Article

The mechanisms of collaboration in inventive teams: Composition, social networks, and geography

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Abstract

This paper investigates the composition of creative teams of academic scientists engaged in inventive activity. Our data provides a unique opportunity to explore the links between team composition and commercialization outcomes. We find that there are coordination costs associated with reaching across academic departments and organizational boundaries to build teams. However, we also find evidence of benefits due to knowledge diversity, particularly in the cases of truly novel combinations. In support of internal cohesion arguments, we find that performance improves with the experience of the team. In line with arguments regarding the value of diverse external networks, we find that teams that are composed of members from multiple institutions – focal university, other research institution, and/or industry – are more successful in generating patents, licenses, and royalties. Finally, we find that the presence of prior social ties supporting links with external team members positively influences commercial outcomes. We find that there is no benefit to proximity in team configuration.

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... Several types of coordination problems, however, constrain effective integration of knowledge in teams (Becker and Murphy, 1992). Empirical studies on total knowledge diversity in teams have confirmed both the benefits of diversity and the presence of coordination problems (Singh and Fleming, 2010;Bercovitz and Feldman, 2011;Lee et al., 2015;Leahey et al., 2017). A related stream of literature has studied inventor traits associated with knowledge diversity and specialization. ...
... Indeed, I find that across-individual diversity in teams leads to more, not less innovation on average. In addition, they contribute to the literature on innovation and team composition (Singh and Fleming, 2010;Bercovitz and Feldman, 2011) by disentangling the sources of knowledge diversity in teams and estimating the effect of team diversity at the extensive margin. My findings show that not only the amount of knowledge diversity matters, but also how this knowledge is distributed among team members. ...
... Additional studies of scientific teams highlight the presence of coordination costs in diverse teams. Bercovitz and Feldman (2011) find a positive relationship between diversity and commercialization outcomes of academic inventors, especially for inventions making truly novel combinations, while also finding evidence of coordination costs, especially when collaborations span departments. ...
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Inventor teams increasingly attain diverse knowledge from a combination of non-overlapping members -- across-individual knowledge diversity -- as opposed to from individuals holding broad expertise themselves -- within-individual knowledge diversity. Does this trend affect innovation? I use patent data to disentangle these two sources of knowledge diversity in teams and compare their effects on innovation output in a large panel of firms. Both diversity types increase innovation at the extensive margin, with a considerable advantage for across-individual knowledge diversity. Weighting for technological value preserves this advantage, but weighting for commercial value does not-suggesting a wedge between privately and socially optimal team composition. An analysis using inventor deaths to induce exogenous variation in team composition confirms the main findings. Furthermore, the relative benefit of across-individual knowledge diversity is present in most technological fields and has increased over time. I also find suggestive evidence that across-individual knowledge diversity eases broad search, that its benefits are limited by coordination costs, and that it results in more novel innovations with increased risk of failure. Overall, these results mitigate productivity concerns because of an increased burden of knowledge. They also support arguments for policies that encourage multidisciplinary R&D teams.
... Sin embargo, también es importante explorar las características de la cooperación en el nivel micro. De hecho, es necesario entender a quienes están interactuando en última estancia con la empresa para poder mejorar el diseño de las políticas públicas a fin de conseguir una mayor funcionalidad (Bercovitz y Feldman, 2011), puesto que a pesar de los factores que influyen en el funcionamiento de las universidades, la decisión final en cuanto a cooperar con la empresa es generalmente de los investigadores. ...
... Los estudios con un enfoque individual por su parte han analizado el peso de la inclinación de los investigadores a la colaboración universidad-empresa. Las actitudes de las empresas hacia la divulgación de las invenciones han sido identificadas como un factor clave para el éxito o el fracaso de las políticas de patentes (Bercovitz y Feldman, 2011;Owen-Smith y Powell, 2001b;. Otras variables individuales, tales como la etapa de la carrera (Dietz y Bozeman, 2005) o la experiencia previa en gestión de empresas (Colyvas y Powell, 2006) determinan la propensión a interactuar con el sector privado. ...
... Sin embargo, los académicos formados cuando la implicación de la universidad con la industria no era tan manifiesta como en la actualidad, podrían también haber interiorizado algunas normas que dificulten su vocación hacia la interacción con el sector privado (Bercovitz y Feldman, 2011;. En nuestro estudio de caso se revelan diferencias en la influencia del factor edad, que se encuentran también al tener en cuenta el canal específico de transferencia de conocimiento (Ding y Choi, ...
