Article

Structural analysis of the Lupinus Mutabilis seed, its flour, concentrate, and isolate as well as their behavior when mixed with wheat flour

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Abstract

A description is made of the Lupinus mutabilis seed microstructure and its morphological changes, as a result of several physical (milling) and chemical procedures (alcohol, alkaline and acid treatments) used to obtain debittered and defatted lupin flour (lf), lupin protein concentrate (lpc), and lupin protein isolate (lpi). These changes were studied via light microscopy (LM), using both topographic (papanicolaou, generally employed for animal tissue identification), and cytochemical (Schiff reagent—Blue-Black Naphtol, PAS-BBN) techniques as well as scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). These techniques were also applied to the structural analysis of lf, lpc, lpi and mixtures of wheat flour (wf) with lf, lpc, and lpi for making the corresponding doughs. The flour produced after milling the L. mutabilis seed exhibited a large number of proteinaceous bodies surrounded by a cellular wall. The chemical treatments used for L. mutabilis concentrate and isolate obtention caused evident alterations in the microscopic appearance of the cellular walls, which ranged from an apparent thinning of the surface to an almost complete disruption of the structure, indicating that the protein enrichment procedure may influence the microstructural features. The lm analyses of the wf/lf, with lpc, and lpi mixtures for making doughs, showed that the gluten matrix of the dough is less interconnected in the wf–lf dough compared to wheat flour lupin concentrate and lupin isolates doughs, respectively, probably because of some conformational changes of lupin proteins originated by chemical procedures used.

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... El valor de proteínas siempre ha sido comparado con la soya, porque posee de 30-40 %, un considerable nivel de lisina (7.3 %) pero carece de aminoácidos sulfurados como la metionina y cisteína esenciales para la síntesis de queratina (Güenes-Vera et al., 2004). Sin embargo, los Lupinus presentan menor cantidad de inhibidores de tripsina, taninos, fitatos y saponinas que la soya. ...
... The value of proteins has always been compared with soy, since it possesses from 30 to 40 %, a considerable level of lysine (7.3 %) but it lacks of sulfur amino acids such as methionine and cysteine, which are essential for the synthesis of keratin (Güenes-Vera et al., 2004). ...
... Debido a su alto valor nutritivo en aminoácidos y ácidos grasos importantes para la dieta diaria, se ha elaborado harina a base de trigo y tarwi (Güenes-Vera et al., 2004), yogurt probiótico enriquecido con semilla de chocho (Castañeda et al., 2007). También se usa este grano en la acuicultura como alimento para peces (Glencross et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Lupinus mutabilis Sweet “Andean Lupin” has been a neglected and marginalized Andean crop since the last decades. This plant grows naturally in Peru and in other cases it is cultivated for its delicious seeds. Unfortunately, there are very few laboratory studies carried out on this plant and many of its benefits have not been studied or are in preliminary stages. So what is known comes from the ancestral knowledge of indigenous people who grow it (mainly from Peru and Bolivia). In order to disseminate the different properties of L. mutabilis, this review article focuses on the nutraceutical and medicinal potential benefits, aiming to arouse the interest of different countries in the study of this great scientific value species.
... Higher protein and carbohydrate contents increase firmness in bread products. These results are closely linked to results reported by Güemes et al. 42 They used microstructure studies of wheat flour doughs enriched with LF, LPC or LPI, and generated trough photomicrographs showing a progressive loss of interaction in the wheat gluten protein network with increasing lupin replacement levels. This compromises the bonds in the protein network since the wheat protein does not interact with the lupin protein and leads to empty spaces in the lupin-enriched bread products. ...
... This compromises the bonds in the protein network since the wheat protein does not interact with the lupin protein and leads to empty spaces in the lupin-enriched bread products. Rheological analyses in the same study 42 indicated that the rheological properties of the doughs were modified by increasing levels of LF, LPC or LPI. At higher replacement levels, however, the lupin protein does interact with the gluten protein network, modifying the protein structure. ...
... This effect should be larger as the concentration of lupin derivatives increased, resulting in smaller bread volumes. Güemez-Vera et al. 42 reported that addition of lupin derivatives avoid the formation of wheat flour gluten network changing its microstructure. 29 The increased volume observed here coincides with results reported by Fleming and Sosulski 46 for loaf bread containing one of three different legumes. ...
Article
BACKGROUND: A study was done to develop procedures for detoxifying Lupinus mutabilis seeds, and decreasing or eliminating yellow colour in derivatives from them. An evaluation was done of the effect of replacement of wheat flour with the detoxified and decolorized L. mutabilis derivatives on the quality properties of three types of bread products (loaf, bun and sweet). RESULTS: Physicochemical and nutritional analyses coincided with previous reports. The Lupinus protein concentrate and isolate had lower phenolic compound and oligosaccharide concentrations than the untreated seeds. Amino acid composition was determined for wheat flour (WF), L. mutabilis defatted and detoxified flour (LF), L. mutabilis protein concentrate (LPC) and L. mutabilis protein isolate (LPI). The resulting values were used to calculate the replacement levels at which lysine content would be increased significantly in WF–lupin blends. Replacement levels were: LF (5%, 10%, 15% and 20%); LPC (2.5%, 5%, 7.5% and 10%); LPI (0.5%, 1%, 2%, 3% and 4%). CONCLUSION: The detoxifying treatments employed decreased non-nutritional and toxic compounds present in original lupin seed. use of citric acid (1%) reduced yellow coloration in LF and LPC. Copyright
... Nonetheless, the incorporation of other proteins to gluten matrix affects the rheological dough properties and baking quality of bread. Changes in dough systems due to the use of protein-like whey protein concentrate (Indrani et al. 2007;Asghar et al. 2009;Ammar et al. 2011), soy protein isolate (Maforimbo et al. 2008;Roccia et al. 2009;Bhargava et al. 2012) had been reported, where the use of non-gluten-forming proteins changes dough rheology and bread textural characteristics (Güemes-Vera et al. 2004;Paraskevopoulou et al. 2010;Mohammed et al. 2012). ...
