Article

The role of expectancy in sensory and hedonic evaluation: The case of smoked salmon ice-cream

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Abstract

Our experience of flavour involves integration of multiple sensory inputs, and the hedonic evaluation of this complex flavour experience is important in determination of food choice. The appearance of food also generates expectations about food flavour, and past work suggests that these expectations if confirmed enhance the flavour experience. What is less clear is what happens when cues prior to ingestion predict a flavour which is in marked contrast to the actual flavour characteristics. To test this, we conducted three experiments where expectations about food flavour were generated by plausible but inaccurate food labels for a highly novel food, smoked-salmon ice-cream. In Experiment 1, the experience of the food in the mouth generated strong dislike when labelled as ice-cream, but acceptance when labelled as frozen savoury mousse. Labelling the food as ice-cream also resulted in stronger ratings of how salty and savoury the food was than when labelled as a savoury food. Experiment 2 confirmed these findings, and also found that an uninformative label also resulted in acceptable liking ratings. Experiment 3 explicitly tested the effect of labels on flavour expectation, and confirmed that the ice-cream label generated strong expectations of a sweet, fruity flavour, consistent with the visual appearance of the ice-cream, but in marked contrast to the flavour of salty fish. As in Experiments 1 and 2, liking was minimal when the food was tasted after the ice-cream label condition, but liking was acceptable in the other label conditions. These data show that the contrast between expected and actual sensory qualities can result in a strong negative affective response and enhancement of the unexpected sensory qualities.

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... Indeed, some studies have suggested that these effects might only be due to prior knowledge (Campenni, Crawley, & Meier, 2004;Howard & Hughes, 2008) rather than being genuinely emotional. The strong influence of top-down processes on human information processing is now well documented within many research domains, namely the placebo effect, the sensory perception of food and drink, etc. (Atlas & Wager, 2013;Grabenhorst, Rolls, & Bilderbeck, 2008;Piqueras-Fiszman & Spence, 2015;Yeomans, Chambers, Blumenthal, & Blake, 2008;Zellner, Strickhouser, & Tornow, 2004), with some studies already implementing the olfactory modality (Dalton, 1996(Dalton, , 1999(Dalton, , 2000Dalton, Wysocki, Brody, & Lawley, 1997). However, only a few studies have specifically investigated the influence of expectancies in relation to the relaxing and stimulating properties of odors, and, when this is the case, only physiological measures were used. ...
... In contrast, when an incongruent suggestion was given (describing strawberry odor as stimulating and lemon as relaxing), the odors lost their effects on time perception, which was no longer different from that of the odorless blank group. This impact of expectancy on behavior is consistent with prior literature that shows an effect of subjective beliefs about perceived emotions triggered by odors (Dalton, 1996(Dalton, , 1999Dalton et al., 1997) and by food and drink (Yeomans et al., 2008;Zellner et al., 2004). Indeed, this wellidentified phenomenon is so powerful that it can lead participants to report some discomfort from the "odor exposure" even when no odor is presented (Knasko, Gilbert, & Sabini, 1990;O'Mahony, 1978). ...
... Thus, such an absence of amplification of the initial stimulus effect by congruent suggestion weakens an interpretation in terms of cumulative bottom-up and topdown effects. This pattern of results shares some similarities with the work of Yeomans et al. (2008) in which the positive expectancy of the participant did not magnify the pleasantness ratings of the food they were presented. In this study, participants assessed a highly novel food: smoked salmon icecream, which was presented either as an ice-cream, generating a fruity and sweet taste expectancy (discrepant expectancy), as a frozen savory cream (congruent expectancy), or was not described in a control condition. ...
Article
Although several studies have reported relaxing and stimulating effects of odors on physiology and behavior, little is known about their underlying mechanisms. It has been proposed that participant expectancy could explain these activation effects. Since emotional stimuli are known to modulate time perception, here we used the temporal bisection task to determine whether odors have objective relaxing and stimulating effects by respectively slowing down or speeding up the internal clock and whether prior expectancy could alter these effects. In Experiment 1, 118 participants were presented either with a strawberry odor or an odorless blank. In Experiment 2, 132 participants were presented either with a lemon odor or an odorless blank. In both experiments, expectancy was manipulated using suggestion (verbal instructions). The stimulus was either described as relaxing or stimulating, or was not described. In the absence of prior suggestion, findings showed that, compared to participants presented with an odorless blank, participants presented with the strawberry odor underestimated sound durations (i.e., a relaxing effect) whereas participants presented with the lemon odor overestimated them (i.e., a stimulating effect). These results confirm that pleasant odors can have objective relaxing and stimulating effects by themselves, which are better explained by arousal-based mechanisms rather than attentional distraction. Furthermore, in both experiments, incongruent suggestions undid the effects of both odors without reversing them completely (i.e., strawberry did not become stimulating even if participants were told so). Both these bottom-up and top-down influences should be considered when investigating the emotional impact of odors on human behavior.
... The following section reviews literature that argues that it is beneficial to match features or attributes as detected by different senses so there is congruity and harmony. Sensory congruency is argued to be desirable by Wansink et al. (2005) and Yeomans et al. (2008). ...
... Many cross-modal associations influencing food perception and evaluation have been highlighted and scholars note the importance of more than one sense impacting upon our taste evaluations. These include the shape of the label and the shape of the product (Spence et al. 2013), the shape of the packaging and colour (Becker et al. 2011), shape and flavour (Delroy and Valentin 2011) the description of the ingredients (Lee at al. 2006), the description of the product (Wansink et al. 2005;Yeomans et al. 2008;Krishna 2012), the sound of the brand name (Allison and Uhl 1964;Leclerc et al.1994) and colour and flavour (DuBose et al.1980;Hoegg and Alba 2007;Zampini et al. 2007;Piqueras-Fiszman et al. 2012). Spence (2012) has mapped flavours with different speech and music sounds. ...
... Hirschman and Holbrook 1982;Hultén 2011) support that multisensory experiences can strengthen the reality of the brand experience. Congruent combinations of description and taste result in more favourable evaluations (Wansink et al. 2005;Yeomans et al. 2008) and Spence (2012) argues that it is desirable for brand owners to have congruity across the senses, for example with packaging shapes and sounds. Indeed, the reinforcement of brand cues from other senses intensify the experience for consumers (e.g. ...
Thesis
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Brand Meaning is a central concept in brand management and has been associated with brands offering symbolic intangible associations to consumers beyond their functional benefits. Tangible attributes relating to the senses and a brand’s functional performance have been overshadowed by these intangible associations, and this is addressed in this study by exploring these tangible attributes’ contribution to brand meaning. By creating a conceptual framework which evolves Hirschman’s (1980; 1998) layers of meaning, this research uses quasi-ethnographic research methods to explore the contribution of the sensorial and functional attributes to brand meaning. Furthermore, it gains insight into how the tangible attributes connect with the intangible associations (psychological, subcultural and cultural). Finally, it explores any hierarchical structures evident in brand meaning. The context for this research is local food brands available in the vicinity of Dorset. The findings from this small-scale study reveal that tangible attributes can have meaning both sensorially and functionally. From a sensorial aspect, consumers can accept incongruity across the senses; furthermore, this creates brand distinctiveness when recalled in memory. From a functional perspective, consumers are highly involved with consumption choices in the local food brand category. The connectivity element is strong in that tangible attributes evidence intangible associations. They contribute to a positive self-concept and a shared ethos, through the notion of doing and feeling good. Finally, not only are hierarchical approaches evident but there are also flatter patterned approaches apparent amongst the brand attributes and associations. This research makes an original contribution to knowledge regarding brand meaning structures. Hierarchical connections across tangible attributes and intangible associations should not always be assumed. This study discerns an approach that is flatter and non-hierarchical. Tangible attributes can be interwoven with intangible associations. This pattern approach may contain mainly woven functional attributes, revealing functional connections and meanings. Alternatively, the pattern can have threads of tangible attributes that interweave with intangible associations creating more symbolic meanings.
... This finding aligns with previous research showing that the gap between expectations (formed prior to tasting) and actual consumption experiences (i.e., the size of anticipation-reality divergence) is allimportant (Davidenko et al., 2015;Verastegui, Van Trijp, & Piqueras-Fiszman, 2019;Shankar et al., 2010;Yeomans, Chambers, Blumenthal, & Blake, 2008). For instance, Yeomans et al. (2008) studied the interplay between expectations generated by food labels and subsequent taste evaluations. ...
... This finding aligns with previous research showing that the gap between expectations (formed prior to tasting) and actual consumption experiences (i.e., the size of anticipation-reality divergence) is allimportant (Davidenko et al., 2015;Verastegui, Van Trijp, & Piqueras-Fiszman, 2019;Shankar et al., 2010;Yeomans, Chambers, Blumenthal, & Blake, 2008). For instance, Yeomans et al. (2008) studied the interplay between expectations generated by food labels and subsequent taste evaluations. They showed that when participants were exposed to an ice-cream label generating strong expectations of a sweet flavor, but subsequently tasted a very salty (rather than sweet) ice cream instead, sweetness ratings decreased, clearly demonstrative of a contrast (rather than assimilation) effect. ...
... However, our findings clearly show that such effects do not necessarily entail assimilation effects in which impressions from one modality (e.g., touch) are transferred to another (e.g., taste). Specifically, our findings extend previous research by showing that when the gap between expectations (formed prior to tasting) and subsequent consumption experiences becomes too large, contrast rather than assimilation effects occur (Davidenko et al., 2015;Verastegui-Tena et al., 2019;Yeomans, Chambers, Blumenthal, & Blake, 2008). To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that such effects may follow from theory-driven applications of 3D-printed surface textures. ...
Article
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Seeking to promote healthy food options through design, this study investigates whether food saltiness perception can be enhanced through the design of the surface texture of the container from which the product is sampled, using 3D-printing. An experimental study was conducted at a supermarket in which shoppers (N = 270) participated in a taste test. A full-factorial 3 (surface texture: smooth, rough, rough and irregular) x 3 (salt content: low, medium and high salt content) between-subject design was employed. Participants in each condition were asked to try the product and assess saltiness perception, taste intensity, taste liking and willingness to try. Results testify to the feasibility of enhancing saltiness impressions through both rough and irregular 3D-printed surface textures, but only for the medium-salt and high-salt variants. Findings on taste liking and willingness to try likewise testify to the importance of considering the interaction between surface texture and saltiness. These findings qualify previous research on cross-modal correspondences by showing that applications of surface textures may backfire when the gap between expectations triggered by tactile sensations and actual food contents becomes too large. Implications for initiatives aimed at promoting healthy food choices are discussed.
