study with 560 rehabilitation patients, a planning intervention was evaluated. Action plans and exercise behaviors were higher in the experimental planning group than in the no-treatment control group. Patients with the intention to exercise but who have been inactive benefited more from the planning intervention than patients without the intention to act or patients who had been active before. The results suggest that matching treatments to people in a particular stage is a promising procedure. Moreover, if patients formed intentions and action plans, they were more likely to adhere to the recommended level of exercise.
... It has compelled them to engage in compulsive behavior. Besides this it has given rise to sedentary behavior (Nigg, 2003) [33] . As a result of this the number of children are becoming obese. ...
... It has compelled them to engage in compulsive behavior. Besides this it has given rise to sedentary behavior (Nigg, 2003) [33] . As a result of this the number of children are becoming obese. ...
Article
Sports is an activity involving physical exertion and skills in which an individual or team competes against another or others for entertainment. Sports is losing its momentum due to rise in number of children and adolescents engaging in using gadgets. Gadgets have ill effects on children as the research show that there is delay in learning and social skills, obesity and sleep problems. Technological evolution has given rise to sedentary behavior. Research show that excessive use of technology results in social anxiety, depression, eating disorder, loneliness, Nomophobia, seflieitis, phantom ringing syndrome and other technology addicted disorders. It has a huge negative impact on not only physical health but also affecting psychological and social health. Outcome of technological evolution is that fewer number of children and adolescents are interested in engaging themselves in sports. Research evidence shows that participating in sports assists in better social skills, assertiveness, higher self-esteem, self-confidence, self-control, self-concept, and competence. Further it also helps in having fewer symptoms of depression and anxiety disorders. This implies that participating in sports has positive impact on mental health as it improves overall quality of life. Despite these benefits there are only handful of mental health professionals who recommend children and adolescents to engage in sports. Extensive research needs to be done on how sports is helpful in alleviating symptoms of various mental disorders so that the findings can help the mental health professionals to include sports as part of intervention of mental disorders.
... It has compelled them to engage in compulsive behavior. Besides this it has given rise to sedentary behavior (Nigg, 2003) [33] . As a result of this the number of children are becoming obese. ...
... It has compelled them to engage in compulsive behavior. Besides this it has given rise to sedentary behavior (Nigg, 2003) [33] . As a result of this the number of children are becoming obese. ...
... Virtual Reality (VR) has been defined as "an artificial environment which is experienced through sensory stimuli (such as sights and sounds) provided by a computer" (Merriam-Webster, n.d.). Across the life span, data suggest that people are more likely to maintain good exercise habits if it is paired with VR, possibly because it is more engaging (Nigg, 2003;. This may be particularly applicable during teen years when video games are highly popular (National Poll on Children's Health, n.d.). ...
... While the exergame did not lead to larger improvements, the inclusion of the VR headset was the main reason that students volunteered for the study during a stressful exam week and all participants wanted to play with the headset even if they were randomized to the dodgeball group. In agreement with previous literature, (Nigg, 2003;, this suggests that high school students are more likely to join an exergame program than more traditional ones. Novelty bias is possible with respect to using VR at the school settings and could have been a factor in encouraging students to volunteer for the study. ...
Article
Full-text available
Anxiety and stress are prominent issues for the adolescent population. Physical activity is known to reduce symptoms of anxiety and stress; however, many adolescents lack the time or motivation to exercise regularly, particularly during stressful exam weeks. Virtual Reality (VR) has the potential to make exercise more enjoyable and more engaging than exercise alone. We aimed to investigate the immediate effect of a 10-min dodgeball exercise session, with and without a VR headset, on self-reported stress, anxiety and cognitive performance in adolescents during times known to induce stress in high school, such as exam weeks. Participants were randomly assigned to a VR group (n = 16) where participants were immersed in a virtual dodgeball environment (exergame), or a dodgeball group (n = 14) which played a simple game of one-on-one dodgeball. Executive function was measured using the Trail Making Test (TMT) Parts A and B. Anxiety was self-reported on the Pediatric Anxiety Short Form 8a (PASF). Stress was self-reported on the Psychological Stress Experiences-Short Form 8a (PSES). Both groups significantly improved their TMT A and B performance and reduced stress and anxiety scores with effect size ranging from 0.59 to 1.2 (main effect of time p < 0.001 for all outcomes). There were no significant differences between groups and no time by group interaction for any outcome. A short bout of exercise, with or without VR, during stressful high school exam weeks was shown to be effective for immediate reduction of stress and anxiety and enhancement of cognitive function in a small sample of high school students. High schools looking to apply interventions to help their students manage anxiety and stress should consider encouraging them to take a “time-out” to exercise and play. The cost-effectiveness of exergames inside the school settings and implications for academic success should be investigated in future research.
... Among the 21 studies reviewed that used mHealth apps to promote PA or reduce SB, 14 observed significant health improvements among the experimental groups versus comparison or control groups. Per the most recent global statistics on smartphone app downloads from late 2015, 77% of [18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] year-olds download apps to their smartphone. 17 Thus, researchers have begun to examine the effectiveness of mHealth app interventions in the promotion of PA or weight loss among college students and, more generally, young adults. ...
... [23][24][25][26] Finally, social media has been suggested as a platform which researchers and clinicians might use to not only promote social support for health behaviors, but also employ as a medium by which individuals can be educated regarding how to incorporate proper health behaviors into their daily routine. 27,28 Notably, standalone social media-based health interventions have shown promise in promoting PA among college students. 23 However, PA-oriented smartphone app use in addition to a standalone social media-delivered health education intervention may result in greater health behavior and outcome improvements given the user's greater ability to track and modify (e.g., self-regulate) their PA behaviors when using the smartphone application. ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: We evaluated the feasibility of a 10-week program combining a smartphone application and theoretically-based, social media-delivered health education intervention to improve college students’ health behaviors and outcomes. Participants: Forty-four college students (32 female; X̅age=21.6 years) in 2015-2016. Methods: Participants were randomized into one of two groups: (1) experimental: used MapMyFitness smartphone application to log and track physical activity (PA) and participated in a Social Cognitive Theory-based, Facebook-delivered health education intervention; (2) comparison: only included in a separate, but content-identical, Facebook intervention. Our primary outcomes pertained to intervention feasibility while our secondary outcomes reflected health behaviors and outcomes. Results: Intervention interest was high, with retention 95.5%. Experimental participants used MapMyFitness 1.71x/week, with both groups implementing the Facebook-delivered health education tips 1-3x/week. We observed a modest sedentary behavior reduction in the experimental group (−29.2-minutes/day). Additionally, both groups demonstrated slight reductions in weight (experimental:−1.2 kg/comparison:−0.6 kg) and body fat percentage (both groups:−0.8%-decrease). Increased PA-related social support and decreased barriers were observed. Conclusions: A low-burden and well-integrated social media-based intervention is feasible and of interest to college students, possibly improving select health behaviors and outcomes. PA-oriented smartphone application offered limited additional benefit.
... As in other areas, technology has the potential to play a significant role in contributing to physical activity and influencing exercise behaviors. Indeed there is a notable trend for using technology to help promote physical health [30], [31]- [33]. A number of new technologies have been employed within this context, including desktop computer systems, mobile applications, monitoring devices, computer games and more specific exergame technologies [31]- [33]. ...
... Indeed many health clubs and fitness industries have employed technology as a tool for physical education and training. For example, low-end web-based applications have been used by the fitness industry and health clubs to try and achieve a high uptake of exercise by the general of population [30]. At the other end of the spectrum, researchers have designed higher end technology solutions in an attempt to create 'persuasive technologies' that might attract users to adopt healthier behaviors and manage weight loss [34]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Encouraging physical activity amongst children and adolescents is becoming an increasingly relevant issue in modern society. Studies have shown that involving children and adolescents in physical activity is essential for their physical, mental and social development. However, with technology playing an increasingly important role in reducing physical work it is becoming more critical to incorporate adequate physical activities into our lives. One way to overcome this problem is to harness technology so that it promotes physical activities, for example, by motivating children and adolescents to exercise more. This paper describes a promising solution to the question of how to increase levels of physical activity in children and adolescents by combining gaming technologies with exercise tracking goals. This research describes a framework called FITTER (Framework for Integrating activity Tracking Technologies for Electronic Recreation) that combines video game play with more traditional, non-computer physical activities.
... However, the use of interactive virtual environments in the training of athletes has been observed to produce a similar physiological reaction to that of the actual game environments (Bideau et al., 2003). Using technology to maximize the potential of the training for the individual will have more benefits than "one size fits all", because modern systems can adapt to the goals and needs of the specific participant (Nigg, 2003). By using traditional video and computer images for reaction testing, researchers have shown differences between genders, handedness, and skill level (Dane & Erzurumluoğlu, 2003). ...