Thesis
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Esta tesis tiene como objetivo general analizar la institucionalización de los principales mecanismos de recompensas de la ciencia en España, ante las distintas coyunturas acontecidas durante las últimas décadas, así como su incidencia en las dinámicas sociales de las carreras académicas. Para resolver esta cuestión consideramos necesario indagar en los procesos institucionales que han favorecido el establecimiento de los actuales sistemas de recompensas tal y como son en la actualidad. Además, creemos igualmente necesario comprobar de qué manera han afectado sobre la realización de actividades menos tradicionales relacionadas con la transferencia, por las que no se obtienen las recompensas distribuidas de manera directa a través de las agencias de evaluación existentes en el sistema español de I+D. Este trabajo está enfocado fundamentalmente a las normas diseñadas desde las políticas de I+D+i, de cuyo cumplimiento depende en gran medida la continuidad y el progreso profesional de los investigadores en el sistema. Desde esta óptica, las agencias de evaluación se sitúan como una pieza fundamental para entender la formación del campo científico en España (Cruz-Castro y Sanz-Menéndez, 2007). Nuestro interés está por tanto en trazar el recorrido de las distintas políticas que han modificado el sistema de recompensas de la ciencia y estudiar de qué manera han afectado a las dinámicas de las carreras académicas, así como las posibles contradicciones e implicaciones que se han podido originar en la ciencia española. La tesis se presenta estructurada en tres partes. Después de la introducción, se exponen los enfoques utilizados para el análisis de las prácticas de evaluación científica y los sistemas de recompensas en la ciencia. A saber, los conceptos y características analíticas del “enfoque sociológico neoinstitucional” y el “enfoque de demarcación de fronteras” (boundary-works) (T. F. Gieryn, 1983). Ambos posibilitan la situación de nuestro objeto de estudio en su contexto histórico determinado. La segunda parte supone el tronco empírico principal de la tesis y está compuesta por cuatro estudios (dos publicados previa revisión por pares ). En el primero de estos se analiza el surgimiento y la evolución del sistema de evaluación científica en España que desemboca en la creación de la ANEP. En el siguiente exploramos el principal mecanismo mediante el que se discrimina el prestigio profesional en el caso de los investigadores individuales, a través de las prácticas implantadas por la CNEAI. A partir de la creación de estas agencia se estudian las formas de demarcación de la calidad investigadora a partir de la evolución de los llamados sexenios. Consideramos las agencias de evaluación estudiadas como lugares estratégicos de investigación desde los que examinar nuestras preguntas de investigación específicas (R. K. Merton, 1987). Finalmente, se analiza la actitud de los investigadores con respecto a la realización de actividades de transferencia de conocimiento. Por un lado, se estudian las motivaciones de los investigadores para cooperar con las empresas, para comprobar si realmente existe una división entre los fines académicos frente a los fines comerciales, argumentando la existencia de una amplia variedad de canales de transferencia. Por otro, se examinan los factores que influyen en la percepción de los investigadores al respecto de la realización de actividades de transferencia de conocimiento. Se identifica a los investigadores que, preocupados por el éxito de sus carreras asociado a los sistemas de recompensas de la ciencia tradicional, han interiorizado nuevos valores acerca de la cooperación con otros sectores
... This also relates to the inventors. Combination of knowledge bases of individual inventors, especially those coming from different technological fields, might create more advanced innovations (Bercovitz & Feldman 2011). ...
... The composition of inventor and applicant teams themselves were often not considered or used as a control variable in these papers (e.g., in Svensson 2012). However, there exists strong evidence of the lower quality of sole-inventor patents (Singh & Fleming 2010), and of diverse teams being more likely to achieve invention commercialization (Bercovitz & Feldman 2011). Thus, there still exist gaps with regard to understanding the transition process of invention to product, which this paper aims to address. ...
... Thus, Huang et al. (2018) provide evidence that assignee and inventor count as well as inventor country count have positive impact on patent transaction duration, whereas assignee country count has a negative impact on patent transaction duration. The latter fact may be explained by the additional coordination costs that arise as more organizations are involved in the invention, which may hinder team-building (Bercovitz & Feldman 2011). Svensson (2012) does not find a significant impact of the number of inventors on the speed of commercialization. ...
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This paper investigates the impact of applicant and inventor team composition on patent commercialization in form of product creation. It outlines the importance of applicant and inventor team characteristics, i.e. specifically, size and internationality, on the speed of market authorization of a patent-related product and on the product quality. The analysis is performed for the European pharmaceutical industry. The product data is taken from the European Medicines Agency website for the period 2010-2019. Manual patent-product concordance is established with the help of the Pat-INFORMED database from the World Intellectual Property Organization and the Health Canada database. The created dataset presents combined data on patent and product characteristics. Results from an accelerated failure time model show that larger applicant teams as well as the presence of international applicants and inventors decelerate the market authorization of patent-related products. Results of the probit analysis show that larger inventor teams lead to patents of higher quality.
