Article

Now or Later? An fMRI study of the effects of endogenous opioid blockade on a decision-making network

Henry J. Wheeler Brain Imaging Center, University of California, Berkeley, United States
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior (Impact Factor: 2.78). 09/2009; 93(3):291-299. DOI: 10.1016/j.pbb.2009.02.008

ABSTRACT

Previously, we found that distinct brain areas predict individual selection bias in decisions between small immediate (“Now”) and larger delayed rewards (“Later”). Furthermore, such selection bias can be manipulated by endogenous opioid blockade. To test whether blocking endogenous opioids with naltrexone (NTX) alters brain activity during decision-making in areas predicting individual bias, we compared fMRI BOLD signal correlated with Now versus Later decision-making after acute administration of NTX (50 mg) or placebo. We tested abstinent alcoholics and control subjects in a double-blind two-session design. We defined regions of interest (ROIs) centered on activation peaks predicting Now versus Later selection bias. NTX administration significantly increased BOLD signal during decision-making in the right lateral orbital gyrus ROI, an area where enhanced activity during decision-making predicts Later bias. Exploratory analyses identified additional loci where BOLD signal during decision-making was enhanced (left orbitofrontal cortex, left inferior temporal gyrus, and cerebellum) or reduced (right superior temporal pole) by NTX. Additional analyses identified sites, including the right lateral orbital gyrus, in which NTX effects on BOLD signal predicted NTX effects on selection bias. These data agree with opioid receptor expression in human frontal and temporal cortices, and suggest possible mechanisms of NTX's therapeutic effects.

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    • "ict heightened Now bias among non - heavy drinkers with problem - drinking first degree relatives . Data indicating that Now bias is highly heritable ( Anokhin et al . , 2011 ; Mitchell , 2011 ) lends further support to the idea of Now bias an intermediate phenotype for AUDs . However , intertemporal choice is known to involve frontal structures ( Boettiger et al . , 2007 , 2009 ; Bjork et al . , 2009 ; Kim and Lee , 2011 ; Hare et al . , 2014 ; Wesley and Bickel , 2014 ; Behan et al . , 2015 ; Cho et al . , 2015 ; Massar et al . , 2015 ) , and the development of frontal structures remains incomplete until the early - to - mid twenties ( Sowell et al . , 1999 ; Casey et al . , 2000 ; Sowell et al . , 2001 ; Gie"
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