... Similar effect has been reported for other proteins concentrates on dough quality as a result of changes produced were due to the rapid breakdown of gluten after optimum dough development (Kadharmestan et al. 1998;Constandache 2005;Asghar et al. 2009;Mohammed et al. 2012). Lupinus protein particle was entrapped within the gluten network structure, leading to the disruption of dough structure (Güemes-Vera et al. 2004). The presence of Jatropha and Lupinus protein concentrates could compete with gluten for the available water, increasing hardness but decreasing cohesiveness of dough. ...
... Viscoelastic properties of wheat flour dough are strongly influenced by the balance of components within the gluten and their interaction with water will determine tacking behavior and the degree of dough stickiness. Changes in dough characteristics in addition of other non-gluten-forming proteins may be attributed to dilution of gluten-forming proteins causing dough weakening (Güemes-Vera et al. 2004;Paraskevopoulou et al. 2010;Mohammed et al. 2012). As a consequence, lower dough adhesiveness was observed with Lupinus or Jatropha protein concentrates replacing wheat flour. ...
Article
The effect of Lupinus and Jatropha protein concentrates (PC) in dough rheology and white bread texture was determined by a d-optimal mixture design approach. Incorporation of Lupinus PC decreased dough texture profile analysis cohesiveness and increased hardness and resilience. Dough adhesion force, adhesiveness and stringiness decreased with the incorporation of PC, reducing dough extensibility as well (with no effect on maximum resistance and extension work). Lupinus affected markedly dough textural and rheological properties than Jatropha PC. In bread formulation optimization, the use of Lupinus PC (12%) and Jatropha PC (12%) and Lupinus/Jatropha protein isolate (6.4/6.4%) resulting in a tougher bread texture and lower weight and volume. Nonetheless, no difference in specific volume indicated different bread crumb development. Crumb quality resulted more affected with Lupinus PC than with Jatropha-containing samples. Jatropha PC use in baked food seems to be promising since there was no major effect on bread quality.
... This behavior is justified by the fact that the quantity and quality of gluten formed were lower because WF proteins would be diluted and possibly there would be a mechanical effect of disruption of the gluten network caused by the particles of LI (10). Güemes-Vera et al. (2004), who carried out a structural analysis of dough made from blends of wheat flour with lupine flour as well as concentrate and lupine protein isolates, reported that the vegetable protein present in the mixture resulted in disruption of the structure of the dough. ...
... The degree of softening or drop dough consistency (So, Table 3) was higher (p <0.05) in the dough made with flour mixture and was even higher in the dough with BG added. So is an indicator of the kneading resistance; thus, it was concluded that the flour mixture dough was less tolerant to mechanical action, which could be explained by the interruption of the dough structure caused by the presence of the LI proteins and the weakening of the gluten formed, as reported by Güemes-Vera et al.(2004). The addition of the hydrocolloid led to a larger decrease in consistency, which can be related to the decrease in the DT and S. Similar results were reported by Wang et al. (2002) who evaluated the addition of different fibers to bread dough. ...
Article
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The effect of protein lupine isolate (LI) and addition of brea gum (BG) on a basic bread formulation is described. The major objective of this research was to evaluate the influence of the addition of LI on the quality and quantity of the proteins of fresh bread with BG. Protein quality was determinate by the Chemical Score method corrected for protein digestibility (CSCD%). The bread dough characteristics were determined by farinograph and alveograph. Fresh bread characterization was performed by measuring the physical parameters and evaluating the crumb structure. The effect of LI and BG on available lysine, the loss of available lysine ratio, and the chemical composition of the breads were also determined. The addition of LI on the bread formulation improved the protein content and the CSCD% of lysine. The dough with LI was less resistant to prolonged kneading and less manageable. With BG addition, the dough became stickier. The quality of fresh bread was affected by the addition of LI: the fresh bread had lower specific volume and more heterogeneous crumbs than that of the control group. The addition of BG did not influence the quality of the bread made with the mixed flour, but it had a positive effect on the loss of available lysine.
... Lupin protein concentrates and isolates have been utilized for bread fortification by a number of investigators (Mubarak, 2001;Güémes-Vera et al., 2004Paraskevopoulou et al., 2010). Mubarak (2001) studied the effect of addition of products, such as lupin seed flour, two lupin protein isolates or lupin protein concentrate, on the rheological characteristics of dough and the physical, chemical, nutritional and sensory properties of bread. ...