... Therefore, we measure (5) affiliation diversity as a control variable. 7 It reflects the geographical variety of the teams (Bercovitz and Feldman, 2011;Jones et al., 2008). It is operationalized as the Herfindahl-Hirsch Index of the team affiliations. ...
... Our conceptualization and measure of multiplicity in expertise and its differentiation from expertise overlap, status disparity, and the use of automation technology as facilitators/inhibitors of integration provide a more fine-grained understanding of team diversity. All three contributions address the literature on innovation teams in general (Bercovitz and Feldman, 2011;Leavitt, 1996;Salomo et al., 2010;Srikanth et al., 2016) and more specifically the literature on science teams (Adams et al., 2005;Lee et al., 2015;Melin, 2000;Porac et al., 2004) and the "science of team science" (Falk-Krzesinski et al., 2010;Hall et al., 2018;Stokols et al., 2008). ...
Article
Innovation increasingly relies on collaboration in teams instead of individual efforts. Although the advantages of teams for innovating are virtually undisputed, we have only a very rudimentary understanding of their success drivers. To shed more light on innovation teams, we conceptualize multiplicity in expertise as nonredundant expertise and distinguish it from factors that facilitate or hinder the integration of this expertise. These factors are overlap in expertise, disparity in team members’ status, and whether or not teams use automation technology. We use the empirical context of molecular biology, especially the part of this field in which teams produce and exchange genetic material in the form of so-called plasmids. Combining data about plasmids from a central plasmid repository (AddGene) with bibliometric data endows us with a rich dataset capturing information about team diversity in addition to two innovation performance measures (the number of plasmid orders and the number of citations attracted by publications). Our analysis shows that multiplicity in expertise increases innovation performance; this relationship is strengthened by the overlap in expertise and weakened by disparity in status and the use of the automation technology. Our paper provides a more detailed theory of expertise diversity and contributes to the diversity literature. Our findings also lead to implications for practitioners.
... It also benefits from the division of labor between specialized skills (Becker and Murphy, 1992). However, while collaboration amounts to higher combination possibilities, it comes at the expense of communication and coordination costs of various sorts: the costs of setting up a relationship, search costs, and transaction costs (e.g.; Bakos and Brynjolfsson, 1997;Bercovitz and Feldman, 2011;Staats et al., 2012). Hence, there is a trade-off between the benefits of enhanced knowledge combinations and the costs of coordinating the contributions of various knowledge holders (Vural et al., 2013;Aggarwal et al., 2014;Deichmann and Jensen, 2018). ...
... Strikingly, most of the literature frames collaboration as hinging on its benefit exceeding its cost (e.g. Cummings and Kiesler, 2007;Bercovitz and Feldman, 2011), without considering the alternative conditions and possibilities of solitary creation. While there may indeed be an incentive to collaborate, once collaborating is shown to provide a net benefit, individual preferences and contextual factors being otherwise equal, this nevertheless ignores the agency of creators in changing the 'economics' of DIY versus DIT by adopting technologies that could help them enhance the potentialities of DIY for creative work. ...
Article
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The literature is rather inconclusive when it comes to asserting whether digital technologies tend to favor collaboration (Do-It-Together, DIT) or creating alone (Do-It-Yourself, DIY) in creative production. In this paper, we argue that providing an answer to that question implies adopting a micro-perspective, which ties individual creators’ usage of different types of digital technologies, and their choices of DIT or DIY. Using data from a sample of French musicians, we find that while the use of some digital technologies is clearly associated with artists creating alone, other digital technologies have a more ambiguous association with DIY or DIT. We then uncover the boundary conditions of the association of these ambiguous technologies with DIY and DIT behaviors by showing how individual characteristics of the creators moderate this association.
... Thanks to the increasing scale and complexity of scientific projects, we have witnessed a rapid growth in the frequency and influence of collaborative research (Chen et al., 2019;Wang et al., 2013). This trend could be evidenced by the increase in research collaborations at a distance (Bercovitz & Feldman, 2011;Hoekman et al., 2010). ...
... However, most studies show that research quality is positively Table 1 Selected empirical studies about collaboration at a distance and research performance Table 1 summarizes the relevant literature reporting the correlation between collaboration at a distance and research performance. Research collaboration at a distance has become increasingly prevalent (Bercovitz & Feldman, 2011;Hoekman et al., 2010). Given the abundant evidence that the spatial features influence the research performance, existing research on collaboration networks did not account for the spatial patterns and mainly assumed that the edges are homogeneous in the collaboration network. ...
