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Abstract

An emerging body of research suggests that participant interaction is one of the strongest predictors of success in online environments. However, studies about the effects of participant interaction in a large sample of multiple online environments are rather limited. Using hierarchical modeling techniques, we examine a sample of 40 online MBA courses to determine whether learner–instructor, learner–learner, or learner–system interaction is most significantly related to online course outcomes. Our findings suggest that while collaborative environments were associated with higher levels of learner–learner and learner–system interaction, only learner–instructor and learner–system interaction were significantly associated with increased perceived learning.

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... Few of them provide inconsistent results about the relationship. But most studies show that the interaction between learner and instructor commits their student with their course material and strengthens their ability to get high learning outcomes (Arbaugh & Benbunan-Fich, 2007;Jaggars & Xu, 2016). The learner to learner interaction does not promote student satisfaction and learning outcomes. ...
... Student satisfaction plays an important role to enhance a student's educational experience during an online learning system. In the last few decades, several studies have been carried out to measure the student satisfaction during the learning process in higher education institutions and also study the perception about the educational learning outcomes (Alavi & Leidner, 2001;Anderson, 2021Anderson, , 2003Arbaugh, 2010;Arbaugh & Benbunan-Fich, 2007;Arbaugh & Rau, 2007;Banna et al., 2015;Berge, 2008;Bernard et al., 2009;Chen & Jang, 2010;Connell & Ryan, 1985;Deci & Ryan, 2011;Dereshiwsky, 2013;Duncan-Howell, 2010;Duque, 2014;Eccles et al., 1993;Fujita-Starck & Thompson, 1994;Garnjost & Lawter, 2019;Garrison et al., 2000;Gillett-Swan, 2017;Guay et al., 2008;Gurley, 2018;Harnegie, 2015;Ho & Dzeng, 2010;Hosler & Arend, 2012;Hung & Chou, 2015;Jaggars & Xu, 2016;Johnson & Johnson, 2002;Kanuka, 2011;Keller, 1983;Kleij et al., 2012;Maki et al., 2000;Martin & Bolliger, 2018;Martin et al., 2019;Matzat, 2013;Meter & Stevens, 2000;Moore, 2016;Moore & Kearsley, 2011;Muirhead & Juwah, 2004;Noels et al., 2000;Pae, 2008;Peled et al., 2019;Piaget, 1977;Piccoli et al., 2001;Ryan & Deci, 2000;Sørebø et al., 2009;Vierling et al., 2007;Vygotsky, 1978). ...
... The questionnaire items with the descriptive statistics are defined in Appendix A. The research tool is prepared on the basis of literature (Alavi & Leidner, 2001;Anderson, 2021Anderson, , 2003Arbaugh, 2010;Arbaugh & Benbunan-Fich, 2007;Arbaugh & Rau, 2007;Baber, 2020;Banna et al., 2015;Berge, 2008;Bernard et al., 2009;Chen & Jang, 2010;Connell & Ryan, 1985;Deci & Ryan, 2011;Dereshiwsky, 2013;Duncan-Howell, 2010;Duque, 2014;Eccles et al., 1993;Eom & Ashill, 2016;Fujita-Starck & Thompson, 1994 Muirhead & Juwah, 2004;Noels et al., 2000;Pae, 2008;Peled et al., 2019;Piaget, 1977;Piccoli et al., 2001;Ryan & Deci, 2000;Sørebø et al., 2009;Vierling et al., 2007;Vygotsky, 1978;Wang, 2003) and uses the 4-point likert scale given in Table 2. ...
Article
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The current health emergency has a significant effect on the educational community in unprecedented manners. Most of the educational activities are conducted via online to engage their students by keeping social distance. Most instructors and students face huge trouble using digital systems because they have no prior training about online learning systems. The aim of this study is to measure the student attitude toward online teaching during COVID-19. This study is different from existing literature, where online enrollment of courses is an option with a reliable learning management system (LMS) for students and teachers rather than an educational emergency. During this health emergency, we conducted an online survey to collect student response from 15 higher education institutions across Pakistan. The responses of 525 students were analyzed by using partial least square (PLS). We observed that the limited interaction and lesson plan have a significant impact on student attitude, while interaction with teachers has no impact on student attitude. In this study, we also provide a framework to use existing resources and LMS to improve the educational sustainability during COVID-19 pandemic.
... Most of the existing IS literature investigates the role of technology on individual learning [9,47,89]. Considering the results from those IS empirical studies, it appears unclear whether TML catalyzes the learning and satisfaction of students. Some authors mention some positive impacts [5,32,33], negative impacts [50,72,118], or no significant difference [5,118]. ...
... However, the value-satisfaction relationship has not been studied concerning HEIs; existing studies are limited to the study of students' satisfaction and dissatisfaction [44] related to the role the lecturer plays in the educational experience [82]. More precisely, the course content quality, the faculty feedback quality, and the student-faculty and student-student relationship were found to be vital elements of student satisfaction [9,32,53,72,83,96,126,137]. However, we lack empirical support regarding HEIs, which leads to Hypothesis 4. The SPC model implies that customer satisfaction, which is dependent on the perception of external service quality [66], primarily leads to customer loyalty. ...
... In blended-learning studies, the essential determinant of student satisfaction relates to face-to-face activities and textbook quality [121]. In an online delivery method, student satisfaction depends on the student's relationship with the faculty and other students [9,47,72,96,99] as well as the interactivity of the course [129] and students' efficacy with IT tools [89,118]. ...
Article
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Should we teach in hybrid mode or fully online? We examine the teaching model's role (hybrid versus fully online) in the service–profit chain in higher education institutions using survey data from 93 faculty members and 366 students from three American universities. We find that faculty members’ satisfaction and the MBA program expectations improve MBA word-of-mouth by enhancing the MBA quality, MBA value, class satisfaction, and MBA loyalty. Additionally, we discover that the hybrid teaching model more strongly reinforces this chain of effects than the fully online model. IT creates the integration of differential value into a hybrid teaching style.
... • Internet/Web-based E-Learning (Synchronous/Asynchronous) [17]: ...
... A virtual classroom is a platform in which learners and instructors though remotely placed, they create a learning platform of collaborative learning and take leverage of the latest technology. Many research studies have proven that collaborative learning induces better learners' participation, better group synergy, better academic pursuits, and improve overall productivity in comparison to the individual learning [17]. Some of the widely used collaborative tools are-Electronic Bulletin Boards, News Groups, Net Meeting, Online Chat rooms, and Web-Based Group System. ...
... Text-based online collaboration tools are mostly used for supporting elearning systems. But, tools based on multimedia are highly demanded in the existing system of adaptive e-learning [17]. ...
Chapter
There is dearth of good teachers
... Such element seems particularly significant in the CSCL, as social interaction is the tool through which participants, verbalizing their opinions, may develop a collective knowledge in order to reach the group's purposes [46]. Participants' interactions are one of the most significant indicators of success in online environments [48]. More specifically, the interaction styles were positively related to the performance of virtual teams [49]. ...
... 6. Females will have a better performance in all experimental conditions and they will have a better performance in the gender majority group, while males will perform better in mixed-gender groups (e.g., [18,32]). 7. A greater involvement of participants in the chat will produce better performance in a DRM task [48]. ...
... In the end, collaborative groups revealed the best performance, confirming another study where interactions among members is a strong predictor for successful performances in VEs [48]. Hence, virtual social interactions are essential to better understand CSCL [45], and they appear to affect the effectiveness of collaborative learning process [46,47]. ...