... Addition of lupin products had variable effects on bread product firmness and volume, depending on the type of bread formulation as well as the lupin derivative added. These results are closely linked to results reported by Güémes-Vera et al. (2004), who performed structural analysis of dough originating from mixtures of wheat flour with lupin flour as well as with lupin protein concentrates and isolates and noted that the presence of the legume protein in the mixture led to the disruption of dough structure. Photomicrographs of the dough showed a progressive loss of interaction in the wheat gluten protein network with increasing lupin supplementation levels. ...
Article
This chapter explores the functional and physicochemical properties of pulse proteins. A common feature of pulses such as dry pea, chickpea, lentil, or the various types of dry bean, is their high protein content. The proteins of pulses are mainly storage proteins belonging to the groups of albumins, globulins, and glutelins, with the salt-soluble globulins constituting the main proteins found in the seeds. There are also a number of proteins, other than the water-soluble storage proteins, mainly enzymes, enzyme inhibitors, and lectins, which constitute part of the defensive mechanism of the seed but are considered as antinutritional factors for the human diet. The chapter discusses the functional properties of pulse proteins that include solubility, water- and oil-absorption capacity, Emulsifying and foaming properties, and protein gelatin characteristics.
... Previous studies have analyzed the substitution of up to 20% wheat flour by quinoa based on good dough stability, loaf volume, structure, texture, taste, and final color (Chauhan et al., 1992;Morita et al., 2001;Stikic et al., 2012). On the other hand, the protein content, and the improvement of the amino acid balance of baked products have been extensively studied over the last decades (Deshpande et al., 1983;Dervas et al., 1999;Güemes-Vera et al., 2004). However, recent research related to the mentioned lupine species (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) gives special attention to the chemical composition and nutritional characteristics (Córdova-Ramos et al., 2020;Romero-Espinoza et al., 2020;Villacrés et al., 2020) but scarce studies have focused on the development of bakery goods. ...
Article
Bread is the main important food product worldwide. In this study, eleven bread formulations were developed by partial substitution of wheat flour with quinoa and tarwi flours, to evaluate the effect on the rheological and pasting properties of mixtures, as well as on the physicochemical and textural properties of the final product. Partial substitution with quinoa flour generated similar thermomechanical and textural properties in the dough, and similar bread technological characteristics related to the control bread (100% wheat). In the case of tarwi, the increase in the concentration of this legume showed a negative effect on the bread quality parameters (specific volume, crumb porosity, textural properties, etc.). A negative technological impact of high percentages of wheat flour substitution by the mixture of both Andean flours was found, but it was contrasted with a positive effect on nutritional quality, particularly evidenced by a high content of proteins and dietary fiber. An optimal formulation considering technological and nutritional quality was obtained, presenting the maximum analyzed substitution level (13.35% quinoa flour and 6.65% tarwi flour). This study showed that these Andean grains are suitable for developing bread of good technological quality and improved nutritional profile, adding value to these underused ancestral flours.
... Although oval structures are frequently found in the debittered seeds, other shapes were also observed in addition to surrounding material corresponding to carbohydrates and components which tend to accumulate during thermal treatments. 28 Globular structures observed in the L. campestris of materials treated by AqT and AlT showed oval shapes with a fractal relation of 1.05, while for the AcT treated samples, longer shapes were observed with fractal relations of 1.12 (Fig. 8). An apparent organization among the longer-shaped bodies was confirmed (Fig. 4). ...
Article
BACKGROUND:Lupinus campestris seed has a high protein (350–450 g kg−1) and oil (180–200 g kg−1) content, but its use is limited by toxic substances, such as quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs), that can be reduced by debittering thermal treatments (DTTs) which cause biochemical changes in seed compounds such as carbohydrates and proteins and could induce changes in the seed microstructure. This work aims to correlate biochemical and microstructural changes with nutritional composition in lupin seeds in response to DTT.RESULTS: Three DTTs, aqueous (AqT), acid (AcT) and alkaline (AlT), were performed with L. campestris and the effects on nutritional value were evaluated. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate microstructural changes of raw and debittered seeds using image and fractal analysis tools. DTT caused a decrease of QAs, carbohydrate content and protein increase. These effects were more pronounced with A1T. Analysis of microstructural changes indicated decreased rugosity and smoother texture of seed surface subjected to DTT. Smoother surfaces exhibited oval and polyhedrical structures corresponding to globular protein aggregation.CONCLUSIONS: DTT had effects on the seed surface, which showed a smoother texture associated with oval and polyhedrical structures that may be caused by aggregation of globular proteins. These findings allowed associate debittering treatments to microstructural features. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry
... The main quality problem arising from lupin incorporation into wheat bread is low loaf volume and poor texture, mainly due to the low elasticity of lupin proteins and the high WBC Ballester et al. (1988) of lupin dietary fiber. Microscopic examination of wheat and lupin flour doughs has revealed that the gluten matrix was less interconnected in the presence of lupin proteins (G€ uemes-Vera et al., 2004). There are published studies on how to improve the quality of bread supplemented with gluten-free flours which may be applicable to lupin flour. ...
