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Abstract

In the weeks following the start of weaning, 70 mothers were asked to identify a vegetable purée that their infant disliked and that they normally would not offer again. The 49 who did so were then asked to offer that vegetable on alternate days for 16 days, and to offer a well-liked one (carrot purée) on the other days. Amount eaten and acceptance were measured at each meal. On the first day of exposure, mean intake of the initially disliked vegetable was 39 ± 29 g and of the liked one, 164 ± 73 g (mean ± SD). Over the following days, intake of the initially disliked vegetable increased rapidly and by the eighth exposure was 174 ± 54 g, similar to that of the liked vegetable (186 ± 68 g). A similar pattern of results was found for mother-reported liking ratings. These effects of repeated exposure appear to be long lasting because nine months later, 63% of the infants were still eating and liking the initially disliked vegetable. The present study shows that when a vegetable is initially disliked it is worth persisting in feeding it for at least eight subsequent meals.

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... 18.5% of the participants belonged to the lower class, 49.0% to the middle class, and 32.5% to the upper class. (Maier et al., 2007) of the VARSEEK (Van Trijp & Steenkamp, 1992). Following the WHO guidelines (World Health Organization, 2016), the original scale was translated into German and then back-translated by Maier et al. (2007). ...
... (Maier et al., 2007) of the VARSEEK (Van Trijp & Steenkamp, 1992). Following the WHO guidelines (World Health Organization, 2016), the original scale was translated into German and then back-translated by Maier et al. (2007). Subsequently, the translation process included a pre-test procedure to ensure understanding of all items (Maier et al., 2007). ...
... Following the WHO guidelines (World Health Organization, 2016), the original scale was translated into German and then back-translated by Maier et al. (2007). Subsequently, the translation process included a pre-test procedure to ensure understanding of all items (Maier et al., 2007). The translated German scale was placed at our disposal by courtesy of this research group. ...
Article
As part of a healthy diet, guidelines recommend eating a variety of foods to reduce risks associated with malnutrition. However, whether people follow this recommendation substantially depends on their willingness to try unfamiliar foods, also referred to as food neophilia. This study aimed at comprehensively validating the German version of the Variety Seeking Tendency Scale (VARSEEK), a common instrument to assess food neophilia. Two independent sub-studies were conducted to examine the German VARSEEK’s psychometric properties. Study 1 (N = 532, aged 18–91 years) and Study 2 (N = 468, aged 18–73 years) each comprised a German community sample. Data were collected both online and via a paper–pencil version. Whereas Study 1 included an EFA, Study 2 comprised a CFA, analyses of the VARSEEK’s reliability and construct validity, and different explorative group comparisons. EFA and CFA results supported the original scale’s unidimensionality. Internal consistency (α = .93) and test-retest reliability (r = .87) of the scale were high. VARSEEK scores were positively associated with openness, sensation seeking, and extraversion and negatively associated with food neophobia, general neophobia, and trait anxiety. Construct validity was further established by showing positive associations with ratings of familiarity with and willingness to try familiar and unfamiliar foods. Whereas group comparisons revealed no significant differences for sex, age, and weight status, analyses showed that people who belonged to the upper class were more food neophilic than those assigned to the lower and middle class. Findings further underscore that the German VARSEEK is a reliable and valid instrument for the assessment of food neophilia in the German population.
... All studies included repeated exposure to vegetables or fruits: 4 studies tested repeated exposure of both vegetables and fruits (10,11,16,24), 10 tested repeated exposure of vegetables (9, 13-15, 17, 20, 22, 25, 26, 28), and 2 studies tested repeated exposure of fruits (12,21). The vegetables used for repeated exposure included celeriac (9), swede (9), turnip (9), green beans (10,16,20,24,25,28), artichokes (10,13,26), peas (11,17,24,25,28), carrots (14,17,20,24,25), spinach (20,24), squash (17,24,25), broccoli (10,20), cauliflower (10), parsnips (14,20), zucchini (14), sweet potato (14), potato (17), and "other veg" (15,22) ( Table 1). The fruits used for repeated exposure included banana (10,11), apples (10,12,21,24), plums (10), prunes (24), pears (10,12,24), peaches (12,16,24), and "other fruit" (12). ...
... Five studies found that repeatedly exposing children to multiple vegetables or multiple fruits led to increased acceptability of an exposed food after, compared with before, the exposure period (10,16,20,22,24). Four studies provided multiple vegetables (10,20,22,24), 1 provided multiple fruits (10), and 1 provided a vegetable and fruit (16). ...
... Five studies found that repeatedly exposing children to multiple vegetables or multiple fruits led to increased acceptability of an exposed food after, compared with before, the exposure period (10,16,20,22,24). Four studies provided multiple vegetables (10,20,22,24), 1 provided multiple fruits (10), and 1 provided a vegetable and fruit (16). In these studies, with the exception of Forestell et al. (16) and Mennella et al. (24), a single vegetable or fruit was served alone at an eating occasion, and the type of vegetable or fruit varied across eating occasions, with 1 eating occasion per day at the same time each day (Table 1). ...
Article
Background: Repeated exposure has been found to be an effective strategy to increase acceptability of foods in older children and adults, but little is known about its effectiveness in the birth to 24-mo population. Objectives: This systematic review was conducted to examine the effects of repeated exposure to a single or multiple foods on acceptance of those or other foods among infants and toddlers. Methods: A search was conducted for peer-reviewed articles related to food acceptability, flavor, taste, and infants and toddlers in 12 databases (e.g., PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and CINAHL) with a date range of January 1980 to July 2017. The Nutrition Evidence Library (NEL) Bias Assessment Tool was used to assess potential bias in the included studies, and the NESR grading rubric was used to grade evidence supporting the conclusion statement. Results: From the 10,844 references obtained, 21 studies (19 controlled trials and 2 longitudinal cohort studies) published from 1980 to 2015 were included in this review. Moderate evidence indicates that tasting a single vegetable or fruit or multiple vegetable(s) or fruit(s) 1 food per day for 8-10 or more days is likely to increase acceptability of an exposed food (indicated by an increase in intake or faster rate of feeding after comparison with before the exposure period) in infants and toddlers 4-24 mo old. The effect of repeated exposure on acceptability is likely to generalize to other foods within the same food category but not foods from a different food category. Findings are based on the effects of repeated exposure to mostly vegetables with some findings on repeated exposure to fruits. Conclusion: This review advances the understanding of early food experiences and the development of food acceptability. Additional research is needed using diverse foods and textures with a focus on the transition to table foods.
... De plus, les nourrissons sont capables de traiter et de «mémoriser» l'information concernant la densité énergétique de l'aliment, de manière implicite, et d'adapter leur apport énergétique en conséquence Remy et al., 2014). De nombreuses études montrent qu'un mécanisme robuste pour apprendre à aimer un nouvel aliment est à travers des expositions répétées à cet aliment (Sullivan et Birch, 1994 ;Maier et al., 2007), mais l'amplitude de son effet peut varier en fonction des caractéristiques des enfants ou des aliments (Caton et al., 2014 ;Barends et al., 2013). ...
... En l'absence d'apprentissage, l'attrait pour les aliments peut donc varier, uniquement en fonction des propriétés sensorielles des aliments: certains aliments sont plus faciles à aimer que d'autres. Des variations dans l'acceptation initiale des aliments ont par exemple été notées pour les légumes (Nicklaus, 2011): la carotte est plus facilement acceptée que le haricot vert (Gerrish et Mennella, 2001 ;Mennella et al., 2008) ou que d'autres légumes verts (Maier et al., 2007). ...
... L'évaluation de l'effet de l'exposition aux aliments sur l'acceptation chez les nourrissons au début de diversification alimentaire a clairement démontré une augmentation de l'acceptation d'un nouveau légume après 10 expositions (Sullivan et Birch, 1994). L'effet des expositions répétées est assez robuste pour augmenter l'acceptation des aliments qui avaient été précédemment identifiés par la mère comme refusés par le nourrisson au début la diversification (Maier et al., 2007 ; Figure 1). ...
Article
Chez l’enfant comme chez l’adulte, les choix alimentaires sont soumis à de nombreuses influences, quise construisent et s’enrichissent au cours du développement. Dans un premier temps, les déterminantsdes choix alimentaires associés aux propriétés intrinsèques des aliments seront exposés, en explicitantle rôle des propriétés sensorielles (goût, arômes, textures), ainsi que celui de la densité énergétique del’aliment dans l’établissement et le maintien des préférences, des consommations alimentaires et ducontrôle des prises alimentaires. Dans un deuxième temps, le rôle des propriétés extrinsèques desaliments, associées à la manière de « penser » les aliments sera explicité, comme par exemple lesdéterminants cognitifs et psychosociaux. Une compréhension conjointe de l’effet de ces déterminantspeut permettre de favoriser la consommation d’aliments sains, comme par exemple les fruits et leslégumes, qui reste inférieure aux recommandations de santé publique chez les enfants, malgré descampagnes répétées de promotion de leur consommation
... Because parents largely determine what and how children are fed in the first years of life, early interventions focusing on parental feeding strategies during the transitional period of complementary feeding (CF) seem a promising way to foster healthy eating habits from the very beginning. To promote vegetable consumption (the what of CF), repeatedly exposing infants to a variety of vegetables is found to be an effective method (5,10,11). To foster self-regulation of energy intake and thereby reduce the risk of developing overweight (12,13), promoting parental responsive feeding behavior (the how of CF) is thought to be important, because responsively feeding parents adequately respond to infant hunger and satiety cues and do not pressure infants to eat beyond satiation (12,13). ...
... One study found only short-term effects of repeated vegetable exposure in the first year of life and no longer at 24 mo, suggesting that intervention effects might not be robust enough to have longlasting effects (55,52). Interestingly, another study did show a lasting effect of repeated exposure to a high compared with a low variety of vegetables at the start of CF on vegetable intake and liking at age 3 and 6 y (11,54). The absence of an effect at age 15 mo in the same study might suggest that children can still benefit from exposure to vegetables at the start of CF later in life, but other studies to confirm this theory are lacking. ...
Article
Background Parenting interventions during the first years of life on what and/or how to feed infants during complementary feeding (CF) may promote healthy eating habits. Objective An intervention promoting repeated exposure to a variety of vegetables (RVE; what) and an intervention promoting to respond sensitively to child signals during mealtime (VIPP-FI; how) were compared, separately and combined (COMBI), to an attention control condition (AC). Primary outcomes were vegetable consumption and self-regulation of energy intake; secondary outcomes were child anthropometrics and maternal feeding practices (sensitive feeding, pressure to eat). Methods Our four-arm randomized controlled trial included 246 first-time Dutch mothers and their infants. Interventions started when infants were 4–6 months old and ended at age 16 months. The present study evaluated effects at 18 (t18) and 24 (t24) months of age. Vegetable acceptance was assessed using three 24h dietary recalls, self-regulation of energy intake by an eating-in-the-absence-of-hunger experiment and mother-report, and maternal feeding behavior by observation and mother-report. Results Linear Mixed Model and ANOVA analyses revealed no follow-up group differences regarding child vegetable intake or self-regulatory behavior. The proportion of children with overweight was significantly lower in the COMBI group, compared to the VIPP-FI group at t18 (2% vs. 16%), and AC group at t24 (7 vs. 20%), although this finding needs to be interpreted cautiously due to the small number of infants with overweight and non-significant effects on the continuous BMI-z measure (P-values 0.29–0.82). Finally, more sensitive feeding behavior and less pressure to eat was found in the VIPP-FI and COMBI groups, compared to the RVE and AC group, mostly at t18 (significant effect sizes: d = 0.23–0.64). Conclusion Interventions were not effective in increasing vegetable intake or self-regulation of energy intake. Future research might do well to focus on risk groups such as families who already experience problems around feeding.
... Because parents largely determine what and how children are fed in the first years of life, early interventions focusing on parental feeding strategies during the transitional period of complementary feeding (CF) seem a promising way to foster healthy eating habits from the very beginning. To promote vegetable consumption (the what of CF), repeatedly exposing infants to a variety of vegetables is found to be an effective method (5,10,11). To foster self-regulation of energy intake and thereby reduce the risk of developing overweight (12,13), promoting parental responsive feeding behavior (the how of CF) is thought to be important, because responsively feeding parents adequately respond to infant hunger and satiety cues and do not pressure infants to eat beyond satiation (12,13). ...
... One study found only short-term effects of repeated vegetable exposure in the first year of life and no longer at 24 mo, suggesting that intervention effects might not be robust enough to have longlasting effects (55,52). Interestingly, another study did show a lasting effect of repeated exposure to a high compared with a low variety of vegetables at the start of CF on vegetable intake and liking at age 3 and 6 y (11,54). The absence of an effect at age 15 mo in the same study might suggest that children can still benefit from exposure to vegetables at the start of CF later in life, but other studies to confirm this theory are lacking. ...
... This may be especially true when economic constraints make limiting food waste a necessity. Critically however, repeated exposure to novel food stimuli is predictive of future acceptability, preference, and intake in both adults and children (Bakke, Shehan, & Hayes, 2016;Caton et al., 2013;Keller, 2014;Maier, Chabanet, Schaal, Issanchou, & Leathwood, 2007a;Ramsay, Roe, Davis, Price, & Johnson, 2017;Zajonc, 2001). ...
... Thus, to support lifelong liking and intake of vegetables, the temporary addition of sweetness or saltiness to vegetables to increase liking during initial exposure may be a good complement to other approaches that increase intake but may diminish the saliency of the vegetable flavor and may not facilitate learning to like the flavor of the vegetable (e.g., hiding vegetables in other foods; (Caton, Ahern, & Hetherington, 2011). In the case of young children, it seems likely that adding very small amounts of sugar may be a means to support parental persistence in offering bitter vegetables that are rejected, especially since parents frequently give up offering disliked vegetables before reaching the number of exposures required to increase acceptance (Maier et al., 2007a;Maier, Chabanet, Schaal, Leathwood, & Issanchou, 2007b). ...