Article
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Worldwide, organizations and small and medium-sized enterprises have already disruptively changed in many ways their physiological inner mechanisms, because of information and communication technologies (ICT) revolution. Nevertheless, the still ongoing COVID-19 worldwide emergency definitely promoted a wide adoption of teleworking modalities for many people around the world, making it more relevant than before to understand the real impact of virtual environments (VEs) on teamwork dynamics. From a psychological point of view, a critical question about teleworking modalities is how the social and cognitive dynamics of collaborative facilitation and collaborative inhibition would affect teamwork within VEs. This study analyzed the impact of a virtual environment (VE) on the recall of individuals and members of nominal and collaborative groups. The research assessed costs and benefits for collaborative retrieval by testing the effect of experimental conditions, stimulus materials, group size, experimental conditions order, anxiety state, personality traits, gender group composition and social interactions. A total of 144 participants were engaged in a virtual Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) classical paradigm, which involved remembering word lists across two successive sessions, in one of four protocols: I-individual/nominal, I I - nominal/individual, I I I - nominal/collaborative, I V - collaborative/nominal. Results suggested, in general, a reduced collaborative inhibition effect in the collaborative condition than the nominal and individual condition. A combined effect between experimental condition and difficulty of the task appears to explain the presence of collaborative inhibition or facilitation. Nominal groups appeared to enhance the collaborative groups’ performance when virtual nominal groups come before collaborative groups. Variables such as personality traits, gender and social interactions may have a contribution to collaborative retrieval. In conclusion, this study indicated how VEs could maintain those peculiar social dynamics characterizing the participants’ engagement in a task, both working together and individually, and could affect their intrinsic motivation as well as performances. These results could be exploited in order to design brand new and evidenced-based practices, to improve teleworking procedures and workers well-being, as well as teleworking teamwork effectiveness.
... For example, Joksimovic et al. [37] found that student-student interaction has a positive effect on the student's learning outcome in online environments. In a similar vein, Marks et al. [41] and Arbaugh and Benbunan-Fich [8] found that student to student interactions are significant determinants of perceived learning. To analyze online interactions, there are several variables that have been used, but most fall into either asynchronous or synchronous interactions [44]. ...
... These results extended decades of research from in-person schools [32,33], and online learning environments in other educational contexts (e.g., higher education, adult learning, primary and secondary) [8,11,37,41,43,44,48,49,54,71] to cyber schools, and they generalized some of the case study and single school results from cyber schools to a much larger, national population [3]. Student achievement increased with more student-student interaction. ...
Article
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In-person school research showed that student-student and teacher-student interaction were positively related to student learning, yet unexplored for cyber schools (fully online, primary or secondary schools). The purpose of this study was to explore relationships between synchronous student-student interaction, teacher-student interaction, parents’ interaction concerns, and student achievement for 5,458 students enrolled in 34 U.S. cyber schools located in 28 states. To test hypotheses we performed longitudinal analyses of 2017-2020 data using hierarchical linear modeling (HLM). Results of our analysis of whether positive relationships exist between student-student and teacher-student synchronous interactions and student academic outcomes showed student-student interactions were positively correlated with scores on math and reading assessments, credits earned, and GPA; teacher-student interactions were correlated positively with scores on reading assessments, but negatively with credits earned and GPA. Results of our analysis of whether an inverse relationship exists between student-level interaction concerns and outcomes showed these student-level interaction concerns were negatively correlated with achievement on state assessments in most cases, and with credits earned and GPA in all cases. Results of our analysis of whether an inverse relationship exists between teacher-level interaction concerns and outcomes showed that some teacher-level interaction concerns were negatively correlated with math achievement, credits earned, and GPA in nearly all cases. Unfortunately, cyber school models typically maximize flexibility for students; yet this may come at the expense of student-student and teacher-student interaction, which in turn may be influenced by interaction concerns. Results suggest the need for future research into the mechanisms behind these various relationships.
... Interaction is one of the critical determinants of e-learning quality [14][15][16], and defined as two or more objects' behavior of communicating with and affecting each other [14]. Despite its importance, few researchers have investigated the relationship between interaction quality as a stand-alone in e-learning can be divided into learner-system, learnerinstructor, learner-learner, and learner-content interactions [15] but extant studies have explained student satisfaction based on one or two types of interaction [9,10,17]. The inclusion of all four types of interaction into the explanation of e-learning quality may fully reflect interaction quality during e-learning. ...
... Considering that lecture-oriented courses in the medical school mostly changed just mode from face-to-face to online, one possible explanation for this result may reside in course design. Arbaugh and Benbunan-Fich [17] showed that a higher level of learnerlearner interaction was associated with collaborative environments; thus, in e-learning contexts where the course does not require interaction between students, learner quality has less influence on interaction quality. ...
Article
Purpose: This research investigated the critical factors that affect the e-learning quality. The student satisfaction model with the five factors such as content, system, learner, instructor and interaction was proposed and empirically examined. It also investigated the relationship between the interaction and other constructs. Methods: This study used a cross sectional survey design, and convenience sampling. To examine the critical factors and their relationship, a survey of 28 items was developed based on previous studies and sent out through a learning management system to all the students (n=250) enrolled in the pre-med 1 to the medicine 3 in one medical school in Korea. The medical school delivered all the courses online due to the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. The collected data (n=209, 83.6%) were analyzed through structural equation modeling by using IBM AMOS ver. 26.0 and IBM SPSS ver. 26.0 (IBM Corp., Armonk, USA). Results: The determinants of e-learning student satisfaction were system, learner, instructor, and interaction qualities, which together explained 72.6% of the variance of student satisfaction and the determinants of e-learning interaction quality were content and system qualities, which together explained 62.9% of the variance of interaction quality. Conclusion: The results of this study presented practical guidelines to improve e-learning quality in terms of student satisfaction in medical education contexts. The results indicated that more efforts should be directed toward improving interaction features such as interactive teaching styles, collaborative activities, providing instructors and learners with proper training for e-learning prior to e-learning and a quality of contents, and upgrading e-learning system for better performance and service.
... 224 achievement (Kožuh et al., 2015), language and literacy development (Zheng, & Warschauer, 2015), motivation (Yang & Chang, 2012) and satisfaction (Arbaugh, & Benbunan-Fich, 2007). Therefore, the analysis of interactivity in relation to various learner characteristics in online learning settings may contribute to the development of efficient online learning environments which can be regulated adaptively for individual characteristics. ...
Article
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Learners with certain personality traits adapt well to different online environments, while others may miss the necessary information for themselves or disappear entirely in the learning process. Therefore, in online learning, understanding the relationships between significant personality traits of learners and potential variables that can contribute to or hinder the learning experiences, and furthermore, the questioning of their impact on learning performance is critical to delivering effective learning experiences. The main aim of this associational study is to examine the relationships and effects of specific variables (online self-regulation, cognitive style, online interaction, and gender), on online learning and thus, to create a partial roadmap for effective online learning practices in the context of learning analytics. It also intends to understand the learners at a fine-grained level and to support individualized online learning environments. Correlation and simple linear regression analyses were used to analyze the data obtained. The findings of the study indicate that the online self-regulation scores of field-independent learners are much higher than those of field-dependent learners. In addition, there is a moderate positive correlation between the online self-regulation and cognitive style. The online self-regulation scores of the female learners are found to be higher than those of the male learners. The relationships between the variables analysed in the study are discussed in a holistic manner. It is thought that the study findings may contribute to the information on the adaptive online learning within the framework of learning analytics.
... Research on online learning in management education also suggests instructors are important for positive online environments (Arbaugh, 2010a), and course design (Arbaugh & Benbunan-Fich, 2006). Teaching presence in online management education is important (Arbaugh, 2008(Arbaugh, , 2010aKe, 2010;Daspit & D'Souza, 2012), the interaction between learners and their instructor ensures success in an online course in the business disciplines (Arbaugh & Benbunan-Fich, 2007), discipline-related differences exist in both the design and conduct of courses (Arbaugh, 2013) and social presence matters in online graduate management education (Arbaugh, 2014). ...