... The expectation effects including the assimilation and the contrast effects are widely reported in the literature regarding food products. It is shown that the perceived tastes are likely to be influenced by the expectations formed from the appearance of food Shermer and Levitan 2014) or labels (Wansink et al., 2005;Yeomans et al., 2008) before tasting. As some research report, both assimilation (Wansink et al., 2005; and contrast (Cardello and Sawyer 1992;Yeomans et al., 2008;Shermer and Levitan 2014) are observed in dining experiences. ...
... It is shown that the perceived tastes are likely to be influenced by the expectations formed from the appearance of food Shermer and Levitan 2014) or labels (Wansink et al., 2005;Yeomans et al., 2008) before tasting. As some research report, both assimilation (Wansink et al., 2005; and contrast (Cardello and Sawyer 1992;Yeomans et al., 2008;Shermer and Levitan 2014) are observed in dining experiences. In this study, adding motion information can increase the participants' expectations and some sort of expectation effect could occur; however, perceived taste could settle down near the actual experience, which could lead to little difference caused by the projected effects in the evaluation after tasting. ...
... Furthermore, color perception could potentially be modulated by here neglected aspects of flavor (such as textures or temperature) or natural flavors that might elicit a stronger association. Flavor is a multisensory construct and is not only defined by taste but also scents, textures, temperature, pain and sound (Yeomans et al., 2008). ...
Book
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Eating and drinking are undoubtedly amongst life’s most multisensory experiences. Take, for instance, the enjoyment of flavor, which is one of the most important elements of such experiences, resulting from the integration of gustatory, (retronasal) olfactory, and possibly also trigeminal/oral-somatosensory cues. Nevertheless, researchers have suggested that all our senses can influence the way in which we perceive flavor, not to mention our eating and drinking experiences. For instance, the color and shape of the food, the background sonic/noise cues in our eating environments, and/or the sounds associated with mastication can all influence our perception and enjoyment of our eating and drinking experiences. Human-Food Interaction (HFI) research has been growing steadily in recent years. Research into multisensory interactions designed to create, modify, and/or enhance our food-related experiences is one of the core areas of HFI (Multisensory HFI or MHFI). The aim being to further our understanding of the principles that govern the systematic connections between the senses in the context of HFI. In this Research Topic, we called for investigations and applications of systems that create new, or enhance already existing, multisensory eating and drinking experiences (what can be considered the “hacking” of food experiences) in the context of HFI. Moreover, we were also interested in those works that focus on or are based on the principles governing the systematic connections that exist between the senses. HFI also involves the experiencing of food interactions digitally in remote locations. Therefore, we were also interested in sensing and actuation interfaces, new communication mediums, and persisting and retrieving technologies for human food interactions. Enhancing social interactions to augment the eating experience is another issue we wanted to see addressed here, what has been referred to as “digital commensality”.
... The expectation effects including the assimilation and the contrast effects are widely reported in the literature regarding food products. It is shown that the perceived tastes are likely to be influenced by the expectations formed from the appearance of food (Shankar et al., 2010;Shermer and Levitan 2014) or labels (Wansink et al., 2005;Yeomans et al., 2008) before tasting. As some research report, both assimilation (Wansink et al., 2005;Shankar et al., 2010) and contrast (Cardello and Sawyer 1992;Yeomans et al., 2008;Shermer and Levitan 2014) are observed in dining experiences. ...
... It is shown that the perceived tastes are likely to be influenced by the expectations formed from the appearance of food (Shankar et al., 2010;Shermer and Levitan 2014) or labels (Wansink et al., 2005;Yeomans et al., 2008) before tasting. As some research report, both assimilation (Wansink et al., 2005;Shankar et al., 2010) and contrast (Cardello and Sawyer 1992;Yeomans et al., 2008;Shermer and Levitan 2014) are observed in dining experiences. In this study, adding motion information can increase the participants' expectations and some sort of expectation effect could occur; however, perceived taste could settle down near the actual experience, which could lead to little difference caused by the projected effects in the evaluation after tasting. ...
Article
The appearance of food affects its taste. Many studies have examined how to improve the taste of foods by manipulating their appearance. Most of those studies have focused on static appearances, such as color and texture; however, the impact of the dynamic appearance has not been explored. In this study, the perceptions (sweetness, sourness, saltiness, spiciness, temperature, deliciousness) and value judgments (the price of food, appetite) perceived from food before and after tasting with a projection-based dynamic boiling texture were investigated. The results revealed that the dynamic texture influences expectations for saltiness, spiciness, temperature, deliciousness, price, and appetite before eating the meal and perceived saltiness, spiciness, and appetite when eating. In addition, its influence on the consumers’ behavior was also investigated through an empirical user study in a restaurant. The results indicated that the consumers had a greater tendency to order the meal when they saw it with the projection-based boiling effect. From these, this study demonstrates the effect of projection mapping of a boiling effect on food expectation, perception and consumer behavior.
... Here, it is worth noting that much the same approach to nutritionally-enhanced ice-cream has also been proposed previously in the case of cancer patients [129]. That said, when introducing novel ice-cream flavours, one has to be careful not to trigger a negatively-valenced 'disconfirmation of expectation' response amongst consumers, elderly or otherwise, who may initially be unfamiliar with such savoury flavours in the context of ice-cream ( [130]; see also [92,131]). ...
... As stressed in this review, one promising vehicle for the delivery of nutritional requirements in at least some elderly individuals may be nutritionally-enhanced ice-creams (see [110]; see also [190]). Such foods optimise food-related stimulation of the remaining functional senses, though the possibility of 'disconfirmation of expectation' given the novelty of such unusual formulations/flavours needs to be carefully thought through [130]. Although there is as yet limited research into this approach, the preliminary evidence at least looks promising [110]. ...
Article
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The growing aging population are increasingly suffering from the negative health consequences of the age-related decline in their senses, especially their chemical senses. Unfortunately, however, unlike for the higher senses of vision and hearing, there is currently nothing that can be done to bring back the chemical senses once they are lost (or have started their inevitable decline). The evidence suggests that such chemosensory changes can result in a range of maladaptive food behaviours, including the addition of more salt and sugar to food and drink in order to experience the same taste intensity while, at the same time, reducing their overall consumption because food has lost its savour. Here, though, it is also important to stress the importance of the more social aspects of eating and drinking, given the evidence suggesting that a growing number of older individuals are consuming more of their meals alone than ever before. Various solutions have been put forward in order to try to enhance the food experience amongst the elderly, including everything from optimising the product-intrinsic food inputs provided to the remaining functional senses through to a variety of digital interventions. Ultimately, however, the aim has to be to encourage healthier patterns of food consumption amongst this rapidly-growing section of the population by optimising the sensory, nutritional, social, and emotional aspects of eating and drinking. An experimental dinner with the residents of one such home where nostalgic-flavoured healthy ice-creams were served is described.
... It is argued that this weak relationship is partly because participants did not have enough information (i.e., sensory cues) about the product to allow them to form an accurate judgment of how the food may taste, and how much they think they might like it. Food appearance is known to be a primary factor which determines sensory expectations (Wadhera & Capaldi-Phillips, 2014;Yeomans, Chambers, Blumenthal, & Blake, 2008), and therefore, should be considered when developing liking questionnaires. ...
... Perhaps, a more thorough written description will assist participants in forming expectations of the product's sensory properties (Yeomans et al., 2008). ...
Article
The present study investigated the relationship between online questionnaire and laboratory taste tests. Participants (n = 111 females, mean age; 24.0 ± 4.5 years) rated familiarity (5‐point Likert scale), predicted liking (9‐point hedonic scale) and prospective consumption (9‐point category scale) of 23 snacks using an online photo questionnaire. One week later participants rated liking and prospective consumption of five of those snacks in the laboratory (in‐lab). Predicted liking explained 19.2 and 34.5% of the variation in in‐lab liking of familiar and unfamiliar snacks, respectively. Prospective consumption (online) explained 11.2 and 5.4% of the variation in in‐lab prospective consumption of familiar and unfamiliar snacks, respectively. Differences in snack familiarity did not influence the strength of the relationships between online and in‐lab measures (p > .05). Compared to predicted liking, tasted liking was more predictive of prospective consumption, even if foods were familiar, highlighting the importance of experiencing all sensory properties. Practical applications The present research aimed to determine if an online photo based questionnaire could provide results on liking and prospective consumption, were related to perceptual, hedonic, and behavioral (i.e., consumption) results obtained within a sensory laboratory. Specifically, do consumers need to taste food to rate liking and prospective consumption, or can they simply look at a photograph? Moreover, is such a questionnaire only appropriate for foods that are highly familiar, or can they be used for unfamiliar foods? This investigation may be relevant for researchers and professionals who wish to overcome the limitations of traditional sensory testing within a laboratory, such as time constraints, satiation, fatigue, location, and other logistical considerations. The present research confirms that liking and prospective consumption measured using online photo based questionnaires is poorly correlated with the gold standard of tasted measures of liking and prospective consumption. These findings make an important contribution to the field of consumer science, which is continuously aiming to optimize testing procedures.
... Furthermore, color perception could potentially be modulated by here neglected aspects of flavor (such as textures or temperature) or natural flavors that might elicit a stronger association. Flavor is a multisensory construct and is not only defined by taste but also scents, textures, temperature, pain and sound (Yeomans et al., 2008). ...
... Future studies, however, might consider improving our design to account for these points. Readers should note that the seen liquids may not have elicited a homogeneous expectation in terms of texture (e.g., beer and mayonnaise), an aspect that is not desirable as it might have, however, minimally-confounded our results (Yeomans et al., 2008). Lastly, this experiment was part of a larger study on visuo-flavorous conflicts (see Supplementary Material), which might have influenced our findings due to potential carry-over effects. ...
Article
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It is well established that vision, and in particular color, may modulate our experience of flavor. Such cross-modal correspondences have been argued to be bilateral, in the sense that one modality can modulate the other and vice versa. However, the amount of literature assessing how vision modulates flavor is remarkably larger than that directly assessing how flavor might modulate vision. This is more exaggerated in the context of cross-modal contrasts (when the expectancy in one modality contrasts the experience through another modality). Here, using an embodied mixed reality setup in which participants saw a liquid while ingesting a contrasting one, we assessed both how vision might modulate basic dimensions of flavor perception and how the flavor of the ingested liquid might alter the perceived color of the seen drink. We replicated findings showing the modulation of flavor perception by vision but found no evidence of flavor modulating color perception. These results are discussed in regard to recent accounts of multisensory integration in the context of visual modulations of flavor and bilateral cross-modulations. Our findings might be important as a step in understanding bilateral visual and flavor cross-modulations (or the lack of them) and might inform developments using embodied mixed reality technologies.
... It is manifested in one's expectation of specific attributes or differences based on his or her gained knowledge (Stone & Sidel, 2004). Assessment affected by prior expectations has been reported in the literature (Piqueras-Fiszman & Spence, 2015;Saeed & Grunert, 2014;Yeomans et al., 2008). ...