... Asimismo, en muchas sociedades el rol de la madre es trascendental para la formación de los hábitos alimentarios, por tanto, es esperable que ella tenga una función sobresaliente en el despliegue del estilo adoptado durante los periodos de alimentación en la infancia (Birch y Fischer, 2006;Maier, Chabanet, Schaal, Issanchou y Leathwood, 2007;Kroller y Warschburger, 2009, Moding, Birch y Stifter, 2014. ...
... Le permito a mi hijo o hija comer quequitos u otras golosinas cuando lo desee. Nota: *Expresión peyorativa del argot popular costarricense para referirse a alimentos percibidos como de dudosa calidad nutricional o como "comida chatarra".Asimismo, el cuestionario se sustentó en escalas ordinales aditivas tipo Likert(Casais et al., 2017;Guedea, Solano, Blanco, Ceballos y Enríquez, 2017;Wong et al., 2018), siguiendo los procedimientos descritos porMaier et al. (2007). Las preguntas se diseñaron para ser contestadas con respuesta cerrada, en una escala de cinco puntos que contempló los siguientes ejes de anclaje: a) Estoy totalmente en desacuerdo, b) Estoy en desacuerdo; c) Me es indiferente, d) Estoy de acuerdo y e) ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: to analyze the validity of the factorial structure for a questionnaire adapted from the Preschooler Feeding Questionnaire (PFQ) with subscales associated with control and parental pressure when eating. Methodology: a questionnaire was prepared with 11 items expressed with “Likert” type scales and grouped into two subscales: “maternal pressure when eating” and “maternal control when eating”. This was evaluated with 50 mothers, subsequently carrying out a factor analysis to identify the underlying factorial structure, evaluating the reliability with Cronbach's α and using a principal components extraction with a Varimax rotation and Kaiser normalization. A confirmatory factor analysis was subsequently performed with 430 mothers. Descriptive statistics studied both “control” and “pressure” parental practices, while an SEM model assessed the existence of causal relationships between BMI, child gender and these practices. Results: a factorial structure of two scales was validated, “Control” and “Pressure”, each composed of three items (x2 = 187.3, df. = 116, x2 / df. = 1.62, CFI = 0.998, GFI = 0.991, AGFI = 0.983, NFI = 0.994, IFI = 0.998, and RMSEA = 0.018). No causal relationship was established between these factors with the BMI or the gender of the infants, both factors being greater than the average. Conclusion: The adaptation of the questionnaire is a valid and reliable tool of future utility in the study of parental nutritional practices.
... However, vegetables often have a bitter flavor profile in which preference for these flavors occurs over multiple exposures to them (Birch, 1999;Birch & Marlin, 1982). Increasingly, research is determining that exposure to novel flavors at any early age is a key determinant in future openness to trying new foods (Dovey, Staples, Gibson, & Halford, 2008;Maier, Chabanet, Schaal, Issanchou, & Leathwood, 2007;Nicklaus, 2009;Nicklaus, Boggio, Chabanet, & Issanchou, 2005;Vilela, Hetherington, Oliveira, & Lopes, 2018). Our research provides limited insights into this possibility as we only examine indulgent options. ...
Article
People often seek variety in food choices because they believe variety offers them many benefits such as giving them a chance to explore new foods while decreasing the likelihood of boredom from eating the same food repeatedly. While much research has explored situational factors that increase variety seeking behavior, we explore a situational factor that decreases variety seeking. Specifically, this research investigates how perceived relational threat affects variety seeking in snack choices. Across three studies, we experimentally manipulate relational self-threat and find that those who experience high (vs. low) threat seek less variety (Study 1), even when the same choice set is construed as having more (vs. less) variety (Study 2). This effect is attenuated when people have the chance to engage in self-affirmation (Study 3).
... En somme, c'est en répétant la présentation d'aliments variés et bons pour la santé que se développe le goût des enfants pour les aliments sains. On sait aujourd'hui qu'il faut entre 4 et 11 présentations d'un même aliment pour que cet aliment soit apprécié [42,43]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Publication suite à conférence invitée aux Ateliers de nutrition de l'Institut Pasteur de Lille le 13 décembre 2018.
... Two other methods of increasing vegetable intake and liking have been studied extensively. First, repeated exposure to the taste of vegetables has been shown effective in increasing its intake and liking in infants and preschoolers [24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32], especially for bitter tastes [33]. Second, being exposed to a variety of vegetables increases vegetable acceptance in infants [23,29,34,35]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The start of complementary feeding in infancy plays an essential role in promoting healthy eating habits. Evidence shows that it is important what infants are offered during this first introduction of solid foods: e.g. starting exclusively with vegetables is more successful for vegetable acceptance than starting with fruits. How infants are introduced to solid foods also matters: if parents are sensitive and responsive to infant cues during feeding, this may promote self-regulation of energy intake and a healthy weight. However, the effectiveness of the what and the how of complementary feeding has never been experimentally tested in the same study. In the current project the what and how (and their combination) are tested in one study to determine their relative importance for fostering vegetable acceptance and self-regulation of energy intake in infants. Methods: A four-arm randomized controlled trial (Baby's First Bites (BFB)) was designed for 240 first-time Dutch mothers and their infants, 60 per arm. In this trial, we compare the effectiveness of (a) a vegetable-exposure intervention focusing on the what in complementary feeding; (b) a sensitive feeding intervention focusing on the how in complementary feeding, (c) a combined intervention focusing on the what and how in complementary feeding; (d) an attention-control group. All mothers participate in five sessions spread over the first year of eating solid foods (child age 4-16 months). Primary outcomes are vegetable consumption, vegetable liking and self-regulation of energy intake. Secondary outcomes are child eating behaviors, child anthropometrics and maternal feeding behavior. Outcomes are assessed before, during and directly after the interventions (child age 18 months), and when children are 24 and 36 months old. Discussion: The outcomes are expected to assess the impact of the interventions and provide new insights into the mechanisms underlying the development of vegetable acceptance, self-regulation and healthy eating patterns in infants and toddlers, as well as the prevention of overweight. The results may be used to improve current dietary advice given to parents of their young children on complementary feeding. Trial registration: The trial was retrospectively registered during inclusion of participants at the Netherlands National Trial Register (identifier NTR6572 ) and at ClinicalTrials.gov ( NCT03348176 ). Protocol issue date: 1 April 2018; version number 1.
... For development of food preferences, several studies have demonstrated that if infants, toddlers, and children are exposed to the same food across multiple occasions, they can learn to accept that food [23][24][25][26]. The strategy of repeated exposure has demonstrated positive effects on both consumption and liking of novel and disliked foods [23,[27][28][29], including both vegetables and fruits [23,27,30]. However, one important aspect of mere exposure theory that has been commonly omitted in repeated exposure studies is the emotional valence in which the repetitions take place [31]; repetitions paired with positive emotions or experiences are likely to reinforce the development of food acceptance and preference, whereas repetitions paired with negative emotions or experiences are likely to reinforce negative taste preferences [6]. ...
Article
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Background: Many interventions have been conducted to improve young children's liking and consumption of new foods however their impacts on children's consumption have been limited. Consistent evidence supports the use of repeated exposure to improve liking for new foods however longitudinal effects lasting greater than 6 months often have not been demonstrated. Here we report the eating-related findings of the Colorado Longitudinal Eating And Physical Activity (LEAP) Study, a multi-component intervention, delivered primarily in the school setting, which aimed to improve children's liking and consumption of a target food via repeated exposure and positive experiential learning. Methods: Four sites in rural Colorado, each housing Head Start preschool programs, matched on state vital statistics for childhood obesity rates, (2 intervention and 2 control sites) took part in a quasi-experimental study design which included 4 time points (baseline, post-intervention, one-year [Y1] and two- year [Y2] follow ups). A total of 250 children and families were enrolled (n = 143 intervention and n = 107 control; 41% Hispanic and 69% low-income). A 12-week intervention, Food Friends - Fun With New Foods®, delivered by trained preschool teachers and which focuses on positive and repeated experiences with new foods, and a 5-month (1 unit/month) social marketing "booster program" was delivered in kindergarten (one-year follow up) and 1st grade (two-year follow up). Main outcome measures included change in children's liking for new foods, analyzed by ordinal regression using generalized estimating equations, and change in weighed consumption of new foods over time, analyzed using a hierarchical mixed effects model. Results: The intervention was delivered with good fidelity (87%). Both intervention and control groups demonstrated an increase in liking for the target food over time (p = 0.0001). The pattern of consumption of the target food was different, over time, for intervention and control groups (p < 0.005). In particular the change in intake between baseline and post-intervention was significantly greater in the intervention compared to the control group (p < 0.0001) though this pattern of change did not hold between baseline and Y2 follow up (p = 0.1144). Children in the intervention group who liked the target food consumed nearly double their baseline consumption at post-intervention (p < 0.0001;) and maintained this increase at Y2 follow up (p < 0.0001). Conclusions: The Food Friends intervention, which utilized positive, repeated experiences with new foods, and was delivered with good fidelity by trained preschool teachers, found that larger improvements were observed in children's eating behaviors than would be expected with developmentally-based changes in eating behaviors. Trial registration number: This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov : NCT01937481. Date registered: 09/09/2013; Retrospectively registered. Date first participant registered: 09/15/2010.
... Past works have mainly focused on the role of repeated exposure, breastfeeding, or weaning practices [1,[39][40][41]. Our study showed for the first time that polymorphisms associated with PROP bitter taste perception are among the factors that may influence food acceptance at the beginning of weaning. ...
Article
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Background Genetically mediated sensitivity to bitter taste has been associated with food preferences and eating behavior in adults and children. The aim of this study was to assess the association between TAS2R38 bitter taste genotype and the first complementary food acceptance in infants. Parents of healthy, breastfed, term-born infants were instructed, at discharge from the nursery, to feed their baby with a first complementary meal of 150 mL at 4 to 6 months of age. They recorded the day when the child ate the whole meal in a questionnaire. Additional data included food composition, breastfeeding duration, feeding practices, and growth at 6 months. Infants’ TAS2R38 genotypes were determined at birth, and infants were classified as “bitter-insensitive” (genotype AVI/AVI) and “bitter-sensitive” (genotypes AVI/PAV or PAV/PAV). Results One hundred seventy-six infants and their mothers were enrolled; completed data were available for 131/176 (74.4%) infants (gestational age 39.3 ± 1.1 weeks, birth weight 3390 ± 430 g). Bitter-insensitive were 45/131 (34.3%), and bitter-sensitive were 86/131 (65.6%). Thirty-one percent of bitter-insensitive infants consumed the whole complementary meal at first attempt, versus 13% of bitter-sensitive ones (p = 0.006). This difference was significant independently of confounding variables such as sex, breastfeeding, or foods used in the meal. Growth at 6 months did not differ between the two groups. Conclusions Differences in TAS2R38 bitter taste gene were associated with acceptance of the first complementary food in infants, suggesting a possible involvement in eating behavior at weaning.
... This underlines the importance of introducing a variety of foods in early childhood. Repeated early exposure to different foods could affect children's food preferences later in life [11][12][13]. ...
... Particularly, bitter tasting types, as spinach, broccoli, and cauli ower, were used in few products. The innate dislike of bitter tasting substances in humans (31) can be overcome by repeated exposure (32). Therefore, the complementary feeding period is regarded as a 'window of opportunity' (33), when exposure to a wider range of avors increases acceptance and reduces reluctance towards disliked and novel tastes even in the long term (34). ...
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Background: As consumption of commercial complementary food (CCF) during infancy and toddlerhood is common, the aim of the present study was to describe the current (2020) German market of CCF products with a special focus on ingredients, macronutrients, and the practice of nutrient fortification. Methods: Information on age declarations, ingredients, energy and nutrient contents, and nutrient fortification of 1057 CCF products was obtained by contacting the producers and searching manufacturers' websites. Each product was assigned to one of thirteen product categories (menus, milk-cereal-meal, fruit-cereal-meal, oil, vegetables, meat, fish, fruits, cereals, snack foods, pouches, desserts, beverages) and stratified into infants’ CCF (< 12 months, n=829) and toddlers’ CCF (> 12 months, n=228). Descriptive statistics were used in order to give an overview of the available products. Results: Highest protein content (% of energy content, %E) was found in meat products. More than 50 %E of total sugar was found in pouches, beverages, cereal fruit meals, and fruits. Highest median salt content was found in toddlers’ menus and desserts. Around one third of infants’ CCF products and one quarter of toddlers’ products were fortified with nutrients. Vitamin B1 (thiamin) was the most frequently fortified nutrient, followed by vitamin C, iron, calcium, and vitamin D. Apple was the type of fruit listed most often in products with fruits, whereas carrot was the most frequent vegetable among CCF with vegetables. Conclusion: The available product categories as well as the high sugar content of most CCFs currently available on the German market may promote unhealthy dietary habits. Parents need to be educated about the optimal selection of products.
... Two other methods of increasing vegetable intake and liking have been studied extensively. First, repeated exposure to the taste of vegetables has been shown effective in increasing its intake and liking in infants and preschoolers [24][25][26][27][28][29][30][31][32], especially for bitter tastes [33]. Second, being exposed to a variety of vegetables increases vegetable acceptance in infants [23,29,34,35]. ...
... This study demonstrated that sweet fruits and vegetables such as banana, watermelon, apple, carrot and cucumber were recognised vegetables among the children. One possible reason that may account for this observation is the children's familiarity and repeated exposure of the fruit and vegetables consumed (15,18,27). Therefore, familiarising children with fruits and vegetables through repeated exposure may improve their fruits and vegetables preferences and consumption. ...