Article
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Using 22 undergraduate business students’ online learning experiences during the COVID-19 lockdown in Pakistan (as the pandemic was the only time these students were enrolled as online students in Pakistan), this study demonstrates that online learning is a multi-level phenomenon and a practice situated within the environment. Despite online learning being a heavily researched area, research has under-examined the interaction of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework with the context. By adopting an ecological perspective, and by examining the interaction of micro, meso, and macro levels, this qualitative research provides useful insights into the interaction of the individual (micro-level) captured through the CoI framework, with the broader environment in which learners are located (meso and macro levels). It contributes to research on online learning broadly, and the CoI framework specifically, by revealing that each element of the CoI framework (micro-level), is influenced by macro (developing country), as well as meso (institutional policies and institutional preparedness) levels. It also spotlights the negotiated relationship between the individual and the systemic forces. The findings of this study are particularly relevant given that online education has the potential to become a norm in higher education in developing countries.
... In the context of online events, as well as distance learning, the importance of keeping and improving the interaction with the audience is crucial [7], because it helps both the audience understanding the topic and building a feeling of closeness. This is the reason why all the online events for schools proposed by INFN Communications Office provide half of duration to be devoted to a Q&A session where students can ask questions by using the YouTube or Facebook chat which are answered by researchers during the stream. ...
... Students' satisfaction and motivation also affect their perceived learning in online contexts (Eom, 2015), making them key aspects in evaluating the effectiveness of online learning (Arbaugh & Benbunan-Fich, 2007;So & Brush, 2008). Peer feedback is considered a learning process (Nicol et al., 2014;, and thus, students' satisfaction with the learning experience that takes place in online peer feedback can play an influential role in the uptake and effectiveness of peer feedback (Mercader et al., 2020). ...
Chapter
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The book is divided into three sections related to studies on education, science, and technology. While each of the first two sections includes five chapters, the last section involves four chapters. The chapters’ contributors are from the following countries: Albania, Australia, Azad Kashmir, Ghana, Indonesia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Morocco, Philippines, Singapore, the Netherlands, the USA, Tunisia, and Turkey. The diversity of the chapters from14 different countries brings an international perspective to the book.
... These negative findings could be related to students' satisfaction and motivation with learning Students' satisfaction and motivation also affect their perceived learning in online contexts (Eom, 2015), making them key aspects in evaluating the effectiveness of online learning (Arbaugh & Benbunan-Fich, 2007;So & Brush, 2008). Peer feedback is considered a learning process (Nicol et al., 2014;, and thus, students' satisfaction with the learning experience that takes place in online peer feedback can play an influential role in the uptake and effectiveness of peer feedback (Mercader et al., 2020). ...
Book
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Education, science, and technology disciplines are closely and extensively connected in all formats and levels. The outbreak of COVID-19 has further squeezed this interconnection where the delivery of education in different scientific fields of studies at all education levels is almost impossible without the presence of technology. Today, there is a need more than ever to explore the intersection of education, science, and technology at both administrative and classroom levels. Educational leaders and policymakers should be aware of the requirements (e.g., role of culture, educational governance) for effective teaching and learning in the post-COVID-19 era. Teachers, instructors, and researchers need to be proficient in the way to convey knowledge with effective and innovative adoption of technology (e.g., online peer feedback) to the young generation as they are called “digital natives”. This book focuses on addressing and exploring these needs and recommends solutions from multiple perspectives. The book is divided into three sections related to studies on education, science, and technology. While each of the fist two sections includes five chapters, the last section involves four chapters. The chapters’ contributors are from the following countries: Albania, Australia, Azad Kashmir, Ghana, Indonesia, Iran, Kazakhstan, Morocco, Philippines, Singapore, the Netherlands, the USA, Tunisia, and Turkey. The diversity of the chapters from 14 different countries brings an international perspective to the book.
... Prior research confirms its effectiveness in improving students' argumentation skills in essay writing (e.g., and learning, engagement, and motivation (e.g., Gielen et al., 2010;Pratama & Arriyani, 2021;Zhang et al., 2014). Student satisfaction is essential in understanding the effectiveness of online learning (Arbaugh & Benbunan-Fich, 2007;So, Brush, & education, 2008). Teachers are unable to offer effective one-on-one feedback on students' argumentative essay assignments because of a tremendous workload Latifi et al., 2021b) so peer feedback has been recognized as an efficient teaching approach to assist students in enhancing their argumentative essay compositions in such situation. ...
Conference Paper
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According to the literature, students’ motivation and satisfaction can influence their perceived learning outcomes. However, little is known about what kind of a role do motivation and satisfaction play in the context of online peer feedback. This exploratory study aims to examine the relationship between students’ motivation and satisfaction with their perceived learning outcomes in an online peer feedback environment. To do this, 51 graduate students from a Dutch university participated and they were involved in an online peer feedback module for argumentative essay writing. At the end of the module, students were asked to fill out surveys regarding their motivation, satisfaction, and perceived learning outcomes. The results showed that there is a positive correlation between students' motivation and satisfaction with their perceived learning outcomes in an online peer feedback environment in the context of argumentative essay writing. These results provide insight into how students’ motivation and satisfaction can impact their perceived learning outcomes during an online peer feedback activity in the context of argumentative essay writing. Keywords: argumentative essay writing, motivation, online peer feedback, perceived learning outcome, satisfaction
... These negative findings could be related to students' satisfaction and motivation with learning Students' satisfaction and motivation also affect their perceived learning in online contexts (Eom, 2015), making them key aspects in evaluating the effectiveness of online learning (Arbaugh & Benbunan-Fich, 2007;So & Brush, 2008). Peer feedback is considered a learning process (Nicol et al., 2014;, and thus, students' satisfaction with the learning experience that takes place in online peer feedback can play an influential role in the uptake and effectiveness of peer feedback (Mercader et al., 2020). ...
... In contrast with onsite interpreting, DI places the participants (i.e., interpreters, speakers and audience) in physically remote locations in computer-based collaborative environments, which may lead to less seamless participant interactivity. A growing body of evidence suggests that online environments can facilitate participant interactivity during interpreting (Arbaugh and Benbunan-Fich, 2007). In DI, especially in telephone-relayed interpreting, participant interactivity mainly includes turn-taking management, stopping the primary speakers(s) by using proper techniques to cut in, and seeking clarification (Wang, 2018). ...
Article
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Distance Interpreting (DI) is a form of technology-mediated interpreting which has gained traction due to the high demand for multilingual conferences, live-streaming programs, and public service sectors. The current study synthesized the DI literature to build a framework that represents the construct and measurement of cognitive load in DI. Two major areas of research were identified, i.e., causal factors and methods of measuring cognitive load. A number of causal factors that can induce change in cognitive load in DI were identified and reviewed. These included factors derived from tasks (e.g., mode of presentation), environment (e.g., booth type), and interpreters (e.g., technology awareness). In addition, four methods for measuring cognitive load in DI were identified and surveyed: subjective methods, performance methods, analytical methods, and psycho-physiological methods. Together, the causal factors and measurement methods provide a multifarious approach to delineating and quantifying cognitive load in DI. This multidimensional framework can be applied as a tool for pedagogical design in interpreting programs at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. It can also provide implications for other fields of educational psychology and language learning and assessment.
... These negative findings could be related to students' satisfaction and motivation with learning Students' satisfaction and motivation also affect their perceived learning in online contexts (Eom, 2015), making them key aspects in evaluating the effectiveness of online learning (Arbaugh & Benbunan-Fich, 2007;So & Brush, 2008). Peer feedback is considered a learning process (Nicol et al., 2014;, and thus, students' satisfaction with the learning experience that takes place in online peer feedback can play an influential role in the uptake and effectiveness of peer feedback (Mercader et al., 2020). ...
Chapter
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The new Queensland Certificate of Education (QCE) curricula was introduced in 2019, offering senior secondary students four mathematics options to study: Essential Mathematics, General Mathematics, Mathematical Methods and Specialist Mathematics. Methods and Specialist are calculus-based options, and provide broader and diverse career opportunities post-secondary. ➢ This chapter investigated senior secondary students’ enrolment in calculus-based mathematics options between 2019 and 2020 in Queensland state schools from different districts. ➢ Results show a high dropout rate in calculus-based options as students progressed into their initial course/s of study. ➢ The study argues for resources to be made available to promote continued students’ participation and achievement.