... The time of the reception will differ as a function of the distance of the player from the receiver, and this places the user at a single unique position in the activity space. In other words, the system can tell where the user is at all times (Nigg, 2003;Bideau, et al., 2004). Multiple players in the same room can be dealt with by using different frequencies for each player, or by using coded pulses. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Virtual reality (VR) involves technology and visual art that allows a user to interact with a computer-simulated environment. These environments can range from a simulation of an authentic situation to the creation of a wholly imagined world. While most virtual reality environments (VREs) are primarily visual experiences (computer screens, large screen displays, multiple screens and stereoscopic displays) new tools are being developed that enhance the visual experience by addressing other sensory modalities (e.g. sound, tactile feedback and smell). VR has been used effectively to train astronauts, pilots, physicians, military personnel, and now, even athletes. While the cost of creating VRE is the most expensive type of computer development, the entry of game manufacturers into the fi eld is drastically changing the cost of producing and using these environments. This chapter provides an overview of VR and focuses on the most promising developments in VR, especially in the area of sport and exercise. The implications of these innovations for other spheres of activity are also discussed. Keywords: virtual reality, virtual environments, virtual reality environments, simulation, gaming, reaction time 1 Introduction This chapter acquaints the reader with the issues related to virtual reality (VR) in sport and human performance and also highlights the potential of these types of environments to revolutionize the approach to equipping and training athletes and coaches. Extrapolation of the impact of this promising technology to other diverse fi elds is provided. VR has been defi ned previously [1]. The most recent defi nition in Webopedia (www.webopedia.com/TERM/V/virtual_reality.html) is listed below: An artifi cial environment created with computer hardware and software and presented to the user in such a way that it appears and feels like a real environment.
... Technology, health, and physical activity As much as technology has enriched society and expanded global communication, it can be argued that it has also negatively affected overall global health by lowering opportunities for physical activity [1] and by contributing to an overall secular decline in physical activity participation rates [2]. At the same time, research also indicates that there is a potential for technologies to be used as a means for improving health and increasing physical activity [3]. ...
... Thus, the overarching purpose of this study was to develop an understanding of the types of information being shared from mobile fitness apps via Twitter. Our specific objectives were (1) to develop and implement a method for collecting fitness tweets sent from mobile fitness apps, (2) to develop a conceptual model to classify tweets, and (3) to analyze and interpret a sample of tweets. Given the preliminary nature of this research, no hypotheses were put forth. ...
Article
The purpose of this project was to design and test data collection and management tools that can be used to study the use of mobile fitness applications and social networking within the context of physical activity. This project was conducted over a 6-month period and involved collecting publically shared Twitter data from five mobile fitness apps (Nike+, RunKeeper, MyFitnessPal, Endomondo, and dailymile). During that time, over 2.8 million tweets were collected, processed, and categorized using an online tweet collection application and a customized JavaScript. Using the grounded theory, a classification model was developed to categorize and understand the types of information being shared by application users. Our data show that by tracking mobile fitness app hashtags, a wealth of information can be gathered to include but not limited to daily use patterns, exercise frequency, location-based workouts, and overall workout sentiment.
... La participación de los sujetos en la toma de decisiones relacionadas con el diseño e implementación del programa de intervención facilitará su implicación y, por tanto, podría favorecer el efecto de la intervención. Un ejemplo de estrategia puede ser el uso del teléfono móvil y sus aplicaciones de control de actividad física, ya que podría reducir la tasa de abandono en los programas de intervención (Nigg, 2003) y, a su vez, ser un instrumento útil para estimar con precisión la actividad física realizada (Lee, Kim, y Welk, 2014). ...
... La participación de los sujetos en la toma de decisiones relacionadas con el diseño e implementación del programa de intervención facilitará su implicación y, por tanto, podría favorecer el efecto de la intervención. Un ejemplo de estrategia puede ser el uso del teléfono móvil y sus aplicaciones de control de actividad física, ya que podría reducir la tasa de abandono en los programas de intervención (Nigg, 2003) y, a su vez, ser un instrumento útil para estimar con precisión la actividad física realizada (Lee, Kim, y Welk, 2014). ...
... La participación de los sujetos en la toma de decisiones relacionadas con el diseño e implementación del programa de intervención facilitará su implicación y, por tanto, podría favorecer el efecto de la intervención. Un ejemplo de estrategia puede ser el uso del teléfono móvil y sus aplicaciones de control de actividad física, ya que podría reducir la tasa de abandono en los programas de intervención (Nigg, 2003) y, a su vez, ser un instrumento útil para estimar con precisión la actividad física realizada (Lee, Kim, y Welk, 2014). ...
Book
Obra de divulgación científica sobre programas escolares para promover comportamientos saludables. Ha sido redactada bajo la premisa de utilización de un tipo de lenguaje claro y sencillo,intentando evitar, en la medida de lo posible, el uso excesivo de tecnicismos de la jerga científica que dificultan la comprensión de las ideas a transmitir. Esta obra va dirigida especialmente a profesionales que abordan la promoción de comportamientos saludables en el contexto educativo, especialmente a docentes de las etapas educativas de Educación Primaria y Secundaria. No obstante, estamos convencidos que otros educadores y profesionales de la salud encontrarán atractiva la información que aquí se ofrece, siendo capaces de transferirla a su ámbito de trabajo.
... However, some studies have reported that technology use can also contribute to an increase in PA (Koekoek & Van Hilvoorde, 2018;LeBlanc et al., 2013;Peyman et al., 2018). For example, health-related websites, are already in the spotlight, sports and fitness clubs use electronic entertainment to serve customers, and combining individualized technology with infrastructures of health and fitness centres are assumed to improve people's connectedness to these public health places (Nigg, 2003). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to develop scenarios of Iranians’ future participation in leisure-time physical activity (LTPA). To this end, 12 experts in the field of leisure, sociology, and sport management were invited to take part. The Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory (DEMATEL) method was used to organize and analyze the data collected in a questionnaire featuring a pairwise comparison of 18 indicators of LTPA which were drawn from the relevant literature. The DEMATEL was then used to determine the critical uncertainties of the future participation in leisure-time physical activities. Considering the two most important critical uncertainties from economic and technological dimensions, four possible futures around Iranians’ participation in these activities were created. By taking the uncertainties into consideration, decision-makers can contribute to the promotion in LTPA in the best and most efficient manner by having knowledge about the most influential framing factors of possible futures.
... At least it is positive, that the present study did not find a decrease in PA (expressed by steps/day) in group with the lowest PA level over the 8-year monitoring. School administration, in cooperation with parents and leisure-time institutions, including amateur sport clubs, should focus on less physically active adolescents in a similar manner to other socially marginalised and health-endangered populations, putting emphasis on the improvement of adolescents' physical literacy [61,62] and more efficient use of information technologies for positive changes in their lifestyle [44,63]. In particular, prevention of cardiovascular diseases [9,64] and mental health promotion [65] need to be prioritised. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Physical activity (PA) in adolescence is crucial for lifelong healthy lifestyle, and attention is needed to adolescents at health risk due to insufficient PA. This study investigates the composition of weekly PA in adolescents by PA level and provides a rationale for change in their lifestyles. Methods: The research was conducted at 66 schools in Poland between 2009 and 2016, among 949 girls and 650 boys aged 15-18 years. We used pedometers to monitor weekly PA with data assessed using the Indares web app. The participants were split into three groups by mean daily step count (lower, < 9000; middle, 9000-12,999; and higher, ≥ 13,000 steps/day), as a reliable and non-expensive indicator of PA. Results: We did not observe statistically significant differences in composition of 7-day PA between participants with varying levels of PA, regardless of their gender (F(12,9558) = 0.60; p = 0.841; ηp2 > 0.000). The smallest differences in daily step counts by PA level were found on Mondays and the biggest on Fridays and Saturdays, in boys and girls; the differences between average school and average weekend days were most pronounced in less active girls (1677 steps/day) and boys (1886 steps/day). During the school week, the highest proportion of less active girls met the 11,000 steps/day recommendation on Fridays (21.9%), statistically significantly less than on other school days (p < 0.001). Similarly, less active boys (22.2%) had significantly less activity on Fridays than on other school days, except for Mondays (p = 0.143) Analogous pattern was apparent also in more active adolescents. Conclusions: Less active adolescents have comparable composition of weekly PA to the more active ones but they can hardly meet the generally accepted PA recommendations. Better understanding of weekly PA composition and rates of meeting PA recommendations by day of the week can lead to more efficient interventions improving lifestyles. The recommendation of 9000 steps/day most days of the week, thus, appears appropriate for less active adolescents, as a motivating achievable goal.