Article
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Research collaborations, especially long-distance and international collaborations, have become increasingly prevalent worldwide. Recent studies highlighted the significant role of research leadership in collaborations. However, existing measures of the research leadership do not take into account the intensity of leadership in the co-authorship network. More importantly, the spatial features, which influence the collaboration patterns and research outcomes, have not been incorporated in measuring the research leadership. To fill the gap, we construct an institution-level weighted co-authorship network that integrates two types of weight on the edges: the intensity of collaborations and the spatial score (the geographical distance adjusted by the cross-linguistic-border nature). Based on this network, we propose a novel metric, namely the spatial research leadership rank, to identify the leading institutions while considering both the collaboration intensity and the spatial features. The leadership of an institution is measured by the following three criteria: (a) the institution frequently plays the corresponding rule in papers with other institutions; (b) the institution frequently plays the corresponding rule in longer distance and even cross-linguistic-border collaborations; (c) the participating institutions led by the institution have high leadership status themselves. Harnessing a dataset of 323,146 journal publications in pharmaceutical sciences during 2010-2018, we perform a comprehensive analysis of the geographical distribution and dynamic patterns of research leadership flows at the institution level. The results demonstrate that the SpatialLeaderRank outperforms baseline metrics in predicting the scholarly impact of institutions. And the result remains robust in the field of Information Science and Library Science. Supplementary information: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s11192-021-03943-w.
... This diversity encourages vastly wider interaction between traditionally distanced groups, and facilitates the sharing of a wide range of experiences, knowledge, and opinions, and promotes unlikely collaborations. This diversity of makeup helps to foster creativity and innovation in much the same way Bercovitz and Feldman observed of researchers [16]. ...
... Thus, given the right technology, and a little momentum within a cohort, it is clear that the Learn-Apply-Reinforce/Share framework of learning is not only applicable to, but efficacious for, online delivery -with Hack-Quarantine engaging over 3500 participants, and 'outputting' just shy of 250 projects 16 . One important factor to consider, however, is the time frame over which to run these 'sessions'. ...
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This paper lays out two teaching/learning methods that are becoming increasingly prevalent in computer science - hackathons, and Capture the Flag (CTF) competitions - and the pedagogic theory that underpins them. A case study of each is analysed, and the underpinning similarities extracted. The frameworks are then generalised to Learn-Apply-Reinforce/Share Learning-a social constructivistic method that can be used subject-independently. The applicability of this new method to distance learning is then investigated-with a mind to potential necessity to work from home-both due to increasing demand in the Higher Education sector, but also the devastating impact of crises such as the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Finally, a few potential extensions and future applications are discussed-including the possibilities of pivoting the method to be more research-driven, or indeed, to drive research.
... Data to study academic teams involved in commercialization is not generally available and requires original data collection. Bercovitz and Feldman (2008), Bercovitz and Feldman (2011) have written papers that rely on administrative data collected from the technology transfer offices of universities. Access to these data require building relationships with university research officials and signing memorandum of understanding with the university offices. ...
... Results can be a comprehensive view of the process from research funding to publications to the filing of invention reports, which then leads to intellectual property (IP) protection. Bercovitz and Feldman (2011) examine the influence of characteristics of inventing teams on innovation outcomes and rely on invention reports, as a precursor to patent filings. In their 2008 paper, Bercovitz and Feldman explore how organizational work environments within university departments condition commercialization outcomes. ...
Article
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We review the literature on entrepreneurial team formation with a focus on data to study academic teams and summarize our empirical work on the life sciences industry. We consider how academics form teams to start new companies and the implications of various configurations on firm behavior with regards to patenting, survival and firm growth. We present several empirical challenges facing research on academic teams and conclude with suggestions for future research.
... In contrast to our work, previous studies in the field of science commercialization that take into account experience focus mainly on knowledge producers, i.e. academic researchers and their teams (e.g. Bercovitz and Feldman, 2011;Clarysse et al., 2011;Modic and Yoshioka-Kobayashi, 2020;O'Kane et al., 2020), company-university collaborators (Steinmo and Rasmussen, 2018), or specific entities, such as technology scouts (Noack and Jacobsen, 2021). There is also a large focus in the literature on TTOs as monolithic actors and the effect of their staff's combined experience on science commercialization outputs (Chapple et al., 2005;Micozzi et al., 2021). ...
Article
Experience defined in terms of time, scope, type, density and timing affect performance of highly skilled administrative staff. We apply a multidimensional model to the field of science commercialization as a typical multi-goal oriented process. We identify how different conceptualizations of experience models lead to diverse conclusions regarding their effects on facets of performance such as speed, efficiency and revenue. Acknowledging multifaceted goals of science commercialization, we further contribute to the body of work on individual level factors regarding universities' commercialization performance. In this paper we provide evidence from the context of universities' commercialization efforts, relying on administrative records of a Japanese university including 845 transfer cases over a 13-year period (2004–2016). By focusing on coordinators working in a technology transfer office, and the various measurement modes of their experience, we detect several important characteristics. While several experience components affect speed and efficiency of technology transfer, our results show that revenue is determined by interaction components.