... Respondents in this survey discovered that when students do well in self-directed study, they are more content with the course and communicate more with friends and lecturers during studying and exam preparation, resulting in better learning outcomes. This research is highly supported by the literature, which states that most students will not like to learn online if there is no connection between lecturers and students (Arbaugh & Benbunan-Fich, 2007;Besser et al., 2020;S. W. Chou & Liu, 2005) Most prior research has found that students had high confidence when practicing test preparation for the final exam (M. ...
Article
p style="text-align: justify;">Vietnam has a reputation for being a successful nation in preventing the Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak in 2020, with a lower number of illnesses than other ASEAN countries. However, to ensure that students are safe and informed about the coronavirus outbreak, Vietnamese higher education has developed online learning (OL). During the COVID-19 epidemic, this paper explores the relationship between elements such as learning readiness, learning strategies, and learning performance in the Vietnamese OL setting. Four hundred undergraduate students were randomly selected from Hong Duc universities, and Saigon University participated in this study in different zones. Analyzed data has applied structural equation modeling (SEM) using partial least squares (SmartPLS-SEM). The findings found that Vietnamese students were much more likely to believe in interaction in OL, to feel comfortable using a computer with their computer efficacy, and to have confidence in communicating in the digital environment, all of which were important variables in assuring the success of using OL. The factors of “motivation” and “test preparation” show a poor relationship with learning performance. Therefore, the OL process in Vietnamese, on the other hand, needs to be more inventive, with a greater focus on lecturers' awareness and practice of online teaching pedagogies such as motivation, techniques, and test arrangement. During OL, students' readiness in terms of learning control, self-directed learning, and engagement must be considered and supported.</p
... Some researchers around the world have conceptualized different categories of online interactions (Vlachopoulos, D., & Makri, A, 2019;Mehall, S, 2020;Arbaugh, J. B., & Benbunan-Fich, R, 2007;Julien, C, 2015) Among them the most common ones are: Learners interact with the content; Learners interact with learners; Learners interact with teachers (Moore's, 1989). Different methods have been described to stimulate and organize these different types of interactions in a meaningful way. ...
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This paper presents research results on online interaction for higher education toward 4.0 education. In addition to online interaction in universities through learning management systems, this study builds a model of online interaction between universities and enterprises and presents methods for implementing different types of online special terms outside the academic environment such as virtual reality tours, virtual internships, and virtual career counseling. The analysis has shown that creating a virtual interactive environment outside the university has brought lots of benefits such as saving cost and time, personalizing learners, changing awareness about digital technology, diversifying learners’ approach.
... Students' feedback on the clarity of assignments, timeliness of feedback, and interaction with professors leads to higher student satisfaction (Cole et al., 2014;Roach and Lemasters 2006). SII resulted as the most critical factor affecting perceived learning/ satisfaction in the online environment (Arbaugh and Benbunan-Fich., 2007;Marks et al., 2005;Swan, 2002) in different programs (Sher, 2009). ...
Conference Paper
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Abstract The educator in modern society interacts with a diverse group of children/students when she/he works with or teaches extremely heterogenous groups of individuals who may be characterised by diversity that is not only cultural and linguistic in nature, but also moral. A similar situation arises in terms of moral customs, modes of behaviour and habits. A whole range of lifestyles and normative opinions converge at school and in the classroom. Consequently, educators need methods and sound knowledge in order to be able to address moral and ethical problems. According to Banks, Stárek, the most controversial area of ethics in helping professions is the conflict between ethical values and principles. The job of educators is becoming more and more complicated and demanding. Educators have to increasingly take into account the voice and reaction of parents. Students are more diverse. School management is becoming more professional and more administratively complex. Schools and other institutions are newly defined and there are changes in legislation and key documents. Consequently, educators have to work strategically in a field that is increasingly more determined by the social and personal interests of higher positions along with cashflow/economy, legal frameworks and political power. On the other hand, it is becoming increa+63singly clear that the core of the teaching profession includes not only teaching but also the relationship with students and parents. Educators can barely cope with the speed of changes in the teaching profession when they have to protect its core and sometimes even fight for it, not only in schools but even in society, where the issue of teacher status is often addressed. Educators can better protect themselves and have a professional space to defend the quality of their profession. Professional ethics can play an important role in this task. For the teacher, it is not a top-down ethics but the ethics of educators that frames what governs and interconnects teaching professionals. The research sample consisted of teaching staff working at a primary school in Prague. The teachers work in the first stage of primary school. The selected primary school has a code of ethics as an internal regulation. In total, five interviews with teachers were conducted. Respondents agreed that the Code of Ethics and Ethical Decision-making Model are good support for their professional practice. They are primarily useful in the communication process, especially when talking to children, colleagues and parents.
... The question is partially linked to the research by, e.g. Arbaugh and Benbunan-Fich (2007) that highlight the importance of participant interaction in online learning environments such as Flagship #2. In other words, the question also intends to motivate them by increasing their engagement to the exercise. ...
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: In the digitalized world, there is a growing need not only to improve one’s cybersecurity skills and knowledge, but also to find ways to optimize the learning process, for example by motivating the learners or optimising the learning facilities, material and the learners for the process. Cyber exercises ran within cyber ranges/arenas (CR) are an efficient way for the exercise participants to improve their cybersecurity skills and knowledge level. The pedagogical way of orienteering the participant to a learning situation is to have a preliminary survey, which prepares the participant for the upcoming event, adds self-reflection, and may even provide feedback and background information for the educator about the upcoming event. The objective of the survey is to improve the quality of the exercise by knowing the interest areas, preferences and other useful information about the participants that is then be used optimise the exercise accordingly. This study analyses the structure of one preliminary survey targeted for the cyber exercise event to be held in January 2022. The questions are justified according to existing frameworks. We have collected a set of structured questions presenting different topics related to the participants’ professional background and expectations towards the exercise. In addition to the short-term goal of analysing the survey for one cyber exercise, this work benefits the long-term goal for improving the skills of cybersecurity professionals. Our further work will validate the results of our preliminary analysis and analyse its correspondence with the survey results, and the final analysis constructed after the cyber exercise.
... Students' feedback on the clarity of assignments, timeliness of feedback, and interaction with professors leads to higher student satisfaction (Cole et al., 2014;Roach and Lemasters 2006). SII resulted as the most critical factor affecting perceived learning/ satisfaction in the online environment (Arbaugh and Benbunan-Fich., 2007;Marks et al., 2005;Swan, 2002) in different programs (Sher, 2009). ...
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The sudden shift from traditional methods to e-learning during the lockdown following the Covid-19 pandemic proved challenging for both students and instructors. In contrast with other developed countries, Albanian Universities had little or no previous experience with online learning modalities. During this unexpected shift to the new reality in teaching and learning, various solutions and methods that support synchronous, asynchronous, and combined learning formats were used to facilitate communication, share teaching and learning materials or conduct assessments. This study investigates the crucial role of different types of interaction, i.e., student-instructor, student-student, and student-content, on students' e-learning outcome while controlling for the frequency of different methods used by instructors. Drawing from a sample of 1698 University students, hierarchical regression was used to test the proposed model. The empirical findings indicate that interaction with the instructor is the strongest determinant of student learning outcome, followed by interaction with content and interaction among peers. By comparing two sub-samples-one comprising bachelor students and another master students, our findings show that while for bachelor students, the results are similar to the entire sample, in the sub-sample comprising master students, the interaction with content outweighs the one with the instructor. Also, study results indicate that the frequent use of methods associated with synchronous format positively affects the students' learning outcome. These findings provide nuanced insight into the importance of different types of interaction in an e-learning environment to enhance student learning outcome. The results show how university professors and higher education institutions can improve students' e-learning outcome by choosing the most effective e-learning solutions that boost different types of interaction.