... In recent years, technological developments eased the creation of VR indoor stationary exercise bike equipment [17] and many researches have designed and built VEs for stationary bicycles elderly rehabilitation and exercise in general [18]. ...
Chapter
Head mounted displays (HMDs) are visualization devices that provide high levels of immersion in virtual environments (VEs), which have been recently used to enhance the experience of subjects performing a physical exercise. However, the use of these devices in rehabilitation is discussed as it could cause cybersickness and other physical drawbacks. In this context, we conducted a preliminary study investigating the experiences of navigating in the same VEs using a cycle-ergometer and either a projected screen (PS) or a HMD, considering whether the “the Sense of Presence” influenced the device’s preference. Thirty-three healthy young adults were enrolled and randomized in four groups to counterbalance the two conditions and to investigate the effects of 5-days washout. Most of the subjects (n = 26) preferred the HMD with respect to PS; sense of presence was higher using HMD than using projector (t = −11.47, p < 0.001), but the difference between conditions was higher for those who preferred the HMD (t = −14.64, p < 0.001), compared to those who chose projector (t = −2.70, p < 0.05). The correlation of presence with cybersickness revealed that, despite higher levels of sickness, sense of presence probably counts more in choosing the HMD as the preferred device.
... Although, technological innovation has improved society and extended nexus between people worldwide, it can be also contended that it has additionally adversely influenced users' general wellbeing by stagnating physical activity [Nig03]. On the other hand, recent studies have shown that there is a potential for these advances to be utilized as methods for enhancing health and motivate physical activities [RM12,AWH16]. ...
Chapter
Nowadays, a growing number of people publicly share information about their fitness activities on social media platforms like Twitter or Facebook. These social networks can furnish people with useful information to get an overview of different geographic areas where people can practice different sport-related activities. In this study, we analyze 14 million tweets to identify places to perform fitness activities and uncovering their aspects from twitterers’ opinions. To this end, we apply clustering analysis to uncover places where twitterers perform fitness activities, and then train a text classifier that achieves a score F1 of \(76\%\) to discriminate the aspects of fitness places. Using this information, recommender systems can provide useful information to local people or tourists that look for places to do exercise.
... In order to increase PA behavior in this population, interventions need to be tailored to one particular stage, because it could be a mismatch if it is applied to a different stage. 46 Utilizing a behavioral stages framework, in addition to a social ecological perspective, also helps us understand what factors need to be considered depending on the individual's readiness to change his or her PA behavior. ...
Article
Background: Parkinson's disease (PD) is a movement disorder with no cure. Symptoms related to PD can be managed through physical activity (PA). However, individuals with PD tend to be sedentary. Purpose: Identify the perceived constraints and facilitators to PA in each stage of behavioral change for individuals with PD. Methods: A qualitative methodology was utilized to uncover factors influencing behavior from the participants' perspective. Twelve participants were recruited and took part in a semi-structured interview. Data underwent thematic analysis. Results: Constraints in the pre-intention stage related to psychological states. In the intention stage, interpersonal constraints resulted from participants' lack of support from others while environmental constraints addressed accessibility. The action and maintenance stages saw a decrease in constraints. Few facilitators were mentioned in the pre-intention stage. The intention stage saw an increase in the variety of facilitators. Environmental facilitators in the intention stage highlighted the importance of accessibility to knowledge on programs. Facilitators were also important towards maintenance of their PA behavior. Discussion: Findings suggest that multiple factors influence behavior at different stages of behavioral change in PA. Translation to health education practice: These results can be utilized to develop/implement interventions to increase PA behavior in this population.
... Similar to what others have suggested, some physical educators in this study viewed technology in an especially skeptical manner, believing that the introduction of technology necessarily detracts from the core principal of physical education-to get people moving for learning (Casey & Jones, 2011;Stidder & Capel, 2010). Indeed, as has been observed by others, technology has undoubtedly contributed to the decline in children's and youth's physical activity (Finkenberg, 2008;Nigg, 2003). With this observation, it is certainly understandable for some to therefore wonder why we are looking to technology to improve physical education (or physical activity). ...
Article
Full-text available
This article highlights results from a recent study that investigated Atlantic Canadian physical educators’ adoption and implementation of various digital technologies. Employing a mixed-methods research design (survey participants, n = 206; focus group participants, n = 12), the research intended to provide a clear overview of physical educators’ implementation of digital technologies—as well as an account of the factors that may enable or limit their use. Results suggest that some digital technologies are used more (e.g., audio players, computers) than others (e.g., Dartfish, iTouch). Moreover, a number of external barriers (limitations in time, expertise, resources) and internal barriers (teacher beliefs, established pedagogy) were identified. In light of these results, a number of observations and comments are offered. Results from this research might be of particular interest to those engaged with physical education and technology implementation.Cet article souligne les résultats d’une étude récente qui s’est penchée sur l’adoption et la mise en application de diverses technologies numériques par les moniteurs d’éducation physique du Canada atlantique. À l’aide d’un modèle de recherche faisant appel à des méthodes mixtes (participants au sondage, n = 206; participants au groupe de discussion, n = 12), l’étude entendait fournir un survol limpide de la mise en œuvre des technologies numériques par les enseignants en éducation physique, ainsi qu’un compte-rendu des facteurs qui peuvent permettre ou limiter cet usage. Les résultats suggèrent que certaines technologies numériques sont plus utilisées (p. ex. lecteurs audio et ordinateurs) que d’autres (p. ex. Dartfish, iTouch). De plus, un certain nombre d’obstacles externes (des limites relatives au temps, à l’expertise, aux ressources) et internes (croyances des enseignants, pédagogie établie) ont été repérés. À la lumière de ces résultats, nous offrons certaines observations et des commentaires. Les résultats de ces recherches peuvent être intéressants pour les personnes qui s’occupent de l’éducation physique et de la mise en application des technologies.
... Thus, it is necessary to have an innovative, accessible and personal approach. The level of personalization can be acquired using advanced communication and informational technologies, as the Internet and smartphones [3,4]. However, video games have a rich potential for promoting physical exercises [4]. ...
... Las TIC´s ofrecen la oportunidad de actualizar y personalizar los contenidos de los programas que se implementen a través de estas herramientas (Brug, Oenema, Kroeze, y Raat, 2005). Ofrecen una forma dinámica y atractiva para presentar los contenidos de programas a los niños a través de medios que les sean más atractivos y entretenidos como lo pueden ser sonido, video animaciones, texto, etc. (Nigg, 2003). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
One of the main causes identified by which children carry out an unhealthy diet is the lack of knowledge about nutritional aspects, and therefore that the Nutritional Education (NE), arises as a key element in order to combat this serious problem. One of the main obstacles for the development and implementation of the programs is the lack of specific training of professionals responsible for dissemination: teachers and nutritionists. In this aspect, the technologies of the information and Communication (ICT´s) can be a tool of great interest for the dissemination of these knowledge between professionals. Objectives: The aim of this thesis is the design, development and validation of an on-line platform (MEAL) to train teachers and nutritionists in the knowledge and skills to teach NE to children between 9 and 12 years. Methodology: We carried out an extensive review of literature to analyze the main components that must be included in a nutritional education program aimed at child population. Subsequently carried out focus groups with teachers, nutritionists, and children to analyze the concepts that they considered relevant to learn in such programs, and as they would like to obtain such knowledge. It also surveys were carried out with teachers and digital nutritionists in 4 countries in Europe (Spain, Austria, Norway and Italy). With the purpose of expanding the information collected in the literature review and the focus groups. With the information obtained was developed the platform meal, and subsequently it was evaluated with a sample of 66 participants, 15 of whom were primary school teachers, 12 nutritionists and 39 students of education. Was used to evaluate perception of the usefulness and acceptability to the contents and the platform itself meal. On the other hand, it was assessed the level of acceptability, immersion and gameplay of the educational video games implemented on this platform. Finally, we analyzed the effectiveness of the platform for the acquisition of nutritional knowledge. As well as the levels of acceptability, immersion and gameplay on the part of the children into the educational video games of this system. For this we counted with a sample of 135 children in 4 primary schools in the Valencian Community.
... Similar to what others have suggested, some physical educators in this study viewed technology in an especially skeptical manner, believing that the introduction of technology necessarily detracts from the core principal of physical education-to get people moving for learning (Casey & Jones, 2011;Stidder & Capel, 2010). Indeed, as has been observed by others, technology has undoubtedly contributed to the decline in children's and youth's physical activity (Finkenberg, 2008;Nigg, 2003). With this observation, it is certainly understandable for some to therefore wonder why we are looking to technology to improve physical education (or physical activity). ...
