Sucrose Transport in Higher Plants

{ "0" : "Institut für Botanik, Universität Tübingen, D-72076 Tübingen, Germany" , "2" : "Sugar" , "3" : "Transport" , "4" : "Phloem" , "5" : "Vascular tissue" , "6" : "Active transport" , "7" : "Plasmodesmata" , "8" : "Apoplastic" , "9" : "Symplastic"}
International Review of Cytology (Impact Factor: 9). 02/1998; 178:41-71. DOI: 10.1016/S0074-7696(08)62135-X
Source: PubMed


Presumably due to its physicochemical properties, sucrose represents the major transport form of photosynthetically assimilated carbohydrates in plants. Sucrose synthesized in green leaves is transported via the phloem, the long distance distribution network for assimilates in order to supply nonphotosynthetic organs with energy and carbon skeletons. At least in Solanaceae, sugar export seems to be a tightly regulated process involving a number of specific plasma membrane proteins. Significant progress in this field was made possible by the recent identification of plasma membrane sucrose transporter genes. These carriers represent important parts of the long-distance transport machinery and can serve as a starting point to obtain a complete picture of long-distance sucrose transport in plants. A combination of biochemical studies of transporter properties together with expression and localization studies allow specific functions to be assigned to the individual proteins. Furthermore, the use of transgenic plants specifically impaired in sucrose transporter expression has provided strong evidence that SUT1 transporter function is required for phloem loading. Physiological analyses of these plants demonstrate that sucrose transporters are essential components of the sucrose translocation pathway at least in potato and tobacco.