Article
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Background: The low consumption of fruits and vegetables among children is a global challenge. Foods recognition, nutrition knowledge and attitude are factors that influence children's dietary practices. This study aims to assess the preference, attitude, recognition and knowledge of fruits and vegetables intake among Malay children. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among Malay children from five primary schools in Kuala Lumpur using self-administered questionnaires. Results: A total of 134 Malay children (70 males and 64 females) with a mean (SD) age of 10.3 (1.0) years were recruited. Majority of the children had a father (61.9%) and a mother (56.0%) with secondary school education and earned below RM3,900 (70.9%) per month. The most preferred fruits and vegetable were bananas (91.9%) and carrots (71.4%), while the most recognised was oranges (100.0%) and tomatoes (96.3%). The children demonstrated an overall moderate level of attitude, recognition and knowledge with mean (SD) scores of 70.3 (19.9), 76.8 (18.1) and 73.6 (17.5), respectively, towards fruits and vegetables intake. Majority of the children (53.0%) were not aware of the daily recommended servings of fruits and vegetables, while 40.0% of children expressed a low attitude towards eating a variety of fruits and vegetables. The willingness to try a new type of vegetables and consume more vegetables was lower (68.7%) compared to fruits (75.4%). Conclusion: The preferences and recognition of fruits were higher compared to vegetables among the children. The children demonstrated a moderate level of attitude, recognition and knowledge towards fruits and vegetables consumption. Efforts to educate children on the recommended number of servings per day and improve their acceptability of vegetables should be implemented to promote the increase in fruits and vegetables consumption among children.
... Some information is available about differences between countries regarding how complementary foods are introduced and how parents manage a child's exposure to food variety (2,6,16,17) . In the ALSPAC cohort, 70 % of British infants received food pieces for the first time between 6 and 9 months (9) . ...
Article
The aims of this study were to describe which and when food textures are offered to children between 4 and 36 months in France and to identify the associated factors. An online cross-sectional survey was designed, including questions about 188 food texture combinations representing three texture levels: purées (T1), soft small pieces (T2) and hard/large pieces and double textures (T3). Mothers indicated which combinations they already offered to their child. A food texture exposure score (TextExp) was calculated for all of the texture levels combined and for each texture level separately. Associations between TextExp and maternal and child characteristics and feeding practices were explored by multiple linear regressions, per age class. Answers from 2999 mothers living in France, mostly educated and primiparous, were analysed. Over the first year, children were mainly exposed to purées. Soft and small pieces were slowly introduced between 6 and 22 months, whereas hard/large pieces were mainly introduced from 13 months onwards. TextExp was positively associated with children’s number of teeth and ability to eat alone with their finger or a fork. For almost all age classes, TextExp was higher in children introduced to complementary feeding earlier, lower for children who were offered only commercial baby foods and higher for those who were offered only home-made/non-specific foods during the second year. Our study shows that until 12 months of age the majority of French children were exposed to pieces to a small extent. It provides new insights to further understand the development of texture acceptance during a key period for the development of eating habits.
... Energy density was a significant predictor of vegetable liking. Repeated exposure to vegetables has increased child liking of vegetables in many studies [8,[17][18][19][20]. The "mere exposure effect" explains this increased liking [21]. ...
Article
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Child vegetable intake falls far below the minimum recommended levels. Knowing which vegetables children may like help those responsible for providing vegetables to children to improve intake. The objective of this study was to measure vegetable liking for a wide variety of vegetables by a racially and ethnically diverse population of 9–12-year old children from low-income families. Children rated their liking of 35 vegetables using a 10-point hedonic scale. We tabulated the number of children that found each vegetable acceptable (ratings of ‘okay’ or above) and the number that found each vegetable unacceptable (ratings below ‘okay’). More than 50% of children who had tried a vegetable considered it acceptable. A large majority of the vegetables had mean ratings in the acceptable range. Corn was the most liked vegetable, closely followed by potatoes, lettuce, and carrots. Artichoke had the lowest mean liking, followed by onion and beets. We found children liked a wide variety of vegetables which offers counter evidence to the commonly held perception that children do not like vegetables.
... Energy density was a significant predictor of vegetable liking. Repeated exposure to vegetables has increased child liking of vegetables in many studies [8,[17][18][19][20]. The "mere exposure effect" explains this increased liking [21]. ...
... Infants are predisposed to accept sweetness with ease, but they must learn to accept the bitterness commonly found in dark green vegetables (2,3). Eventual acceptance of initially aversive flavors can be accomplished through repeated exposure (15). However, the present data suggest the commercially available ITFs in the United States may not provide caregivers with the variety and specificity of products they need to adequately expose their infants and toddlers to vegetable flavors. ...
Article
Background: Exposure to vegetable flavors during infancy and toddlerhood is hypothesized to enhance vegetable acceptance when children transition to table foods. Objective: We sought to examine the vegetable types, ingredients, and nutrient contents of vegetable-containing infant and toddler foods (ITFs) manufactured and sold in the United States. Design: A database of ITFs that contain vegetables (n = 548) was compiled from websites of companies based in the United States (n = 24). Product information was recorded, including intended age or stage, ingredient lists, and selected nutrients from the Nutrition Facts label. Ingredient lists were used to categorize vegetables using the USDA vegetable categories: dark green (e.g., spinach), red and orange (e.g., carrots), starchy (e.g., green peas, corn), beans and peas (e.g., black beans), and other (e.g., green beans, beets). Furthermore, products were categorized as single-vegetable, multi-vegetable, vegetable and fruit, vegetable and meat, or vegetable and other combinations (e.g., grains and and or dairy). Nutrients were examined, including energy (kilocalories), carbohydrates, fiber, and total sugars [per serving, per 100 g, per reference amount customarily consumed (RACC), and percentage of kilocalories from sugars]. Results: Of the 548 vegetable products, only 52 single-vegetable products (9.5%) were identified, none of which contained dark green vegetables or beans and peas. Red and orange vegetables most often appeared as the first ingredient (23.7%) compared to other vegetable types, such as dark green vegetables, which were rarely listed first (1.1%). Fruits were listed as the first ingredient more commonly than all vegetables (37.8%). One-way ANOVA revealed that vegetable and fruit products contained more sugars on average than did vegetable products with other ingredients, such as dairy and/or grains (all P values < 0.001). Conclusions: Current available products do not provide caregivers with a sufficient variety of single-vegetable products or products containing dark green vegetables to facilitate children's subsequent acceptance of these vegetables. Guidance should include making caregivers aware of the limitations of commercial ITFs manufactured and sold in the US market.
... One study found that 5-7 month-old infants showed positive reactions to 88% of foods tried [41]. Even foods and beverages that are not initially liked will often come to be accepted after the child tastes it repeatedly [42][43][44][45]. Although some have hypothesized that adding sweetness or energy to food could facilitate that process (flavor-flavor learning and flavor-nutrient learning, respectively), recent studies suggest that simple repeated exposure to the food, as-is, is just as effective [46,47]. ...
Article
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Mexican and international authorities provide guidelines for milk and beverage consumption for young children. This study classifies beverages as appropriate or inappropriate by age (0-5.9, 6-11.9, and 12-23.9 months) and details consumption patterns, amounts consumed, and the associated socio-demographic characteristics. Analysis of the Mexican National Nutrition and Health Survey (ENSANUT 2012) was conducted (n = 949). Among 0-5.9 month olds, 66.7% consumed either breast milk, infant formula, or a combination with no other beverages, whereas 29.3% consumed breast milk and/or infant formula with water (mean = 58 g/day) and/or other beverages (mean = 115 g/day), such as 100% fruit juice, milk, and sugar-sweetened beverages (SSBs). For infants 6-11.9 months, appropriate beverages include breast milk, infant formula, and water; only 40.2% met these recommendations. Many 6-11.9 month olds consumed age-inappropriate beverages, including milk (31%) and SSBs (35%). After 12 months of age, appropriate beverages include water, milk, and a limited amount of 100% fruit juice and SSBs; 32.4% complied fully, 18.3% consumed appropriate and inappropriate beverages, and 49.3% consumed only inappropriate beverages. Among 12-23.9 month olds, 58% consumed milk, 18% juice, and 42% water while 63% consumed SSBs. Many infants and young children are not compliant with Mexican and international breastfeeding and complementary feeding guidelines for beverages. Communication and guidance about age-appropriate beverages should be improved.
... Studies with no control group or condition, therefore, were not included, e.g. Lakkakula et al. (30), Maier et al. (31). We only included studies that included a subjective or behavioral measure of liking, acceptance, preference, or intake. ...
Article
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Background: Vegetable intakes are typically lower than recommended for health. Although repeated exposure has been advocated to increase vegetable liking and consumption, no combination of the evidence yet provides a measure of benefit from repeated exposure or alternative conditioning strategies. Objective: This work aimed to identify and synthesize the current evidence for the use of repeated exposure and conditioning strategies for increasing vegetable liking and consumption. Design: Three academic databases were searched over all years of records using prespecified search terms. Published data from all suitable articles were tabulated in relation to 3 research questions and combined via meta-analyses. Results: Forty-three articles detailing 117 comparisons investigating the use of repeated exposure and conditioning strategies for increasing liking and intakes of vegetables were found. Our analyses demonstrate: 1) increased liking and intakes of the exposed vegetable after repeated exposure compared with no exposure; 2) increased liking for the exposed vegetable after conditioning compared with repeated exposure, increased intakes after the use of rewards, and some suggestion of decreased intakes after flavor-nutrient conditioning; and 3) increased liking and intakes of a novel vegetable after repeated exposure to a variety of other vegetables compared with no exposure or repeated exposure to one other vegetable. Effect sizes, however, are small, and limited evidence suggests long-term benefits. Our analyses, furthermore, are limited by limitations in study design, compliance, and/or reporting. Conclusions: Based on our findings, we recommend the use of repeated exposure to one and a variety of vegetables, and the use of rewards, for increasing vegetable liking and consumption. Confirmation from further large, well-conducted studies that use realistic scenarios, however, is also required. This study was registered at PROSPERO as CRD42017056919.
... On the other hand, late introduction of complementary foods, especially of lumpy food, may lead to later infant feeding problems and increased fussiness (Coulthard et al., 2009). In principle, early exposure to a variety of food should favour child's later openess toward new food as repeated exposure is reported being one of the strongest factors to overcome FN in children of different ages (Laureati et al., 2014;Maier, Chabanet, Schaal, Issanchou, & Leathwood, 2007). Based on the data acquired in the present study, however, it is not possible to formulate a hypothesis about the variety of the child's diet when parents started introducing semi-solids as we did not ask explicity about the type of foods that were introduced. ...
... Children generally prefer energy-dense and nutrient-poor foods over vegetables, which is likely genetically influenced (33) . However, repeated neutral exposure to a variety of vegetables has been shown to increase a child's preference for vegetables (34,35) . These accounts suggest that parents encountering escalating feeding problems do not understand that food choice and rejection are developmental phenomena associated with emerging child agency and autonomy (36) . ...
Article
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Objective To characterise parent presentations of fussy eating and mealtime interactions at a point of crisis, through analyses of real-time recordings of calls to a parenting helpline. Design Qualitative analysis included an inductive thematic approach to examine clinical parent presentations of fussy eating and derive underlying themes relating to mealtime interactions. Setting Calls made to the Child Health Line regarding feeding concerns were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Subjects From a corpus of 723 calls made during a 4-week period in 2009, twelve were from parents of children aged 6–48 months. Results Parents of infants (≤12 months, n 6) presented feeding concerns as learning challenges in the process of transitioning from a milk-based to a solid-based diet, while parents of toddlers (13–48 months, n 6) presented emotional accounts of feeding as an intractable problem. Parents presented their child’s eating behaviour as a battle (conflict), in which their children’s agency over limited intake and variety of foods (child control) was constructed as ‘bad’ or ‘wrong’. Escalating parent anxiety (parent concern) had evoked parent non-responsive feeding practices or provision of foods the child preferred. Conclusions Real-time descriptions of young children’s fussy eating at a time of crisis that initiated parents’ call for help have captured the highly charged emotional underpinnings of mealtime interactions associated with fussy eating. Importantly, they show the child’s emerging assertion of food autonomy can escalate parents’ emotional distress that, in the short term, initiates non-responsive feeding practices. The current study identifies the importance of educational and emotional support for parents across the period of introducing solids.
... Dans un tiers des cas, les connaissances sur la conduite de l'alimentation du nourrisson étaient insuffisantes. L'allaitement exclusif pendant les 6 premiers mois et l'exposition visuelle antérieure et répétée à une variété de saveurs dès le début de la diversification favorise l'acceptation des aliments par les enfants et conduit à une croissance optimale (Maier et al., 2007). ...
Article
Introduction: La période des 1000 premiers jours est celle qui va de la conception jusqu’au deuxième anniversaire de l’enfant. Cette période unique et critique pendant laquelle se met en place le potentiel physique, psychomoteur, intellectuel et cognitif conditionne la santé immédiate et future de l’enfant. Notre travail avait pour objectif d’évaluer les connaissances des médecins sur cette période clé. Méthode : Un questionnaire a été administré à un total de 71 médecins. Résultats : Près de la moitié (49,30%) avaient déjà entendu parler du concept des 1000 premiers jours au moment de l’enquête. Le groupe pédiatre et médecins en cours de spécialisation en pédiatrie (soit respectivement 10/71 et 32/71) avaient une meilleure connaissance du concept (p=0,04) par rapport au groupe gynécologues et médecins en cours de spécialisation en gynécologie (soit respectivement 5/71 et 28/71). Un médecin sur cinq ignorait les risques encourus à l’âge adulte lorsque la croissance fœtale n’était pas optimale. Trente médecins (42,25%) estimaient leurs connaissances sur le microbiote intestinal insuffisantes ou médiocres. La moitié des médecins (50,70%) affirmaient avoir abordé le thème des 1000 premiers jours avec leurs patients. Les connaissances des médecins spécialistes de la mère et de l’enfant au Togo sur le concept des 1000 premiers jours doivent être améliorées. Conclusion : Un renforcement général des compétences s’avère nécessaire pour espérer réduire le fardeau de toutes les maladies non transmissibles qui trouvent leur origine depuis la conception et pour lesquelles des actions efficaces peuvent encore être menées dans la petite enfance.