... However, there is a need to increase the quality of Internet-based interventions to teach NE to children. Some of the main advantages of using online systems are that the messages contained in the interventions can be adjusted to each individual according to his/her needs (31), and the contents can be presented to the children through a dynamic and attractive format, as in the case of animations, videos, comics, among others (32). Moreover, one of the main characteristics of the online systems is the option to communicate with others, such as a health professional to receive or request support when needed (33). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Childhood obesity is now considered a worldwide problem. Nutrition Education (NE) has been identified as a key factor in preventing overweight and obesity in children. In recent years, there has been an increase in the interest in innovative ways to teach this knowledge to children, mainly through the use of the Internet. Objective Review and analyze the available evidence about programs focused on NE for children through the use of the Internet. Results Three different ways were found to deliver NE over the Internet to children: Platforms designed to communicate with other peers or professionals; Platforms designed to provide NE through the contents included in the web tool; and Platforms designed to provide NE through the contents included in the web tool and automated feedback. Most of these programs were effective in achieving the objectives established. Conclusion Although the use of Internet platforms to teach NE to children has been shown to be effective, the amount of evidence is still scarce. Some of the main advantages the Internet provides are: the opportunity to put the children in contact with education and health professionals; children can keep a record of the food consumed; and it is a more attractive and interesting way for children to learn NE, compared to traditional methods.
... La EN supone más que la sola transmisión de información acerca de los alimentos involucrar "cualquier combinación de estrategias educativas, acompañada de apoyo ambiental, diseñada para facilitar la adopción voluntaria de elección de alimentos, y los comportamientos relacionados con la nutrición para la salud y el bienestar" (Contento, 2008, p. 176). De acuerdo con el modelo de Contento (2008), la forma en que la gente elige la comida está influenciada por 4 factores: 1) predisposiciones conductuales biológicamente determinadas, que se traducen, por ejemplo, en la tendencia a que guste más la comida dulce o salada; 2) experiencias previas con la comida, en tanto que el individuo pudo probar algo que le gustó pero era insano, o algo que no le gustó y era sano; 3) factores personales como creencias, (Brug, Oenema & Campbell, 2003), ya que ofrecen grandes ventajas a la hora de socializar este tipo de conocimientos, y llegar a los profesionales encargados de dispensarlos (maestros, dietista, etc.); también pueden ser de utilidad para recordar a los usuarios de estas herramientas la necesidad de realizar ciertas tareas diarias (como actividad física, dieta, etc.) (Baños et al., 2011); además, ofrecen la oportunidad de actualizar y personalizar los contenidos de las intervenciones (Brug, Oenema, Kroeze y Raat, 2005), de presentar los materiales educativos en varios formatos, como texto, sonido, video, animaciones, etc., con el objetivo de ser más atractivos para los niños (Nigg, 2003), y de llegar a un mayor número de personas al poder ser difundidos a través de herramientas que pueden llegar a diversas partes del mundo y a una gran cantidad de personas al mismo tiempo y a través de herramientas de bajo coste (Lau, Lau, Wong & Ransdell, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Consumption of unhealthy foods by children is now considered a global problem to the extent that the health of infants is directly related to diet, but most have focused only on the transmission of nutritional information. This article will describe the MEAL platform that has been created to help teachers and nutritionists to teach nutritional education to children between 9 and 12 years of age. MEAL consists of 3 modules with basic concepts related to nutrition education, but also it contains information related to the change of eating habits and establishing healthy patterns. This platform also has two educational video games aimed at children. By the way it is designed MEAL platform, and to be based on information and communications technology can be a very useful tool and effective for teachers and dietitians in order to teach children nutrition education.
... Future research replicating and extending this study could explore ways to use remote monitoring via the internet, to tailor individual feedback, and increase adherence with either in-home or facility-based applications of this type Dovepress Dovepress 279 social facilitation and competitiveness in exergaming of exercise modality. 43 Studies could explore the broader physical activity identity of older adults, 44 beyond their sense of competitiveness, and its role in influencing virtual reality-enhanced exercise behavior. Alternatively, physical activity preference (eg, to be alone or with others) 45 may be another way to conceptualize the competitiveness measured herein, and could add to the prediction and enhancement of exercise effort. ...
... Internet as PA information source has a positive (but little) influence on knowledge retention and PA level, and is the only influent source with potential to reach large numbers of the population, with flexibility of use and easy access. So, Internet potentialities should be taking in account to Exercise Promotion Programs, in accordance to Nigg (2003) that points out three technologies potentialities for increase PA levels: a) the proactive recruitment of large populations, b) the individualization of interventions on a large scale, and c) the delivery of activity promoting interventions to large populations via differing channels. ...
Article
Full-text available
Physical inactivity is an important risk factor in several highly prevalent diseases, being associated with worse quality of life and higher mortality. Despite the implementation of a several global, national and local policy instruments and strategies to promote physical activity (PA), including Internet platforms and advertising campaign, approximately two thirds of the European adult population reports low adherence to an active lifestyle, impairing health benefits that exercise can provide. Increasing efforts to provide adequate information have been made, and the use of new technologies tools has increased, but little investigation focus on the effect of information exposure on knowledge retention, regarding effects of physical inactivity in health. The objective of the present study is to evaluate differences among people in the use of new information technologies as information source on PA, regarding their perceptions of benefits of an active lifestyle and characteristics of adequate physical activity to health improvement. The study included a randomly recruited sample of 879 subjects (53% males; 47% females), age 42.3±19.4 years old. A survey was designed to (1) identify main information sources; (2) relate perceived knowledge and PA information sources; (3) relate knowledge retention on adequate PA for health benefits and PA information sources; (4) relate perceived necessity of more information regarding PA and information sources and (5) relate PA levels and information sources. Results show that two information sources (teacher and sport professionals) positively influence perception of proper PA information. Results also found teachers, Internet and sport professionals as PA information sources that most influence their users, regarding Knowledge retention. We also found that rely on friends/family; teachers, Internet and sport professionals as PA information sources positively influence the adoption of an active lifestyle.
... This is a key theme that runs through the Fizzees project as the game play is intended to fit into the student's current lifestyle (including taking advantage of current environments used) whilst providing further motivation and opportunity for activity and learning about health issues. From a negative perspective, Nigg (2003) highlights the detrimental effect that technology has had on exercise. This view takes a broad definition of technology to include cars, washing machines, computer games and televisions, yet it is also adhered to by those highlighting computer games and television as prompts for a decrease in children's (physically active) play. ...
... [21][22][23] Interest in these technology exercise delivery platforms is based in part on the potential for increased interactivity, customizability, and entertainment value. 24 The use of interactive videogame consoles is an especially promising technological development that has demonstrated significant potential for facilitating energy expenditure in both adults and children. 18,25,26 The key characteristic, however, is the potential of interactive gaming technologies to significantly improve exercise program adherence, and early small sample studies support a positive impact on exercise compliance. ...
Article
Exercise is an effective intervention for depressed individuals, but adherence is often poor. Exergaming may be useful for stimulating motivation and adherence with physical activity. This study piloted the use of the Nintendo(®) "Wii™ Fit" (Nintendo of America, Inc., Redwood City, CA) as part of cognitive behavioral treatment (CBT) for soldiers. Male soldiers with depression (N=3) were treated in a military treatment facility using a case-controlled research design. Patients were loaned a "Wii Fit" during five of 10 CBT treatment sessions and asked to exercise at least 20 minutes/day. Rates of compliance and minutes of exercise were no different during the periods with and without the "Wii Fit." All three patients reported a reduction in depression severity following treatment. This study provides important lessons learned for future studies of exergaming for patients with depression. Exergaming software is typically not designed for clinical populations, and certain characteristics of the game may decrease the likelihood of use. Researchers should consider the characteristics of various available exergaming platforms and select one that represents a clinical and cultural fit for their patient population.
... Therefore innovative approaches are needed that are able to more efficiently reach groups of people and at the same time enhance accessibility and personal relevance [6]. The level of customization and personalization necessary may be attained using advanced information and communication technologies such as the Internet, personal digital assistants, and mobile phones, among other interactive technologies [8,9]. ...
Article
Full-text available
article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/). Selection and peer-review under responsibility of the University of Tras-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD) Abstract Synchronized online gymnastics may provide new possibilities for enhancing the physical and social well-being of people with restricted mobility. We propose a prototype platform for this – Online-Gym – which allows users to interact using a Microsoft Kinect and participate in on-line gymnastics sessions. In this paper we present the Online-Gym concept and a first iteration of the platform architecture that allows interaction in OpenSimulator or Second Life virtual worlds with movement captured by a Kinect device. The exploratory work done so far provides evidence that this approach is viable and that such scenarios may be pursued. © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. Selection and peer-review under responsibility of [Organizer Name].