... The past teamwork experience leads to a reciprocal knowledge of individual skills and competencies. From a psychological perspective, members that are familiar with each other are expected to be more productive, because previous collaboration experience may lower the costs in information exchange (Bercovitz and Feldman 2011). For instance, individuals who already collaborated need less time to understand each other and are more likely to interpret correctly the others' opinions. ...
Article
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In the context of international investment disputes, this paper investigates how arbitrator team characteristics affect team performance in solving disputes between a host country and a foreign investor. Our data include 277 judgments issued by arbitrator teams at the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes at the World Bank from 1972 to 2018. The time to resolution and the quality of the final judgment, as measured by the requirement of a follow-on proceeding to rectify mistakes, are used to measure the team performance. We consider both biographical and professional characteristics of the arbitrators as determinants of the team performance. We find that mixed gender teams and previous team member’s collaborations increase the time to resolution contrary to team members’ experience and diversity in the professional background that decrease it. None of the team characteristics considered has an impact on the quality of the final judgment. Our findings talk to the current policy debate on the reform of the international investment arbitration system aiming to increase its effectiveness and transparency.
... While the collaboration rate is increasing, nevertheless, results point to the presence of multiple one-time collaborations and less common instances of repeat collaborations among both authors and institutions during the 1999-2018 period. On the one hand, this limited co-authorship does not take advantage of the anticipated effects of repeat collaboration on coordination, communication, and task routines that improve performance (Bercovitz and Feldman, 2011), but suggests other motivations or constraints for researchers. Skilton and Dooley (2010), for instance, indicated that pre-existing relational ties result in diminishing research creativity and performance among researchers. ...
Article
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Collaboration has become an essential paradigm in sustainable development research and in strategies for meeting the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). This study uses bibliometric methods and network analysis to examine research output and collaboration supporting the SDGs and explores means to detect and analyze research collaboration beyond the traditional definition of multiple, one-time co-authorship. We employed two additional lenses of collaboration: repeat collaboration and collaboration time point to quantify and visualize co-authorship data sourced from Microsoft Academic Graph. Our results show an increased collaboration rate over time at the author and institutional levels; however they also indicate that the majority of collaborations in SDG-related research only happened once. We also found out that on average, repeat collaboration happens more frequently, but after a longer duration, at the institutional level than at the author level. For this reason, we further analyzed institutions and identified core institutions that could help influence more consistent collaboration and sustain or grow the SDG-related research network. Our results have implications for understanding sustainable partnerships in research related to SDGs and other global challenges.
... Today, scholars agree that successful innovation arises from network-oriented interaction between different actors (Bercovitz & Feldman, 2011;Rajalo & Vadi, 2017). The technology providers among these actors are universities, applied universities, various large research institutions, and companies. ...
Book
This edited book presents research results that are relevant for scientists, practitioners and policymakers who engage in knowledge and technology transfer from different perspectives. Empirical and conceptual chapters present original approaches regarding the current practice and policies behind technology transfer. By providing analyses at the macro, meso and micro-level, the respective chapters demonstrate how technology is moving from various organizational contexts into new institutions and becoming a critical aspect for competitiveness.
... Through their combined experience of collaborations outside and within the region, gatekeepers build large networks of relationships which act as a social capital (Coleman, 1988) and contribute to overcome organizational distance by facilitating communication through trust, common norms of cooperation and more effective exchange of complex knowledge (Obstfeld, 2005;Reagans and McEvily, 2003). Compared to inter-firm collaborations, science-industry linkages face even higher coordination and transaction costs because of different routines and incentive schemes (Bercovitz and Feldman 2011). Interactions are more difficult and potentially hamper the collaboration and knowledge combination process (Ponds et al., 2007). ...
Article
It is increasingly emphasized that the innovative performance of regions depends on the right balance between local development and external openness. The paper contributes to this discussion by exploring how regional gatekeepers contribute to inventive performance through their intermediation role as they establish extra-local linkages in addition to their local embeddedness. More specifically, we investigate whether firms benefit from the gatekeeping position of their inventors. To do so, we identify corporate inventors with a gatekeeper position, and study whether their presence in inventor teams affects the quality of inventions and differs when gatekeepers cross organizational (intrafirm, interfirm versus science-industry) and/or regional boundaries (one or multiple regions). Our results show that gatekeepers have a higher impact on the quality of inventions when they work for firms involved in inter-firm collaborations unlike external stars who have either no effect or a negative impact on inventive quality.
... For instance, the presence of mutual trust and support and frequent reciprocal interactions (e.g., friendly reviews) makes communication and creative processes smoother, thereby enhancing one's research productivity (Colquitt et al., 2007;Gonzalez-Brambila et al., 2013, Wang, 2016. Trust built through coauthorship (Bercovitz and Feldman, 2011) also serves as a channel for constructive feedback, which significantly enhances the probability of research to be published in journals and subsequently increases research productivity (Wang, 2016). Concurrently, focused collaborative attention does not prevent individuals from taking advantage of their network's weak ties, even though occasional and new collaborations entail higher coordination costs. ...