... Mothers will complete a 4-day weighed food diary during the first and last 4 days of the 4-week intervention to primarily measure infant food intake (grammes). In alignment with other studies [33][34][35][36][37][38][39][55][56][57], this will involve weighing the food before and after consumption . Foods will be labelled by colour and none list the ingredients but mothers are reassured that the foods align with New Zealand infant feeding guidelines. ...
Article
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Background Vegetables as first complementary foods for infants may programme taste preferences that lead to improved vegetable intake in children. Yet few studies have investigated the impact of a ”vegetables first” approach to complementary feeding, especially in New Zealand. The purpose of this randomised control trial is to investigate the effect of starting complementary feeding with vegetables only on infants’ later intake and liking of vegetables, compared to those starting with fruit and vegetables. Methods/design One-hundred and twenty mother-infant pairs living in Auckland, New Zealand, will be randomised to receive either vegetables only (intervention) or fruit and vegetables (control) for 28 days, starting from the first day of complementary feeding at around 4–6 months of age. Infants will be presented with a brassica (broccoli), followed by a green leafy vegetable (spinach) and sweet fruit (pear) at 9 months of age. The primary outcome measures of intake of each food will be assessed using a weighed food diary. Secondary outcome measures of overall intake, liking and wanting of vegetables will be assessed using a food frequency questionnaire, liking tool and video coding tool, respectively, at 9, 12, and 24 months of age. Infant growth and iron status will be assessed as part of health screening and monitoring at baseline, post intervention and 9 months of age. Other biological samples to be collected include infant stool samples, vitamin D (mother and infant), iron status (mother), and mothers’ diet. Discussion This randomised, controlled trial will be the first to our knowledge to investigate a “vegetables first” approach to complementary feeding on infants’ liking and intake of vegetables in New Zealand. Comparison against standard practice (fruit and vegetables as first foods) should complement other trials underway, such as the Baby’s First Bites and Nordic OTIS trial. Results may contribute to the evidence supporting complementary feeding guidelines in New Zealand and worldwide. Trial registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trial Registry ACTRN12619000737134 . Registered on 16 May 2019.
... Most studies that have gathered data about infant exposure to novel foods and infant behaviors in response to foods have focused primarily on infants 6-12 mo of age (33). The results from repeated exposure studies are mixed with respect to maternal ratings of children's liking, with some studies finding evidence of a relationship between maternal liking ratings and children's facial expressions (31) and intake (23,29), whereas others reported no relation to these acceptance variables (28,32). ...
Article
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Background Infants are born with the biological predisposition to reject bitterness. Dark green vegetables contain essential nutrients but also bitter compounds, making them more difficult to like. Objective The Good Tastes Study was designed to determine whether reducing bitterness by adding small amounts of sugar or salt would alter infant acceptance of kale purées. Methods Caregivers (n = 106, 94% mothers, 82% Non-Hispanic White) and children (53% male, aged 6–24 mo) participated in a videorecorded laboratory visit during which infants were offered 4 versions of puréed kale: plain, 1.2% or 1.8% added sugar, or 0.2% added salt. Caregivers rated their children's liking for each kale version. Videos were coded for the number of tastes accepted and for children's behaviors and acceptance of each kale version. A multilevel ordered logistic model was fit for the number of accepted tastes and caregiver ratings of child liking of kale versions with age, breastfeeding history, order effects, and kale version as predictors. Results Infants 6 to <12 mo accepted more tastes (b = 2.911, P < 0.001) and were rated by caregivers as liking the kale more than older toddlers (≥18 mo; b = 1.874, P = 0.014). The plain kale was more likely to be accepted (P < 0.001); also, the first version offered was more likely to be rejected (b = −0.586, P < 0.007). Older infants (≥18 mo) exhibited more avoidant behaviors (b = 1.279, P < 0.001), more playing (b = 2.918, P < 0.001), and more self-feeding (b = 1.786, P = 0.005) than younger infants (6 to <12 mo). Children who were reported to have been breastfed more in the last 7 d were more likely to self-feed (b = 0.246, P < 0.001) and play with food (b = 0.207, P < 0.005). Conclusions Our findings support that there may be a sensitive period, during the early phase of complementary feeding, to improve success of introducing a novel, bitter, more difficult-to-like food. When low levels of sugar or salt were added, no advantage of bitterness reduction was observed. This study has been registered with ClinicalTrials.gov as NCT04549233.
... RE is most effective when used with infants during CF [9,72]. At this time, approximately 5-10 separate exposures can be required for children to acquire liking for, willingness to try (WTT) and to increase intake of a target vegetable, even when it is initially novel or disliked [92]. The number of exposures is likely to vary based on the type of food, child age and individual characteristics (e.g. ...
Article
Children eat too few vegetables and this is attributed to disliked flavours and texture as well as low energy density. Vegetables confer selective health benefits over other foods and so children are encouraged to eat them. Parents and caregivers face a challenge in incorporating vegetables into their child's habitual diet. However, liking and intake may be increased through different forms of learning. Children learn about vegetables across development from exposure to some vegetable flavours in utero, through breastmilk, complementary feeding and transitioning to family diets. Infants aged between 5-7m are most amenable to accepting vegetables. However, a range of biological, social, environmental and individual factors may act independently and in tandem to reduce the appeal of eating vegetables. By applying aspects of learning theory, including social learning, liking and intake of vegetables can be increased. We propose taking an integrated and individualised approach to child feeding in order to achieve optimal learning in the early years. Simple techniques such as repeated exposure, modelling, social praise and creating social norms for eating vegetables can contribute to positive feeding experiences which in turn, contributes to increased acceptance of vegetables. However, there is a mismatch between experimental studies and the ways that children eat vegetables in real world settings. Therefore, current knowledge of the best strategies to increase vegetable liking and intake gained from experimental studies must be adapted and integrated for application to home and care settings, while responding to individual differences.
... La etapa más importante para formar hábitos y preferencias saludables es la etapa de alimentación complementaria, ya que es en esta donde los niños tienen la experiencia y reciben el contacto a un sin número de texturas y sabores. Los mayores predictores de la aceptación de alimentos son el sabor de los alimentos, la duración de la lactancia y si la madre incluyó en su dieta esos alimentos durante el embarazo, y la exposición repetida a estos alimentos durante el periodo de introducción de alimentos (en promedio de 8 a 10 días) (2,31). El exponer repetidamente a cierto alimento no significa que no deban incluirse otros alimentos en ese periodo, es más, resultados de más complejos como el nivel educativo, estado de salud, tipo de actividad, creencias y cultura, nivel socioeconómico y el contexto ambiental y social entrarán en juego para modelar las preferencias y hábitos alimentarios. ...
Article
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El deterioro de la calidad de la dieta está afectando la salud de los niños menores de dos años. Por tal motivo, es de vital importancia la identificación de factores relacionados con el desarrollo y establecimiento de preferencias alimentarias en etapas tempranas de la vida y brindar recomendaciones que faciliten su adopción. Esta revisión sistemática de la literatura tiene como objetivo resumir la evidencia existente sobre los factores asociados a formar y modelar las preferencias alimentarias en etapas tempranas de la vida. Para esto se realizó una búsqueda en PubMed de estudios que evaluaran la asociación entre la exposición prenatal y posnatal de sabores, introducción temprana de alimentos y habituación al sabor dulce, alimentación complementaria y diversidad dietética. Se incluyeron artículos publicados desde el 2000 hasta el 2019. Resultados de 39 artículos sugieren que la alimentación durante los primeros dos años de vida y el desarrollo de preferencias alimentarias en etapas tempranas de la vida tiene el potencial de modificar los patrones de alimentación y establecerse en etapas posteriores de la vida, por lo que, los primeros mil días de vida constituyen una ventana de oportunidad para formar preferencias alimentarias saludables y mejorar la calidad de dieta de los niños.
... Most studies use a novel or a non-preferred food, aiming to increase the acceptance of it by repeatedly exposing children to it. Lakkakula et al. [27] proved that repeated taste exposures to poorly liked vegetables increased liking for most of them by elementary school children, while Maier et al. was able to demonstrate the same effect in infants [72]. According to Cooke [26], age is a determinant of the number of exposures needed to change the initial attitude, with older children requiring more exposures. ...
Article
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Fruit and vegetables are important components of a healthy diet, but unfortunately many children are not consuming enough to meet the recommendations. Therefore, it is crucial to develop strategies towards increasing the acceptance of this food group. This study aims to investigate the effect of different repeated exposure frequencies on fruit and vegetable acceptance using a novel vegetable, daikon, among 3–6-year-old children. One hundred and fifty-nine children participated in this study. Eight kindergarten teams were assigned to one of the following groups: Three different intervention groups with varying exposure frequencies, but all receiving seven exposures: Twice a week (n = 47), once a week (n = 32) and once every second week (n = 30), and a control group (n = 50). Liking and familiarity of daikon and other vegetables (cucumber, celery, celeriac, broccoli, cauliflower and beetroot) were assessed at baseline, post-intervention and two follow up sessions (3 and 6 months) to test for potential generalisation effects and observe the longevity of the obtained effects. Intake of daikon was measured at all exposures and test sessions. Results showed significant increases (p ≤ 0.05) in liking and intake of daikon for all three frequencies and the control group. Over the exposures, intake of daikon increased until the 4th exposure for all the groups, where a plateau was reached. No systematic generalisation effects were found. Repeated exposure was a successful approach to increase liking and intake of a novel vegetable with all exposure frequencies to be effective, and no particular exposure frequency can be recommended. Even the few exposures the control group received were found to be sufficient to improve intake and liking over 6 months (p ≤ 0.05), indicating that exposures to low quantities of an unfamiliar vegetable may be sufficient.
... In a classic study by Sullivan and Birch, for example, feeding peas or green beans to 4-to-6-month-olds on 10 occasions, over approximately one month, led to significant increases in consumption of the vegetable over time (Sullivan and Birch, 1994). Relatedly, Maier et al. found that repeated exposure to a disliked vegetable (8 times in 16 days) early in the complementary feeding period resulted in intakes that were four-fold greater than the amounts the infants initially consumed (Maier et al., 2007). Thus, early exposure to healthy foods during the early feeding period may strongly influence infant feeding behavior. ...
Article
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Objective: To characterize the prevalence of hyperpalatable foods (HPF) among baby foods in the U.S. and examine the prevalence of HPF exposure and consumption from both baby food and adult food sources among infants aged 9–15 months. Methods: A U.S. baby food database as well as baby foods from three 24-h dietary recalls of 147 infants were used to identify baby foods as HPF per previous publication. HPF exposure was defined as intake of any HPF during the 3-day measurement period. To determine the extent of HFP consumption, % kilocalorie (kcal) intake from HPF was characterized. Results: Only 12% of baby foods were HPF; however, nearly all participants (>90%) consumed HPF, primarily through exposure to adult foods. Younger infants (<12 months) consumed 38% [standard deviation (SD) = 23.6%] of their daily food kcal from HPF and older infants (≥12 months) consumed 52% (SD = 16.4%) of daily food kilocalorie from HPF. Most younger infants (68%) and older infants (88%) had repeated exposure to the same HPF across the measurement period. Conclusions: The prevalence of HPF among baby foods in the U.S. is low. However, almost all infants were exposed to HPF, and HPF comprised a substantial percentage of daily food kilocalorie in infants' diets. Findings highlight the transition to solid food consumption during complimentary feeding period is a critical time for early HPF exposure.
... In one study, mothers of seven month old infants were asked to identify a vegetable their infant disliked and were instructed to offer that vegetable on alternate days for 16 days, and to offer a well-liked vegetable, typically something sweet like carrots, sweet potatoes or squash, on the other days. On the first day, infants ate substantially less of the disliked vegetable than the well-liked vegetable however by the eighth repetition, the intake of the liked and unliked vegetables were identical (35). A number of studies have demonstrated similar findings with anywhere between five and ten repetitions (36,37). ...
Article
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Humans are the only mammals who feed our young special complementary foods before weaning and we are the only primates that wean our young before they can forage independently. There appears to be a sensitive period in the first several months of life when infants readily accept a wide variety of tastes and this period overlaps with a critical window for oral tolerance. As a result, infants should be exposed to a wide variety of flavors while mother is pregnant, while mother is nursing and beginning at an early age. There also appears to be a sensitive period between 4 and 9 months when infants are most receptive to different food textures. There remains debate about when it is best to begin introducing solid foods into an infant's diet however, the available evidence suggests that provided the water and food supply are free of contamination, and the infant is provided adequate nutrition, there are no clear contraindications to feeding infants complementary foods at any age. There is emerging evidence that introduction of solid foods into an infant's diet by 4 months may increase their willingness to eat a variety of fruits and vegetables later in life, decrease their risk of having feeding problems later in life, and decrease their risk of developing food allergies, and the early introduction of solid foods into an infant's diet does not appear to increase their risk of obesity later in childhood.
... Dans ces deux dernières situations, l'alimentation de la mère est un vecteur de transmission des arômes des aliments. Au moment de la diversification alimentaire, la présentation répétée d'un aliment nouveau [10,11] et la variété des expériences alimentaires du nourrisson favorisent l'appréciation d'aliments nouveaux [12,13], et pourraient donc contribuer à la mise en place du répertoire alimentaire. Dès la petite enfance, des tempéraments alimentaires bien différents coexistent, entre des enfants «faciles» qui apprécient le moment du repas, et des enfants «difficiles» qui se refusent en particulier à goûter tout aliment nouveau. ...
Article
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Les progrès récents de la biologie nous ont éclairés sur la programmation précoce de certaines maladies en lien avec l’alimentation durant la grossesse et les premiers mois de vie. Qu’en est-il de la programmation précoce du comportement alimentaire ? L’étude Opaline vise à comprendre la mise en place des aspects sensoriels et comportementaux de l’alimentation des enfants, en suivant un groupe de 300 bébés depuis le dernier trimestre de grossesse jusqu’à l’âge de deux ans. Quelques résultats préliminaires de cette étude actuellement en cours seront présentés.