Article
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Lupin is an undervalued legume despite its high protein and dietary fiber content and potential health benefits. This review focuses on the nutritional value, health benefits and technological effects of incorporating lupin flour into wheat-based bread. Results of clinical studies suggest that consuming lupin compared to wheat bread and other baked products reduce chronic disease risk markers; possibly due to increased protein and dietary fiber and bioactive compounds. However, lupin protein allergy has also been recorded. Bread quality has been improved when 10% lupin flour is substituted for refined wheat flour; possibly due to lupin-wheat protein cross-linking assisting bread volume and the high water binding capacity (WBC) of lupin fiber delaying staling. Above 10% substitution appears to reduce bread quality due to lupin proteins low-elasticity and the high WBC of its dietary fiber interrupting gluten network development. Gaps in understanding of the role of lupin flour in bread quality include the optimal formulation and processing conditions to maximize lupin incorporation, role of protein cross-linking, anti-staling functionality and stability, and bioactivity of γ- conglutin peptide.
... In addition to this, Tarwi has a high concentration of lysine, which has a high protein content; these are unusual characteristics in plant foods [11]. Therefore, it results in different consumption proposals. ...
Article
The objective of the present investigation is to obtain an optimal formulation for the elaboration of a fermented beverage from whey enriched with tarwi. The research was carried out in the laboratories of biochemistry, processes, and microbiology of the Professional School of Agroindustrial Engineering of the National University Federico Villarreal (UNFV). The Taguchi methodology was used in the formulation and optimization process, which allowed us to work with three control factors: fresh milk (LF), whey (LC) and tarwi flour (HT), with two levels of work and four runs Experimental The formulations to which sensory acceptability analysis (AS) determined by taste, color and smell were obtained. The F4 formulation (50% LC, 40% LF, and 5% HT) obtained the highest score with an AS (4.49) equivalent to "Moderately liked," Signal to Noise ratio (13,045). The factor with the most significant influence in the elaboration of the fermented whey drink enriched with tarwi depending on the sensory acceptability determined by the S / R was fresh milk (1.78). The addition of tarwi flour does affect the sensory acceptability of the product according to the S / R and the response surface method, and they determine that the higher the amount of tarwi flour shows lower acceptability of the product.
... Según Uauy et al., (2001) este hecho reviste interés especial en la salud de la población, considerando el papel del ácido linoleico, en la reducción moderada de los niveles de colesterol y las liproteínas de baja densidad (LDL) en el suero, mientras que el ácido oleico presenta un comportamiento neutro respecto a las LDL, pero incrementa moderadamente el nivel de las lipoproteínas de alta densidad. Los ácidos grasos linoleíco y linolénico, que en el aceite de chocho alcanzan un promedio del 30 %, juegan un papel importante como precusores de los eicosanoides y en el desarrollo normal del feto y de los lactantes (Mogrovejo, 2003; Guemes-Vera et al., 2004). ...
Article
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Resumen Se evaluó el rendimiento de extracción del aceite de chocho (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet), variedad Andino 450 y sus características físico-químicas y nutraceúticas. Se utilizó hexano como solvente para la extracción. Un rendimiento de 25,65 % (p/p), se obtuvo a partir del grano triturado a un tamaño de partícula de 20 mesh, con un tiempo de reflujo de 8 horas. Se determinó que las características físicas del aceite de chocho son similares a la de los aceites de oliva, soya y girasol. El aceite de chocho presenta un valioso aporte nutricional, como fuente de ácidos grasos esenciales: linoleíco n-6 (28,17%) y ácido linolénico n-3, (2,54 %) y γ-Tocoferol (1172,8 ppm). Las características físicas del aceite de chocho son similares a los aceites de soya, girasol y oliva, sin embargo el perfil de ácidos grasos es semejante al aceite de soya, lo cual permite recomendar su consumo especialmente como aceite para ensaladas. Abstract It evaluated the yield of lupine (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) oil extraction, Andino 450 variety and their physical-chemical and nutraceuticals characteristics. Hexane was used as a solvent for extraction. A yield of 25.65% (w / w) was obtained from the crushed grain to a particle size of 20 mesh, with a reflux time of 8 hours. It was determined that the physical characteristics of lupine oil are similar to that of olive, soybean and sunflower oils. Lupine oil represents a valuable nutritional contribution as a source of essential fatty acids: n-6 linoleic acid (28.17%), n-3 linolenic acid (2, 54%) and γ-tocopherol (1172.8 ppm). The physical characteristics of lupine oil is similar to soybean, sunflower and olive oils, but the fatty acid profile is similar to soybean oil, which allows to recommend their use especially as a salad oil.
... El "tarwi" se cultiva principalmente en los andes peruanos entre los 2800 a 3900 m de altitud, es resistente a plagas, enfermedades (antracnosis), sequías y heladas (Ortega et al., 2010, Palacios et al., 2004. Las proteínas del "tarwi" presentan alto contenido de lisina y leucina; pero bajo en metionina (Güemes et al., 2004). Además, contienen triptófano y tirosina en mayor cantidad que la soya y el fréjol (Kou et al., 2013y Barca et al., 2000. ...
... According to (Doxastakis et al., 2002), less than 5% of lupine addition to dough can improve bread quality parameters, but higher amount can have an opposite effect e weaken them or be similar to control samples. The dilution of the wheat gluten by the legume protein led to the weakening of dough strength and determined bread texture properties (Güemes-Vera, Esperza, & Davila-Ortiz, 2004). Composite doughs of wheat with legumes tend to have higher water absorption and lower strength and stability (Duodu et al., 2011, pp. ...