Article
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The aim of this study was (a) to evaluate the influence of date type and freshness labelling on a consumer rejection of expired food, (b) to assess how product category influences a consumer who rejects expired food based on a given criterion, and (c) to investigate if a consumer’s handling of food is rational as pertains to ‘use by’ or ‘best before’ dating. A consumer sensory study was conducted among 180 participants from Poland in which their attitude toward eight different foods labelled with two date types (‘use by’ or ‘best before’) and four various freshness dates was examined. The results showed that date type (‘best before’ vs. ‘use by’), freshness labelling and food category significantly influenced consumer rejection of food products and the criteria of rejection changed as the product became expired. Consumer behaviour regarding edibility after expiration was irrational and was manifested in both the acceptance of potentially harmful food products (from 31.5% to 60.2% of expired food products labelled with the ‘use by’ date were accepted) and the rejection of edible foods (from 24.4% to 56.7% of expired foods labelled with the ‘best before’ date were rejected). This study provides new insight into the influence of shelf‐life labelling and sensory perception on discard intention which ultimately results in unnecessary food waste. Our findings that date labelling can contribute to consumer apprehension of the suitability of a given food product for consumption shed new light on the role of building awareness among consumers in order to encourage waste‐reducing behaviour.
... Second, participants who gave higher values to domestic rice products might not be satisfied with the sensory quality of a cooked domestic rice variety, thereby decreasing hedonic ratings of such cooked rice. More specifically, a contrast effect occurred because there was a disparity between the expectation and the subsequent experience of the cooked aromatic rice sample [63,68,69]. These perspectives can also be applied to a negative correlation between COO scores and aroma liking ratings in the cooked rice sample of the imported Jasmine rice from Thailand (THV) ( Table 1). ...
Article
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Geographical indication (GI) labeling is used to represent information about specific geographical origins of target products. This study aimed at determining the impact of GI information on sensory perception and acceptance of cooked aromatic rice samples. Ninety-nine participants evaluated cooked rice samples prepared using each of three aromatic rice varieties both with and without being provided with GI information. Participants rated the acceptance and intensity of the cooked rice samples in terms of appearance, aroma, flavor, texture, and overall liking, and also reported how important the GI information was to them. The results showed that consumers rated the cooked rice samples higher in appearance and overall liking when provided with GI information. Interestingly, participants who valued “state-of-origin” information more highly exhibited increased hedonic ratings of cooked rice samples when provided with GI information, but not when no GI information was given. Participants provided with GI information rated flavor or sweetness intensities of cooked aromatic rice samples closer to just-about-right than those without such information. This study provides empirical evidence about how GI information modulates sensory perception and acceptance of cooked aromatic rice samples. The findings will help rice industry, farmers, and traders better employ GI labeling to increase consumer acceptability of their rice products.
... As a consequence, negative and suspicious attitude towards food technologies may lead to product failure (CHEN et al., 2013). Only a few studies (YEOMANS et al., 2008;MIELBY and FROST, 2010;GUINÉ et al., 2012;TRAYNOR et al., 2013;FRAAT and ZAINAL, 2016) were dedicated to assess acceptance of molecular dishes and consumers' attitudes. Moreover, any comparison of traditional and molecular cuisine has not been performed so far. ...
Article
The aim of the study was to explore consumers' attitude toward molecular cuisine, specifically the sensory evaluation of these dishes. The experiment was performed in a laboratory among 10 panelists and 150 consumers to compare a sensory profile of molecular courses to their traditional versions. Sensory profile of traditional dishes had a significantly higher, or comparable intensity in sensory attributes than molecular version and was preferred by consumers (p≤0.05). The results indicate positive attitude of consumers to modernist dishes and their moderately high sensory-experience ratings. Most of them showed willingness to try other molecular dishes in the future.
... The collaboration among scientists and top-restaurant chefs has brought to the publication of some scientific papers that have been coauthored by chefs applying molecular gastronomy, for example, Heston Blumenthal or Ferran Adria. Blumenthal is the coauthor of a research on the sensory study and consumer science (Yeomans et al., 2008), as well as a paper on the study of the umami taste in tomato (Oruna-Concha et al., 2007;Dermiki et al., 2013). Studies on how diners react to food that has been named wrongly have been also published, to understand the effect of the expectation of a dish and the actual sensory impact of new foods, for example, in the case of dish named "smoked-salmon icecream." ...
Chapter
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Molecular gastronomy is a novel discipline within the food science area. Its main difference with the traditional food science and technology studies is its focus on kitchen restaurant and home kitchen levels. The collaboration among food scientists (food chemists, food engineers, sensory scientists, etc.) and innovative chefs led to the implementation of a new approach to cooking, often referred to as “science-based cooking” or “molecular cooking.” This implies implementing new techniques, tools, or ingredients borrowed from scientific laboratories. In parallel, a closer look at the kitchen led scientists to investigate phenomena or methods that are often ignored by food scientists. The difference between molecular gastronomy and conventional food science has been discussed in this chapter, with some examples related to studies on olive oil, sous-vide cooking, the use of liquid nitrogen and ultrasound treatment, as well as the technique called “spherification.” The importance of food pairing in haute-cuisine restaurants and for researchers in the area of sensory science has been highlighted, with the presentation of the theoretical/computational approach based on the so-called flavor network and reporting some results based on empirical laboratory-based studies. The negative outcome of these investigations proves the difficulties of simplifying such a complex system, in which odor, taste-active compounds, texture, and other factors interact, and additional complexity is added by cooking itself. Also, the final consumers’ experience depends on other factors such as the dish presentation and their general expectations.
... Most studies used subjective ratings and questionnaires, socalled explicit measures, to assess the effects of expectations on taste experiences, i.e., these studies rely on introspection while consumers may not even be aware of the way expectations affect their experiences (e.g., Yeomans et al., 2008). Additionally, virtually all studies measured the effect of expectation indirectly by measuring its effect on subsequent taste experiences, i.e., only very few studies try to measure the expectations themselves, except for Thomson, who uses a specially developed technique (Thomson, 2010). ...
Article
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Food experiences can be summarized along two main dimensions: valence and arousal, which can be measured explicitly with subjective ratings or implicitly with physiological and behavioral measures. Food experiences are not only driven by the food's intrinsic properties, such as its taste, texture, and aroma, but also by extrinsic properties such as brand information and the consumers' previous experiences with the foods. In this study, valence and arousal to intrinsic and extrinsic properties of soy sauce were measured in consumers that varied in their previous experience with soy sauce, using a combination of explicit (scores and emojis), implicit (heart rate and skin conductance), and behavioral measures (facial expressions). Forty participants, high- and low-frequency users, were presented with samples of rice and three commercial soy sauces without and with brand information that either matched or non-matched the taste of the soy sauce. In general, skin conductance and facial expressions showed relatively low arousal during exposure to the brand name and again lowest arousal during tasting. Heart rate was lowest during exposure to the brand name and increased during tasting probably resulting from the motor activity during chewing. Furthermore, the results showed that explicit liking and arousal scores were primarily affected by the taste of the specific soy sauce and by the participants' previous experience with soy sauces. These scores were not affected by branding information. In contrast, facial expressions, skin conductance, and heart rate were primarily affected by (1) the participants' level of experience with soy sauce, (2) whether or not branding information was provided, and (3) whether or not the branding information matched with the taste. In conclusion, this study suggests that liking scores may be most sensitive to the food's intrinsic taste properties, whereas implicit measures and facial expressions may be most sensitive to extrinsic properties such as brand information. All measures were affected by the consumers' previous food experiences.
... By incorporating raw fish to already familiar ingredients such as rice and vegetables, sushi greatly facilitated the adoption of uncooked fish in North America (Looy et al., 2014). Likewise, familiar preparations -such as burgers, pasta, or muffins -can also improve consumers' willingness to try unknown foods, as they can trigger positive sensory expectations (Tuorila et al., 1998;Yeomans et al., 2008). ...
Thesis
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As food supply practices must adapt to the reality of limited natural resources, we must find alternative solutions to meet the dietary needs of a growing world population. This dissertation reports on the viability of edible insects as a solution to globally improve food security. Compared to conventional livestock, insect production requires less feed, water, and space while generating less pollution and waste. Moreover, circular insect farming methods can allow the reintroduction into the food chain of various types of clean and traceable organic residues in order to produce sustainable animal proteins within cities, therefore improving food sovereignty at the local scale. However, the general aversion for edible insects represents a major barrier that must be alleviated. This dissertation identifies strategies to efficiently and sustainably introduce insect farming and consumption at the city scale. The introductory chapter of this thesis provides the rationale behind my research, framing its research area and explaining its key objectives. The second chapter is oriented towards consumer behavior as it focuses on the challenges related to marketing insect food products, paying particular attention to the motivations driving food choices. The third chapter exposes the results of both a national survey I developed aiming to assess the perceptions and attitudes of Canadians towards entomophagy (i.e. insect consumption) as well as insect tastings I organized in order to develop a better understanding of Quebeckers’ preferences for edible insect products. The fourth chapter exposes an action research project I led involving high school students delving on exposure and familiarization with edible insects as an avenue to positively change their perception towards entomophagy. The fifth chapter discusses how following industrial ecology principles in insect farms can allow to lower both production costs and environmental impacts. Finally, the concluding chapter holistically reflects on entomophagy and entotechnologies (i.e. insect farming practices) as sustainable solutions to reduce the ecological impacts linked to the production and consumption of animal proteins – tackling food waste and thus reducing the carbon footprint associated to the management of rapidly decomposable organic materials.
... Past researchers (e.g., Kudrowitz et al. 2014;Pang 2017) denoted that chefs play an important role in showcasing the potential in every ingredient. Thus, in the new product development, the bilateral collaboration of chefs with R&D teams from both private and non-private agencies is fundamentally essential (Oruna-Concha et al. 2007;Yeomans et al. 2008;Dermiki et al. 2013). As such, one way to rectify the issues is to utilize chefs' expertise, ideas, and knowledge to harness the full potential of local herbs to produce and invent new revolutionary local herbsbased culinary products. ...
Article
The herbal industry has been recognized as a significant source of economic growth in Malaysia. It has been identified as one of the Entry Point Project (EPP1) under the New Key Economic Areas (NKEA) in the Economic Transformation Program (ETP), initiated in early 2011. This is parallel to the increase in the global market demand for herbal products. However, the utilization of local herbs in Malaysia is primarily focusing on pharmaceutical, medicinal research and development (R&D), and health products, whilst minimal attention is given to the realm of culinary practices, particularly in the development of innovative culinary products. This review discusses the current herbal industry scenario and outlines the undervalued and neglected paradox of local herbs in Malaysia, mainly in terms of culinary practices. In addition, this review highlights several issues and challenges of local herbs in the development of herbal-based culinary products. The information gained from this review can be beneficial for related policymakers to take initiatives on improving the market segmentation, as highlighted under the EPP1, which neglected the potential of local herbs in culinary product development.