... As noted above, familiarizing a child with a food by providing repeated opportunities to taste a food is probably the simplest way to promote food acceptance (Birch et al., 1998, Sullivan andBirch, 1994). In 6-month-old infants, it has even proven efficient to enhance the consumption of initially disliked foods (Maier et al., 2007). Repeated exposure is likely to trigger positive reactions to foods at any age, but it may be more efficient in younger children (Caton et al., 2014). ...
Book
This chapter aims at examining the question of food neophobia in healthy children up to the end of school age, excluding adolescents. Firstly, the definition of food neophobia in children is clarified, as well as its partial overlap with the notion of fussiness/pickiness; then the association between food neophobia and children’s diet quality and weight status is described. The second part describes the internal influence on food neophobia, more precisely by depicting the development of neophobia in children as a function of individual forces such as the affective and cognitive development, as well as temperament. The third part examines the psychosocial influences on food neophobia, focusing on how they may alter the typical development of neophobia, looking at the influence of parents and peers. The fourth part describes strategies that can be useful to overcome neophobic reactions in children, based on food properties modifications and modifications of the psychosocial context. Finally, directions for future studies are indicated.
Article
Infancy may represent a sensitive window for establishing food preferences that could affect the individual's long-term potential to establish healthy eating patterns. Our study was based on the hypothesis that preserving the natural flavor of the ingredients of commercially prepared complementary foods would increase the acceptance of new foods, especially vegetables. Frozen vegetable-based meals for infants were developed to preserve the natural taste of the ingredients better than sterilization of meals in jars. In a 3-month randomized, controlled intervention study, 51 infants were fed either frozen menus (intervention group IG) or commercial sterilized meals in jars (control group CG) on at least 5 days per week. Then the acceptability of a known vegetable-based puree was tested in comparison to an unknown puree, measuring the quantities consumed and also the mother's assessment of the infant's liking. In conclusion, the results of this study clearly indicated that infants fed vegetable-based frozen meals for 3 months accepted a new vegetable better than infants fed sterilized commercial meals in jars.
Article
Background Small-quantity lipid-based nutrient supplements (SQ-LNS) are designed to address undernutrition during the complementary feeding period. SQ-LNS contains added sugars, but limited research has assessed whether infants’ acceptance varies between versions with and without sugars. Objectives Our objective was to examine the effects of repeated exposure on children's acceptance of sweetened and unsweetened SQ-LNS. We aimed to understand caregivers’ perceptions of children's liking of the 2 SQ-LNS versions and their influences on infant acceptance of SQ-LNS. Methods Caregivers (86% non-Hispanic White) and children (7–24 mo), participated in a randomized, 2-week home-exposure study and baseline and post–home exposure assessments. Children were randomized to receive sweetened or unsweetened SQ-LNS versions, mixed with infant oatmeal. At in-person visits, caregivers fed both SQ-LNS versions to children and rated their child's liking for each. Caregivers fed the SQ-LNS version to which their child was randomized until the child refused to eat more. Acceptance was measured as total grams consumed. Mixed-effects linear models tested the change in SQ-LNS consumed between baseline and postexposure by the SQ-LNS version and number of home exposures. Covariates included the amount of SQ-LNS consumed at baseline, child BMI z-score, child age, and breastfeeding experience. Results Children's acceptance of both SQ-LNS versions increased from baseline to postexposure (β, 0.71 g; 95% CI: 0.54–0.89 g; P = 0.04), regardless of SQ-LNS version (P = 0.88) or number of home exposures (P = 0.55). Caregivers rated children's liking of unsweetened SQ-LNS higher at baseline (P = 0.02). Children with lower liking ratings at baseline showed the greatest increases in acceptance between baseline and postexposure (P = 0.01). Conclusions Children's acceptance of SQ-LNS increased with repeated exposure, whether offered the sweetened or unsweetened version, providing preliminary support that adding sugar to SQ-LNS may not improve acceptance in young children. Children who initially like the supplement less may need repeated experience to learn to accept SQ-LNS. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT04544332.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables in childhood increases the risk of future non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Interventions to increase consumption of fruit and vegetables, such as those focused on specific child-feeding strategies and parent nutrition education interventions in early childhood may therefore be an effective strategy in reducing this disease burden. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness, cost effectiveness and associated adverse events of interventions designed to increase the consumption of fruit, vegetables or both amongst children aged five years and under. Search methods: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and two clinical trials registries to identify eligible trials on 25 August 2019. We searched Proquest Dissertations and Theses in May 2019. We reviewed reference lists of included trials and handsearched three international nutrition journals. We contacted authors of included trials to identify further potentially relevant trials. Selection criteria: We included randomised controlled trials, including cluster-randomised controlled trials and cross-over trials, of any intervention primarily targeting consumption of fruit, vegetables or both among children aged five years and under, and incorporating a dietary or biochemical assessment of fruit or vegetable consumption. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts of identified papers; a third review author resolved disagreements. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risks of bias of included trials; a third review author resolved disagreements. Due to unexplained heterogeneity, we used random-effects models in meta-analyses for the primary review outcomes where we identified sufficient trials. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs) to account for the heterogeneity of fruit and vegetable consumption measures. We conducted assessments of risks of bias and evaluated the quality of evidence (GRADE approach) using Cochrane procedures. Main results: We included 78 trials with 214 trial arms and 13,746 participants. Forty-eight trials examined the impact of child-feeding practices (e.g. repeated food exposure) in increasing child vegetable intake. Fifteen trials examined the impact of parent nutrition education in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. Fourteen trials examined the impact of multicomponent interventions (e.g. parent nutrition education and preschool policy changes) in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. Two trials examined the effect of a nutrition education intervention delivered to children in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. One trial examined the impact of a child-focused mindfulness intervention in increasing vegetable intake. We judged 20 of the 78 included trials as free from high risks of bias across all domains. Performance, detection and attrition bias were the most common domains judged at high risk of bias for the remaining trials. There is very low-quality evidence that child-feeding practices versus no intervention may have a small positive effect on child vegetable consumption equivalent to an increase of 4.45 g as-desired consumption of vegetables (SMD 0.42, 95% CI 0.23 to 0.60; 18 trials, 2004 participants; mean post-intervention follow-up = 8.2 weeks). Multicomponent interventions versus no intervention has a small effect on child consumption of fruit and vegetables (SMD 0.34, 95% CI 0.10 to 0.57; 9 trials, 3022 participants; moderate-quality evidence; mean post-intervention follow-up = 5.4 weeks), equivalent to an increase of 0.36 cups of fruit and vegetables per day. It is uncertain whether there are any short-term differences in child consumption of fruit and vegetables in meta-analyses of trials examining parent nutrition education versus no intervention (SMD 0.12, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.28; 11 trials, 3078 participants; very low-quality evidence; mean post-intervention follow-up = 13.2 weeks). We were unable to pool child nutrition education interventions in meta-analysis; both trials reported a positive intervention effect on child consumption of fruit and vegetables (low-quality evidence). Very few trials reported long-term effectiveness (6 trials), cost effectiveness (1 trial) and unintended adverse consequences of interventions (2 trials), limiting their assessment. Trials reported receiving governmental or charitable funds, except for four trials reporting industry funding. Authors' conclusions: Despite identifying 78 eligible trials of various intervention approaches, the evidence for how to increase children's fruit and vegetable consumption remains limited. There was very low-quality evidence that child-feeding practice may lead to, and moderate-quality evidence that multicomponent interventions probably lead to small increases in fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged five years and younger. It is uncertain whether parent nutrition education interventions are effective in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged five years and younger. Given that the quality of the evidence is very low or low, future research will likely change estimates and conclusions. Long-term follow-up of at least 12 months is required and future research should adopt more rigorous methods to advance the field. This is a living systematic review. Living systematic reviews offer a new approach to review updating, in which the review is continually updated, incorporating relevant new evidence as it becomes available. Please refer to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for the current status of this review.
Article
Background: Insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables in childhood increases the risk of future non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Interventions to increase consumption of fruit and vegetables, such as those focused on specific child-feeding strategies and parent nutrition education interventions in early childhood may therefore be an effective strategy in reducing this disease burden. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness, cost effectiveness and associated adverse events of interventions designed to increase the consumption of fruit, vegetables or both amongst children aged five years and under. Search methods: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and two clinical trials registries to identify eligible trials on 25 January 2018. We searched Proquest Dissertations and Theses in November 2017. We reviewed reference lists of included trials and handsearched three international nutrition journals. We contacted authors of included studies to identify further potentially relevant trials. Selection criteria: We included randomised controlled trials, including cluster-randomised controlled trials and cross-over trials, of any intervention primarily targeting consumption of fruit, vegetables or both among children aged five years and under, and incorporating a dietary or biochemical assessment of fruit or vegetable consumption. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts of identified papers; a third review author resolved disagreements. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risks of bias of included studies; a third review author resolved disagreements. Due to unexplained heterogeneity, we used random-effects models in meta-analyses for the primary review outcomes where we identified sufficient trials. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs) to account for the heterogeneity of fruit and vegetable consumption measures. We conducted assessments of risks of bias and evaluated the quality of evidence (GRADE approach) using Cochrane procedures. Main results: We included 63 trials with 178 trial arms and 11,698 participants. Thirty-nine trials examined the impact of child-feeding practices (e.g. repeated food exposure) in increasing child vegetable intake. Fourteen trials examined the impact of parent nutrition education in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. Nine studies examined the impact of multicomponent interventions (e.g. parent nutrition education and preschool policy changes) in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. One study examined the effect of a nutrition education intervention delivered to children in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake.We judged 14 of the 63 included trials as free from high risks of bias across all domains; performance, detection and attrition bias were the most common domains judged at high risk of bias for the remaining studies.There is very low quality evidence that child-feeding practices versus no intervention may have a small positive effect on child vegetable consumption equivalent to an increase of 3.50 g as-desired consumption of vegetables (SMD 0.33, 95% CI 0.13 to 0.54; participants = 1741; studies = 13). Multicomponent interventions versus no intervention may have a very small effect on child consumption of fruit and vegetables (SMD 0.35, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.66; participants = 2009; studies = 5; low-quality evidence), equivalent to an increase of 0.37 cups of fruit and vegetables per day. It is uncertain whether there are any short-term differences in child consumption of fruit and vegetables in meta-analyses of trials examining parent nutrition education versus no intervention (SMD 0.12, 95% CI -0.03 to 0.28; participants = 3078; studies = 11; very low-quality evidence).Insufficient data were available to assess long-term effectiveness, cost effectiveness and unintended adverse consequences of interventions. Studies reported receiving governmental or charitable funds, except for four studies reporting industry funding. Authors' conclusions: Despite identifying 63 eligible trials of various intervention approaches, the evidence for how to increase children's fruit and vegetable consumption remains limited. There was very low- and low-quality evidence respectively that child-feeding practice and multicomponent interventions may lead to very small increases in fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged five years and younger. It is uncertain whether parent nutrition education interventions are effective in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged five years and younger. Given that the quality of the evidence is very low or low, future research will likely change estimates and conclusions. Long-term follow-up is required and future research should adopt more rigorous methods to advance the field.This is a living systematic review. Living systematic reviews offer a new approach to review updating, in which the review is continually updated, incorporating relevant new evidence as it becomes available. Please refer to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for the current status of this review.
Article
This study explores the relationships among anxiety, sensitivity to sensory stimuli, and picky eating (PE). An earlier study in 95 children ages 5-10 found that sensory sensitivity fully mediated the relationship between anxiety and picky eating. We replicated this finding in a sample of 158 children, ages 8-17, and in 813 young adult college students. As in the previous child sample, the relationship between anxiety and picky eating appears to be mediated by sensory sensitivity. This relationship extends into adolescence and young adulthood and holds even in a sample of children with obsessive-compulsive-spectrum and anxiety disorders. However, there may be developmental differences in the relationship between sensory sensitivity and PE; the magnitude of this relationship was significantly greater for children than young adults. Although there was a trend towards a stronger relationship in a subsample of young adults with high anxiety, the effect was still smaller than that observed in children, suggesting that this difference is developmental and not completely driven by higher anxiety in the child sample. Sensory sensitivity is a candidate mechanism of picky eating, although the cross-sectional nature of this study means that we cannot address whether it is an etiological or maintaining mechanism, or both. Implications for behavioral treatment of picky eating in clinically anxious and non-clinical samples are discussed.
Chapter
In dit hoofdstuk worden de huidige richtlijnen voor een gezonde voeding voor kinderen van 0 tot 4 jaar besproken. Uitgangspunten zijn de Nederlandse voedingsnormen en internationaal geaccepteerde normen. Er worden tabellen gegeven met de aanbevolen hoeveelheid of adequate inneming van voedingsstoffen. Centraal staat een rationele benadering van de voeding van het gezonde jonge kind. Er wordt beschreven waarom borstvoeding de voorkeur heeft boven flesvoeding. Het geven van vitaminesuppletie en de eerste bijvoeding worden toegelicht. Naast voedselovergevoeligheid worden voedingsproblemen besproken.