... Thus, the addition of lupin flour, protein concentrate or isolate means increment of globulin proteins and decrement of starch content, which could interfere with the formation and quality (consistency) of gluten network (Rosell et al. 2009). The resulting effect of adding lupin to formulations without adjusting the formula and/or process could generate a matrix with lower (or weaker) interconnection of gluten proteins resulting in a decrease of trapped CO 2 (Rosell et al. Güemes-Vera et al. 2004). Differences in bread texture might be explained by thermomechanical variations during processing. ...
Article
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This review presents an overview of the state-of-art on uses of Lupinus mutabilis. This valuable legume is cheap, eco-friendly, has good taste and could be used to increase the protein content and to improve the fat and protein profile of more than fifty processed and fresh products (i.e. spaghetti, lasagne, snacks, bread, hamburgers, sweets, soups, and salads). L. mutabilis might also be used to prepare meat, milk and yoghurt substitutes with good sensory evaluation. Sensory evaluation of specific fermented sausage and jelly ranked better than the control. Specific L. mutabilis spaghetti had similar rheological behaviour like the control. Bread with 10% of L. mutabilis flour had a protein efficiency radio (76%) higher than the control (28%) and similar acceptability. L. mutabilis jelly could reduce postprandial glucose in people with non-insulin dependent diabetes and L. mutabilis purée could be eaten by people with celiac disorders (especially babies). Data on each product is critically evaluated to infer conclusions and to make suggestions to improve the sensory, rheological and nutritional quality of lupin products.
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Epidemiological studies have shown a positive relation between diet and good health. Seeds, like soybeans, considered in the past as detrimental to health due to some anti-nutritional factors, are studied now with a new perspective. Since the last decade, many studies have been published relating some soy components such as isoflavones, saponines, trypsin inhibitors, used for the prevention of specific illnesses. The same effect has been attributed to some proteins. Soy proteins present higher nutritional values as compared to cereals and other legumes, but they do not produce as good results as casein when subject to biological analysis. Germination has been proposed to increase this relation, as well as to promote the generation of some bioactive peptides, that could be associated to a decrease of some malign tumour cells. These nutraceutical properties have increased the interest in adding soybean proteins to food, but the effect that these materials have in the product establishes the level of addition. Bread has been one of the products where this kind of proteins has been tested. This review deals with the different kinds of soy compounds added to bread products and their effect on technological properties, looking for obtaining of a nutraceutical product.
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Milk whey and its derivatives are commonly used to fortify food products. A study was done on the effect of seven cottage cheese (sour/sweet whey mixture) inclusion concentrations (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 and 20 %) on the mechanical properties of white wheat bread dough using a texture analyser. Cottage cheese protein content was 10.05 %. Loaf bread made using the 7.5, 12.5 and 17.5 % cottage cheese concentrations showed crumb quality similar to the control in the 12.5 and 17.5 % treatments, but more open and less homogeneous in 7.5 % treatment. Cottage cheese concentration affected bread volume, with the higher concentrations lowering volume by up to 50 %, in response to increased water retention. Sensory analysis showed bread containing 7.5 % cottage cheese was not different from the control, with an 83.33 % acceptance rate. The 7.5 % concentration was optimum for white wheat loaf bread production since its mechanical and sensory properties were most similar to the control.
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The impact of addition of two lupin protein isolates (LPI), enriched either in proteins belonging to globulin (LPI G) or to albumin (LPI A) fraction, on wheat flour dough and bread characteristics was investigated. LPI addition increased the dough development time and stability plus the resistance to deformation and the extensibility of the dough. The presence of LPI proteins in dough affected bread quality in terms of volume, internal structure and texture, while extra gluten addition to the blends to compensate for wheat gluten dilution, resulting from LPI addition, led to an improvement of bread quality characteristics. Generally, the incorporation of LP isolates to wheat flour delayed bread firming. The results obtained are discussed in terms of a possible action of LPI particles as a filler of the gluten network and partly in terms of possible interactions that take place between the gluten protein constituents and those of lupin.
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Germinated soybean flour has been proposed for use in bread making as a product to improve bread quality when small amounts are added to wheat flour. However, it is not clear which soybean components promote this action, and how these components may influence bread quality. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of the addition of soybean 7S protein fraction obtained from germinated and nongerminated seeds in dough rheological properties (farinographic and extensographic) and bread quality, including loaf volume, texture (firmness, compression force, resilience), colour (L*, a*, b*), crumb grain structure (cell density, mean cell area, shape factor), and consumer acceptance (sensory analysis). Results showed that this protein fraction just slightly affects bread quality, since no significant changes (P > 0.05) on bread volume and texture were obtained. Only crust and crumb colour were affected in a small amount, and a coarser crumb structure was also observed when adding 7S protein obtained from germinated soybean at its highest concentration. As the proportion of protein increased in the flour, both kinds of 7S fraction (germinated and nongerminated) were related to the increment in water absorption, as well as to the increment in extensographic maximum resistance to extension, specifically when adding 7S protein obtained from nongerminated soybean seeds. These results showed that the 7S soybean protein, as obtained in this work, is not related to the reported loaf bread quality improving effect of this legume when it is added in small quantities. KeywordsGerminated soybean–7S protein fraction–Dough rheological properties–Bread
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The increasing interest in functional and healthy food products has promoted the use of germinated soybean flour in the manufacture of foods for human consumption. Considering the beneficial effects of soy and its germination, farinograph and extensograph were used to study the effect of adding defatted flour of germinated (32 °C, 72 h) or non-germinated soybean—at different dry protein ratios (0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5%)—to wheat flour on: water absorption (WA), maximum consistency time (MCT), dough stability (S), maximum resistance to extension (R max), and dough extensibility (L). Baking tests (straight-dough procedure) were also performed to evaluate the effect of this addition on bread characteristics: loaf volume, texture (firmness, compression force, resilience), color (L*, a*, b*), crumb–grain structure (cell density, mean cell area, shape factor), and consumer acceptance (sensory analysis). Addition of both kinds of soybean flours increased the values of farinographic parameters (WA, MCT, S), although they did not have significant effects (p > 0.05) on extensographic properties (R max, L). Loaf volume and crumb color were improved as soy flour addition was increased, whereas crust color was not affected (p > 0.05). Texture analysis showed that the addition of soy flour produced breads similar or better than the control, whereas the addition of GSF produced a coarser crumb grain. No detectable differences were found among samples during the sensorial analysis. Germinated soybean flour was better to improve dough breadmaking properties.