... Qualitative research suggests that obese adolescents are enthusiastic about receiving tailored text messages during a weight management program, particularly messages that are positive, direct, and encouraging [28]. mHealth tools allow the potential for individualization on a large scale [29]. As adolescents are able to participate more in the personalization process, the intervention may become more interactive; an interactive program design has been associated with increased physical activity [30]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Childhood obesity continues to be a significant public health issue. mHealth systems offer state-of-the-art approaches to intervention design, delivery, and diffusion of treatment and prevention efforts. Benefits include cost effectiveness, potential for real-time data collection, feedback capability, minimized participant burden, relevance to multiple types of populations, and increased dissemination capability. However, these advantages are coupled with unique challenges. This commentary discusses challenges with using mHealth strategies for child obesity prevention, such as lack of scientific evidence base describing effectiveness of commercially available applications; relatively slower speed of technology development in academic research settings as compared with industry; data security, and patient privacy; potentially adverse consequences of increased sedentary screen time, and decreased focused attention due to technology use. Implications for researchers include development of more nuanced measures of screen time and other technology-related activities, and partnering with industry for developing healthier technologies. Implications for health practitioners include monitoring, assessing, and providing feedback to child obesity program designers about users' data transfer issues, perceived security and privacy, sedentary behavior, focused attention, and maintenance of behavior change. Implications for policy makers include regulation of claims and quality of apps (especially those aimed at children), supporting standardized data encryption and secure open architecture, and resources for research–industry partnerships that improve the look and feel of technology. Partnerships between academia and industry may promote solutions, as discussed in this commentary.
... The use of interactive virtual environments (handball) in the training of athletes has been observed to produce a similar physiological reaction to that of the actual game environments ( Bideau et al., 2003). Technology has the potential to maximize the impact of training for the individual because modern systems can adapt to the objectives and needs of the athlete (Katz, Parker, Tyreman, Kopp, Levy, & Chang, 2006;Nigg, 2003). ...
Conference Paper
The Infusion of virtual reality equipment into the sports and gaming industries has extraordinarily upgraded users' result encounters and outcome experiences on the loose. Virtual reality technology and its equipment are largely used by various sports and gaming industries. Virtual reality equipment creates an environment that permits users and participants to engage in this learning environment rather than passive spectators effectively. Virtual reality equipment permits users to experience and explore conceivable learning outcomes. VR equipment has created an environment that allows users to learn and train to become specialists in that particular field of gaming and sports activity. It helps evaluate the performance and analyze the results of the particular participant. This paper centers on the potential outcomes of using virtual reality equipment in the sports and gaming environment and investigates in giving potential possible recommendations for enhancing virtual learning and training tasks in the sports and gaming environment to create a wholesome experience for users at large.
Article
Full-text available
Perkembangan teknologi modern memudahkan aktivitas manusia dalam melaksanakan kehidupan sehari-hari sehingga tidak perlu bersusah payah dan hanya perlu mengeluarkan sedikit energi dan usaha. Hal tersebut menyebabkan aktivitas fisik berkurang. World Health Organization (WHO) mengatakan 23% orang berusia 18 tahun ke atas di dunia tidak melakukan aktivitas fisik yang cukup. Durasi yang direkomendasikan oleh WHO untuk melakukan aktivitas fisik yaitu sekitar 150 menit perminggu. Young Men’s Christian Assosiation (YMCA) Step Test adalah test daya tahan kardiovaskuler yang menggunakan teknik naik turun bangku yang merupakan hasil modifikasi dari Harvard Step Test. Pada YMCA Step Test responden diminta untuk melakukan naik turun bangku setinggi 12 inci atau sekitar 30 cm sebanyak 24 kali per menit selama 3 menit dan dihitung frekuensi denyut jantungnya selama 1 menit. Tujuan dari studi ini adalah diketahui perubahan kebugaran fisik sesudah melakukan YMCA Step Test pada mahasiswa Falkutas Kedokteran Universitas Tarumanagara. Metode yang digunakan adalah quasi experimental dengan cara pengambilan 50 sampel dengan consecutive sampling. Sampel dibagi menjadi grup uji dan grup kontrol. Hasil yang didapatkan berupa terdapat adanya perubahan yang bermakna pada tingkat kebugaran fisik setelah melakukan YMCA Step Test dengan nilai P < 0.0001.
Article
Background: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild dementia imposes a substantial burden on patients, families, and social systems. For MCI or mild dementia patient, cognitive training is required to prevent progression to dementia. With advances in digital health, cognitive interventions using information and communication technology (ICT) have become essential for maintaining independence and functioning in dementia patients. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of an ICT-based cognitive intervention in community-dwelling older adults with MCI or mild dementia. Methods: A literature search was performed in four databases: Ovid-Medline, Ovid-EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL. We selected studies published up to April 15, 2021, on topics related to cognitive interventions using ICT in older adults with MCI or mild dementia. Results: Forty-four studies were included in the analysis. Our meta-analysis showed that ICT-based cognitive interventions significantly improved the Mini-Mental State Examination score in the intervention group compared with that in the control group. Additionally, cognitive training using ICT was significantly effective for a period of more than 30 min, more than 6 weeks, and multi-domain content. Moreover, a significant reduction in depression was found in the intervention group compared with that in the control group. Conclusions: ICT-based cognitive intervention had a positive effect on cognitive function, depression, and quality of life in older adults with MCI or mild dementia. Application of ICT-based cognitive training to community-dwelling older adults with MCI or mild dementia should be expanded, and nurses should play a pivotal role in mediating between these older adults.
Preprint
Full-text available
In today's connected society, many people rely on mHealth and self-tracking (ST) technology to help them break their sedentary lifestyle and stay fit. However, there is scarce evidence of such technological interventions' effectiveness, and there are no standardized methods to evaluate the short- and long-term impact of such technologies on people's physical activity and health. This work aims to help ST and HCI practitioners and researchers by empowering them with systematic guidelines and an extensible framework for constructing such technological interventions. This survey and the proposed design and evaluation framework aim to contribute to health behavior change and user engagement sustainability. To this end, we conduct a literature review of 117 papers between 2008 and 2020, which identifies the core ST HCI design methods and their efficacy, as well as and the most comprehensive list to date of user engagement evaluation metrics for ST. Based on the review's findings, we propose the PAST SELF end-to-end framework to facilitate the classification, design, and evaluation of ST technology. PAST SELF systematically organizes common methods and guidelines from existing works in ubiquitous ST research. Hence, it has potential applications in industrial and scientific settings and can be utilized by practitioners and researchers alike.
Article
Full-text available
Purpose : a significant increase in the level of everyday motor activity of students. It is intended to use the collection and exchange of data on the daily mobility of students in popular online networks and mobile applications. Identify the prospects for using social networks and mobile applications in the control and management of the body weight of students. Material : The study involved students (n = 30, age 19-20 years). Admission to the group occurred by sending out invitations to social networks. The main criteria for selecting female students are the same age and absence of diseases. Also taken into account the indicators of the body weight of female students. It was used the following methods for assessing the level of physical condition of female students: control over the body weight (weighing), time parameters of recovery of the body after performing a test load (sample with 30 sit-ups). To evaluate the results of the studies, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used. Results : multidirectional dynamics of changes in body weight data was detected among female students. In the control group, there was a slight increase in body weight. In the experimental group, a significant decrease in body weight was found. The recovery time significantly decreased by an average of 7±1 seconds (experimental group) and by 2±1 seconds (control group). The volume of daily motor activity of female students of both groups significantly increased. The students of the experimental group have higher rates of motor activity. Conclusions : the possibilities of using social networks and mobile applications are shown to increase the daily motor activity of students and the possibility of correcting body weight.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The growing interest of our society for health issues and physical activities is reflected on social media services where people share information about their daily activities and accomplishments. Fitness activities has become a routine present in many people’s daily activities. Previous studies have analyzed people commitment to enhance their lifestyle and reach health objectives using data published in social platforms such as Twitter. However, there is a lack of designed metrics to quantify how users are engaged in physical activities in different areas of a given city. In this study, we collect and analyze 55K tweets posted by people in Ecuador, through different mobile applications, reflecting their participation on fitness and sport activities. Aggregating individual posts at city level, we uncover geographical patterns and dynamics of citizen activities in cities and states. Thus, we illustrate the potential of geolocated posts of people on social media services as sociometers of cities’ health and fitness activities.