Article
Zusammenfassung de Im Bereich der molekularen Ernährungsphysiologie beschäftigen sich Lebensmittelchemiker mit der Frage, welche Wirkungen Lebensmittelinhaltsstoffe auf spezifische Körperfunktionen ausüben. Ziel ist es dabei vor allem, die physiologische Aktivität einer molekular definierten Verbindung zuzuordnen. Einen wichtigen Teilbereich der molekularen Ernährungsphysiologie stellt die Sensorik dar, bei der Lebensmittelinhaltsstoffe näher untersucht werden, die Aroma, Geschmack, Textur, und andere chemosensorische Reize von Lebensmitteln bestimmen. In dem Artikel werden die molekulare Ernährungslehre und Sensorik an verschiedenen Beispielen aus der aktuellen Forschung dargestellt. So wird beschrieben, dass Eugenol und Acetyleugenol aus Nelkenextrakt über den GABAA‐Rezeptor eine sedierende Wirkung ausüben können. In diesem Zusammenhang ist es nicht nur wichtig, die Wirkung der in Lebensmitteln enthaltenen Verbindungen zu untersuchen, sondern auch deren Resorption und Biotransformation nach der Aufnahme zu berücksichtigen. Weiterhin wird dargestellt, dass bestimmte Lebensmittel, wie zum Beispiel Kartoffelchips oder Schokolade auch bei gesunden Konsumenten einen Kontrollverlust beim Essen verursachen können. Dies ist vermutlich darauf zurückzuführen, dass deren Inhaltsstoffe, vor allem ein bestimmtes Verhältnis von Kohlenhydraten und Fett, das Gehirnaktivitätsmuster deutlich verändern. Aber auch ein ausgewogenes Verhältnis der sensorisch aktiven Komponenten aus Geruch und Geschmack und anderen sensorischen Reizen steuert unsere Lebensmittelauswahl und unser Verzehrverhalten. Diese sensorischen Eindrücke werden im Lauf des Lebens für bestimmte Lebensmittel gelernt und positiv oder negativ assoziiert. Dieser Feedback‐Mechanismus kann das Verhalten des Konsumenten steuern und somit seine Lebensmittelwahl beeinflussen. Summary en In molecular nutrition and sensory analysis, food chemists investigate the interaction of molecularly defined food components with targets in the human organism. Here, we describe how food components can interact with the GABAA receptor, potentially leading to calming effects, and how biotransformation processes may modulate the activity of the naturally present compounds. Furthermore, we demonstrate which food components may be able to modify the brain activity pattern and the human behavioral response in a way that compulsive food intake is induced.
Conference Paper
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Despite various health benefits, children’s vegetable consumption is below the recommended intake across Europe (Fagt et al, 2007; Ocké et al, 2008; Yngve et al, 2005). Previous research has shown that it is not easy to increase children’s vegetable intake. Neophobia peaks between the ages of two to six years (Cashdan, 1998; Pliner, 2006), which makes it especially challenging to increase vegetable consumption in this age range. A series of studies were conducted among two- to six year-old children in real-life settings, with the aim to investigate whether different strategies based on social learning can be applied to increase vegetable consumption. The studies described in this abstract examined the strategies imitation and choice-offering. Four imitation studies were executed in The Netherlands and Greece among children aged 3 to 6 years. A popular (TV) character or the teacher acted as role model and raw carrots were used as target vegetable. In contrast to what was expected, the children did not increase their vegetable intake during the intervention period. The children that were exposed to the role modelling strategies consumed on average between 20 and 35 grams in The Netherlands and 20 to 50 grams in Greece. Interestingly, when the children could choose one out of four vegetables during the choice tests, their vegetable intake was about two to three times higher (The Netherlands: 65-80 grams; Greece: 45-85 grams). Contrasting effects were found between classes in the same condition, suggesting that other factors, such as peer pressure or the class atmosphere, also played a role. These factors may have undermined the effect of the applied imitation strategies. Overall, it seems that imitation strategies with a relatively familiar vegetable applied in a complex classroom setting do not result in an increase in vegetable intake among children aged 3 to 6 years. Three studies investigated the effect of choice offering on children’s vegetable consumption. Two studies were executed in a nursery and used a within-subject design (Denmark & Greece). The third study was executed at home and used a between-subject design (The Netherlands). Taking the results together, the studies indicated that choice offering has the potential to positively contribute to children’s vegetable intake. The results also suggested that specific groups may benefit more from choice offering than others since the Dutch study showed that age and vegetable liking prior the intervention may be moderators of the effect of choice offering. In all studies, large variations in children’s individual eating patterns were observed. Analyses of the questionnaire data showed that food fussiness, neophobia and vegetable liking were significantly correlated with children’s vegetable intake. Children who score unfavourably on these characteristics may need more specific attention and other strategies might be needed to encourage their vegetable intake. Future research should extend our findings by focusing on how intake of relatively familiar vegetables can be encouraged. In addition, subgroups of children should be defined on the basis of children’s individual characteristics, and tailored interventions should be developed for each subgroup.
Article
Past research shows that high-quality public preschool may disproportionately support low-income children's school readiness, because low-income children tend to arrive at school with fewer of the academic skills needed for success. This suggests a compensatory process in human development in which the children who benefit most from a promotive factor are those who stand to gain the most. We propose that high-quality public preschool may similarly confer its greatest health rewards to low-income children, who are generally in poorer health than their peers. If that is true, preschool has the potential to narrow health disparities by income, which without intervention, persist into adulthood. To date, no one has articulated all the pathways through which high-quality public preschool may improve children's health, much less those that should disproportionately benefit those from low-income families. Drawing on the bioecological paradigm of human development, we propose a model identifying specific mechanisms likely to promote equity in child health. These mechanisms reflect core characteristics of high-quality public preschool that may disproportionately benefit low-income children's health. This model serves as a working template for a program of future research.
Thesis
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En France, le goûter est une habitude fréquente chez les enfants qui se caractérise généralement par la consommation d’aliments gras, sucrés et riches en énergie. Si les comportements alimentaires restent flexibles et peuvent évoluer tout au long de la vie, ils sont déjà fortement établis dès l’enfance. Dans ce contexte, améliorer les habitudes alimentaires en matière de goûter semble primordiale. L’objectif de cette thèse est donc d’évaluer l’efficacité de leviers visant à favoriser des choix de goûters favorables à la santé au sein du binôme mère-enfant. Une première expérimentation a été conduite de façon à évaluer l’impact du système d’étiquetage nutritionnel Nutri-Score sur la qualité nutritionnelle et sur l’appréciation des goûters choisis au sein du binôme mère-enfant. Les résultats soulignent une amélioration de la qualité nutritionnelle des goûters choisis par les participants pour eux-mêmes et pour l’autre membre du binôme à la suite de l’étiquetage des aliments avec le logo Nutri-Score. Cette amélioration s’accompagne toutefois d’une diminution de l’appréciation à l’égard des goûters choisis par les enfants et par les mères. Une deuxième expérimentation a été menée de façon à évaluer l’efficacité d’une intervention hédonique conduite au domicile mobilisant trois dimensions du plaisir alimentaire (sensorielle, interpersonnelle et psychosociale) pour stimuler la consommation d’aliments sains sur la qualité nutritionnelle des goûters choisis au laboratoire au sein du binôme mère-enfant. Cette intervention a également été testée sur différents indicateurs caractérisant la composition nutritionnelle des goûters consommés au domicile par les enfants. Si l’intervention n’a pas permis d’améliorer la qualité nutritionnelle des goûters choisis au laboratoire par les enfants et leur mère, elle a réduit la charge énergétique des goûters consommés au domicile par les enfants. Cette réduction serait due à une diminution des quantités consommées. Les résultats obtenus dans le cadre de ce travail pourraient fournir des pistes de réflexion à destination des autorités publiques chargées de la communication et des recommandations en matière d’alimentation chez les enfants.
Thesis
La néophobie alimentaire est une réticence à goûter et/ou le rejet des aliments inconnus. Elle a une incidence négative sur la variété du répertoire alimentaire de l’enfant et sur le climat familial lors des repas. L’objectif de notre étude, qui se situe dans une perspective développementale, est de répondre à trois questions concernant cette conduite qui demeurent insuffisamment traitées dans la littérature scientifique : 1/ la néophobie alimentaire émerge-t-elle brusquement à 2 ans ; 2/ si oui, quels sont les processus développementaux à l’origine de cette évolution ? ; 3/ quels liens la néophobie alimentaire entretient-elle avec la sélectivité alimentaire (réticence à goûter des aliments familiers) et l’alimentation difficile (rejet d’aliments inconnus et familiers, assorti de fortes préférences alimentaires) ?Via l’utilisation de questionnaires, nous avons évalué : 1/ la néophobie alimentaire en termes de prévalence et d’intensité ; 2/ les compétences développementales susceptibles d’expliquer son évolution dans les sphères motrice, praxique, linguistique et psycho-affective ; ces compétences ont été sélectionnées sur la base d’arguments temporel (évolution synchrone) et fonctionnel (liens théorique et psychologique) ; 3/ les conduites avec lesquelles elle est fréquemment confondue, à savoir la sélectivité alimentaire et l’alimentation difficile. Notre échantillon principal s’est trouvé composé de 432 sujets âgés de 3 à 60 mois. Nos résultats ont indiqué que la néophobie alimentaire constituait une période normale du développement de l’enfant. La prévalence de la néophobie alimentaire était de 57 % et associée à une intensitée modérée entre 3 et 6 mois ; elle augmentait de manière importante en termes de prévalence et d’intensité entre 19 et 36 mois, concernant 90 % des enfants à cet âge, puis elle se stabilisait jusqu’à 60 mois. Suivant cette évolution, nous avons proposé un modèle développemental de la néophobie alimentaire comprenant deux phases : 1/ une néophobie primaire commune aux nourrissons et aux animaux, liée à la perception de la nouveauté d’une texture ou d’une flaveur et sous-tendue par des processus de pensée intuitifs ; 2/ une néophobie secondaire, liée aux acquisitions réalisées par les enfants aux alentours de 2 ans, reposant largement sur l’aspect visuel des aliments et impliquant des traitements cognitifs plus élaborés. Nous n’avons pas identifié les processus développementaux à l’origine de son évolution entre 19 et 36 mois. Plusieurs explications méthodologiques et théoriques ont été envisagées pour expliquer cette absence de résultat telles que l’existence d’une phase intermédiaire dans l’acquisition des compétences ou l’implication d’autres mécanismes psychologiques ou neurobiologiques non mesurés dans cette recherche. De plus, nous avons constaté une intrication des processus développementaux mesurés aux alentours de 2 ans. Tous les progrès réalisés par l’enfant sur une courte période semblent converger dans une même direction, celle de l’autonomie : une autonomie à la fois motrice, avec l’acquisition de la marche et de la capacité à se nourrir seul, et une autonomie psychique, avec l’acquisition de la conscience de soi et l’entrée en phase d’opposition. Dans ce cadre, le développement du langage permettrait à l’enfant d’exprimer son individualité à travers l’affirmation de ses goûts et de ses besoins. La capacité à exprimer des demandes verbales et l’acquisition de la conscience de soi ont d’ailleurs été les compétences approchant le plus des critères de validation d’hypothèse. De ce fait, nous pouvons nous demander si l’augmentation de la néophobie alimentaire aux alentours de 2 ans vise à protéger l’enfant d’un éventuel empoisonnement à un moment où il devient de plus en plus autonome et/ou si elle reflète simplement des tentatives d’individuation.
Article
Crickets have been promoted as a possible animal protein source in child feeding by enriching porridge with cricket powder due to its nutritional contribution and affordability. The aim of this study was to develop a nutrient-dense cereal- cricket porridge suitable for school feeding programmes in Kenya and determine its safety and acceptability in comparison to cereal and cereal-milk porridges. Porridge flours containing maize and millet (MM), maize, millet and milk powder (M10) or maize, millet and cricket powder (C5) were processed by extrusion cooking based on nutritional requirements of children aged 3–5 years. Microbial and aflatoxin safety was determined using standard methods. Caregivers (n = 73) evaluated the sensory attributes of the porridges using a seven-point hedonic scale while consumer acceptability by children (n = 138) was evaluated in a randomized parallel intervention study over four weeks. The children were served 300 ml of either MM, M10 or C5 porridge during school days for four weeks. Daily porridge consumption quantities were taken with consumption of >75% of the porridge being rated highly acceptable, 50–75% moderately acceptable and < 50% least acceptable. The results showed that the developed porridge flours contributed essential macro- and micronutrients for 3–5 years old children. They were safe for human consumption with all assessed microbes being below the acceptable limits and no aflatoxins detected. M10 porridge had the most preferred colour (6.4) and taste (5.5) by the caregivers. Overall, the caregivers preferred M10 and MM, however, all the porridges including C5 registered overall acceptability scores of ≥5 (Liked very much). Among the children, acceptability of the different types of porridge increased from week 1 to 4. Based on the proportion of children who consumed >75% of the serving, acceptance of MM increased from 98% in week 1 to 100% in week 4, M10 increased from 91% to 100% while C5 increased from 55% to 70% over the same period. Only 5% of the children recorded <50% acceptance of C5 porridge in the fourth week compared to 15% at week 1. The study shows that crickets can be used to develop nutritious, porridge with considerable acceptability compared to conventionally consumed porridges. The study also shows that children can develop a liking for the less familiar food with continued exposure over time.
Article
Infants' olfactory experience begins before birth and extends after birth through milk and complementary foods. Until now, studies on the effects of chemosensory experience in utero and/or through human milk focused on experimentally controlled exposure to only one target food bearing a specific odor quality and administered in sizeable amounts. The present study aimed to assess whether early olfactory experience effect was measurable in everyday conditions of maternal food intake during pregnancy and lactation, and of infant intake at weaning, leading to expose the infant to corresponding odors as fetus, neonate, and infant up to 8 and 12 months of age. Infants’ early food exposures were assessed by asking mothers to fill out diaries about their food consumption during pregnancy and breastfeeding, and about their infant’s consumption during complementary feeding. To test odor liking, odorants representing a priori pleasant and unpleasant food odors, as well as odorless stimuli, were presented. The infant’s exploratory behavior toward odorized bottles and non-odorized control bottles was measured in terms of mouthing duration, which is thought to reflect attraction and/or appetence. At age 8 months only, positive correlations were found between liking of some unpleasant odors and early exposure to these odors through mother’s diet. No correlations were found between infants’ liking of the pleasant odors and early exposures to the foods bearing these odors. This study highlights that early exposure to unpleasant food odors may increase subsequent liking (or reduce subsequent dislike) of these food odors at least until the age of 8 months.