Article
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Despite the consensus on the “double-edged sword” effect of diversification (of knowledge and collaborators) on individual performance, little is known about the contingencies that affect the relationship between diversification and individual productivity. Drawing on the attention-based view, we theorize the moderating role of attention allocation to advance our understanding of the curvilinear relationship between diversification (of knowledge and collaborators) and individual productivity. Relevant hypotheses are tested using a longitudinal sample of more than 25,000 individual scholars. Our analysis reveals that although a moderate level of knowledge diversification is optimal for research productivity when the level of cognitive attention is low, a high level of knowledge diversification is more beneficial for research productivity when the level of cognitive attention is high. Furthermore, we show that a moderate level of collaborator diversification, coupled with a high level of collaborative attention, is optimal for research productivity. Our study provides important implications for highly skilled and creative individuals.
... The past teamwork experience leads to a reciprocal knowledge of individual skills and competencies. From a psychological perspective, members that are familiar with each other are expected to be more productive, because previous collaboration experience may lower the costs in information exchange (Bercovitz and Feldman 2011). For instance, individuals who already collaborated need less time to understand each other and are more likely to interpret correctly the others' opinions. ...
Thesis
International investment treaties often allow the foreign investor to sue the host country before international arbitration in case of breaches of treaty provisions. The number of investor-state disputes is growing so rapidly that some countries expressed their discomfort with the current international investment law regime. The first chapter gives readers a comprehensive view on the effectiveness and spillover effect of international investment arbitration. Based on a vast interdisciplinary literature, we reexamine recent criticisms and identify the root of the crisis faced by international arbitration. We conclude that it is possible for countries to adapt the current regime of international law to new situations without wholesale exit. The second chapter investigates the early settlement of investor-state disputes. Drawing on the rich economic literature and a new dataset related to treaty-based disputes, we find that the host state's experience, the case prospect, the nature of the regulatory measures, the identity of investors and Dutch investment treaties have significant impacts on the probability of early settlement. The third chapter focuses on an institutional dimension of arbitration: the effectiveness of ICSID in solving disputes. The time to resolution and the quality of the final judgment which is measured by the requirement of follow-on proceedings are used as performance indicators. We highlight how arbitrators' biographical and professional characteristics can impact the ICSID effectiveness.
... Thus, a group of stylized facts on the behaviour of innovative activity which allows the association of geographical and relational perspectives (Feldman and Kogler, 2010) can be highlighted: (1) innovation tends to be spatially concentrated (Jaffe, 1989;Audretsch and Feldman, 1996); (2) inventive activity benefits from strong connections within these agglomerations (Cowan and Jonard, 2004); (3) inter-personal innovation networks are confined to a physical space (Singh, 2005); (4) new geographical and social relations are forged from previous close contact (Bercovitz and Feldman, 2010). The challenge is a methodological construction which benefits both themes. ...
Article
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Modern innovation activity is the product of cooperation between people, companies, and regions rather than a solitary activity performed by the traditional garage inventor. Empirical studies on cooperative innovation highlight three major types of proximities that enable tie-formation: geographical, cognitive, and social or relational proximities. Our paper aims to investigate the determinants of network formations between Brazilian regions between 2000 and 2011. We use the patent database from the National Institute of Intellectual Property (INPI) to create a network of interregional co-patenting in Brazil. The main results indicate that: (1) geography still plays a fundamental role in forming networks; (2) the network and its subcomponents are spatially concentrated; (3) there is an unequal geographical agglomeration pattern in the Brazilian invention system and (4) technological and relational proximity are important factors in determining new connections.
... As teams began to be considered as the building blocks of modern organizational structure [39], efforts towards understanding team assembly [35] and optimal team functioning [2] became areas of study. Different models have been suggested on how to develop a team and to gauge the suitability of one team structure over others, in particular operational contexts [39]. ...
... Sorin and Hannum's (2013) analysis of the distribution of American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) funds by the National Institute of Health (NIH) concluded that the majority of the funds went to PIs who already had non-ARRA NIH grants, resulting in a high concentration of research funding among existing PIs. Furthermore, scholars report how young and inexperienced research scientists can be disadvantaged or viewed as less capable when applying for research grants (Luukkonen, 2012) More generally, the importance of PIs' organizing skills is apparent in how effectively organized science collaborations can positively influence research productivity (Defazio, Lockett and Wright, 2009;Lee and Bozeman, 2005); impact (Lee, Walsh, Wang, 2015;Rijnsoever and Hessels, 2011) and novelty (Bercovitz and Feldman, 2011;Heinze and Bauer, 2007;Lee et al., 2015). Effectively organized collaborations also help shape scientific careers and facilitate science and technical human capital development (Bozeman and Mangematin, 2004). ...