... As emphasized by Piqueras-Fiszman and Spence (2015), most of the studies on sensory and hedonic expectations have focused on the consequences of the potential disparities between the expectations and the actual experience of consumers. In a nutshell, high discrepancies might trigger protective mechanisms and intense negative emotional reactions (Sakai, 2011;Yeomans, Chambers, Blumenthal, & Blake, 2008). On the contrary, you might be aroused or even pleased by slight deviations from what you were initially expecting (Schifferstein, Kole, & Mojet, 1999), and satisfaction of expectations might lead to boredom. ...
Article
Emotions are an important component of our daily lives and contribute to behavior as well as general well-being. Foods are prominent sources of emotions (e.g. enjoyment, disgust…). One question that may arise in food research is how the different senses interact to create a unified affective representation of food. Indeed, current research suggests that rather than a unimodal processing of each sensory aspect of a food, there is a very early and almost undistinguishable integration of the senses, especially for the construction of flavor. In the present paper, we argue that a multisensory approach is necessary to understand the way senses converge to enable an emotional experience when perceiving food. We further put an emphasis on the fact that such multisensory integration is influenced by higher-order cognitive processes and possibly by emotions as well. After presenting theories in the field as well as experimental data, we discuss some paradigms that could pave the way for future research on food-induced emotional processing.
... Color perception, however could potentially be 236 modulated by other aspects of flavour that were neglected in this study. Flavour is a multisensory 237 construct and is not only defined through taste but also through scents, textures, temperature, pain and 238 sound (Yeomans et al., 2008). Here, we used water-based beverages as stimuli, which limited the 239 sensory stimulation of flavour to basic tastes and ortho-and retronasal stimulation of olfactory 240 receptors (Koza et al., 2005), while other aspects were not modulated and potentially not salient. ...
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Flavour is one of the best-known examples of multi-modal perception. Recent advances in and democratization of virtual reality has further stimulated research on cross modulations, however, gustatory cues have been vastly disregarded. We investigated bidirectional modulation of color and flavour perception using mismatching visuogustatory stimuli in an embodied and immersive virtual reality setup. While embodying a virtual avatar from a first-person perspective, participants were given a beverage in a syringe which with a different flavour as the seen beverage (visuogustatory conflict) which was compared to either just seeing the beverage or just tasting it (unimodal conditions). To quantify a potential influence of vision on subjective taste perception we used visual analogue scales assessing the four dimensions of taste (sweetness, bitterness, sourness and saltiness). To quantify a potential influence of flavour on color perception, we used color selection task using a color wheel. Confirming previous findings in different settings, our results showed that vision predictively influences taste perception of the beverage. However, color perception was, at least overall, not modulated by the flavour of the beverage. These findings extend current research on the multimodal nature of flavour and might be of importance both for fundamental research as well as for applied virtual reality technologies.
... A study of a savory, smoked-salmon-flavored "ice cream/mousse" showed that its acceptance or rejection largely depended on the researchers' manipulation of the context. Telling participants in the study that they were consuming smoked salmon "ice cream" provoked considerable dislike for the dish, whereas it was much more acceptable when labeled as cold smoked salmon mousse (Yeomans et al. 2008a). The crucial difference here is that the information provides a way of interpreting what is being eaten as either consistent with what we expect (that a mousse can be savory) or not (that ice cream does not come in fish flavors)based on prior exposure to multiple examples of both mousse and ice-cream. ...
... As non-verbal elements, food colours can influence consumer's sensory and hedonic expectations. Also, if these expectations are high, consumers may be interested in consuming these food products [12][13][14][15]. We have tried to answer the question "Why are colors so important for consumers?". ...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that an important criterion in determining consumers' fruit choice is not only the sensory properties, but consumer's previous information acquired on fruit which can be turned into beliefs and preferences. The starting point consists of the following aspects: to establish the frequency of consumption of fruit, to determine fruit varieties associated with the colour preferred by consumers; to identify the considerations according to which a person would choose a certain type of fruit and to analyse consumer's feedback on product sensorial properties, to study consumer's attitudes in the choice of a fruit and to understand the influence of colour on consumer's choice of fruit.
... Confirmed expectations lead to satisfaction, and refuted expectations in an event of positive disconfirmation; however, negative disconfirmation leads to product rejection. The result of confirmation or disconfirmation will affect the hedonic liking of and evoked emotions toward the product and the experience that follows, which may raise or lower a consumer's expectations (Yeomans, Chambers, Blumenthal, & Blake, 2008;Spinelli, Masi, Zoboli, Prescott, & Monteleone, 2015;Danner et al., 2017). ...
Article
This study explored food and wine pairing-related gastronomic experiences under blind and informed (wine provenance) conditions. Based on three descriptive analyses (food alone, wine alone, and food and wine together) by the same tasting panel, specific food and wine pairings (n=8) were selected for consumer tastings, which explored the pre-consumption (informed vs blind condition), core-consumption (liking, appropriateness of pairing, balance, sensory complexity, and expected price), and post-consumption (vividness, remembered liking, memorability, and loyalty) experiences in relation to the sensory profiles of the pairings. All tastings were conducted in a sensory laboratory to standardise the environment effect. During core-consumption, information level significantly impacted consumer ratings for both sensory complexity and 15 emotions. Appropriate pairings corresponded with increased liking, sensory complexity, and expected prices for wine, and emotions of positive valence, but no pairing by information level interactions were evident. Perhaps the context of dining had larger impact on consumer behaviour than provenance information. In the post-consumption experience, information level affected the vividness of the tasting, whereas the most appropriate pairings commanded significant vividness, remembered liking, memorability and loyalty ratings. The significant pairing by information level interaction on remembered liking may be beneficial for the word-of-mouth effect. Appropriate pairings may be important for positive gastronomic experiences, and could provide businesses with higher customer satisfaction and spending.
... EmojiGrid scores. The positions of the scores on the EmojiGrid valence (X) and arousal (Y) axis were converted into numerical values (1)(2)(3)(4)(5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10). ...
Article
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Food experiences are not only driven by the food’s intrinsic properties, such as its taste, texture, and aroma, but also by extrinsic properties such as visual brand information and the consumers’ previous experiences with the foods. Recent developments in automated facial expression analysis and heart rate detection based on skin color changes (remote photoplethysmography or RPPG) allow for the monitoring of food experiences based on video images of the face. RPPG offers the possibility of large-scale non-laboratory and web-based testing of food products. In this study, results from the video-based analysis were compared to the more conventional tests (scores of valence and arousal using Emojis and photoplethysmography heart rate (PPG)). Forty participants with varying degrees of familiarity with soy sauce were presented with samples of rice and three commercial soy sauces with and without brand information. The results showed that (1) liking and arousal were affected primarily by the specific tastes, but not by branding and familiarity. In contrast, facial expressions were affected by branding and familiarity, and to a lesser degree by specific tastes. (2) RPPG heart rate and PPG both showed effects of branding and familiarity. However, RPPG heart rate needs further development because it underestimated the heart rate compared to PPG and was less sensitive to changes over time and with activity (viewing of brand information and tasting). In conclusion, this study suggests that recording of facial expressions and heart rates may no longer be limited to laboratories but can be done remotely using video images, which offers opportunities for large-scale testing in consumer science.
... Due to the possible difference in expectations, this could thereby have led to a greater contrast between the expected and actual sensory qualities of the samples for the Danish consumers leading to a drop in liking when the vanilla aroma was added to the samples (Fig. 3C). Indeed, expectations that are not met can have a strong negative effect on liking (Yeomans, Chambers, Blumenthal, & Blake, 2008). Furthermore, it cannot be ruled out that the liking results were affected by halo effects, however, intensity scales were presented first as they were considered most important. ...
Article
Non-nutritive sweeteners often contain off-flavors and the use of aroma to increase sweetness intensity only allows for a small reduction of the sugar content in products. Therefore, it has been suggested to combine different strategies in order to successfully reduce sugar content in foods and beverages. Additionally, the use of aroma to increase sweetness might dependent on culture. The effect of sweetener and nationality on the cross-modal effect of vanilla aroma on sweet taste intensity was therefore investigated. Three sets of sweeteners: sucrose, sucrose+tagatose, and tagatose+rebaudioside A (all iso-sweet with 2.5 % sucrose) were investigated with and without vanilla aroma. Cross-modal effects were investigated with both a descriptive sensory analysis as well as consumer studies in China (n = 159) and Denmark (n = 161). Results indicated the greatest cross-modal effect of vanilla aroma on sweetness intensity of the sweeteners most perceptually similar to sucrose. In both countries, consumers rated samples with added vanilla aroma higher in sweet taste intensity than samples without added aroma. Danish consumers noted a greater increase than Chinese consumers did. Furthermore, individual differences in consumers’ sweetness ratings were observed, which could not be completely explained by the consumer characteristics recorded. Results from the present study suggest that the use of vanilla aroma in combination with non- or low-calorie sweeteners for sugar reduction can be used for at least some consumers and some sweeteners.
... A previous study revealed that when their team wins, more fans chose sweet and sour ice cream. On the contrary, when the team loses, more fans preferred salty ice cream [39] . A research looking at the correlation between fans' emotions and their hormones showed that the levels of testosterone and cortisol in fans changed with the results of the game [40] . ...
Article
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Studies on the integration of cross-modal information with taste perception has been mostly limited to uni-modal level. The cross-modal sensory interaction and the neural network of information processing and its control were not fully explored and the mechanisms remain poorly understood. This mini review investigated the impact of uni-modal and multi-modal information on the taste perception, from the perspective of cognitive status, such as emotion, expectation and attention, and discussed the hypothesis that the cognitive status is the key step for visual sense to exert influence on taste. This work may help researchers better understand the mechanism of cross-modal information processing and further develop neutrally-based artificial intelligent (AI) system.
... Another way to persuade people to eat insects is to explore product combinations (Tan et al., 2016a(Tan et al., , 2017b. Familiar preparations, in particular, can improve consumers' willingness to try as they are linked to positive sensory expectations (Tuorila et al., 1998;Yeomans et al., 2008). Combining insects with an appropriate carrier can heighten their sensorial appeal (Tan et al., 2016a) especially when combinations tap into already accepted flavours and recipes thus implying edibleness and normalising the new foodstuff (Shelomi, 2015;Tan et al., 2015). ...