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Background and objective Andean lupin (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) has health benefits with promising possibilities for food industry. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of processing (water debittering, extrusion, and spray‐drying) on chemical composition, heat damage and in vitro protein digestibility in Andean lupin. Findings The processing treatment modified all the parameters while the genotype showed limited effect. The untreated lupins had high protein and lipid content (47.4 and 16.2 g/100 g dry matter). The extruded products showed higher protein content (55.7 g/100 g) and digestibility (68.1%) than the untreated lupins, along with limited heat damage (8.7 mg furosine/100 g protein). Spray‐drying led to the lowest protein content (31.8 g/100 g) and, when maltodextrin was used, the highest heat damage (54.1±20.7 mg furosine/100 g protein; 0.60 mg hydroxymethylfurfural/kg; 0.58 mg glycosylisomaltol/kg), but also to the maximum protein digestibility (72.8‐74.0%). Conclusions The chemical composition of Andean lupin was improved by the technological treatments (debittering, extrusion and spray‐drying) applied. Processing enhanced nutritional value and digestibility, without inducing relevant heat damage. Significance and novelty Extrusion and spray‐drying improve the in vitro protein digestibility of Andean lupin flour causing limited heat damage.
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Quinoa and tarwi are characterized by their high nutritional value so their crops have spread to various countries. In recent years to increase consumption new food processing alternatives are sought, artisanal and biotechnological. In this study the digestibility of polysaccharides contained in quinoa flour (Chenopodium quinoa Willd), white variety (QB), black variety (QN) and oligosaccharides of tarwi flour (Lupinus mutabilis) (T) by enzymatic application of α-amylase was evaluated in vitro. The proximal analysis of the grains was performed, finding values similar to those of reference (AOAC methods). The content of free sugars in flour of the grains was 10,05 ± 0,3 for QB, 8,25 ± 0,3 for QN and 0,19 ± 0,01 for T. The starch content was determined, 51,08 ± 0,3% in white quinoa (QB) and 49,04 ± 0,4% in black quinoa (QN). The reducing sugars by the effect of Termamyl Sc in % of substrate was 25 ± 1,9 (QB), 27,5 ± 1,5 (QN) and 2,01 ± 0,3 (T). The kinetic parameters found: Km: 80,4 mg/mL, Vmax: 0,36 mg/mL min-1 (QB); Km: 98,8 mg/mL, Vmax: 1,72 mg/mL min-1 (QN); Km: 3,14 mg/L and Vmax 4,81 mg/L min-1 (T), were derived from the Lineweaver Burk plot.
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La fortificación de alimentos es importante debido a una creciente población en estado de malnutrición, por las sequías provocadas a nivel mundial y por personas de bajos recursos económicos. La adición de proteínas puede causar problemas tecnológicos. Por ello, el objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar el efecto de la adición de proteínas de lactosuero a pan dulce tipo "concha" sobre las propiedades químicas y de texturas de las masas y panes. Se planteó un experimento con diferentes concentraciones de suero comercial y precipitado por calor, se evaluó la adhesividad y el análisis del perfil de textura en masa y panes. Los resultados indicaron que el testigo presentó menor contenido de proteína (17.2 ± 0.01%) con respecto a los panes con 10% (19.8 ± 0.01) y 15% (22.9 ± 0.03) de suero comercial y precipitados por calor, el contenido de grasa fue similar en el testigo (7.01 ± 0.02) y en los panes con suero comercial (7.29 ± 0.04%) y precipitado por calor (7.37 ± 0.01), el mayor trabajo de adhesión se presentó al 10% de suero comercial, mientras que los tratamientos a base de suero tuvieron valores intermedios. La firmeza fue mayor (p < 0.05) en las muestras con proteína de suero comercial, pero menos cohesiva que las fortificadas con suero precipitado por calor. La firmeza del pan mejoró por la presencia de suero lácteo comercial que con el suero precipitado por calor, sin detectar diferencia significativa (p > 0.05) entre los porcentajes de suero. Existe un efecto del tipo y concentración de suero en la adhesividad de las masas. Respecto a la textura de los panes, el suero precipitado por calor tuvo características aceptables en comparación con el suero comercial.