Article
This paper examines the role identity of university based principal investigators (PIs), as well as the learning mechanisms that underpin this position. PIs have become the focus of increasing research attention which has argued that they, along with universities and funding bodies, form an increasingly crucial tripartite in public research environments. Although the PI position is well recognised among scientific peers and research institutions, a role identity is still emerging and remains ill-defined. This issue requires research attention as having a clear role identity is fundamental to performing a role effectively. Our analysis draws on interviews with 41 health science PIs in New Zealand to develop a PI role identity learning framework. We find that the PI role identity is made up of four roles – science networker, research contractor, project manager, and entrepreneur - that are mutually reinforcing throughout the research process, and which together form a hybrid science-business role identity. Furthermore, we identify two learning mechanisms – learning through experience and violation – and show how these are formative for role identity when transitioning to an ill-defined position. Based on our findings we discuss a number of practical implications for PIs, universities and funding bodies.
... Block one considers key components of the team project designed by the program leadership, examining how diverse the scientific disciplines are within a team; members' freedom to participate in decision making by the team (Campion et al. 1993); and the task, goal, and outcome interdependencies required for team members to accomplish their work (Campion et al. 1993). Decisions about team composition, members' ability to participate in decision making, and team members' interdependencies can all impact the barriers LAS members must overcome to exchange and recombine knowledge and cocreate new knowledge (Bercovitz and Feldman 2011;Campion et al. 1993;Harrison and Klein 2007;Phene, Fladmoe-Lindquist and March 2006). Although we asked two leaders of the LAS program to assist us in assessing how diverse the participants' scientific disciplines were within teams-in the hopes of having a measure to describe the differences in disciplinary or knowledge diversity across the teams-our two informants found this to be a daunting task. ...
Chapter
As described in Chapter Two, the Collaboration Group was tasked to: (1) facilitate teamwork in six of the nine existing LAS research teams, and (2) conduct a study of LAS team dynamics to generate recommendations for more effective interdisciplinary collaboration and innovation. While the previous chapter emphasized what we learned from our observations and interviews with LAS personnel, this chapter details the Collaboration Group’s continued efforts to study the LAS program as it evolved, as well as the changes in research team dynamics over time (2014–2018). We used a longitudinal survey methodology to help us answer an overarching question: What factors are most important in the design of large-scale, long-term, cross-sector collaborative programs in order to transcend institutional and interdisciplinary boundaries to enhance the generation of innovative output? To address this question, we define “factors” broadly as elements, features, or characteristics of the program (the Lab) itself, project teams, and individual members.
... Many important research questions lie at the intersection of disciplines, and interdisciplinary work has become increasingly common (Bercovitz and Feldman, 2011;Cummings and Kiesler, 2014). Funding agencies and policy makers also actively encourage interdisciplinary collaborations (Leahey et al., 2017;National Academies, 2004). ...
Article
Teams performing scientific research are becoming increasingly large and interdisciplinary. While prior work has examined antecedents and performance implications of these trends, it is not clear how size and interdisciplinarity relate to teams’ internal organization, especially the division of labor (DoL) between members. We first develop an organizing framework that integrates three complementary dimensions of DoL: (1) the specialization of individual team members, (2) the distribution of activities across team members, and (3) interdependencies between activities. We then discuss how these aspects of DoL are related to team size and interdisciplinarity and test our hypotheses using author contribution data from over 12,000 scientific articles. We find that team size has a positive relationship with an aggregate measure of DoL, but disaggregated measures show that this relationship holds for some aspects of DoL and not others. We also find that interdisciplinary teams use greater division of labor, although this effect depends on the degree to which interdisciplinarity is intra- versus inter-personal. We conclude by discussing how our conceptual and empirical toolkit may be applied in future research on the drivers and consequences of division of labor in teams.
... Scholars have variously described the breakthrough single inventor as a myth, a romantic image, or a dead phenomenon (Jones 2009;Singh & Fleming 2010;Bercovitz & Feldman 2011 The results for design patents extend to technology inventions of an integral nature. Thus we identify a moderation effect whereby a lone inventor is no worse at creating breakthroughs (than when working with others in a team) when working on technology inventions that are relatively non-decomposable-in other words, inventions that cannot be easily partitioned into separate chunks. ...