Article
Despite secular consumption of insects in many regions of the world, this practice remains marginal in Western countries. Although entomophagy is slowly gaining mainstream visibility, it often triggers consumer acceptance only on a trial basis driven in part by adventurousness, environmental concerns, health benefits, food security issues, or a combination thereof. This paper draws from the consumer and ingestive behaviour literatures and from the growing entomophagy sphere of knowledge in order to surface possible tactics that could overcome consumer-level barriers and thus accelerate the adoption (and not only trial) of insects and promote its sustained consumption. We propose that more effective promotion of entomophagy may be achieved through acknowledgement and a deeper understanding of three separate, but mutually-influencing, families of factors that affect food choices and eating behaviours: (1) the foodstuff proper or a food’s attributes that satisfy established and evolving consumer preferences; (2) the foodie or a consumer’s characteristics including the degree of adventurousness and the relative importance given to various attributes and benefits of a product; and (3) the foodscape or characteristics of the food culture and environment including distribution and merchandising decisions that shape consumers food choices. Together, the assessment of these three factors allow for the better identification of promising strategies to reach a larger group of potential consumers and to promote the regular consumption of insects.
... Providing that the flavour expectation is not too far removed from flavour perception, people typically report the expected flavour or, at the very least, assimilate the experienced flavour in the direction of the expected flavour. Importantly, however, should the discrepancy between the expected and experienced flavour be too great, it may lead to a negatively-valenced 'disconfirmation of expectation' response and contrast is likely to be the perceptual response instead [98,112,195]; cf. Shankar et al. 's 'degree of discrepancy' account [120]. ...
Article
The colour and other visual appearance properties of food and drink constitute a key factor determining consumer acceptance and choice behaviour. Not only do consumers associate specific colours with particular tastes and flavours, but adding or changing the colour of food and drink can also dramatically affect taste/flavour perception. Surprisingly, even the colour of cups, cutlery, plates, packages, and the colour of the environment itself, have also been shown to influence multisensory flavour perception. The taste/flavour associations that we hold with colour are context-dependent, and are often based on statistical learning (though emotional mediation may also play a role). However, to date, neither the computational principles constraining these ubiquitous crossmodal effects nor the neural mechanisms underpinning the various crossmodal associations (or correspondences) that have been documented between colours and tastes/flavours have yet been established. It is currently unclear to what extent such colour-taste/flavour correspondences ought to be explained in terms of semantic congruency (i.e., statistical learning), and/or emotional mediation. Bayesian causal inference has become an increasingly important tool in helping researchers to understand (and predict) the multisensory interactions between the spatial senses of vision, audition, and touch. However, a network modelling approach may be of value moving forward. As made clear by this review, there are substantial challenges, both theoretical and practical, that will need to be overcome by those wanting to apply computational approaches both to understanding the integration of the chemical senses in the case of multisensory flavour perception, and to understanding the influence of colour thereon.
... Food cravings are not only associated with hunger (Hill et al., 1991) but also with a wide range of affective, cognitive, and situational triggers. For example, they are associated with negative mood (Hill & Heaton-Brown, 1994), expectations (Yeomans et al., 2008), and specific times of day (Reichenberger et al., 2018). Moreover, food cravings can also occur as a consequence of cognitive elaborations of initially intrusive thoughts about food (Kavanagh et al., 2005). ...
Article
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Objective: According to the elaborated intrusion theory of desire, an initial thought about a wanted substance is elaborated with mental imagery, which increases craving and the probability of consuming the substance. We used an app-assisted experience sampling approach to test this theory in the context of food craving and eating. Design: Overall, 221 females (mean age = 21 years; mean body mass index = 22) reported craving, mental imagery, and food consumption six times per day (2 h intervals) for seven consecutive days. Additionally, two traits (general food craving and imagery ability) were assessed. Main outcome measures: craving intensity, food consumption. Results: The probability of eating a craved food increased if the vividness of the mental food image and craving intensity increased two hours before-independent of trait food craving and trait imagery ability. We also found evidence of controlled eating behavior, with participants consuming the food they craved in only 38% of the cases. Conclusion: Mental imagery vividness and craving intensity predict consumption of craved food. The association between craving and eating might be stronger in individuals who struggle with controlling their eating behavior. Therefore, future studies should examine these relationships in overweight/obese samples or patients with eating disorders.
... presentation or plate style). Additionally, person's frame 1 of reference, and knowledge are known factors affecting generation of consumer expectations (Aaron et al., 1994;Harrar & Spence, 2013;Michel et al., 2015;Okamoto & Dan, 2013;Piqueras-Fiszman et al., 2012;Spence et al., 2012;Stewart & Goss, 2013;Wansink et al., 2005;Yeomans et al., 2008). ...
Thesis
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Background and aim: Many foods consumed daily are composed of multiple elements which often display a heterogeneous structure, flavour, and appearance. These heterogeneous food products are generally well-liked by consumers, although little information is available about the key factors responsible for their appreciation. This thesis aims to determine how food and consumer characteristics affect sensory perception and liking of heterogeneous foods by engineering structural heterogeneities at different length scales. The effects of structural heterogeneity on expected and perceived sensory properties and liking of foods were investigated considering different consumer groups. Methods: A combination of model and real food products were used to establish the effect of physical and physicochemical properties of heterogeneous food matrices on sensory perception and liking in relation to consumer expectations and physiological characteristics. Instrumental characterization of the products was related to the sensory perception, studied through a variety of methods (e.g. R.A.T.A., Ideal Profile, TDS). Consumer groups differing in age (i.e. healthy young adults vs. healthy elderly) or nationality/ethnicity (i.e. Dutch, Caucasian vs Chinese, Asian) were used to explore the generalisability of the effects. Results and conclusions: This thesis showed that variations in mechanical properties (e.g. fracture stress) between the components are the main driver of perceived heterogeneity by the consumer. For particle-filled foods, oral perception of the product can be influenced by varying both the size and the hardness of added particles, independently from the matrix consistency. Visual recognition of particle as a function of type, size, and concentration can stir expected sensory profile and liking of familiar and novel food products, although the palatability of the food depends on the particle properties. It was demonstrated that consumers prefer the presence of soft and easy-to-chew particles and that the mere mechanical contrast between components does not increase liking of foods. Conversely, this work revealed that congruent and familiar particles that match consumers’ expectations are required to boost palatability of heterogeneous products. Overall, such outcomes appear to be valid for a large spectrum of the population as relative small differences in perception of heterogeneous foods were observed between groups of healthy consumers (young vs elderly; Dutch vs Chinese). Moreover, the combination of different textures by addition of particles was proved to be an effective strategy to compensate for undesired textural sensations (e.g. grittiness) and to control oral consumption time with possible positive consequences for food intake.
... Other characteristics related to disliking were aroma and flavour of cardboard and beans, which are atypical to the sensory concept of Bolognese sauces, which may have resulted in the large differences in hedonic scores. The incongruence between the perceived atypical sensory characteristics and the identity of the food product can result in disconfirmation and eventually negative affect (Yeomans, Chambers, Blumenthal, & Blake, 2008). ...
Article
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Encouraging consumers to reduce their meat consumption is imperative in mitigating climate change effects related to the food industry. For some, transitioning away from meat may be facilitated by meat substitutes. However, these are not always accepted as suitable alternatives to meat due to a combination of psychological, situational, and sensorial aspects. The influence of factors such as cooking ability on hedonics and sensory discrimination of meat and meat substitutes is currently under-researched. The present study investigated such effects. Consumers (N = 101) of varying cooking ability and food neophobia (measured using questionnaires) tasted and evaluated six mince products (one beef and five meat substitutes - three soybean-based, one mycoprotein-based, and one oat-based) prepared in a Bolognese sauce. They rated liking for overall, appearance, aroma, taste/flavour, and texture, and profiled the products sensorially using check-all-that-apply (CATA). It was found that meat substitutes can be liked just as much as, if not more than, beef in the application of Bolognese sauce. No main effects of cooking ability were found for any modality of liking, though an interaction between cooking ability and sample was found for liking of flavour/taste. Consumers’ ability to sensorially discriminate between the Bolognese sauces was not dependent on their cooking ability. Several attributes that contributed to (dis)liking were identified. An additional online sample (N = 288) completed only the cooking ability and food neophobia questionnaires. A negative relationship was detected between cooking ability and food neophobia for the combined consumer and online datasets (total N = 389).
... For instance, a bruised fruit might be rated as visually unpleasant but still delicious while tasted. Thus, expectations based on a specific sensory hint might prove wrong when experiencing the product via other senses (Piqueras-Fiszman and Spence, 2015;Yeomans et al., 2008;Spence, 2020). In such cases, the multitude of sensory inputs are weighted and combined as a result of a multisensory integration process, and a hedonic final judgment is finally made (de Eguilaz et al., 2018;Spence and Gallace, 2011;Spence, 2012b). ...
Article
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Explicit and implicit responses to food and beverage are known to be modulated by expectations generated by contextual factors. Among these, labelling regarding the country of origin has been systematically shown to impact on consumers' evaluations of products. However, it is not clear yet whether the presence of food origin biases also affects humans’ physiological (i.e., implicit) responses, as well as whether different conditions of sensory appreciation of products are equally influenced. The present preliminary study investigated the psychophysiological responses to food samples paired to labels of declared (i.e., Italy, Spain/Germany, EU) or undeclared origins. Food items (i.e., olives and cracker) were presented in visual or taste conditions to thirty Italian participants, whose behavioral (i.e., liking, willingness to buy, and estimated cost) and physiological (i.e., skin conductance responses) responses were collected. The results indicated that the food samples elicited stronger liking and willingness to buy responses by participants and were estimated as more expensive, when being firstly experienced through vision than taste. No differences in the physiological arousal state were found as a function of food origin or sensory condition of presentation.
... For example, participants told to expect an ice cream, but who were in fact given a savoury salmon flavoured mousse resembling strawberry ice cream, reported significantly more negative evaluations when they tasted it, compared to participants who received no information or those who were told to expect salmon flavoured mousse (Yeomans et al. 2008). The consequences for marketing products are easy to identifywhen there is some kind of sensory deviation (such as previously used example of transparent Pepsi), it is important to notify the customers ahead of the launch. ...
Thesis
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The purpose of this dissertation is to investigate the role of colour on the perception of odour by measuring the a) preference and b) intensity of 16 possible combinations of 4 coloured bottles and 4 odours as rated by 297 participants (130 males and 167 females). The two-way ANOVA for preference revealed that the role of both – colour and odour is significant for Czech participants, but the significance increases with the cultural homogeneity as for Slavic nationals, the colour and odour did not play a significant role in their preference ratings. In contrary to previous research, the effect of colour and odour on intensity ratings was not significant. Linear regression analysis then showed that gender is also a significant factor and males are generally more prone to give higher preference scores by 5.58 % than females to colour and odour interactions. On the other hand, a choice of preferred colour did not affect the preference scores. In addition, several types of congruencies between colour and odour were proposed. It is argued that one of these types (perceptual, semantic, mixed) reflect the decision-making about preference levels more precisely. As a result, it has been demonstrated that intuitive congruent pairings of colours and odours (such as lemon and yellow) do not increase the preference ratings among consumers. Instead, the mixed semantical-perceptual congruency corresponds significantly to the collected data. This approach could simplify product testing methods where the colour and odour are deemed to be selected variables.