Article
Used the Method of questionnaire survey, mathematic statistic, some urban residents were recruited and provided valid questionnaire data, to construct the integration model of exercise behavior, and test the stage discontinuity and the difference of exercise behavior variables across stages in integration model. The research results show below: (a) these subjects in same exercise stage had similar cognition degree of exercise barriers or difficulty, those subjects, however, in different stage had great different cognition degree of exercise; (b) the difference of different components was statistically significant between the various stages \(( {P < 0.05})\) and also shown that the non-continuity of exercise behavior exist; (c) there were different in predicting effect of variables of integration model to the exercise behavior in different exercise stages. Then, the intervention method was provided based on stage discontinuity examination.
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we evaluated the effects of adding to a training regime a computer programme simulation designed to improve the anticipation of defensive players during a basketball 1-v-1 situation. Twenty two 15-year-old players were divided into three groups: a control group, with usual on-court practice; an experimental group, with usual on-court practice and specific learning tasks to detect relevant cues; and an experimental group, with simulation training based on a computer programme to improve cue recognition, together with usual on-court practice and specific learning tasks to detect cues. Learning was qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated before the beginning of the training programme half-way into the season, and at the end of the season, with a simulated test designed to emulate a 1-v-1 defensive action during actual play. Improvements in perceptual anticipation and transfer were measured in the different groups through the anticipation ability index and the reaction time to the opponent's action. Results showed that the group which carried out a training programme, including the use of the computer programme and on-court instructions, performed significantly better at the end of the intervention than the group which carried out its habitual on-court training programme.
Article
The purpose of this study was to research the new emerging technology of mobile health, the use of mobile fitness apps to share one's workout with their Twitter social network, the workout tweets and the individualities of the Tweeters. 70,748 tweets from mobile fitness application Endomondo were processed using an online tweet collection application and a customized JavaScript to determine aspects of the shared workouts and the demographics of those that share. The data shows that by tracking mobile fitness app hashtags, a wealth of information can be gathered to include but not limited to exercise frequency, daily use patterns, location based workouts and language characteristics. While a majority of these tweets are to share a specific workout with their Twitter social networking, the data would suggest other reasons for sharing as well. Copyright © 2011, Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence. All rights reserved.
Article
Digitale Spiele haben, nicht nur in Deutschland, Hochkonjunktur. Angesichts ihrer großen Verbreitung ist es erstaunlich, dass sich die Sportwissenschaft (noch) sehr punktuell mit digitalen Spielen beschäftigt. In dem vorliegenden Beitrag wird, ausgehend von einer Definition und Differenzierung digitaler Spiele, aufgezeigt, dass diese eine Vielzahl von bedeutsamen Fragestellungen – auch im Sport – aufwerfen, die durch die Sportwissenschaft bearbeitet werden können und sollten. Digitale Spiele können in der Sportwissenschaft in vielfältiger Weise als Forschungsgegenstand dienen oder als Datenerhebungs- und Interventionsinstrument für Forschung und Lehre eingesetzt werden.
Article
Full-text available
iPhone apps are being used to promote healthier diets. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the extent to which diet apps' content was guided by health behavior theory in their design and user interface. This study consisted of 58 diet apps from iTunes' Health & Fitness category. Coders downloaded the apps and rated their inclusion of theory. Scores ranged from 0 to 26 on a 100-point scale. Most apps were theory deficient and provided just general information/assistance. An opportunity exists for health behavior change experts to partner with app developers to incorporate health behavior theories into the development of individually tailored apps.
Article
Mental training for athletic performance has expanded in recent years but expense and access has limited its application. Although there is much information on the Internet, no programs offered individualized, automated training that could be easily accessed by the masses. This article describes the creation of an online platform that addresses these obstacles while maintaining the essence of the 1-to-1 client–professional relationship at an affordable cost. Resources include PowerPoint presentations with voiceovers, interviews with expert sport psychology professionals, “whiteboard” presentations of mental skills, and “simulations” taking the athlete through different scenarios, along with innovative coach and parent education programs.
Article
Political concerns with healthy lifestyles have placed physical activity at the centre of a number of policies and campaigns. With an increase in the types of technology specifically designed for use in physical activity this paper explores the affect such technology, in particular the Nike+iPod kit, could have on individuals activity levels. A small pilot study, using information from a questionnaire and convenience data set, were explored to gain an insight into the use of the technology with regard to physical activity and the transtheoretical model of change. It appears that there is some possibility for the technology to advance individuals through the stages of change for physical activity, but only if they are already motivated to start exercising. More research is required in order to make any conclusive claims.
The purpose of this study was to determine the intensity of Nintendo Wii Fit games using indirect calorimetry. Twenty-five college students completed Wii Fit activity sessions at two difficulty levels within aerobics, strength, and yoga categories. Resting metabolic rate and exercise oxygen uptake were measured, and metabolic equivalents were calculated. Measured metabolic equivalents and calculated metabolic equivalents ranged from 2.30 ± .42 and 2.44 ± .38 for Yoga to 5.73 ± 1.36 and 6.04 ± 1.09 for aerobics, respectively. All selected Wii Fit activity intensities were significantly higher than resting, p < .001; aerobic and strength activities met the moderate intensity threshold (three metabolic equivalents, p < .001), while yoga activities did not (p < .005). Aerobic and yoga activities of medium difficulty were more intense than the corresponding easy-rated activities (p < .005). There were no statistical differences between measured and calculated metabolic equivalents. Wii Fit has potential as an effective tool for helping college-aged individuals increase their physical activity.
Article
This lecture focuses on recent innovations in technology since the era of Dudley Allen Sargent, with an analysis of contemporary use of technology in the field of human performance, as well as a vision of where it appears we are heading in terms of technology. de la Pena argued that those who maintain sport science began in the 20th century have forgotten Dudley Allen Sargent, who worked to codify a system of mechanized physical science whereby individuals, with the help of machines, would build their bodies to a state of maximum physical energy.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This study compared interactive and noninteractive smoking cessation interventions for a population of smokers who were all members of 1 division of a managed care company. In addition, it examined whether a dose-response relationship existed. Screening was completed for 19,236 members who were contacted by telephone or mail. Of the 4,653 who were identified as smokers, 85.3% were enrolled. A 2 Intervention (interactive or noninteractive) x 4 Contacts (1, 2, 3, or 6 contacts)x 4 Occasions (0, 6, 12, and 18 months) design was used. The interactive intervention was stage-matched expert-system reports plus manuals; the noninteractive intervention was stage-matched manuals. Contact occurred in 1 of 4 series (1, 2, 3 or 6 contacts) at 3-month intervals. The expert system outperformed the stage-matched manuals, but there was no clear dose-response relationship for either intervention.
Article
Full-text available
Objective. —To encourage increased participation in physical activity among Americans of all ages by issuing a public health recommendation on the types and amounts of physical activity needed for health promotion and disease prevention.
Article
Full-text available
ACSM Position Stand on The Recommended Quantity and Quality of Exercise for Developing and Maintaining Cardiorespiratory and Muscular Fitness, and Flexibility in Adults. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc., Vol. 30, No. 6, pp. 975-991, 1998. The combination of frequency, intensity, and duration of chronic exercise has been found to be effective for producing a training effect. The interaction of these factors provide the overload stimulus. In general, the lower the stimulus the lower the training effect, and the greater the stimulus the greater the effect. As a result of specificity of training and the need for maintaining muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility of the major muscle groups, a well-rounded training program including aerobic and resistance training, and flexibility exercises is recommended. Although age in itself is not a limiting factor to exercise training, a more gradual approach in applying the prescription at older ages seems prudent. It has also been shown that aerobic endurance training of fewer than 2 d·wk-1, at less than 40-50% of V˙O2R, and for less than 10 min-1 is generally not a sufficient stimulus for developing and maintaining fitness in healthy adults. Even so, many health benefits from physical activity can be achieved at lower intensities of exercise if frequency and duration of training are increased appropriately. In this regard, physical activity can be accumulated through the day in shorter bouts of 10-min durations. In the interpretation of this position stand, it must be recognized that the recommendations should be used in the context of participant's needs, goals, and initial abilities. In this regard, a sliding scale as to the amount of time allotted and intensity of effort should be carefully gauged for the cardiorespiratory, muscular strength and endurance, and flexibility components of the program. An appropriate warm-up and cool-down period, which would include flexibility exercises, is also recommended. The important factor is to design a program for the individual to provide the proper amount of physical activity to attain maximal benefit at the lowest risk. Emphasis should be placed on factors that result in permanent lifestyle change and encourage a lifetime of physical activity.