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Jatropha curcas L. is a popular multipurpose crop that is extensively grown in many tropical countries. Its popularity has been ascribed to its acclaimed attributes as a nonfood crop that grows well in marginal land not suitable for crop production, relatively low requirements of water, fertilizer and maintenance. It is arguably true that Jatropha can provide additional income in areas where there is plenty of land and labour is readily available. As such, Jatropha is now a component of farming systems in many developing countries. Traditionally, farming systems in developing countries have focused on the twin purposes of food and fibre production. The entrance of Jatropha adds a third dimension to this model. This arises mainly from the multiple uses of Jatropha, particularly energy production. The possibilities of exploitation of Jatropha for various uses have been explored and continue to be explored. This has largely been underpinned by technological innovations for processing different parts of Jatropha into value-added products. The major parts of Jatropha that can be exploited for multiple uses include the woody parts, seed, shell, husks, kernel, oil and press-cake. Press-cake is a by-product of oil extraction. Mature technologies exist for converting Jatropha components into useful products. The major focus has been on developing appropriate technologies for converting Jatropha components into first and second generation energy careers. The gamut of technologies available for conversion purposes ranges from biological to chemical methods. Uses in soap and fertiliser production, as food, medicine and pesticide have been explored. Interfacing the gamut of technologies available and the multiplicity of uses of Jatropha, provides an opportunity for promoting what can be called the Jatropha entrepreneurship system. There is no doubt that Jatropha can be more profitable promoting small to large-scale entrepreneurship if production is coupled with appropriate management practices and seed oil is processed into other valuable products other than biofuel. Entrepreneurship is a major driver of economic development for large populations in developing countries. As such, crops like Jatropha provide opportunities through the various products that can be obtained from them. In this chapter we develop a model for promoting entrepreneurship based on the multiple uses of Jatropha and use of available technologies, emphasising the benefits to rural economies.
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Combinations of genetic variation and the addition of flour from non-wheat sources are discussed as approaches to modifying the processing and health attributes of wheat bread. Natural variation in the major seed proteins (comprising the gluten complex) affecting flour quality has been extremely well characterized and GM approaches have been used to investigate further sources of variation. Variation leading to changes in antigenicity and allergenicity can now be characterized as the responses of humans to the consumption of wheat products are more fully understood. Modern as well as traditional applications of food processing can decrease or increase epitopes in gluten proteins, thus more focus is argued to be required on the identification and details of toxic epitopes associated with specific health problems. In view of the level of gluten sensitivity within a proportion of the human population, the preparation of bread with lower or no gluten is considered to be a priority.
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The nutritive value, the microbiological safety of oilseed cake (OSC) obtained from naked pumpkin seed (PuC), sunflower seed (SC), yellow linseed (LC), and walnut (WnC), and their impact on wheat flour (WF) dough and bread sensory characteristics at 5% and 10% addition ratio were investigated. The OSCs had high protein (34-50%), fat (8-15%), total dietary fibre (23-36%) content and high energy value (383-444 kcal/100 g)). The OSC samples with a minimal exception fulfilled the requirements of feed legislation in force. An increased water absorption, dough development time, and reduced elasticity were observed probably due to the enhanced fiber and protein content. Dough stability increased with WnC, and decreased with PuC or SC addition. Enrichment provided the appearance of a brown bread for WnC, of a half-brown bread for LC. PuC gave an unusual look. The appearance of OSC fortified bread similar to daily bread, was an advantage resulting the 1st rank for 10% WnC bread and the 2nd one for 10% LC bread (P=0.05). The studied OSCs are suitable for food enrichment, however, in case of PuC and SC fortified flour blends, hydrocolloid application is recommended. Our data suggest that the newly developed fortified breads could be a valuable source for healthy nutrition.
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Jatropha carcus is an important plant for the commencement of energy plantation. Jatropha can be grown in marginal, degraded, waste lands in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. It is a partially domesticated plant hence development of high yielding cultivars and package of management practices needs prime importance. The most important use propagation is to produce high quality planting materials. Jatropha can propagate through seeds, cuttings and tissue culture. Due to poor seed germination, short viability and high heterozygosity seed propagation may not produce high quality planting materials. On the other hand propagation through vegetative means or micropropagation can be the most effective alternatives to produce quality seedlings with desirable traits for higher seed and oil yield. Vegetative propagation has inimitable significance to maintain homogeneity among the progeny and provide early production.
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Bread made from a mixture of wheat and lupin flour possesses a number of health benefits. The addition of lupin flour to wheat flour during breadmaking has major effects on bread properties. The present study investigated the lupin and wheat flour protein interactions during the breadmaking process including dough formation and baking by using proteomics research technologies including MS/MS to identify the proteins. Results revealed that qualitatively most proteins from both lupin and wheat flour remained unchanged after baking as per electrophoretic behavior, whereas some were incorporated into the bread gluten matrix and became unextractable. Most of the lupin α-conglutins could be readily extracted from the lupin-wheat bread even at low salt and nonreducing/nondenaturing extraction conditions. In contrast, most of the β-conglutins lost extractability, suggesting that they were trapped in the bread gluten matrix. The higher thermal stability of α-conglutins compared to β-conglutins is speculated to account for this difference.