Article
Full-text available
Background: Insufficient consumption of fruits and vegetables in childhood increases the risk of future non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular disease. Testing the effects of interventions to increase consumption of fruit and vegetables, including those focused on specific child-feeding strategies or broader multicomponent interventions targeting the home or childcare environment is required to assess the potential to reduce this disease burden. Objectives: To assess the effectiveness, cost effectiveness and associated adverse events of interventions designed to increase the consumption of fruit, vegetables or both amongst children aged five years and under. Search methods: We searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase and two clinical trials registries to identify eligible trials on 25 January 2020. We searched Proquest Dissertations and Theses in November 2019. We reviewed reference lists of included trials and handsearched three international nutrition journals. We contacted authors of included trials to identify further potentially relevant trials. Selection criteria: We included randomised controlled trials, including cluster-randomised controlled trials and cross-over trials, of any intervention primarily targeting consumption of fruit, vegetables or both among children aged five years and under, and incorporating a dietary or biochemical assessment of fruit or vegetable consumption. Two review authors independently screened titles and abstracts of identified papers; a third review author resolved disagreements. Data collection and analysis: Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risks of bias of included trials; a third review author resolved disagreements. Due to unexplained heterogeneity, we used random-effects models in meta-analyses for the primary review outcomes where we identified sufficient trials. We calculated standardised mean differences (SMDs) to account for the heterogeneity of fruit and vegetable consumption measures. We conducted assessments of risks of bias and evaluated the quality of evidence (GRADE approach) using Cochrane procedures. Main results: We included 80 trials with 218 trial arms and 12,965 participants. Fifty trials examined the impact of child-feeding practices (e.g. repeated food exposure) in increasing child vegetable intake. Fifteen trials examined the impact of parent nutrition education only in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. Fourteen trials examined the impact of multicomponent interventions (e.g. parent nutrition education and preschool policy changes) in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. Two trials examined the effect of a nutrition education intervention delivered to children in increasing child fruit and vegetable intake. One trial examined the impact of a child-focused mindfulness intervention in increasing vegetable intake. We judged 23 of the 80 included trials as free from high risks of bias across all domains. Performance, detection and attrition bias were the most common domains judged at high risk of bias for the remaining trials. There is low-quality evidence that child-feeding practices versus no intervention may have a small positive effect on child vegetable consumption, equivalent to an increase of 5.30 grams as-desired consumption of vegetables (SMD 0.50, 95% CI 0.29 to 0.71; 19 trials, 2140 participants; mean post-intervention follow-up = 8.3 weeks). Multicomponent interventions versus no intervention has a small effect on child consumption of fruit and vegetables (SMD 0.32, 95% CI 0.09 to 0.55; 9 trials, 2961 participants; moderate-quality evidence; mean post-intervention follow-up = 5.4 weeks), equivalent to an increase of 0.34 cups of fruit and vegetables a day. It is uncertain whether there are any short-term differences in child consumption of fruit and vegetables in meta-analyses of trials examining parent nutrition education versus no intervention (SMD 0.13, 95% CI -0.02 to 0.28; 11 trials, 3050 participants; very low-quality evidence; mean post-intervention follow-up = 13.2 weeks). We were unable to pool child nutrition education interventions in meta-analysis; both trials reported a positive intervention effect on child consumption of fruit and vegetables (low-quality evidence). Very few trials reported long-term effectiveness (6 trials), cost effectiveness (1 trial) or unintended adverse consequences of interventions (2 trials), limiting our ability to assess these outcomes. Trials reported receiving governmental or charitable funds, except for four trials reporting industry funding. Authors' conclusions: Despite identifying 80 eligible trials of various intervention approaches, the evidence for how to increase children's fruit and vegetable consumption remains limited in terms of quality of evidence and magnitude of effect. Of the types of interventions identified, there was moderate-quality evidence that multicomponent interventions probably lead to, and low-quality evidence that child-feeding practice may lead to, only small increases in fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged five years and under. It is uncertain whether parent nutrition education or child nutrition education interventions alone are effective in increasing fruit and vegetable consumption in children aged five years and under. Our confidence in effect estimates for all intervention approaches, with the exception of multicomponent interventions, is limited on the basis of the very low to low-quality evidence. Long-term follow-up of at least 12 months is required and future research should adopt more rigorous methods to advance the field. This is a living systematic review. Living systematic reviews offer a new approach to review updating, in which the review is continually updated, incorporating relevant new evidence as it becomes available. Please refer to the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews for the current status of this review.
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It is proposed here that there is a sensitive period in the first two to three years of life during which humans acquire a basic knowledge of what foods are safe to eat. In support of this, it is shown that willingness to eat a wide variety of foods is greatest between the ages of one and two years, and then declines to low levels by age four. These data also show that children who are introduced to solids unusually late have a narrower diet breadth throughout childhood, perhaps because the duration of the sensitive period has been shortened. By reducing the costs associated with learning, a sensitive period for food learning should be adaptive for any omnivore (including early humans) that remains in the same environment throughout its life.
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Using standard test construction techniques, we developed a paper and pencil measure of the trait of food neophobia, which was defined as a reluctance to eat and/or avoidance of novel foods. The resulting 10-item test was found to have satisfactory test-retest reliability and internal consistency. Three behavioral validation studies demonstrated that test scores predicted behavior in laboratory food selection situations. Scores on the measure were found to be correlated with trait anxiety, age, the Experience Seeking subscale of the Sensation Seeking Scale, general neophobia, and general familiarity and experience with unusual foods. Scores were not related to gender or to finickiness.
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Research in humans and animal models suggests that acceptance of solid foods by infants during weaning is enhanced by early experiences with flavor variety. We tested the hypotheses that the acceptance of novel foods by formula-fed infants could be facilitated by providing the infants with a variety of flavors at the time when beikost is first introduced and that, contrary to medical lore, infants who had previously consumed fruit would be less likely to reject vegetables when first introduced than would infants without such an experience. The infants' acceptance of a novel vegetable (puréed carrot) and a novel meat (puréed chicken) was evaluated after a 9-d exposure period in 3 groups of infants, some of whom had previously consumed fruit. During the home-exposure period, one group was fed only carrots, the target vegetable; a second group was fed only potatoes, a vegetable that differed in flavor from carrots; and a third group was fed a variety of vegetables that did not include carrots. Infants fed either carrots or a variety of vegetables, but not those fed potatoes, ate significantly more of the carrots after the exposure period. Exposure to a variety of vegetables also facilitated the acceptance of the novel food, puréed chicken, and daily experience with fruit enhanced the infants' initial acceptance of carrots. These findings are the first experimental evidence to indicate that exposure to a variety of flavors enhances acceptance of novel foods in human infants.
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Consumers' variety seeking tendency (intrinsic desire for variety) is recognized as an important characteristic that influences consumers' food choice behavior. Empirical studies in economics and marketing have not specifically focused on this consumer characteristic, but instead have approached the issue from the overt behavior side. Given the great many factors that may underlie variation in behavior, intrinsic desire for variety cannot be validly derived directly from observed behavior. Instead, a measure specifically tapping this consumer characteristic is required. In this paper a scale (VARSEEK) for measuring consumers' variety seeking tendency with respect to foods is developed. The construct validity of this VARSEEK-scale is investigated extensively and managerial implications are discussed. Copyright 1992 by Oxford University Press.
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Understanding "what" consumers want and "why" are two of the most significant hurdles faced by any business creating products for consumers. Properly conducted sensory research experiments can provide answers to these questions and more. Sensory evaluation provides strategic information at various stages in the product lifecycle including the front end of innovation, new product development, product optimization, marketplace audits, and quality control among others. Sensory research can help identify issues that contribute to a product's success (or failure). This fourth edition draws on the author's practical experience in partnering with business associates in marketing and development teams to bring creativity and innovation to consumer driven product development in today's global business environment. The field of sensory science continues to grow and is now recognized as a strategic source of information for many Fortune 500 companies. Many scientists working in this field depend on the core textbooks such as this one to enhance their working knowledge base with practical business applications. * Appeals to sensory professionals in both in academia and business * Methods to integrate sensory descriptive information and consumer assessment * Coordinate marketing messages and imagery with the product's sensory experience.
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Publication Inra prise en compte dans l'analyse bibliométrique des publications scientifiques mondiales sur les Fruits, les Légumes et la Pomme de terre. Période 2000-2012. http://prodinra.inra.fr/record/256699
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This research examined variables associated with young children's feeding problems. Mothers of 79 children ranging in age from 2 years to nearly 7 years completed extensive questionnaires with items pertaining chiefly to their children's feeding histories and past and current eating habits, their own (mothers') practices related to their children's eating habits, and the children's psychological problems. In addition, the mothers completed questionnaires supplying information about their own food likes and dislikes as well as those of their children and husbands. Children whose eating behavior was relatively problematic differed from other children in our study in several respects. They had less exposure to novel foods, and they were more likely to be prodded and rewarded to eat and punished for not eating. In addition, they had higher scores on 3 of the variables indicative of behavioral/psychological problems: aggressive behavior, toileting difficulties, and fearfulness. Finally, the problem eaters were more likely to have developed a conditioned taste aversion.
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Food likes and dislikes and snacking patterns of 44 children were examined during the preschool period and followed up during early elementary school years. Home interviews with the children's mothers revealed that most considered their child's diet nutritionally adequate. This was borne out by analysis of food intake records, which showed that at both periods children's nutrient intakes were very good. Meat, especially chicken, was the favorite food of the children—named by 40% (preschool period) and 50% (elementary period)—followed by pizza and spaghetti. Snacks provided proportionately more calories than protein, and there was a tendency for the children to consume less food as snacks as they became older. This study points out the importance of teaching the foundations of good nutritional practices early in life and illustrates that nutrition education should be aimed at the whole family.
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The vegetable preferences and dislikes of 36 children, aged 41 to 65 months, who were in attendance at a day care center, were studied. Each child rated 12 vegetables on a 3-point facial hedonic scale. Children rated vegetables from 3 types of stimuli: the names, photographs, and tastes of the vegetables. The children gave consistent ratings over time. The photographs were the most satisfactory stimuli for the ratings. The children preferred and were best able to identify the vegetables frequently served in their homes and at the day care center. The children disliked unfamiliar vegetables and rarely identified them. The mothers used the hedonic scale to express the children's preferences for vegetables. For most vegetables, the mothers were unable to give ratings similar to those given by their children. © 1980, Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. All rights reserved.
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Discusses the problem of studying food selection; genetically determined aspects of food selection in rats and humans; how learning about food occurs; the conflict between neophobia and neophilia; the relations between familiarity, preference and early experience; the concept of humans as omnivores; and the importance of the idea of cuisine in assessing the development and maintenance of food preferences. Implications for changing food habits, for studying the cultural and behavioral significance of flavors (e.g., spices), and for understanding the paradox of widespread preferences for unpalatable foods are also considered. (90 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
How children acquire preferences for added sugar and salt was examined by investigating the effects of repeated exposure to 1 of 3 versions of a novel food (sweetened, salty, or plain tofu) on children's preference for those and other similar foods. Participants were 39 4- and 5-yr-olds assigned to taste only 1 of 3 flavored versions 15 times over several weeks. Preferences for all versions were obtained before, during, and after the exposure series. Preference increased for the exposed version only. Experience with 1 flavored version did not produce generalized liking for all 3 versions of the food. Experience with 1 version (flavored or plain) actually produced a decline in preference for the other version. This was true whether children had experience with plain or flavored versions of the food. The acquired preference was restricted to the particular food/flavor complex; through exposure, children seemed to learn whether it was appropriate to add salt or sugar to a particular food. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Die besonderen ernährungs- und entwicklungsphysiologischen Anforderungen an die Säuglingsernährung werden in dem praktisch bewährten “Ernährungsplan für das 1. Lebensjahr” berücksichtigt. Auch kulturell bedingte Ernährungsgewohnheiten und das aktuelle Produktangebot sind von Bedeutung. In den ersten 4–6 Lebensmonaten ist ausschließliches Stillen die optimale Ernährung. Industriell hergestellte Säuglingsanfangsnahrung als Muttermilchersatz unterliegt umfassenden nährstoffbezogenen toxikologischen und hygienischen Vorschriften. In der Beikost ab dem 5.–7. Lebensmonat werden nur wenige nährstoffreiche Lebensmittel in gut aufeinander abgestimmten Mahlzeiten benötigt. Zusätzliche Flüssigkeitszufuhr wird mit zunehmendem Beikostanteil erforderlich. Die Supplementierung von Vitamin K und D und von Fluorid wird generell empfohlen. Gegen Ende des 1. Lebensjahres gehen die Mahlzeiten der Säuglingsernährung in die Familienernährung über. The specific nutritional and developmental requirements of infants have been considered with the “Dietary Schedule for 1st year of life” in Germany. Also, the cultural background of dietary habits and the current food market for infants is respected. Exclusive breastfeeding is the optimal nutrition during the first 4–6 months of life. Nutritional toxicological and hygienic requirements for infant formula to be used as breastmilk substitute are distinctly specified. Beikost starts from the 5th–7th month of age using a small variety of nutritious foods in well balanced meals. Additional fluid intake becomes necessary when the beikost proportion increases. Supplemental Vitamin K, D and fluoride is generally recommended. Around the end of the 1st year of life, the transition to the family diet takes place.