Article
Full-text available
OBJECTIVE--To encourage increased participation in physical activity among Americans of all ages by issuing a public health recommendation on the types and amounts of physical activity needed for health promotion and disease prevention. PARTICIPANTS--A planning committee of five scientists was established by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine to organize a workshop. This committee selected 15 other workshop discussants on the basis of their research expertise in issues related to the health implications of physical activity. Several relevant professional or scientific organizations and federal agencies also were represented. EVIDENCE--The panel of experts reviewed the pertinent physiological, epidemiologic, and clinical evidence, including primary research articles and recent review articles. CONSENSUS PROCESS--Major issues related to physical activity and health were outlined, and selected members of the expert panel drafted sections of the paper from this outline. A draft manuscript was prepared by the planning committee and circulated to the full panel in advance of the 2-day workshop. During the workshop, each section of the manuscript was reviewed by the expert panel. Primary attention was given to achieving group consensus concerning the recommended types and amounts of physical activity. A concise \"public health message was developed to express the recommendations of the panel. During the ensuing months, the consensus statement was further reviewed and revised and was formally endorsed by both the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. CONCLUSION--Every US adult should accumulate 30 minutes or more of moderate-intensity physical activity on most, preferably all, days of the weekType: CONSENSUS DEVELOPMENT CONFERENCEType: JOURNAL ARTICLEType: REVIEWLanguage: Eng
Article
Full-text available
An integrative model of change was applied to the study of 872 Ss (mean age 40 yrs) who were changing their smoking habits on their own. Ss represented the following 5 stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation, action, maintenance, and relapse. 10 processes of change were expected to receive differential emphases during particular stages of change. Results indicate that Ss (a) used the fewest processes of change during precontemplation; (b) emphasized consciousness raising during the contemplation stage; (c) emphasized self-reevaluation in both contemplation and action stages; (d) emphasized self-liberation, a helping relationship, and reinforcement management during the action stage; and (e) used counterconditioning and stimulus control the most in both action and maintenance stages. Relapsers responded as a combination of contemplaters and people in action would. Results are discussed in terms of developing a model of self-change of smoking and enhancing a more integrative general model of change. (14 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Message tailoring, based on individual needs and circumstances, is commonly used to enhance face-to-face patient counseling. Only recently has individual tailoring become feasible for printed messages. This study sought to determine whether printed tailored recommendations addressing women's specific screening and risk status and perceptions about breast cancer and mammography are more effective than standardized printed recommendations. Computer-assisted telephone interviews were conducted with 435 women, aged 40 to 65 years, who had visited family practice groups within the previous 2 years. Subjects were randomly allocated to receive individually tailored or standardized mammography recommendation letters mailed from physicians to patients' homes. Follow-up interviews were conducted 8 months later. Tailored letter recipients were more likely to remember and to have read more of their letters than standardized version recipients. After controlling for baseline status, tailored letter receipt was associated with more favorable follow-up mammography status for women with incomes below $26,000 and for Black women. Tailored messages are a more effective medium for physicians' mammography recommendations; tailoring may be especially important for women of low socioeconomic status.
Article
Full-text available
This study compared interactive and noninteractive smoking cessation interventions for a population of smokers who were all members of 1 division of a managed care company. In addition, it examined whether a dose-response relationship existed. Screening was completed for 19,236 members who were contacted by telephone or mail. Of the 4,653 who were identified as smokers, 85.3% were enrolled. A 2 Intervention (interactive or noninteractive) x 4 Contacts (1, 2, 3, or 6 contacts) x 4 Occasions (0, 6, 12, and 18 months) design was used. The interactive intervention was stage-matched expert-system reports plus manuals; the noninteractive intervention was stage-matched manuals. Contact occurred in 1 of 4 series (1, 2, 3 or 6 contacts) at 3-month intervals. The expert system outperformed the stage-matched manuals, but there was no clear dose-response relationship for either intervention.
Article
Full-text available
The transtheoretical model posits that health behavior change involves progress through six stages of change: precontemplation, contemplation, preparation, action, maintenance, and termination. Ten processes of change have been identified for producing progress along with decisional balance, self-efficacy, and temptations. Basic research has generated a rule of thumb for at-risk populations: 40% in precontemplation, 40% in contemplation, and 20% in preparation. Across 12 health behaviors, consistent patterns have been found between the pros and cons of changing and the stages of change. Applied research has demonstrated dramatic improvements in recruitment, retention, and progress using stage-matched interventions and proactive recruitment procedures. The most promising outcomes to data have been found with computer-based individualized and interactive interventions. The most promising enhancement to the computer-based programs are personalized counselors. One of the most striking results to date for stage-matched programs is the similarity between participants reactively recruited who reached us for help and those proactively recruited who we reached out to help. If results with stage-matched interventions continue to be replicated, health promotion programs will be able to produce unprecedented impacts on entire at-risk populations.
Article
Full-text available
Owing to the recent success of the Transtheoretical Model of behavior change and the possible relationships between health behaviors, this study investigated the stage distribution of 10 healthy behaviors (seatbelt use, avoidance of high fat food, eating a high-fiber diet, attempting to lose weight, exercising regularly, avoiding sun exposure, sunscreen use, attempting to reduce stress, stopping smoking, and conducting cancer self-exams) and their interrelationships in a representative sample of health maintenance organization (HMO) members. The majority of older adults were found to be in either precontemplation or maintenance, illustrating the need to target interventions to precontemplation. Most older individuals were in precontemplation for losing weight and/ or sunscreen use and exercise, making these behaviors a priority for intervention research. Possible gateway behaviors to general health could be identified; however, these results are preliminary and require longitudinal follow-up.
Article
Full-text available
Printed health education materials frequently consist of mass-produced brochures, booklets, or pamphlets designed for a general population audience. Although this one-size-fits-all approach might be appropriate under certain circumstances and even produce small changes at relatively modest costs, it cannot address the unique needs, interests, and concerns of different individuals. With the advent and dissemination of new communication technologies, our ability to collect information from individuals and provide feedback tailored to the specific information collected is not only possible, but practical. The purpose of this article is to: (a) distinguish between tailored print communication and other common communication-based approaches to health education and behavior change; (b) present a theoretical and public health rationale for tailoring health information; and (c) describe the steps involved in creating and delivering tailored print communication programs. Studies suggest computer tailoring is a promising strategy for health education and behavior change. Practitioners and researchers should understand the approach and consider the possibilities it presents for enhancing their work in disease prevention.
Article
This report is the first report of the Surgeon General on physical activity and health. For more than a century, the Surgeon General of the Public Health Service has focused the nation's attention on important public health issues. Reports from Surgeons General on the adverse health consequences of smoking triggered nationwide efforts to prevent tobacco use. Reports on nutrition, violence, and HIV/AlDS - to name but a few - have heightened America's awareness of important public health issues and have spawned major public health initiatives. This new report, which is a comprehensive review of the available scientific evidence about the relationship between physical activity and health status, follows in this notable tradition. Scientists and doctors have known for years that substantial benefits can be gained from regular physical activity. The expanding and strengthening evidence on the relationship between physical activity and health necessitates the focus this report brings to this important public health challenge. Although the science of physical activity is a complex and still-developing field, we have today strong evidence to indicate that regular physical activity will provide clear and substantial health gains. In this sense, the report is more than a summary of the science - it is a national call to action.
Article
The medical care system is not very effective in modifying health behavior of individuals, in particular, ensuring patient compliance with medication regimens, healthy diets, regular physical activity, and regular health screening, and in the avoidance of substance abuse. Telephone-Linked Care (TLC) is a telecommunications technology that enables computer-controlled telephone counseling with patients in their homes. It has been applied to the task of improving a number of different health behaviors. Randomized controlled studies suggest that use of the system for as little as 3 months is associated with improvement in adherence to medication regimens, dietary change in hypercholesterolemia, and increased physical activity among sedentary individuals. Future work involves applying the technology to other important health behaviors, optimally using health behavior theory in the system design, targeting use of TLC to the most appropriate patient groups, incorporating new computer and telecommunications technology into the system, and interfacing TLC into the health care delivery system.
Article
This review was conducted to provide the reader with a brief overview of the science of epidemiology as applied specifically to physical activity as a behavior. Definitions were offered for epidemiology, for physical activity, and finally for physical activity epidemiology. In addition to considering epidemiologic concepts, this review stressed the importance of carefully measuring physical activity--perhaps the principal function of anyone who ultimately claims to be a physical activity epidemiologist. The breadth and scope of physical activity epidemiology are extensive and there is fertile ground for continuing to apply physical activity epidemiology to exercise science well into the future. This chapter should provide the exercise scientist with a firm foundation to begin his or her trek into the realm of physical activity epidemiology.