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Functional and electrophoretic properties of the seed flour and a protein concentrate prepared by alkaline extraction from lupin seeds (Lupinus mutabilis, cultivar H-6) were investigated. SDS-PAGE indicated presence of 13 and 12 subunits in the seed flour proteins and the protein concentrate, respectively. Lupin protein concentrate had good water and oil absorption and gelation properties. Solubility of lupin proteins was minimum at a pH of 4.0 but increased rapidly beyond pH 5.0. Foaming capacity of the protein concentrate could be improved by increasing concentration as well as by adding NaCl and was influenced by pH and incorporation of certain carbohydrates. Emulsion properties of lupin proteins were concentration and pH dependent. Moist heat improved the in vitro digestibility of the seed proteins. The seed flour as well as the protein concentrate did not have detectable trypsin, chymotrypsin, and -amylase inhibitory activities.
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Microscopy and imaging techniques are the most appropriate techniques for evaluating food structure because they are the only analytical methods that produce results in the form of images rather than numbers. However, images may now also be converted into numerical data to allow for statistical evaluation. Advances in microscopy and imaging techniques are made, for the most part, outside the field of food science, drawing from the fields of materials science, biology and medicine. Such techniques cannot, in most cases, be directly applied to study food structure. They must be adapted because the processing conditions that turn biological raw materials into food cause structural and textural changes which, in turn, change the innate properties and behaviour of the foods. This necessitates the development of appropriate methods and also the specialization of researchers. Future developments in this field can be divided into the use of new equipment developed for use in other fields, and the application of techniques modified to solve specific food science problems, such as the development of new foods with particular properties and texture or the detection of defects in foods.
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The structure of the gluten protein network found in wheat flour dough was studied by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM). This technique allows the gluten to be studied in its natural hydrated state, without undergoing any drying or coating. Under these conditions, no visible network was found, at least at the resolution of the microscope. However, samples of gluten that had been dehydrated harshly, and then slowly rehydrated under observation, did exhibit a network structure reminiscent of that seen by previous workers, which disappeared upon hydration. Subsequent moderate dehydration did not lead to a return to a network structure. These results suggest that the gluten network at the mesoscopic level is an artefact of severe dehydration, as opposed to the intrinsic structure. The true gluten network therefore exists at the molecular level, below the resolution of the ESEM.
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Functional properties of wheat flour and its blends with six bean flours at three levels of replacement (10, 20, and 30%) were investigated. Water and oil absorption, foaming capacity and stability, and emulsifying activity and stability increased with increasing levels of bean flours in the blends. Composite flours had higher pasting properties compared to those of wheat flour as measured in the Brabender Viscoamylograph. As the level of bean flour in the composite was increased, farinograph absorption and mixing tolerance index increased, whereas mixing time and dough stability decreased.
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Doughs from three flours were sheared between a cone and plate at constant rates in the range 6 times 10-4-2 times 10-2 s-1. At temperatures between 25 and 40d̀C, the apparent viscosity decreased with increasing temperature and with increasing rate of shear. The effects of the temperature and of the rate of shear were independent one of another, and can be described by an Arrhenius type equation and a power equation, respectively. At temperatures between 45 and 60d̀C, the apparent viscosity increased rapidly with increasing temperature; this is ascribed to starch gelatinization. In this temperature range, the apparent viscosity decreased more rapidly with increasing rate of shear than at lower temperatures. At temperatures between 25 and 45d̀C, the shear modulus decreased with increasing temperature and slightly increased with increasing rate of shear. From the former fact it is concluded that the elasticity of dough has an origin different from rubber elasticity. In this temperature range, the shear modulus can be described by an equation similar to that for the apparent viscosity. At temperatures between 45 and 65d̀C, the modulus increased with increasing temperature, though to a lesser extent than the apparent viscosity. Changes in the rate of stress relaxation are in accordance with the effects of temperature and rate of shear on the apparent viscosity and the modulus.
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Full fat lupin flour (FFLF), concentrated lupin flour (CLF) and defatted concentrated lupin flour (DCLF) of Lupinus albus ssp. Graecus was added to a medium strength wheat flour. The lupin flour was used to replace 5, 10 and 15% of wheat flour. The effects of lupin flour supplementation on physical dough properties, crumb and bread structure and quality characteristics were studied. Lupin flour, at 5% substitution level, increased the stability and the tolerance index of the dough, while a marked weakening was noted at higher levels (15%) of supplementation. The volumes of the breads decreased as the level of lupin flour increased; nevertheless, substitution at 5 or 10% by CLF and DCLF gives parameter values at least as good as the control sample and produces an acceptable bread in terms of weight, volume, texture and crumb structure.
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Cereal-based foods are derived from grains that have a well-organized microstructure. The cell wall thickness, size of cells, starch granule structure, protein structure and distribution, the amount and size of fat droplets and their distribution etc. vary in the kernels of the various cereals and in many cases between varieties. Processing, such as milling, dough mixing and baking, causes microstructural changes in cell and tissue structures, proteins, cell wall components, starch and fat droplets. The microstructure determines the appearance, texture, taste perception and stability of the final product. A variety of microscopic techniques is available for studying the microstructure of cereals. In research on cereal-based products fluorescence microscopy provides resolution, chemical specificity, and sensitivity rarely matched by other techniques. As an addition to chemical analysis microscopy helps to understand and visualize structural changes and textural differences in cereal grains, food and feed. The aim of this paper is to give an overview of the possibilities of light microscopy in cereal research.
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13. Scanning electron microscopic overview of wheat flour (95%) Lupinus flour (5%) mixture (bar=20 mm)
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ARTICLE IN PRESS Fig. 13. Scanning electron microscopic overview of wheat flour (95%) Lupinus flour (5%) mixture (bar=20 mm).
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