... In their small study of English monolinguals, for instance, Boutonnet and Lupyan (2015) found that hearing a label such as dog resulted in quicker recognition of an image of a dog than did hearing a nonverbal cue such as barking. Furthermore, several studies have found that perceived taste can be significantly improved by adding congruent labels (Okamoto et al., 2009;Yeomans, Chambers, Blumenthal, & Blake, 2008) to packaging. Even if a food seems unappetizing on its own, a congruent label can lead to improvements in perceived taste, as a consumer acceptance study (Markey et al., 2017: 7953) revealed. ...
Article
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en Previous research indicates that speakers of American English chiefly use crispy when referring to dry foods and crunchy when referring to wet foods, suggesting that these near‐synonyms have different semantic frames. The present study is the first to address how speakers of American English process crispy and crunchy by investigating whether foods with frame‐semantically (in)congruent food labels influence thoughts about and taste perception of foods. Taste tests with dry and wet foods labeled (in)congruently with regards to their water content showed that while thoughts remained unaffected, the frame‐semantically incongruent context produced significantly higher taste ratings than the frame‐semantically congruent context. Further research is necessary to explain whether and to what extent these findings can be generalized to other foods and near‐synonyms. Zusammenfassung de Verschiedene Studien haben ergeben, dass Sprecher amerikanischen Englisches hauptsächlich crispy verwenden, um sich auf trockene Lebensmittel zu beziehen und crunchy, um sich auf nasse Lebensmittel zu beziehen. Dies deutet auf unterschiedliche semantische Frames der Synonyme hin. Diese Studie widmet sich erstmals der Verarbeitung von crispy und crunchy durch Sprecher amerikanischen Englisches, indem sie untersucht, ob Lebensmittel mit Frame‐semantisch (in)kongruenten Lebensmitteletiketten Gedanken über und Geschmackswahrnehmung von Lebensmitteln beeinflussen. Geschmackstests mit trockenen und nassen Lebensmitteln, die hinsichtlich ihres Wassergehalts (in)kongruent gekennzeichnet waren, zeigten, dass Gedanken unverändert bleiben, die Geschmacksbewertung im Frame‐semantisch inkongruenten Kontext jedoch signifikant höher ausfällt als im Frame‐semantisch kongruenten Kontext. Zur Bestimmung ob und inwieweit diese Ergebnisse auf andere Lebensmittel und Synonyme übertragen werden können sind weiterführende Untersuchungen notwendig.
Article
A mixed-methodology study was conducted to better understand consumer attitudes and behaviors toward novel food pairings and the impact of culinary education. Focus groups were conducted to investigate the underlying motivational factors to the reactions and behaviors toward unfamiliar foods. The second phase of the study consisted of sensory evaluation by two separate cohorts, panelists with and without culinary education, of food products created through the novel pairings of foods. Panelists with culinary education expressed a greater overall liking for the animal-based pairing. Sensory-Affective and Ideational factors appeared to be underlying motivational factors of these hedonic reactions.
Article
This paper aims to explore the food-neophobia constructs regarding the way of overcoming all individuals' food neophobia in general for molecular gastronomy cuisine applications and to examine how science-based cooked foods should be marketed based on these neophobia constructs. A qualitative study approach was used by conducting 22 semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with executive chefs in Turkey. The findings involved four key interconnected constructs: conducting public disclosure activities, developing appetizing foods, establishing culinary knowledge, and using an authority argument that highlights the way of overcoming the food neophobia towards science-based cooked foods in the marketing context. The study is among the first attempts to highlight the way of overcoming food neophobia of people against science-based cooked food in the marketing context. Several theoretical and practical implications are discussed.
Chapter
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This chapter presents a grounded cognition theory of desire and motivated behaviour, along with empirical evidence that supports it, and discusses implications for self-regulation. The grounded cognition theory of desire suggests that desire arises when an internal or external cue triggers a simulation of an earlier appetitive experience that was rewarding and that has been stored as a situated conceptualization, incorporating information about the setting, actions, events, emotions, etc. Once part of this situated representation is cued, it can re-activate its other elements via pattern completion inferences, and lead to the experience of desire and motivated behaviour. The chapter will review studies supporting this account, using behavioural, physiological, and neuro-imaging methods. Research shows, for example, that food and drink cues (e.g., images, words) trigger spontaneous consumption and reward simulations (e.g., thoughts of eating and enjoying the food), that these simulations lead to desire and bodily preparations to eat (e.g., self-reported cravings, salivation), and that diffusing these simulations with mindfulness-based techniques reduces their effect on desire. The chapter also discusses related findings in research on marketing and food labelling, and addresses implications for interventions. © 2020 selection and editorial matter, Joseph P. Forgas, William D. Crano and Klaus Fiedler; individual chapters, the contributors.
Article
The color of food packaging has an important influence on consumers' purchasing decisions. This study takes popcorn packaging as an example to explore the impact of packaging color on consumers' taste perception and preference evaluation. Sixty participants were invited to participate in the experiment. Four experimental package design colors (red, blue, yellow, and white) and three popcorn tastes (sweet, salty, and tasteless) were used to evaluate whether the pretasting and posttasting evaluations were affected by package color and product taste. The results of this study indicated that (1) there is a contrast between expected psychological and actual perceptions and that (2) yellow and red packaging are suitable for a sweet product, blue is suitable for a salty product, and white is suitable for a tasteless product. The research results can help designers and manufacturers understand the effects of packaging color and achieve the design conditions required by consumers. Packaging color affects consumer taste perception and preference.
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Modern cuisine served at top-end restaurants attempts to attract customers, who increasingly demand new flavor, pleasure and fun. The materials were six dishes prepared using lemon or tomatoes and made in the traditional (classical), molecular and Note by Note (NbN) versions. The study explores sensory characteristics, consumer liking of key attributes, their declared sensations and emotions, as well as consumers’ facial expressions responding to the dishes. These objectives were investigated by descriptive quantitative analysis and consumer tests. Tests included a 9-point hedonic scale for degree of liking a dish, Check-All-That-Apply (CATA) for declared sensations and FaceReader for facial expressions. The influence of factors associated with consumer attitudes toward new food and willingness to try the dishes in the future were also determined. It was stated that the product profiles represent different sensory characteristics due to the technology of food production and the ingredients used. The food neophobia and consumer innovativeness had a significant (p ≤ 0.05) effect on liking. The odor-, flavor-, texture- and overall-liking of the NbN dishes were lower than that of traditional versions but did not vary from scores for molecular samples. The expected liking of NbN dishes was higher than experienced-liking. Traditional and modern products differed in CATA terms. Classical dishes were perceived by consumers as more tasty, traditional and typical while modern cuisine dishes were perceived as more surprising, intriguing, innovative and trendy. Mimic expressions assessment by FaceReader showed similar trends in some emotions in both classical dishes and separate temporal patterns in modern products.
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Four experiments were conducted to assess the effect of food color on flavor identification of noncarbonated beverages and to assess the interactive effect of food color and flavor levels on the perceived flavor intensity and hedonic quality of beverages and cake. Results showed that color masking dramatically decreased flavor identification of fruit-flavored beverages, while atypical colors induced incorrect flavor responses that were characteristically associated with the atypical color. In addition, the color level of beverages had significant effects on their overall acceptability, acceptability of color and of flavor, as well as on flavor intensity. The same results were shown with cake samples, with the exception that a significant interaction of color and flavor level was observed on overall acceptability. Correlational analysis on the subjective dimensions showed that the overall acceptability of both the beverage and cake products was more closely associated with ratings of flavor acceptability than with ratings of color acceptability. In addition, a test of the effect of colorant safety information showed that such information did not decrease any aspect of a product's acceptability.
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Expectations are generated by a variety of factors. We indicate a flow chart for the role of expectations at the point of choice and in influencing sensory perception at the time of consumption. We review the sparse literature on how advertising, packaging and information generate sensory expectations. The application of various theories to explain the observed effects of sensory expectations are reviewed. There is overwhelming evidence for assimilation-contrast effect, although no studies have been specifically designed to detect it. Finally we review the reasons why individuals might differ in the way that expectations influence sensory perception. These reasons include ideas from persuasion literature and private body consciousness. A number of behavioral hypothesis that follow from these theories are developed.
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Presents a model arguing that affect and emotion are often formed in an expectation-driven fashion. A pilot study and 2 experiments manipulated undergraduate Ss' affective expectations (e.g., how funny they expected a set of cartoons to be) and whether Ss' expectations were confirmed (e.g., whether the cartoons really were funny). When the value of a stimulus was consistent with an affective expectation, people formed evaluations relatively quickly. Even when the value of a stimulus was discrepant from an affective expectation, people sometimes assimilated the value of the stimulus to their expectations. Other times, such as when making a more fine-grained evaluation of the cartoons, people noticed that they were discrepant from their affective expectations. Under these conditions, people appeared to have more difficulty forming preferences. They took longer to evaluate and spent more time thinking about the cartoons.
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Forty three subjects were invited under the pretence that they would take part in an experiment on hunger feelings. They came without having eaten anything that morning and received a standard breakfast containing orange juice, cream cheese on crackers and yoghurt. These products were later (when subjects returned after scoring hunger feelings during the day) used as targets amidst a set of distractors varied by adding or subtracting different amounts of two basic tastes. Orange juice was varied in sweetness and bitterness, cream cheese in sourness and bitterness and yoghurt in sweetness and sourness. The changes were made comparable by using just noticeable differences, determined in preliminary experiments with other subjects, as units of change. Two measurements of memory were compared, an absolute (indicating which were the targets) and a relative one (indicating whether the targets and distractors were more, less or equally pleasant, sweet, sour, bitter or salty as the item eaten at breakfast). Both methods showed incidental learning, but relative memory was superior. Memory differed between tastes and was partly product dependent. These experiments suggest that taste memory is tuned to detect novel and potentially dangerous stimuli rather than to remember features of earlier experienced stimuli with great precision.
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Animals readily acquire positive odor-taste hedonic associations, but evidence for this in humans remains weak and was explored further. Retronasal pairing of odors with sucrose or salty stimuli (Experiment 1) increased the rated sweetness of sucrose-paired odors without altering liking, although changes in odor pleasantness correlated with sucrose liking. Experience of odors with sucrose or quinine by sweet likers (Experiment 2) found increased pleasantness and sweetness for sucrose-paired odors, whereas quinine-paired odors became less liked and more bitter. Odor-sucrose pairings in sweet likers and dislikers (Experiment 3) found increased sweetness in both groups but increased odor liking only in likers. These data suggest that evaluative and sensory learning are dissociable and that evaluative changes are sensitive to individual differences in sweet liking.