... Previous studies have shown collaborative learning environments as having a relatively high level of learner-system interaction, as well as higher perceived learning and satisfaction (Arbaugh & Benbunan-Fich, 2007;Chou & Liu, 2005). The degree of interactivity in a BSG reflects the degree to which the designed system model simulates the real-world environment (Ben-Zvi, 2010; Siewiorek et al., 2013). ...
Article
Business simulation game systems (BSGs) have become an important learning tool for higher education in business and management fields in recent years. However, few studies have investigated how BSG systems affect perceived learning effectiveness and entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE). Based on the previous information systems literature, this study developed and validated a BSG systems success model. The newly proposed success variable of model-reality fit, which was conceptualized as the fit between the BSG model and the real-world business environment, was also examined. Data collected from 152 college students in Taiwan was tested against the research model using the partial least squares (PLS) approach. The results indicate that system quality and model-reality fit positively influence user satisfaction, which in turn promotes reuse intention, learning effectiveness, and ESE, while service quality and information quality do not. Furthermore, service quality and model-reality fit play a critical role in determining reuse intention, although system quality and information quality do not have a significant effect on reuse intention. Other than the insignificant impact of user satisfaction on ESE, the results also confirm that user satisfaction and reuse intention positively predict learning effectiveness and ESE.
... In online learning, student-student interaction is the exchange of knowledge among learners (Arbaugh & Benbunan-Fich, 2007). Student-teacher interactions are related to the level of involvement of the instructor with the students (Agudo-Peregrina et al., 2014;Nieuwoudt, 2018). ...
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This study aims to use LMS log data to suggest a way to understand CoI constructs. Students’ interactions in Moodle components were weighted for indicators of cognitive, teaching and social presences. Traces reflecting students’ online interactions were obtained from the Moodle LMS and analyzed through learning analytics techniques. The data is examined with the Euclidean Distance Model, and Correspondence Analysis methods to evaluate the levels of interactions and presences. The results indicated that, cognitive presence is at the center of the CoI constructs, and student-content interaction, is found is more prominent than other interactions in terms of its relation to cognitive presence. Social presence scores were mostly related with student-student and student-teacher interaction scores. In addition, teaching presence scores were found in parallel with student-system interaction scores.
... Further, it is highlighted as one of the leading indicators of the quality of the online learning procedures and experiences (Bolliger & Halupa 2012;Delon & Mclean, 1992;Harsasi & Sutawijaya, 2018;Moore & Kearsley, 1996;Moore, 2005;Parahoo, Santally, Rajabalee & Harvey, 2016;Yukselturk & Yildirim, 2008), as it ultimately leads to engagement, learning and thus success (Wickersham & McGee, 2008). The perspectives of the online learning students yield invaluable data with respect to the strengths and weaknesses of the online learning programs (Noel-Levitz, 2011), which can also be used to evaluate how effective online learning process has been (Arbaugh & Benbunan-Fich, 2007;So & Brush, 2008). Keller, Biner et al. (1997b), Allen and Seaman (2008) and Koseke and Koseke believe that "high satisfaction leads to lower attrition rates, higher persistence in learning, and higher motivation in pursuing additional online courses" (Kuo, Walker, Belland, & Schroder, 2013: 17-18). ...
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This research was conducted in an attempt to examine online learning satisfaction (OLS) level of the pre-service teachers and the influence of antecedents including computer anxiety (CA), internet anxiety (IA), online course anxiety (OCA), internet self-efficacy (ISE) and transactions including learner-instructor interaction (LII), learner-content interaction (LCI) and learner-learner interaction (LLI) on one outcome of online learning process, OLS. We employed an exploratory survey, which can be used to investigate the relationship between certain variables. The sample included 710 pre-service teachers from different departments studying at two public universities located in the eastern part of Turkey. Data were collected through "Technological Anxiety and Satisfaction Scale", "Internet Self-efficacy Sub-scale" and "The Online Self-regulation Questionnaire (OSRQ) in Three Types of Interaction". Descriptive statistics and multiple regression analysis (MLR) were used to analyze the data. The findings indicated low OLS based on the perceptions of this sample of pre-service teachers. Further analysis through MLR revealed a significant negative relationship between OCA and OLS, while the other predictors were insignificant. As the significant predictor explained 14% of the variance in the outcome variable, more comprehensive research was suggested to find out the unexplained predictors of the outcome. The administrators are suggested to provide the instructors with professional guidance with the help of the experts who can provide successful online course implementations.
... For example, Moore(1989) proposed this behavioural theory to classify interactions based on student-student, student-teacher, and student-content interactions. Arbaugh and Benbunan-Fich(2007) also introduced the subject of interaction as the activity between students and an LMS, or student-system. Their study asserted that teacherstudent and student-system interactions were critical for improving higher education student learning outcomes. ...
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Educators in higher education institutes often use statistical results obtained from their online Learning Management System (LMS) dataset, which has limitations, to evaluate student academic performance. This study differs from the current body of literature by including an additional dataset that advances the knowledge about factors affecting student academic performance. The key aims of this study are fourfold. First, is to fill the educational literature gap by applying machine learning techniques in educational data mining, making use of the Internet usage behaviour log files and LMS data. Second, LMS data and Internet usage log files were analysed with machine learning techniques for predicting at-risk-of-failure students, with greater explanation added by combining student demographic data. Third, the demographic features help to explain the prediction in understandable terms for educators. Fourth, the study used a range of Internet usage data, which were categorized according to type of usage data and type of web browsing data to increase prediction accuracy.
... A wide body of literature from services marketing suggests that customers are usually satisfied when the quantity of the service they receive matches or exceeds their expectations (Munteanu, Ceobanu, Bobalca, & Anton, 2010). Taking the context of higher education into consideration student satisfaction is defined as "the degree to which students' expectations about the instructor, course and teaching method are met" (Arbaugh & Benbunan, 2007). Research suggests that students will be satisfied when they acquire and assimilate new knowledge, understand critical management concepts, learn to identify central topics, make managerial decisions, and solve key business problems (Rueda, Benitez, & Braojos, 2017). ...
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Current study is undertaken to examine the role of Information & Communication Technology (ICT), motivational variables, and virtual competence towards students' e-learning effectiveness. Structural Equation Modelling (SEM) with Partial Least Squares (PLS) was used for data analysis. Findings revealed that different components of ICT, except perception, have a positive impact on e-learning effectiveness. Also, perceived usefulness, perceived enjoyment, virtual self-efficacy, and virtual social skills positively contribute towards e-learning effectiveness of students which contribute to their knowledge acquisition and satisfaction. Findings of the study have unique implications for universities, faculty and students to create/use e-platforms for effective learning experiences.
... Students' feedback on the clarity of assignments, timeliness of feedback, and interaction with professors leads to higher student satisfaction (Cole et al., 2014;Roach and Lemasters 2006). SII resulted as the most critical factor affecting perceived learning/ satisfaction in the online environment (Arbaugh and Benbunan-Fich., 2007;Marks et al., 2005;Swan, 2002) in different programs (Sher, 2009). ...
Conference Paper
It is very difficult to manage strategic alliances successfully. Despite the enthusiastic beginning of partnership in general, it is known that many alliances fail to achieve the goals for which they were designed. Managing alliances in the e-commerce sector can be more difficult than others, due to the fact that it is managed with technologies that are rapidly changing and create high uncertainty. This study aims to identify the critical success factors affecting the performance of technological strategic alliances established in the e-commerce sector where strategic alliance is inevitable. Since most of the strategic alliances fail, it is extremely important to identify the success factors that affect the high performance of the companies in order to comply with the requirements of the alliance. There are studies to determine the success factors of strategic alliances established in different sectors in this field. In the literature, it is not encountered an attempt to identify the critical success factors of strategic technology alliances which is established in the e-commerce sector companies operating in Turkey. It is thought that the study will contribute to the literature by filling this gap.