Article
The effect of a decision balance sheet intervention on attendance at a university fitness facility was examined. Facility members were randomly assigned to control, placebo, and experimental conditions. The control condition received no intervention, whereas the placebo and experimental conditions were called by telephone and asked to complete either an irrelevant (smoking) or relevant (exercising at the fitness facility) decision balance sheet. Attendance was monitored surreptitiously for 4 weeks baseline and 8 weeks post intervention. Statistical analyses indicated that the control and placebo conditions showed a significant decrease in attendance from baseline to intervention, whereas those in the experimental condition maintained attendance levels. Discussion focused on broadening the application of the decision balance sheet, determining its theoretical boundaries, and the necessity and appropriateness of decision alternatives for the decision balance sheet in the exercise domain.
Article
This study compares the efficacy of a self-help intervention tailored to the individual's stage of motivational readiness for exercise adoption with a standard self-help exercise promotion intervention. Interventions were delivered at baseline and 1 month; assessments were collected at baseline and 3 months. Eleven worksites participating in the Working Healthy Research Trial. Participants (n = 1559) were a subsample of employees at participating worksites, individually randomized to one of two treatment conditions. Printed self-help exercise promotion materials either (1) matched to the individual's stage of motivational readiness for exercise adoption (motivationally tailored), or (2) standard materials (standard). Measures of stage of motivational readiness for exercise and items from the 7-Day Physical Activity Recall. Among intervention completers (n = 903), chi-square analyses showed that, compared to the standard intervention, those receiving the motivationally tailored intervention were significantly more likely to show increases (37% vs. 27%) and less likely to show either no change (52% vs. 58%) or regression (11% vs. 15%) in stage of motivational readiness. Multivariate analyses of variance showed that changes in stage of motivational readiness were significantly associated with changes in self-reported time spent in exercise. This is the first prospective, randomized, controlled trial demonstrating the efficacy of a brief motivationally tailored intervention compared to a standard self-help intervention for exercise adoption. These findings appear to support treatment approaches that tailor interventions to the individual's stage of motivational readiness for exercise adoption.
Article
Interactive health communication technologies have the potential to eliminate or greatly reduce many of the barriers to delivery of preventive services. This paper describes the process of developing and evaluating interactive health communication programs for primary care settings. We present as examples the Patient-centered Assessment and Counseling for Exercise plus Nutrition (PACE+) programs, designed to promote physical activity and healthy nutrition with adolescents and adults. The PACE+ programs use interactive communication technology to screen multiple behaviors, prioritize areas for intervention, and initiate intervention. Patient information is synthesized for ease of use by clinicians. The patient completes the program on a computer in the clinic waiting room before the provider encounter. Acceptability of the program was evaluated with adolescents (n=252), adults (n=285), and their health care providers. The PACE+ programs were developed, evaluated, modified, and re-evaluated. Feasibility testing indicated that a diverse group of adolescents and adults found the PACE+ computer programs acceptable. Modifications to shorten and refine the programs were identified. Development of interactive health technologies is an iterative process dependent on feedback from intended users and systems of care. Interactive health communication technologies can be incorporated into clinical settings.
Article
Physical inactivity is a recognized independent risk factor for the development of cardiovascular disease. However, a large proportion of the U.S. population does not participate in regular physical activity, and research has shown that without intervention, most people remain sedentary. Thus, an urgent need exists for developing effective interventions to promote physical-activity adoption and maintenance. Additionally, it is important that these interventions can be disseminated to the large population of sedentary individuals. To be disseminable, physical-activity interventions must move beyond reliance on strictly face-to-face modes and begin to more fully use newer technologies, such as the Internet. This article summarizes the progress made in promoting physical activity with interactive communications. We also delineate areas for future research.
Article
Interactive health communication using Internet technologies is expanding the range and flexibility of intervention and teaching options available in preventive medicine and the health sciences. Advantages of interactive health communication include the enhanced convenience, novelty, and appeal of computer-mediated communication; its flexibility and interactivity; and automated processing. We outline some of these fundamental aspects of computer-mediated communication as it applies to preventive medicine. Further, a number of key pathways of information technology evolution are creating new opportunities for the delivery of professional education in preventive medicine and other health domains, as well as for delivering automated, self-instructional health behavior-change programs through the Internet. We briefly describe several of these key evolutionary pathways. We describe some examples from work we have done in Australia. These demonstrate how we have creatively responded to the challenges of these new "information environments," and how they may be pursued in the education of preventive medicine and other health care practitioners and in the development and delivery of health behavior-change programs through the Internet. Innovative and thoughtful applications of this new technology can increase the consistency, reliability, and quality of information delivered.
Article
Although there are physiologic and genetic influences on the various components of energy metabolism and body weight regulation, and a major portion of individual differences in body weight can be explained by genetic differences, it seems unlikely that the increased global prevalence of obesity has been driven by a dramatic change in the gene pool. It is more likely and more reasonable that acute changes in behavior and environment have contributed to the rapid increase in obesity and that genetic factors may be important in the deferring individual susceptibilities to these changes. The most striking behavioral changes that have occurred have been an increased reliance on high-fat and energy-dense "fast foods," with larger portion sizes, coupled with an ever-increasing sedentary lifestyle. The more sedentary lifestyle is caused by an increased reliance on technology and labor-saving devices, which has reduced the need for physical exertion for everyday activities. Examples of energy-saving devices that have resulted in a secular decline in physical activity include: Increased use of automated transport rather than walking or biking Central heating and use of automated equipment, such as washing machines, in the household. Reduction in physical activity in the workplace because of computers, automated equipment, and electronic mail. Increased use of television and computers for entertainment and leisure activities. Use of elevators and escalators rather than stairs. Increased concern for crime, which has reduced the likelihood of outdoor playing. Poor urban planning that does not provide adequate biking paths or even sidewalks in some communities. Thus, the increasing prevalence, numerous health risks, and astounding economic costs of obesity clearly justify widespread efforts toward prevention efforts. These prevention efforts should begin in childhood because the behaviors are learned and continue through the lifetime.
Physical activity and behavioral medicine Thousand Oaks Physicians' recommendations for mammography: Do tailored messages make a difference?
  • J F Sallis
  • N Owen
Sallis, J. F., & Owen, N. (1999). Physical activity and behavioral medicine. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Skinner, C. S., Strecher, V. J., & Hospers, H. (1994). Physicians' recommendations for mammography: Do tailored messages make a difference? American Journal of Public Health, 84, 43–49.
Individualized expert system interventions for adopting and maintaining physical activity. Presentation at ACSM Special Event: Demonstrations of New Information Technology to Promote Physical Activity
  • C R Nigg
  • D Riebe
  • J S Rossi
  • W F Velicer
  • J Prochaska
Nigg, C. R., Riebe, D., Rossi, J. S., Velicer, W. F., & Prochaska, J. 0. (June, 1999). Individualized expert system interventions for adopting and maintaining physical activity. Presentation at ACSM Special Event: Demonstrations of New Information Technology to Promote Physical Activity. Seattle, WA.
Number of internet users and shoppers surges in United States and Canada
  • Nielsen Media Research
Nielsen Media Research. (August 24, 1998). Number of internet users and shoppers surges in United States and Canada. New York, NY: Nielsen Media Research:. Available from: http://www.nielsenmedia.com/.
Household PC penetration jumps to nearly 45% in U.S., Ziff-Davis finds. LaJolla, CA:ZD Market Intelligence Available from
  • Zd Market Intelligence
ZD Market Intelligence. (June 9, 1998). Household PC penetration jumps to nearly 45% in U.S., Ziff-Davis finds. LaJolla, CA:ZD Market Intelligence. Available from: http://www.ci.zd.com/news.
  • R R Pate
  • M Pratt
  • S N Blair
  • W L Haskell
  • C A Macera
  • C Bouchard
  • D Buchner
  • W Ettinger
  • G W Heath
  • A C King
  • A Kriska
  • A S Leon
  • B S Marcus
  • J Morris
  • R S Paffenbarger
  • K Patrick
  • M L Pollock
  • J M Rippe
  • J Sallis
  • J H Wilmore
Pate, R. R., Pratt, M., Blair, S. N., Haskell, W. L., Macera, C. A., Bouchard, C., Buchner, D., Ettinger, W., Heath, G. W., King, A. C., Kriska, A., Leon, A. S., Marcus, B. S., Morris, J., Paffenbarger, R. S., Patrick, K., Pollock, M. L., Rippe, J. M., Sallis, J., & Wilmore, J. H. (1995). Physical activity and public health: A recommendation from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Sports Medicine. Journal of the American Medical Association, 273, 402–407.
Position stand: The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in healthy adults
American College of Sports Medicine (1990). Position stand: The recommended quantity and quality of exercise for developing and maintaining cardiorespiratory and muscular fitness in healthy adults. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 22, 265-274.