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In a test of the hypothesis that events which disconfirm expectancies will be perceived as unpleasant, Ss tasted a random sequence of sweet and bitter solutions. On the basis of certain signals given by the E, they developed expectancies or hypotheses about whether the next solution would be bitter or sweet. On trials when the Ss' expectancies were disconfirmed due to incorrect signals, the solutions were judged to taste more unpleasant. Thus, a bitter solution was rated more bitter; a sweet solution was rated less sweet. The results were interpreted in terms of Festinger's theory of cognitive dissonance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The influence of color on flavor was investigated using 310 untrained volunteers who each judged the flavor of 1 of 8 beverages. Artificially flavored raspberry and orange beverages were either left uncolored, or colored red, orange, or green. Color had a significant influence on the identification of both flavors, although every combination of color and flavor was identified correctly beyond the level expected by chance. Performance was degraded equally when beverages were uncolored, and facilitated equally when beverages were appropriately colored. Unusual color-flavor combinations reduced the identification of raspberry flavor more than that of orange flavor. The influence of color was particularly salient because tasters were aware that the color of the beverage might be inappropriate to its flavor.
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Six experiments were conducted to examine factors affecting the consumer acceptance of novel foods. Variables included for analyses of their effects were: (1) preparation variables; (2) product name and type of serving vessel; (3) brand labels and packaging; (4) availability of product information; (5) nature and quantity of product information; and (6) degree of familiarity of the user with the product. Results of these experiments were interpreted within a theoretical framework that postulates that the hedonic response to food is a function of the degree to which expectancies about the food are matched by subsequent experiences with it. Based on the theory of cognitive dissonance, this theoretical framework is proposed as a useful analytic tool for predicting consumer responses to novel foods.
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Dramatic effects of the immediate stimulus context were demonstrated for ratings of sweetness and also for ratings of pleasantness of soft drinks containing different concentrations of sucrose. The same drinks were rated sweeter when the lower concentrations were presented more frequently, less sweet when the higher concentrations were presented more frequently. A quasi-normal distribution of frequencies yielded ratings falling between the two skewed distributions. Ratings of sweetness were accurately predicted by Parducci’s (1974) range-frequency model of judgment, which was originally developed to explain contextual effects in other psychophysical dimensions. Ratings of pleasantness were also affected by context; the highest ratings were assigned to concentrations of intermediate sweetness in their respective contexts.
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The effect of nutritional information (fat and salt content) on the acceptance and perceived sensory attributes of a low-fat (40% vegetable fat), low-salt (0.7% NaCl) spread was studied among 50 subjects. Pleasantness, saltiness and melting rate in the mouth were rated without information, after 7 days' of home-use, and with information. The effect of information on ratings was studied before and after home-use. Subjects' concern about food and health was assessed by a background questionnaire. Nutritional information presented before the period of home-use increased the pleasantness and melting-rate ratings, while information presented after home-use did not significantly affect either pleasantness or sensory ratings. Concern about food and health had a positive effect on pleasantness ratings, and information had stronger impact on concerned subjects. Pleasantness or attribute intensity ratings did not change during the home-use period. The results indicate that information about the nutritional content of food affects hedonic ratings and perceived attribute intensities.
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Information has been shown to create expectations concerning sensory properties and acceptability of food products, and to influence their evaluations. Studying the impact of information is particularly relevant for traditional products which communicate about typicality. Extra virgin olive oil is a typical Mediterranean production whose typicality is strongly affected by the origin of its raw material and the manufacturing technology. The present study aims (1) to explore the appropriateness of several sensory descriptors in evaluating the typicality of certain extra virgin olive oils, (2) to assess the impact of information about the origin of the product on the sensory profile perception, (3) to study how the effect of sensory expectations can influence liking and “typicality” responses for the experimental oils obtained from a defined cultivar. Working with a panel of consumers familiar with several typical extra virgin olive oils produced in Lucania, a set of monovarietal extra virgin olive oils were evaluated. Results show that there are well defined expectations for some of the sensory properties which characterize the typical olive oils presented. The sensory disconfirmations leading to complete assimilation in sensory perception are associated to higher “typicality” ratings. Our results also revealed that bitterness and pungency proved to be the most appropriate sensory descriptors of certain typical olive oils.
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Can a dietitian, restaurateur, marketer, or parent change the perceived taste of a food simply by changing its name? In a six-week cafeteria experiment involving 140 customers, those who ate foods with evocative, descriptive menu names (such as “Succulent Italian Seafood Filet”) generated a larger number of positive comments about the food and rated it as more appealing, tasty, and caloric than those eating regularly-named counterparts (e.g., “Seafood Filet”). The open-ended comments indicated that their evaluations were assimilated with prior taste expectations in a manner that is more deliberate and less automatic than most research typically claims. For practioners, the use of descriptive names may help improve perceptions of foods in institutional settings, and it may help facilitate the introduction of unfamiliar foods.
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When eating or drinking, the individual experiences a multitude of sensations, including taste, smell, touch, temperature, sight, sound, and sometimes pain/irritation. This multi-faceted sensory experience is the underpinning of perceived flavor, although certainly some sensations contribute more than others. This paper reviews how all these sensations interact, both on a perceptual and a physical level, and discusses the resulting impact each has on flavor ratings. Interactions between taste and smell, and interactions of the remaining sensations will be discussed. Finally, practical implications of these interactions for sensory evaluation are discussed.
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The integration of olfactory and taste perception and the role of congruency and familiarity on perception have already been demonstrated in model solutions. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of these factors in real food products. Therefore, we have investigated the impact of olfactory perception on perceived bitterness in a familiar (bitter cocoa beverage) and an unfamiliar (bitter milk) beverage. Sensory profilings with and without noseclip were conducted according to simultaneous product presentation. In a first experiment, an instant cocoa powder mixed with water was used to prepare a common base. Two types of flavourings were added: cocoa and vanilla, at three different levels (none, medium and high). Samples were compared within a flavouring type. In a second experiment a vanilla flavour was added at three levels to a milk base containing caffeine. The panellists scored bitterness, sourness, sweetness and body with noseclip. Without noseclip, overall aroma above the cup and in mouth were assessed in addition to the previous set of attributes. With noseclip, results showed that neither the cocoa nor the vanilla flavourings provided any additional taste to the beverages. Without noseclip, olfactory/taste interaction in the cocoa beverage led to an enhancement of bitterness induced by the cocoa flavouring and an increase in sweetness from the vanilla flavouring. On the contrary, in the caffeinated milk, the addition of vanilla flavouring did not significantly increase sweetness, but unexpectedly enhanced bitterness. This study is further evidence of the influence of olfaction on taste perception in complex matrices. In addition, our results suggest that taste–olfaction integration is product dependent and related to food experience, even when working with trained subjects. Furthermore, the unpleasantness due to the neophobia related to the consumption of a new product and to bitterness may enhance bitterness when the unfamiliarity of the product is increased by addition of vanilla flavouring to a bitter milk beverage.
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Memory for texture plays an important role in food expectations. After fasting overnight, subjects (41 women, 35 men, age 19¿60 years) received a breakfast including breakfast drink, biscuits and yoghurt. Subsequently, they rated their hunger feelings every hour, and returned for a taste experiment in the evening. When unexpectedly confronted with five texture variations of each breakfast item, they were asked to recognise the samples they had eaten earlier. Signal detection showed that subjects could recognise the drinks and yoghurts, but not the biscuits. In a second test with newly coded samples, subjects rated liking and compared their perception of the sample with the remembered target on different attributes. Memory was not related to liking and it was poor for fat (biscuits and yoghurt), but good for thickness (drinks and yoghurt) and crispiness (biscuits). Levels of fat were not remembered as such, but showed some indirect distinctiveness in related attributes as crispiness, thickness or crumbling (biscuits) and thickness or creaminess (yoghurt).
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When consumers taste a food product in a real-life situation, their perception of the product is not only based on the sensory characteristics of the product per se. Product perception is often biased by preconceived ideas about product properties and is affected by the consumer’s judgmental frame of reference. If these preconceived ideas are concerned what the product is,they are called perceptual or analytical expectations or product beliefs. If these ideas relate to whether a consumer expects to like the product, they are called hedonic or affective expectations or product attitudes. Product beliefs and attitudes are stored in memory in the form of a network of associative knowledge, that is, a schema. When a market researcher inquires after a consumer’s product expectations, different pieces of information are retrieved as activation spreads through this network of linked nodes. The network will provide a coherent picture of the product under investigation, often referred to as the product image.
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Four experiments were conducted to assess the nature of taste–smell interactions. In the first experiment, the ability of strawberry odor to modify the sweetness of sucrose was investigated. This was accomplished by having subjects rate the sweetness of whipped-cream stimuli with and without strawberry odor over time. The stimuli were swallowed to augment retronasal stimulation of the olfactory system. It was found that strawberry odor tended to enhance the maximal sweetness and total rating time of the stimuli. In the second experiment, it was found that peanut butter odor did not enhance sweetness, thus demonstrating that an odor's ability to enhance sweetness is odor-dependent, In the third experiment, it was demonstrated that strawberry odor did not enhance the saltiness of sodium chloride indicating that an odor's ability to enhance taste is tastant-dependent. In the fourth experiment, it was shown that 85% of the strawberry odorant's ability to enhance sweetness was eliminated by pinching the nostrils. This suggests that the influence of the strawberry odorant on sweetness was olfactory rather than gustatory. It was concluded that an odor's influence on taste is both odorant and tastant dependent.
Article
Turkeys from six market flocks were examined at 8 to 19 weeks of age to assess morphologic lesions of perirenal hemorrhage syndrome (PHS). PHS was diagnosed in 165 of 715 turkeys necropsied, and 82 turkeys served as age- and weight-matched controls. The most consistent gross findings were rounded pectoral muscles of normal color, ingesta-filled crops and gizzards, variable retroperitoneal perirenal hemorrhage, a swollen dark red and light purple spleen, congested intestinal blood vessels, and pulmonary edema and/or hemorrhage. The main histologic lesions of PHS were perivascular edema in lungs and kidneys, vascular congestion of various organs, renal perivenous hemorrhage, and proliferative arterial and arteriolar lesions in the spleen and kidneys that were more severe than those in controls. Heart weights, including mean relative weights of the right and combined left ventricles and interventricular septa, were significantly greater in turkeys that died with PHS than in controls. Scores for tibial dyschondroplasia and "breast blisters" were more severe in turkeys that died with PHS than in controls. The cardiovascular system appeared to be the PHS target system.