... This means that the implementation perhaps fails to attract or benefit the students' learning experiences. Engagement is very important according to Cluskey, Hodges, and Smith (2006) reported that with the blended model over either F2F or online learning environments, the academic performance appeared to be roughly equal (Clusky Jr, Hodges, & Smith, 2006), while the level of engagement with F2F or online can lead to different outcomes (Arbaugh & Benbunan-Fich, 2007). ...
Chapter
The present study aims to examine the effect of the combination of learning methods, in which diverse IT resources are applied to facilitate study activities of Vietnamese undergraduate students. The main focus of this study is that in the blended learning context of Vietnam education, the combination of various communication means such as F2F and traditional education technologies can enable the level of engagement of students with the blended courses. The study measured the level of students' engagement in the blended learning program, in which physical classrooms and different IT resources are implemented. The authors distinguish two kinds of IT resources: traditional education technologies and social media applications. It is proposed that while F2F classrooms and traditional education technologies can enable students' engagement, which leads to stronger satisfaction and motivation. Meanwhile, social media applications can intensify those relationships.
... However, perceived social presence had a strong positive influence on student satisfaction. These results are consistent with past research showing that social presence strongly predicts learners' satisfaction with remote learning as a learning modality (Arbaugh & Benbunan-Fich, 2007) and satisfaction with remote courses (Choy & Quek, 2016;Lee, Hoe Looi, Faulkner, & Neale, 2020). This may reflect the larger variance in social presence relative to cognitive presence and teaching presence in our sample. ...
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The swift transition to remote learning in response to the COVID‐19 pandemic presented substantial challenges for both students and instructors in post‐secondary natural sciences education. To examine teaching practices and student engagement during the emergency remote learning in the Spring 2020 semester, we surveyed 10 instructors and 261 students in an animal and dairy sciences department at a large Midwestern university. Instructors reported using a diversity of teaching practices. On average, students perceived high teaching presence and cognitive presence and moderate social presence during emergency remote learning. Student‐reported educational experience differed substantially between courses and explained a significant amount of variance in student engagement and satisfaction outcomes (p<0.001). Open‐ended responses revealed beliefs and attributions about remote learning that shaped students’ interpretations of educational experiences. Results support the validity of the Community of Inquiry (CoI) framework for assessing emergency remote learning and suggest future research on modulators of social presence.
... Another student said that the teaching assistant continuously monitored their progress, and that they appreciated it, because it showed that the lecturer was concerned about their success, while another one said, "the teaching assistant is always there for me". Similar results came from studies by Arbaugh and Benbunan-Fich (2007) and Marks, Sibley and Arbaugh (2005), showing that the most significant predictors of student success were student-lecturer interactions. These authors further argue that students must be sufficiently engaged to ensure that they successfully complete their courses. ...
... Online learning can be put into operation in a variety of ways, such as through the use of self-paced autonomous study units, asynchronous interactive settings (where contributors interact at different times) or synchronous interactive settings (where learners assemble in real time) (Ryan, 2001). Arbaugh andFich (2007), Flottlemesch (2000), Moore (1993), andZhoa, et al (2005) emphasized student-student-instructor interaction to forecast success. There has been some argument regarding the relation between the levels of ease of using the degree of student satisfaction with online courses. ...
... Similar results have been traced back in the study of Marks, Sibley and Arbaugh (2005), who believe that interaction between instructor-student is the essence of online learning. Arbaugh and Benbunan-Fich (2007) report that learner-learner interaction is one of the strongest predictors of success in online instruction, whereas Hermans, Haytko and Mott-Stenerson (2009) declare that the lack of student-teacher interaction reduces learners' level of satisfaction with the course and the instructor. ...
Article
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Since the transmission of knowledge has started, it solely relied on traditional teaching methods but ever since technology-mediated instructions have emerged, they potentially brought a revolution in how we teach, when we teach, from where we teach and what gadgets, modes and apps can better cater learners’ interest and motivation. In this context, hybrid learning is a novel approach in academic settings that embraces advantage of the retention of face-to-face component of traditional classes and e-learning environment. The present study aims at investigating Taif University’s male and female English as Foreign Language (EFL) learners’ satisfaction towards the onsite and online learning environments. An opinionnaire with 20 items was developed with closed ended questions by employing Likert’s five-point scale to collect the data from 200 male and female EFL participants of Taif University, represents quantitative dimensions of the study. The research tool is designed to measure learners’ satisfaction that is further categorized into five subscales. These include: (a) learners’ satisfaction with the instructor and their real-time feedback; (b) perceived ease of use of technology and internet; (c) effective course content and interactive and collaborative activities; (d) finally engaging nature of hybrid learning and its impacts on learners’ interest and motivation. The study finds no significant differences in male and female participants’ perceptions regarding effective delivery of hybrid instructions except meek variations in male and female learners’ preferences in perceived ease of use of technology. The statistics reveal that male participants and their female counterparts slightly differ in their satisfaction level towards the technical problems faced by them in recording their scores, flexibility in terms of time and space, and in smooth completion of online activities. Finally, the study provides few recommendations to fix certain issues and improve the quality of hybrid learning environment.
... Some researchers dealt with only e-learning course material and considered it as effectual and productive (Douglas and Van Der Vyver, 2004). Further, Gilbert (2007) studied the significance of learners' experience, and Arbaugh and Fich (2007) considered participant's communication to be imperative for effective e-learning. ...
... Numerous researchers have considered interaction as the most vital part of any learning environment (Woo & Reeves, 2007), and essential in interactions in both traditional (Tirri & Kuusisto, 2013) and distance and online educational settings (Woo & Reeves 2007& Bernard et al. 2009). Arbaugh and Benbunan-Fich (2007) viewed interaction as the key part of distance and web learning. Is interaction a major determinant of academic performance of distance e-learners in a Nigerian setting? ...
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Distance e-learners are expected to participate in an e-learning environment and interact with the content, colleagues and facilitators through distance education technologies. Learning environment goes a long way to determine student’s academic performance. Hence, this study tends to find out relationship between online interaction and distance e-learners. The purpose of the study was to analyze the correlation that exists between learner-content-interaction (LCI), learner-learner-interaction (LLI) and learner-instructor-interaction (LII) and academic performance of distance e-learners in a Nigerian university. Two research questions were designed to guide the study. A descriptive design of survey type was adopted for the study and a questionnaire was used to collect the quantitative data. The study was conducted in four selected study centres of National Open University of Nigeria (NOUN) and a total of 1,025 participants completed the survey-based questionnaire. The researchers used Spearman’s correlation to determine if correlation exists on each type of interaction. The findings of this study revealed that learner-learner-interaction was the only factor that was significant(r = .066, p-value = .034), with very small weak correlation out of the three types of interactions discussed in this study. Findings also revealed that all the three types of interactions were significant (LCI, r= .121** p=0.009; LII, r=.108*, p=0.018; LLI, r = .105*, p = 0.023) for female distance e-learners but none was significant for male distance e-learners.Based on the findings of the research, recommendations have been made which will assist Nigerian university policy makers and course developers with a view to improving the academic performance of distance e-learners.
... Some researchers dealt with only e-learning course material and considered it as effectual and productive (Douglas and Van Der Vyver, 2004). Further, Gilbert (2007) studied the significance of learners' experience, and Arbaugh and Fich (2007) considered participant's communication to be imperative for effective e-learning. ...