Article
This study has evaluated the impact of food choices at 2–3 years old on food preferences later in life, by following up the same subjects. Early preferences were estimated through recordings of food choices conducted in a nursery canteen in children aged 2–3, from 1982 to 1999. The children were free to choose the composition of their lunch from among a varied offering of eight dishes. The same subjects (n=341) were contacted in 2001–2002 and so their ages varied from 17–22 (n=91), 13–16 (n=68), 8–12 (n=99) to 4–7 (n=83). Their present preference for the 80 foods most frequently presented at the nursery canteen was assessed through a questionnaire. Five food categories were studied: vegetables, animal products, cheeses, starchy foods and combined foods. The ranking of preference for the different food categories changed especially after puberty. However, regressions performed by food category indicated that for most categories, individual present preference was highly linked to individual preference at 2–3 years old. The link was the stronger for cheeses, followed to a lesser extent by animal products and vegetables. Present preferences increased with age for vegetables and they decreased with age for animal products only in females (to a lesser extent, they decreased with age for starchy foods and cheeses). Analyses by specific foods confirmed the global analysis. Individual present preference was linked to individual early preference for all mature cheeses and for 50% of the foods for other categories: most of these items were strongly flavoured. This study showed that preferences were stable from 2- to 3-year-old until young adulthood and that some changes in preference occurred during adolescence.
Article
Previous studies showed that (1) breastfeeding and (2) higher food variety early in weaning can increase acceptance of new foods for the next few days. Here we measure, in two European regions, effects of breast or formula feeding and experience with different levels of vegetable variety early in weaning on new food acceptance during two months following the start of weaning. Breast- or formula-fed infants received their first vegetable (carrot purée) and, over the next 9 days, either carrots every day; 3 vegetables changed every 3 days; or 3 vegetables changed daily. On the 12th and 23rd days they received new vegetable purées, zucchini-tomato then peas. Several weeks later, they received 2 more new foods, meat and fish. Acceptance of new foods was measured by quantities eaten and by liking ratings. Breastfeeding and variety early in weaning increased new food acceptance. Frequency of change was more effective than number of vegetables fed. The combination of breastfeeding and high variety produced greatest new food intake. This effect persisted 2 months later. These interventions correspond to differences in milk and vegetable feeding observed in the regions studied suggesting that the results have practical consequences for acceptance of new foods.
Article
Objective To compare children's food preferences longitudinally and identify factors related to food preferences.Design Mothers completed the Food Preference Questionnaire for children at 2 to 3 years of age (T1), 4 years (T2), and 8 years (T3) and for themselves at T1 and T3 Both groups completed a Food Neophobia Scale at T3.Subjects 70 child/mother pairs who had participated continuously in the longitudinal study.Statistical analyses performed Changes in food preferences over time were tested with paired t tests and correlations. Consistency percentages were calculated by summing the consistent matches (like/like) for each food between two time periods. Similarly, concordance percentages were calculated for child/mother pairs by summing the concordant matches for each food. General linear models were developed to identify influences on children's food preferences.Results Although children liked most foods, the number of liked foods did not change significantly during the 5 to 5.7 years of the study. The strongest predictors of the number of foods liked at age 8 years (R2=0.74) were the number liked at 4 years (P
Article
Taste preferences for sucrose solutions and water were studied in 199 human infants at birth and 140 of the same infants at 6 months of age. Taste preferences were determined by allowing ad libitum ingestion of sucrose solutions and water during brief presentations. At 6 months, 7-day dietary records for the infants were obtained from the mothers. According to the dietary records, many infants (27%) were fed sweetened water (water plus table sugar, honey or Karo syrup) by their mothers. Compared with infants not fed sweetened water, the infants fed sweetened water ingested more sucrose solution but not more water during the brief taste tests conducted at 6 months of age. Those infants not fed sweetened water exhibited a diminished intake of sucrose solution relative to water at 6 months of age. In contrast, infants fed sweetened water at 6 months maintained the same level of intake of sucrose solution relative to water as existed at birth. The data obtained also revealed relationships between intake of taste solutions and whether the infant was breast or bottle fed, whether the infant was black or white, and birth weight of the infant. None of these factors interacted with the sweet water feeding history variable. These data suggest that the experience of consuming sweetened water maintains the preference for sucrose solutions whereas an absence of this experience results in a depression of preference. Experimental studies are needed to investigate this phenomenon further.
Article
In order to construct a behavioral neophobia measure for children, we had 5-, 8- and 11-year-olds choose from ten novel and ten familiar foods which ones they were willing to taste. Meanwhile, their parents indicated their own willingness to taste each of the foods, predicted the children's willingness, estimated the number of times they and their children had eaten the foods, and completed trait measures of food neophobia for themselves and the children. The children's levels of behavioral neophobia were significantly related to both their levels of trait neophobia and their parents' predictions of their willingness to eat the foods (r = 0.38 and 0.34, respectively; p < 0.001). In addition, children's and parents' behavioral and trait neophobia scores were significantly related (both r = 0.31; p < 0.001). Finally, parents but not children were more neophobic with respect to foods of animal (vs. vegetable) origin.
Article
To examine the effects of dietary experience and milk feeding regimen on acceptance of their first vegetable by 4- to 6-month-old infants. Longitudinal study, of 26-days duration, observing infants aged 4 to 6 months at the start of the study. Random assignment to treatments, within-subject control. General community in a medium-sized midwestern town. Thirty-six infants and their mothers. Subjects were solicited through birth records and advertisements in local newspapers. Infants were randomly assigned to be fed one vegetable on 10 occasions, either salted or unsalted peas or green beans, for a 10-day period. Infant intake of the vegetable consumed during the 10-day exposure period; intake of salted and unsalted versions: (1) before the 10-day exposure period, (2) immediately after the exposure period; and (3) after a 1-week period of delay. Intake of a control food was also measured before and after repeated consumption of the vegetable. Adult ratings of the infants' videotaped responses during test feedings were also obtained before and after the exposure period. After 10 opportunities to consume the vegetable, all infants significantly increased their intake (P < .001). Although they did not differ initially, infants fed breast milk showed greater increases in intake of the vegetable after exposure and had an overall greater level of intake than formula-fed infants. Adult ratings of the infants' nonverbal responses correlated positively with infant intake. Infants increase their acceptance (reflected both in changes in intake and in behavioral response) of a novel food after repeated dietary exposure to that food. Relative to formula-feeding, breast-feeding may facilitate the acceptance of solid foods.
Article
The aims were to study food and general neophobia in Swedish families, age and gender differences and familial resemblance. Also, the relationships between the level of food neophobia of individual family members and earlier experience with and the likelihood of future tasting of specific foods were investigated. A group of randomly selected families (nation-wide, stratified, N=1593) with children age 7-17 years were invited and 722 participated. The results are based on the Food and General Neophobia Scales and an ad hoc Food Frequency Questionnaire. The overall levels of food and general neophobia were low. Fathers showed significantly higher total food neophobia scores than did the mothers, and children were significantly more neophobic than their parents. The younger children had higher food and general neophobia scores than the older children. Nine-year-old boys had higher food neophobia scores than 9-year-old girls. Some evidence was found for familial resemblance with respect to both food and general neophobia. Gatekeepers' (the person who takes the greatest responsibility for food purchase and preparation) self-reported serving of the foods and mothers', fathers' and children's self-reported consumption of foods were correlated with their respective levels of food neophobia. The strongly neophobic subjects in all groups of family members were less likely to have eaten the listed foods than were the less neophobic. Thus, food neophobia seems to be related to everyday food choice.
Article
The number of feedings needed to increase intake of a novel target food was investigated, and whether exposure effects generalized to other foods in a sample of 4 to 7-month-old infants (N=39). Other foods varied in their similarity to the target food, including the same food prepared by another manufacturer, similar foods (other fruits for infants receiving a target fruit) and a different food (e. g. vegetables for infants receiving a target fruit). Infants were fed the target food once a day for 10 days. Intake was used to indicate acceptance. Results revealed that exposure dramatically increased infants' intake of the target food, from an average of 35-72 g. Intake of the different food was unchanged. Same and similar food intake increased with target food exposure. Intake of the target, same and similar foods nearly doubled to 60 g after one exposure to the target food. These rapid increases in intake contrast the slower changes seen in young children. Results for the other foods suggest that infants may have difficulty discriminating among many foods.
Article
Little detailed information is available on feeding practices of infants in Europe. The Euro-Growth Study is a longitudinal, observational, multicenter study of milk feeding, the introduction of complementary solid foods, and vitamin and mineral supplementation. Current practice is compared with international feeding recommendations. Healthy term infants (n = 2,245) were recruited at birth or during the first month of life. Dietary records were completed at the ages 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 30, and 36 months by semiquantitative dietary recall. At the age of I month, 52% of the infants were exclusively breast fed and 26% were exclusively formula fed. At the age of 9 months, 18% of infants were fed only cow's milk. At the ages of 3, 4, and 5 months, 50%, 67%, and 95% of infants were fed solid foods, respectively. Feeding practices vary considerably throughout Europe. High rates of breast-feeding initiation are found in Umea, Sweden, and in Athens, Greece; and low rates in Dublin, Ireland, in Toulouse, France, and in Glasgow, United Kingdom. The use of cow's milk as the main milk drink before the age of 12 months is still common in certain European centers.
Article
To compare children's food preferences longitudinally and identify factors related to food preferences. Mothers completed the Food Preference Questionnaire for children at 2 to 3 years of age (T1), 4 years (T2), and 8 years (T3) and for themselves at T1 and T3. Both groups completed a Food Neophobia Scale at T3. 70 child/mother pairs who had participated continuously in the longitudinal study. Changes in food preferences over time were tested with paired t tests and correlations. Consistency percentages were calculated by summing the consistent matches (like/like) for each food between two time periods. Similarly, concordance percentages were calculated for child/mother pairs by summing the concordant matches for each food. General linear models were developed to identify influences on children's food preferences. Although children liked most foods, the number of liked foods did not change significantly during the 5 to 5.7 years of the study. The strongest predictors of the number of foods liked at age 8 years (R2=0.74) were the number liked at 4 years (P<.0001) and the food neophobia score (P=.0003). Newly tasted foods were more likely to be accepted between T1 and T2 than T2 and T3. Mothers' and children's food preferences were significantly but moderately related. Foods disliked by mothers tended not to be offered to children. The important role of children's early food preferences is confirmed by this study. Mothers influence children via their own preferences, which may limit foods offered to children.
Article
To determine the prevalence of infants and toddlers who were considered picky eaters, the predictors of picky eater status and its association with energy and nutrient intakes, food group use, and the number of times that caregivers offered a new food before deciding their child disliked it. Cross-sectional survey of households with infants and toddlers (ages four to 24 months) was conducted. National random sample of 3,022 infants and toddlers. Data included caregiver's socioeconomic and demographic information, infants' and toddlers' food intake (24-hour recall), ethnicity, and caregivers' reports of specified times that new foods were offered before deciding the child disliked it. For picky and nonpicky eaters, t tests were used to determine significant mean differences in energy and nutrient intakes. Logistic regression was used to predict picky eater status, and chi(2) tests were used for differences in the specified number of times that new foods were offered. The percentage of children identified as picky eaters by their caregivers increased from 19% to 50% from four to 24 months. Picky eaters were reported at all ages for both sexes, all ethnicities, and all ranges of household incomes. On a day, both picky and nonpicky eaters met or exceeded current age-appropriate energy and dietary recommendations. Older children were more likely to be picky. Those in the higher weight-for-age percentiles were less likely to be picky. The highest number of times that caregivers offered a new food before deciding the child disliked it was three to five. Dietetics professionals need to be aware that caregivers who perceive their child as a picky eater are evident across gender, ethnicity, and household incomes. When offering a new food, mothers need to provide many more repeated exposures (eg, eight to 15 times) to enhance acceptance of that food than they currently do.
Article
The objective was to show patterns of food selection by 2- to 3-y-old children for a wide variety of foods in a self-service cafeteria and to assess the effect of individual variables (gender, BMI, mode of feeding after birth and rank in sibship). In a nursery self-service canteen, food choices at lunch made by children (n=418, 24-36 mo; 109 observations per child on average) were recorded by trained assistants who monitored portion size. An offer of eight dishes (animal products, starchy foods, combination dishes, vegetables and dairy products), excluding dessert-type foods, was proposed. Choice level was calculated for each food. Analysis of variance was used to compare choices for the various foods and to assess the effect of the individual variables. The choice of a food largely depended upon its nature: animal products, starchy foods and their combinations were widely chosen, whereas vegetables were not often selected; the choice for dairy products depended upon the type. The mode of preparation of the food influenced its choice. Segmenting products were identified; however, except for cheeses, a given child did not refuse an entire food category. Children's characteristics did not explain the choice variability. At the age of 2 to 3 y, children preferentially choose animal products and starchy foods and avoid vegetables; the high individual variability of their food choices could be related to previous food experiences.
Article
This study describes infant feeding practices among mothers from two European regions from the perspective of early sensory experiences. Two groups of mothers, one in Dijon , France (n=139), the other in Aalen , Germany (n=157) with infants aged 4-9 months were interviewed using a structured questionnaire. Clear between- and within-group differences in weaning practices were found, particularly with respect to breastfeeding duration (Aalen>Dijon) and exposure to flavour variety early in weaning (Dijon>Aalen). By 4 months, 65% of infants in Dijon and 20% in Aalen, had received their first non-milk, solid foods. Before beginning to wean, 39% of mothers in Dijon offered their infant a variety of foods "just for a taste". This was the case for only 25% of mothers in Aalen. During the first 28 days of weaning, infants in Dijon were offered a greater number of vegetables compared to those in Aalen and more frequent changes from day-to-day. Thus, while Aalen infants were likely to be exposed for a longer period to different sensory experiences via breast milk, Dijon infants tended to be exposed to a greater flavour variety during the first weeks of weaning.
Inventaire d'anxiété e ´tat-trait, forme Y Sensory evaluation practices
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Spielberger, C. D. (1993). Inventaire d'anxiété e ´tat-trait, forme Y. Paris: Les Editions du Centre de Psychologie Appliqué. Stone, H., & Sidel, J. L. (2004). Sensory evaluation practices. Amsterdam: Elsevier Academic Press.
Exposure to different regimes of food variety influences the acceptance of new flavours by weanling infants
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Acquisition of food preferences and eating patterns in children
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