Article
The effect of the range of levels of the test stimuli on ratings of sweetness intensity is demonstrated for a lime drink. The results are consistent with Poulton's (1979) suggestion that range effects can be predicted from the deviation of the mean response in a session from the mid-point of the response dimension. It is demonstrated that this range bias can be avoided by adding a readily anchored mid-point (ideal) to the response dimension and selecting stimuli so that the mean response is close to this mid-point. This bias-reducing, relative-to-mid-point procedure also produces a stronger linear relationship between ratings and concentration ratios than does the conventional end-point-anchored intensity rating procedure. The similarity of the linear semi-log functions of response relative to extremely sweet and relative to ideally sweet is taken as evidence that the two types of responses are not independent.
Article
The range-frequency theory is concerned with category judgments, like "good" and "bad," or "large," "medium," and "small." A specific model derives the judgments from 2 basic assumptions: (a) The judge divides his psychological range into subranges whose relative sizes are independent of the stimulus conditions; and (b) he employs the alternative categories with equal frequency. The model uses judgments obtained when stimuli are presented with equal frequency to predict the judgments when stimuli are presented with unequal frequencies. These data are also used to evaluate the weighted-mean model for adaptation level. It is concluded that category judgments are more adequately explained by the range-frequency theory than by the theory of adaptation level.
Article
Hedonic and sensory expectations related to fat-free and regular-fat pound cake, crackers and American cheese were studied with 97 subjects divided into three subgroups, each testing one type of product. Four study phases were separated by 1-month intervals: (1) a questionnaire on demographics, dietary practices and consumption of the test products, (2) intensity ratings of sensory attributes and ratings of liking of unlabeled fat-free and regular-fat samples, (3) ratings of expected attribute intensities and liking in response to product labels of "fat-free" and "regular", and subsequent ratings of these samples and (4) phase 3 repeated with opposite (incorrect) labels. Fat-free products were expected to be less liked than their regular counterparts; however, only cheese was less liked in actual taste tests. Expected liking was best predicted by familiarity with the product and, in the case of fat-free products, by the extent to which a person substituted low-fat for high-fat foods. Actual liking was best predicted by the effect of labeling and by expectations. The expected intensities of sensory attributes were uniformly higher in regular than in fat-free products. Both sensory and hedonic ratings of labeled samples changed in the direction of expectations, as compared to baseline values, supporting an assimilation model of the effect of disconfirmed expectations on sensory perception and consumer acceptance.
Article
Although odorants and tastants are perceived by two different senses, the rated intensity of a tastant may increase if an odorant is added. The size of the odor-induced taste enhancement is said to depend on the perceptual similarity between the tastant and the odorant, and on the task instruction which affects subjects' working concepts of attribute categories. It is investigated whether congruency or pleasantness (halo-effects) can replace perceptual similarity in accounting for odor-induced taste enhancement. Sweetness intensity, pleasantness, and degree of congruency are determined for three sucrose/odorant combinations. Odor-induced enhancement is found only for congruent mixtures (sucrose/strawberry and sucrose/lemon). In addition, highly congruent mixtures are more pleasant than expected under additivity. The pleasantness judgments for incongruent combinations (sucrose/ham) follow a subtractive rule. The congruency ratings can account for a significant part of the pleasantness ratings, but not for the degree of sweetness enhancement. Also, the pleasantness ratings are not related to the degree of enhancement. Therefore, congruency or pleasantness ratings cannot replace similarity ratings in accounting for odor-induced taste enhancement.
Article
We used positron emission tomography to evaluate differential processing of olfactory, gustatory and combined olfactory and gustatory (flavor) stimuli as indicated by comparison of evoked cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes during these conditions. We found significant CBF decreases in primary gustatory and secondary gustatory and olfactory cortices during simultaneous presentation compared with independent presentations of identical stimuli, suggesting that flavor processing is not represented by a simple convergence of its component senses. Additionally, CBF increases in the amygdala and basal forebrain were observed in a mismatched flavor condition versus a matched flavor condition, suggesting a role for these structures in processing novel or unpleasant stimuli.
Article
Effects of expectations conveyed by a product description or an empty package on the evaluation of four types of natural yogurt were studied in a laboratory setting. Hedonic and perceptual responses for the correctly or incorrectly identified products generally showed assimilation: they fell between the responses to the unlabelled products and the responses for the expected properties evoked by presenting only product descriptions or empty packages. Hedonic judgments remained close to the expectation when the product performed better than expected, whereas they were relatively close to the evaluation for the unlabelled product when the product performed worse than expected. The asymmetry was largest for the buying intentions of subjects who received product packages. This is in accordance with the theory that positive disconfirmations are regarded as "gains" and negative disconfirmations as "losses". The asymmetry is likely to be more important in actual buying behaviour than in the experimental settings generally studied, as here.
Article
Detailed analysis of the pattern of change in rated appetite within a meal have proved a useful technique through which to explore appetite control. Variability in individual ratings, and technical difficulties in achieving ratings at equivalent stages of a meal, have lead to the use of curve-fitting techniques to model changes in rated appetite across a meal. These changes could best be described by a quadratic function, in which the three parameters (intercept, linear and quadratic coefficients) represented distinct influences on meal size. In normal subjects, manipulations of palatability and opioid receptor blockade and preloads of alcohol all modified the linear component of this function only, while preloading with maltodextrin reduced appetite at the start of eating (the intercept) but not the pattern of change in ratings within that meal. Thus the linear coefficient appears to measure the degree of stimulation of appetite by the sensory characteristics of the food, while the intercept reflects baseline appetite at the start of a meal. These results suggest that microstructural analyses of rating changes allow some dissociation of the factors underlying motivation to eat, and provide a novel methodology for future experimentation.
Article
The effects of the actual and labelled fat content of a soup preload on appetite at a test meal 30 min later were assessed in 16 healthy men. Each participant ate lunch on four occasions, combining two levels of fat energy (Low, 265 kJ or High, 1510 kJ) and two types of label (Low-fat or High-fat), presented as fictitious soup brand names. Preliminary work established that the Low-fat labels produced an expectation of reduced fat content and lower anticipated hedonic ratings, whereas the High-fat labels generated expectations of a high-fat content and above average hedonic ratings. These expectancies were confirmed in the main experiment, with the soups labelled as high fat rated as both more pleasant and creamy than those labelled low-fat, independent of actual fat content. However, intake at the test meal was unaffected by the preload label, but instead reflected the actual fat (hence, energy) content of the soup, with significantly lower food intake after the high-fat soup regardless of the food label. Rated hunger was lower, and fullness higher, at the start of the meal after the high-fat preloads regardless of how they were labelled, while the pattern of appetite change during the test meal was unaffected by preload. These results suggest that realistic food labels can modify the immediate experience of a consumed food, but do not alter appetite 30 min later in healthy men.
Article
The interaction between the vision of colors and odor determination is investigated through lexical analysis of experts' wine tasting comments. The analysis shows that the odors of a wine are, for the most part, represented by objects that have the color of the wine. The assumption of the existence of a perceptual illusion between odor and color is confirmed by a psychophysical experiment. A white wine artificially colored red with an odorless dye was olfactory described as a red wine by a panel of 54 tasters. Hence, because of the visual information, the tasters discounted the olfactory information. Together with recent psychophysical and neuroimaging data, our results suggest that the above perceptual illusion occurs during the verbalization phase of odor determination.
Article
The relationship between the attitude of the recipient and the position advocated in a communication was studied under conditions where a communicator not known to subject presents a point of view on a controversial issue which differs from that of subject by varying amounts." The topic discussed was prohibition of alcohol. The Ss came from a dry state where this was a lively issue. It was suggested that "the relative distance between subject's own attitude and communication along with subject's latitudes of acceptance and rejection for various stands on the issue may provide a basis for predicting reactions to communication and susceptibility to change." 20 references.
Article
In studies of hedonic ratings, contrast is the usual result when expectations about test stimuli are produced through the presentation of context stimuli, whereas assimilation is the usual result when expectations about test stimuli are produced through labeling, advertising, or the relaying of information to the subject about the test stimuli. Both procedures produce expectations that are subsequently violated, but the outcomes are different. The present studies demonstrate that both assimilation and contrast can occur even when expectations are produced by verbal labels and the degree of violation of the expectation is held constant. One factor determining whether assimilation or contrast occurs appears to be the certainty of the expectation. Expectations that convey certainty are produced by methods that lead to social influence on subjects' ratings, producing assimilation. When social influence is not a factor and subjects give judgments influenced only by the perceived hedonic value of the stimulus, contrast is the result.
Article
In the present study, we investigated the nature of any cross-modal associations between colors and odors. In Experiment 1, we show that participants consistently match certain odors to specific colors when asked to explicitly select from among different colors the one that best matched a given odor. In Experiment 2, we investigated the robustness of these cross-modal associations using a cross-modal variant of the implicit association test (IAT). Participants made speeded discrimination responses to a random sequence of odors (strawberry vs. spearmint) and color patches (pink vs. turquoise). On the basis of the results of Experiment 1, the assignment of these targets onto the two response keys was manipulated in order to generate compatible (e.g., responding to the pink color and to the strawberry odor with the same response key) and incompatible (e.g., responding to the pink color and to the spearmint odor with the same response key) blocks of trials. The results showed that participants responded more rapidly and accurately to odor-color pairings having a stronger association than to those having a weaker (or no) association. These results suggest that odor-color associations can be both systematic and robust. The paradigm developed here provides a novel cross-modal extension of the IAT to probe the nature of color-odor associations.
Article
Human olfactory perception is notoriously unreliable, but shows substantial benefits from visual cues, suggesting important crossmodal integration between these primary sensory modalities. We used event-related fMRI to determine the underlying neural mechanisms of olfactory-visual integration in the human brain. Subjects participated in an olfactory detection task, whereby odors and pictures were delivered separately or together. By manipulating the degree of semantic correspondence between odor-picture pairs, we show a perceptual olfactory facilitation for semantically congruent (versus incongruent) trials. This behavioral advantage was associated with enhanced neural activity in anterior hippocampus and rostromedial orbitofrontal cortex. We suggest these findings can be interpreted as indicating that human hippocampus mediates reactivation of crossmodal semantic associations, even in the absence of explicit memory processing.
Effects of disconfirmed consumer expectations on food acceptability Some hedonic consequences of the confirmation and disconfirmation of expectancies
  • A V Cardello
  • F M Sawyer
Cardello, A. V., & Sawyer, F. M. (1992). Effects of disconfirmed consumer expectations on food acceptability. Journal of Sensory Studies, 7. Carlsmith, J. M., & Aronson, E. (1963). Some hedonic consequences of the confirmation and disconfirmation of expectancies. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 66, 151–156.
Taste-odor similarities predict taste enhancement and suppression in taste-odor mixture
  • Frank
Frank, R. A., Shaffer, G., & Smith, D. V. (1991). Taste-odor similarities predict taste enhancement and suppression in taste-odor mixture. Chemical Senses, 16, 523.
Effects of context in judgements of sweetness and pleasantness
  • Riskey