Article
Hundreds of academic institutions around the world dedicated considerable funding to lecture recording to accompany face-to-face teaching prior to the massive transition to distance education due to Covid-19. Furthermore, there is reason to believe that they will continue to do so after teaching will return to the physical classroom. Thus, a methodological examination of the success of lecture recordings as augmentation to face-to-face teaching should be of managerial interest. In this study, five success categories of lecture recording in a college were evaluated based on the information system success model promulgated by DeLone & McLean (1992 DeLone, W. H., & McLean, E. R. (1992). Information systems success: The quest for the dependent variable. Information Systems Research, 3(1), 60–95. https://doi.org/10.1287/isre.3.1.60[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]). Results obtained through a campus-wide questionnaire and system log files showed relatively low usage of the system by students, who gave a somewhat low evaluation of system quality, information quality, and general satisfaction, but a higher assessment for the contribution of the system to their learning. Analysis also found significant correlations between success categories suggested by DeLone & McLean, with some exceptions. These results raise questions regarding the high-cost investments in lecture recording. These questions and the implication of the findings for research and higher education decision makers are discussed.
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Online learning was expected to remain as effective as face-to-face learning. One of the important factors used to measure the effectiveness of learning is the online interaction of students with their peers, teachers, and learning content. Therefore, this study aims to determine the effectiveness of online learning viewed from online interactions in SMK Negeri 3 Salatiga. This was descriptive quantitative research using questionnaires distributed to 306 students as a data collection technique. The results showed that online learning in SMK Negeri 3 was effective, viewed from the online interactions, namely the student-student interaction had an average score of 3.87 (high), students-teachers interaction had an average of 4.14 (high) and students-learning content interaction had an average of 3.89 (high). It is expected that the findings will become a consideration in order to design effective online learning based on the students’ online interaction. Besides, the teachers will understand more about their students and their development in learning process.
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Introduction: Since the inception of distance-based teaching modalities, a debate has ensued over the quality of online versus in-person instruction. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, a number of teaching environments-including leadership development trainings for post-graduate learners-have been thrust into exploring the virtual learning environment more thoroughly. One three-year leadership development program for interdisciplinary healthcare professionals transitioned three simultaneous leadership intensives from in-person to online in the spring of 2020. Methods: Documented changes in overall training length, session length, and session format are described. Further, evaluative data were collected from participants at both retreats via post-session surveys. Ninety-three participants attended the 2019 retreat, and 92 participants attended the 2020 virtual retreat. Quantitative data of three rating questions per session are reported: 1) overall session satisfaction, 2) participants' reported knowledge gain, and 3) participants' reported ability gain. Qualitative data were obtained via two open-ended feedback questions per session. Results: In comparing pre/post scores for knowledge and ability, participants had meaningful (and in some cases higher) self-reported gains in knowledge and ability measures in the online environment, as compared to the in-person environment. Participants reported statistically significant gains in all sessions for both knowledge and ability. Qualitative data of participant feedback identified a number of positive themes similar across the in-person and virtual settings. Negative or constructive feedback of the virtual setting included time constraint issues (eg too much content in one session, a desire for more sessions overall), technical difficulties, and the loss of social connection and networking with fellow participants as compared to in-person trainings. Discussion: While meaningful shifts in knowledge and ability ratings indicate that the transition to successful online learning is possible, several disadvantages remain. The preparation time for both faculty and participants was considerable, there is a need to reduce overall content in each session due to time restraints, and participants indicated feeling the loss of one-on-one connections with their peers in the training. Lessons learned of transitioning leadership training from in-person to an online experience are highlighted.
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Social constructivist based course designs in online learning are emphasized in higher education as a way to highlight and capitalize on the benefits of interpersonal interaction. Course designers have generally taken a “more is better” approach to interpersonal interaction; however, some evidence points to a point of diminishing returns for interpersonal interaction. Purposeful interpersonal interaction (PII) is a framework for identifying high quality interpersonal interactions which are demonstrated to lead to better student outcomes. This study attempted to shed insight on how PII relates to student satisfaction and perceived learning in asynchronous environments by comparing courses in two graduate business programs. Results demonstrated that greater PII does generally lead to greater student satisfaction and perceived learning. Comparison of the programs also revealed that similar levels of satisfaction and learning can be achieved despite lesser levels of PII, giving evidence of a point of diminishing returns.
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Generally, In Pakistan, people perceived that the quality of distance learning education is poor. Therefore, we decided to study to see if it's only people's opinion or legend. The study aims to analyze the association between instructor performance (IP), student-instructor interaction (SII), course evaluation (CE), and student satisfaction (SS) variables in distance education by taking Virtual COMSATS as a Case study. The target population of this research was the COMSATS (VIRTUAL CAMPUS). Students out of which 251 graduate and undergraduate students were selected as sample for current research. The purpose of this research study was to understand the key factors affecting student satisfaction in distance learning. Researchers also collect information through primary data using a survey questionnaire distributed through email to all the students of VCOMSAT. The literature review found that in distance learning education, student satisfaction is based on instructor performance, student-instructor interaction, course evaluation, Learning management system use, instructor attitude, etc. From the literature review, we found that course evaluation and instructor performance is very important for student satisfaction in distance learning. Researchers need to compare student's satisfaction with the subject wise. A comparison of practical subjects and without practical subjects needs to identify with student satisfaction. There is also required to compare lecturer motivation with student satisfaction and performance. Future research is also needed to compare the satisfaction of rural areas and urban areas students in distance learning education and the need to compare them with traditional education.
Chapter
This chapter argues that research in online teaching and learning in higher education should take a multi-disciplinary orientation, especially in settings whose curricula are drawn from several disciplinary perspectives such as business schools. The benefits of a multi-disciplinary approach include curriculum integration and enhanced communication and collective methodological advancement among online teaching and learning scholars from the disciplines that comprise the integrated curricula. After reviewing multi-disciplinary studies in business education published to date, the chapter concludes with recommendations for advancing research in this emerging stream. Some of the primary recommendations include the use of academic discipline as a moderating variable, more studies that incorporate samples comprised of faculty and/or undergraduate students, and the development of more comprehensive measures of student learning.
Chapter
This chapter presents a review of studies and reports of students’ use of technology in higher education published primarily in the U.S. and Canada from 2005 to 2012. The review is conducted using an Activity Theory framework that organizes information from the literature according to the components of the activity system—subject, tools, object, norms, community, division of labour, and outcomes. The chapter concludes with a summary of the activity system and limitations of the approach.
Chapter
Attention to the quality issues of distance education in higher education has focused primarily on courses. Entire academic programs are now delivered online, and faculty members must spend a significant amount of resources in addressing curricular-issues of online programs, as opposed to pedagogical issues for the courses they teach. Priorities for instructor interactivity and immediacy can become explicit goals for all learning experiences in academic programs. This chapter is organized in three parts: (1) the value of using interactivity/immediacy in the design of extended learning academic programs, (2) instructional design best practices for developing interactivity and immediacy in online academic programs, and (3) recommendations for different level of academic programs, including undergraduate, master's, doctoral, and specialized programs, including teacher education, certificates, and professional development.
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This paper intended to investigate perceptions and attitudes of leaners of English as a foreign language (EFL) in Kurdistan region of Iraq towards English online courses. The paper adopted descriptive analytical method for data collection and analysis, so a purposive sample of 100 students from Raparin University in Kurdistan region was selected and exposed to online courses of English language skills published on Facebook.com. Then, a questionnaire consisted 12 questions was designed and distributed to participants to test their perceptions and attitudes towards such online course. After that, the responses were statistically treated and analysed. This analysis has shown very important results which were used for the discussion. Finally, the paper concluded findings such as the participants have positive attitudes towards using the internet for English language learning, students can benefit from internet and applications as a platform for paring the way for language learning, and successfulness of social media in leading a radical education change and in enhancing competitiveness among students. Also, the paper recommended that universities in Kurdistan should support language learning via technology and necessity of providing computer labs to educational institutions so as to improve language learning skills.
