Society of Petroleum Engineers
The Hearts and Minds Project: Creating Intrinsic Motivation for HSE
P.T.W. Hudson, Leiden University; D. Parker, Manchester University; R. Lawton, Leeds University; W.L.G. Verschuur, Leiden University; G.C. van der Graaf, J. Kalff, SIEP.
SPE International Conference on Health, Safety and Environment in Oil and Gas Exploration and Production, 26-28 June 2000, Stavanger, Norway
Copyright 2000,Society of Petroleum Engineers Inc.
The Hearts and Minds Project is aimed at developing intrinsic motivation for HSE. After an extensive review of the academic literature on motivation, with special emphasis on self-driven or intrinsic motivation, it was decided that the best way to establish an intrinsically motivated workforce was to develop a safety culture. This paper outlines the review of intrinsic motivation and describes the basic notions of a safety culture, ranging from the Pathological, through the Bureaucratic/Calculative to the Generative. These cultures are described with five basic dimensions covering Communications, Organisational Attitudes, Roles of the HSE Department, Organisational Behaviour and Working Practices. A laudable aim of an organisation is to become as advanced a culture as possible. This is often difficult to implement effectively; implementations often fail sooner or later and organisations are notoriously difficult to change. A model, based upon extensive experience with addiction, has been adapted and applied to help steer the evolution of organisations toward the Generative Safety Culture. This paper finally discusses the advantages to be gained from establishing an advanced safety culture. Not only are the costs and risks associated with HSE failures reduced, there are also direct benefits to be gained. Having a truly motivated workforce can allow less, rather than more, direct time to be allotted to HSE while maintaining or even improving performance.
Health, Safety and Environment are not issues that will go away. Despite the considerable gains in performance that have been made in the last few years, primarily as a result of the systematic application of HSE-management systems, there is still room for improvement. Accidents still happen, the environment still damaged, the health of the workforce will always remain an issue. With a view to obtaining further improvements, especially in the area of safety, the requirement was set by a group of operators for a research program to develop intrinsic motivation for safety within the work force. The basic idea behind this proposal was that individuals who are internally or intrinsically motivated to perform safe behaviour can be left to look after themselves. We believe that the presence of such individuals in the workforce will provide a considerable impetus to safety performance. At current historically low levels of LTIF and numbers of fatalities the agreement is that the most effective way to become even safer is to win the Hearts and Minds of the workforce. This represents a development, not a substitute for HSE management systems, and it is to be hoped that the combination can provide HSE performance at lower overall cost in terms of time and effort.
The direction one wishes to move in is one where good practice is automatic and where there are no barriers to performing work in the best and the safest possible ways. To understand how people can produce good practice, we can develop a model relating values to behaviour, such as is shown in Figure 1. This shows how values underlie beliefs, but also that barriers can ensure that people hold beliefs that mean that they feel incapable of attaining their values. For instance, while people may value safety above or as highly as production, they may also believe that safety costs money and that problems will not happen to them, so they can put safety issues aside while they have to meet difficult production targets. Likewise they may believe that doing the ‘right’ things is their ideal, but they may be prevented by circumstances from performing the correct actions. Previous programs have been aimed in ensuring that people are allowed to perform the right behaviours in order to be safe. The Hearts and Minds program is intended to act at the levels of values and beliefs.
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