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    • "The transcript abundance of sucrose transporters in plants has been reported to be regulated by exogenous (Sakr et al., 1993; Matsukura et al., 2000; Meyer et al., 2004; Decourteix et al., 2006) and endogenous (Ehness and Roitsch, 1997; Chiou and Bush, 1998; Ward et al., 1998; Matsukura et al., 2000; Li et al., 2003) stimuli. We have shown here that the ethylene effect was restricted to two sucrose transporters (HbSUT1A and HbSUT2A) and correlated with ethyleneinduced stimulation production. "
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    ABSTRACT: The major economic product of Hevea brasiliensis is a rubber-containing cytoplasm (latex), which flows out of laticifers (latex cells) when the bark is tapped. The latex yield is stimulated by ethylene. Sucrose, the unique precursor of rubber synthesis, must cross the plasma membrane through specific sucrose transporters before being metabolized in the laticifers. The relative importance of sucrose transporters in determining latex yield is unknown. Here, the effects of ethylene (by application of Ethrel on sucrose transporter gene expression in the inner bark tissues and latex cells of H. brasiliensis are described. Experiments, including cloning sucrose transporters, real time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, were carried out on virgin (untapped) trees, treated or untreated with the latex yield stimulant Ethrel. Seven putative full-length cDNAs of sucrose transporters were cloned from a latex-specific cDNA library. These transporters belong to all SUT (sucrose transporter) groups and differ by their basal gene expression in latex and inner soft bark, with a predominance of HbSUT1A and HbSUT1B. Of these sucrose transporters, only HbSUT1A and HbSUT2A were distinctly increased by ethylene. Moreover, this increase was shown to be specific to laticifers and to ethylene application. The data and all previous information on sucrose transport show that HbSUT1A and HbSUT2A are related to the increase in sucrose import into laticifers, required for the stimulation of latex yield by ethylene in virgin trees.
    Full-text · Article · Jul 2009 · Annals of Botany
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    • "ATPase located in the plasma membranes of sieve tube cells (Bouché-Pillon et al. 1994, Ward et al. 1998). Growing evidence is available, suggesting that Mg–ATP is a major complex of ATP in biological systems (Igamberdiev and Kleczkowski 2003) and essential for the proper functioning of H 1 -ATPase (Bush 1989, Getz and Klein 1995). "
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    ABSTRACT: Magnesium (Mg) deficiency exerts a major influence on the partitioning of dry matter and carbohydrates between shoots and roots. One of the very early reactions of plants to Mg deficiency stress is the marked increase in the shoot-to-root dry weight ratio, which is associated with a massive accumulation of carbohydrates in source leaves, especially of sucrose and starch. These higher concentrations of carbohydrates in Mg-deficient leaves together with the accompanying increase in shoot-to-root dry weight ratio are indicative of a severe impairment in phloem export of photoassimilates from source leaves. Studies with common bean and sugar beet plants have shown that Mg plays a fundamental role in phloem loading of sucrose. At a very early stage of Mg deficiency, phloem export of sucrose is severely impaired, an effect that occurs before any noticeable changes in shoot growth, Chl concentration or photosynthetic activity. These findings suggest that accumulation of carbohydrates in Mg-deficient leaves is caused directly by Mg deficiency stress and not as a consequence of reduced sink activity. The role of Mg in the phloem-loading process seems to be specific; resupplying Mg for 12 or 24 h to Mg-deficient plants resulted in a very rapid recovery of sucrose export. It appears that the massive accumulation of carbohydrates and related impairment in photosynthetic CO2 fixation in Mg-deficient leaves cause an over-reduction in the photosynthetic electron transport chain that potentiates the generation of highly reactive O2 species (ROS). Plants respond to Mg deficiency stress by marked increases in antioxidative capacity of leaves, especially under high light intensity, suggesting that ROS generation is stimulated by Mg deficiency in chloroplasts. Accordingly, it has been found that Mg-deficient plants are very susceptible to high light intensity. Exposure of Mg-deficient plants to high light intensity rapidly induced leaf chlorosis and necrosis, an outcome that was effectively delayed by partial shading of the leaf blade, although the Mg concentrations in different parts of the leaf blade were unaffected by shading. The results indicate that photooxidative damage contributes to development of leaf chlorosis under Mg deficiency, suggesting that plants under high-light conditions have a higher physiological requirement for Mg. Maintenance of a high Mg nutritional status of plants is, thus, essential in the avoidance of ROS generation, which occurs at the expense of inhibited phloem export of sugars and impairment of CO2 fixation, particularly under high-light conditions.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2008 · Physiologia Plantarum
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    • "Suc transporters (called SUTs or SUCs) function in cellular proton-coupled Suc uptake and are thought to have two main functions in plants: loading Suc into the phloem in source leaves and uptake of Suc into cells of sink tissues such as roots, fruit, and developing leaves (for review, see Ward et al., 1998; Williams et al., 2000). Suc is the main form of fixed carbon that is transported in the phloem, and Suc also serves as a specific signaling molecule in plants (Teng et al., 2005; Solfanelli et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: AtSUC9 (At5g06170), a sucrose (Suc) transporter from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) L. Heynh., was expressed in Xenopus (Xenopus laevis) oocytes, and transport activity was analyzed. Compared to all other Suc transporters, AtSUC9 had an ultrahigh affinity for Suc (K(0.5) = 0.066 +/- 0.025 mm). AtSUC9 showed low substrate specificity, similar to AtSUC2 (At1g22710), and transported a wide range of glucosides, including helicin, salicin, arbutin, maltose, fraxin, esculin, turanose, and alpha-methyl-d-glucose. The ability of AtSUC9 to transport 10 glucosides was compared directly with that of AtSUC2, HvSUT1 (from barley [Hordeum vulgare]), and ShSUT1 (from sugarcane [Saccharum hybrid]), and results indicate that type I and type II Suc transporters have different substrate specificities. AtSUC9 protein was localized to the plasma membrane by transient expression in onion (Allium cepa) epidermis. Using a whole-gene translational fusion to beta-glucuronidase, AtSUC9 expression was found in sink tissues throughout the shoots and in flowers. AtSUC9 expression in Arabidopsis was dependent on intragenic sequence, and this was found to also be true for AtSUC1 (At1g71880) but not AtSUC2. Plants containing mutations in Suc transporter gene AtSUC9 were found to have an early flowering phenotype under short-day conditions. The transport properties of AtSUC9 indicate that it is uniquely suited to provide cellular uptake of Suc at very low extracellular Suc concentrations. The mutant phenotype of atsuc9 alleles indicates that AtSUC9 activity leads to a delay in floral transition.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2007 · Plant physiology
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