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This study focuses on social construction of knowledge in asynchronous online forum discussions. Social construction of knowledge and how to analyze the quality of interaction during computer mediated communications (CMC) were studied for decades. Interaction Analysis Model (IAM) is one of the mostly used models for determining the quality of CMC. The author also used IAM while analyzing the content of CMC activities in the past. In this study, the same analysis of CMC was conducted again with different participants and discussion topics in order to see what changes in the current study if the voluntary/mandatory participation to discussions, prior interpersonal familiarity, moderating behavior during the CMC, and discussion technique change, comparing to previous study of the author. The aim of this paper is to identify the levels of social construction of knowledge in CMC of the postgraduate students of a university in Turkey. The data of this case study is composed of CMC messages and views of the participants written on an anonymous open-ended questionnaire. Quantitative content analysis and thematic analysis were conducted on the data set. The analysis of the messages by IAM of this case study gave slightly better results than the previous study of the author, and some suggestions were put forward for the future research.
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The popularity of LMSs tools and the different levels of interaction they offer have influenced learning. Interest in the use of technology among nursing students has risen and the need to find out how nursing students use Learning Management Systems to learn has become more critical now in developing countries and universities. Whilst LMSs initial focus had been on the administration of learning, there is the recent interest in how these LMS tools effectually result in learning and student satisfaction. The aim of the study was to explore whether students using LMSs such as Sakai to learn differently as they interact with their course content, their instructors and peers. Collaborative and communicative tools such as Wikis, Blogs and charts were not used intensively. The study found that students were not interacting effectively with their tutors. The lack of social presence has led to the use WhatsApp and Telegram by student groups as opportunities to enhance social presence. The findings suggest that effective use of Sakai CLE collaborative and communication tools can enhance interaction between students and content, instructors and students and among students and their overall learning.
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Though interaction is often billed as a significant component of successful online learning, empirical evidence of its importance as well as practical guidance or specific interaction techniques continue to be lacking. In response, this study utilizes both quantitative and qualitative data to investigate how instructors and students perceive the importance of online interaction and which instructional techniques enhance those interactions. Results show that instructors perceive the learner-instructor and learner-learner interactions as key factors in high quality online programs. While online students generally perceive interaction as an effective means of learning, they vary with regard to having more interaction in online courses. Such variations seem to be associated with differences in personality or learning style. The present study also shows that instructors tend to use technologies and instructional activities that they are familiar with or have relied on in traditional classroom settings. When it comes to learning more sophisticated technologies or techniques, instructors vary significantly in their usage of new approaches.
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Using analogies from Rumelt's (1991) work on industry and business-unit effects and the structure-conduct-performance paradigm, I examine disciplinary and course-specific effects on course outcomes in a sample of 50 Web-based courses conducted over 11 semesters. Adapting the concept of entry barriers from industrial organization (IO) economics to explain subject matter differences, I hypothesize that subjects for which PhDs are offered significantly explain variance in course outcomes relative to subjects for which PhDs are not generally offered. The results of the study showed that while both disciplinary and course-specific effects explained significant variance in the dependent variables, course-specific effects explained greater variance. I conclude with a discussion of future research directions, including encouragement to use theoretical frameworks from mainstream management research to accelerate the quantity and quality of management education research.
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The purpose of this study was to understand the practice of online facilitation in a Midwestern university which has a highly successful traditional MBA program. This study explored the instructors' perceptions regarding four dimensions of instructor roles using Berge's [1] classifications: pedagogical, managerial, social, and technical. This study also examined the challenges and issues confronting online instructors when fulfilling these roles. The results suggest that instructors carried out several important roles to varying degrees. The findings reveal a stronger emphasis on the pedagogical roles (course designer, profession-inspirer, feedback-giver, and interaction-facilitator). Emphasizing those roles, the instructors promote three types of interactions: student-content, student-student, and student-teacher. A lesser emphasis on social roles represented mixed feelings regarding its importance to the instructors. While students rated the instructors very positively, the results also indicate that instructors still need to have their roles transformed pedagogically, socially, and technologically if they are to establish a more engaging and fruitful environment for online learning.
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This article discusses course design factors affecting the success of asynchronous online learning, with a specific focus on the social development of learning communities through online discussion. It reports on an empirical investigation of correlations between 22 course design factors and student perceptions of satisfaction, learning, and interaction with instructors and classmates using data collected from 73 courses offered through the State University of New York Learning Network (SLN) in the spring 1999 semester. Data analyses revealed that three factors were significantly related to student perceptions - clarity and consistency in course design, contact with and feedback from course instructors, and active and valued discussion. An explanation for these findings may center on the importance of creating opportunities for interaction in online learning environments. In this vein, preliminary findings from research on the development of community in online course discussions is presented. Drawn from content analyses of asynchronous discussions in an online graduate course in education, this research examines the ways in which course participants use verbal immediacy indicators to support the development of online community. Findings support an equilibrium model of social presence in online discussion which suggests that as affective communications channels are reduced, discussion participants use more verbal immediacy behaviors to support interaction among classmates. Taken together, the findings support the importance of interaction for online teaching and learning.
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In studying online learning, researchers should examine three critical interactions: instructor-student, student-student, and student-content. Student-content interaction may include a wide variety of pedagogical tools (e.g., streaming media, PowerPoint, and hyperlinking). Other factors that can affect the perceived quality of online learning include distance education advantages (e.g., work and family flexibility) and antecedent personal characteristics (e.g., experience and gender). The study indicated that instructor-student interaction is most important, twice that of student-student interaction; that some student-content interaction is significantly related to perceived learning; that antecedent variables are not significant; and that distance education advantages/flexibility, although significant, are less important than other interactions.
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The trend toward delivering management education via the Internet has accelerated in recent years. However, research on what constitutes effective Internet-based courses is somewhat limited. This study examined the impact of technological and pedagogical characteristics of the virtual classroom on student satisfaction with Internet-based MBA courses. The perceived usefulness of the course software, perceived flexibility provided by taking the course via the Internet, and instructor efforts to create an interactive environment were the characteristics most strongly associated with student satisfaction. Finally, the article identifies several challenges and opportunities from these findings for management education researchers, educators, and business schools.
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The electronic medium continues to play an increasingly important role in the delivery of management education despite a paucity of empirical studies on its impact and efficacy. Results from a study of competitive attitudes and feedback-seeking behaviors across seven “hybrid” electronic cum live classes showed that Kiasu-Negative (a competitive attitude directed at preventing others from getting ahead of oneself) and Kiasu-Positive (a competitive attitude directed at personal diligence to get ahead of others) (Hwang, Ang, & Francesco, 2002) were related to two electronic discussion board feedback-seeking behaviors. These feedback-seeking behaviors, in turn, were related to grade performance as measured by multiple-choice tests. Traditional feedback-seeking measures of asking the professor in class or outside the class, and checking with fellow students for their views on class topics did not have a positive influence on multiple-choice test performance. In light of these findings, educators should consider how best to encourage participation on electronic discussion boards for hybrid type courses, while researchers should further examine the underlying causes of learning from such electronic exchanges. Other implications of these findings are also discussed.
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This paper assesses the construct validity of the dimensions of teaching presence, one of three types of presence articulated in Garrison, Anderson, and Archer's [Garrison, D.R., Anderson, T., and Archer, W. (2000). Critical inquiry in a text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and higher education, 2, 87–105.] Community of Inquiry model of online learning. Using items to measure these characteristics developed by Shea and colleagues [Shea, P.J., Fredericksen, E.E., Pickett, A.M., and Pelz, W.E. (2003). A preliminary investigation of “teaching presence” in the SUNY learning network. In J. Bourne and J.C. Moore (Eds.) Elements of quality online education: Practice and direction, 4, 279–312. Needham, MA: Sloan Center for OnLine Education.], a sample of 191 MBA students was used to test the posited model through a structural equation model. The results revealed that dropping some of the measurement items produced a stable model with good fit between the data and the model. This is one of the first studies to establish construct validity for the components of teaching presence, suggesting that it is a valid framework for studying online management education. It also points to the potential of the broader Community of Inquiry model for further research and application in online management education.
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