Article
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Problem definition : Is teamwork better than working alone for creating breakthrough inventions? We challenge the widely accepted affirmative answer to this question. Academic/practical relevance : Extant research has consistently found that lone inventors significantly underperform teams in creating breakthroughs; thus it extols the benefits of teamwork while neglecting the role of single inventors. This paper offers an important counterweight to those empirical results by identifying a fundamental contingency under which teams might or might not outperform lone inventors: the degree of decomposability of the invention. By ignoring this contingency, past literature has systematically underestimated the role that lone inventors can play for companies. Methodology : We use utility and design patent data for 1985–2009 to compare the effect—on the probability of creating a breakthrough—of working alone versus working with a team. Results : For utility patents, we do find that working alone reduces the likelihood of achieving a breakthrough. Yet this disadvantage of lone inventors is not evident for design patents. We theorize that the nearly nondecomposable nature of design is a major factor contributing to lone designers’ relative efficacy of achieving breakthroughs. This theory is then tested in the context of utility patents, where we can observe variation in inventions’ decomposability. We find that technology inventions that are difficult to decompose also relatively advantage lone inventors compared with teams, and we demonstrate that this finding reflects greater coordination costs when such inventions are attempted by teams. If one takes a myopic view of collaboration’s role, then our results suggest that working with others does not help develop outstanding nondecomposable inventions. Yet taking a long-term view reveals that lone inventors benefit more than do teams from having collaborated with others in the past. In fact, we find that past collaborations can help lone inventors outperform teams with regard to developing nondecomposable inventions. Managerial implications : Past research has suggested that collaboration is universally beneficial in creating breakthrough inventions. However, such efforts have ignored crucial contingencies: we show why inventors should explicitly consider both the targeted invention’s decomposability and their own history of collaboration when deciding whether or not to work with a team on a given innovation.
... Likewise, internationalization of business and management research activities is legitimized by authorities and accreditation bodies. Some studies show that knowledge production outputs carried out by internationalized research teams are more valuable and important than the outputs generated by research teams with homogeneous demographic in terms of national and geographic origin (Singh and Fleming 2010;Bercovitz and Feldman 2011). ...
Thesis
How STEM workers, namely academic researchers and inventors, affect research and innovation activities and outputs?The present dissertation tries to meet such demand for a European-based research. Its three papers , which is made of three empirical chapters diverge from most of previous studies that evaluate the labour market effects of immigration in that it seeks to provide evidence on the impact of foreign skilled workers on innovation in Europe. The first two chapters center on European patenting activities They relate to and draw from the economic literature on patent quality and/or patents as innovation indicators. The third chapter is more compelled to the sociological research on social identity and group behavior.In the first chapter I explore the link between performance and ethnic connections of a professional category, inventors, whose engagement in innovation activities is selfevident. I build upon a vast literature that investigates the effect of ethnic and cultural variety on innovation, as well as on the migration literature on skill-based self selection. The second chapter is the most relevant from a policy perspective. It explores the contribution to innovation in destination countries by inventors who left former USSR countries for Europe and Israel, after the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991. This was a political shock that had both important repercussions in terms of highly skilled migratory flows towards Western Europe, Israel, and the United States, and serves well as a natural experiment in migration. The last chapter targets European academic institutions, in particular both public and private business schools, including management departments of large universities. I examine multi-authored scientific publications on peer-reviewed management journals, and explain their scientific impact and visibility with the cultural diversity of the co- authors. Business schools are one of the most internationalized and knowledge-intensive organizations in modern society, and contemporary management literature has widely investigate the importance of workforce diversity in enhancing or limiting group effectiveness, two circumstances that make the chosen field of study both appropriate and extremely likely to attract the attention of the same scholars that contribute to it.
... Technological proximity is generally measured as the cognitive distance between subjects and patent indicators [65][66][67]. When patents were used to characterize technological proximity, the accuracy depends on the number of patent samples and the division of patent dimensions. ...
Article
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The article aims to explore which types of proximity approach can foster university–industry (U-I) collaborations for innovation and discuss the role of different dimension regional absorptive capacity in cooperation to promote inter-regional partnerships from “unbalance” to “coordination”. Therefore, we intercept 484 pairs of cooperative entities and analyze proximity effects and heterogeneity cross-regional U-I collaborations by hierarchical regression. The results show: (1) In non-local contexts, geographic distance is not a hamper for improving innovation performance. The economic development level has no significantly different effects on such a role. (2) Technological proximity plays a negative role in increasing innovative performance, and the eastern region has the most noticeable results. (3) The closer in social distance can get more innovation performance in eastern and western, but the central area negatively affects. (4) The U-I collaborations for innovation performance-enhancing advantages are not equal for all regions but are moderating by specific regional absorptive capacity dimensions. The areas with a higher level of internal human capital can get more catch-up effects. The lagging regions should increase talents to promote cross-regional cooperation for catching up. In contrast, the prosperous areas should take advantage of the talent-gathering effects to promote knowledge spillover.
... Interdisciplinarity has been frequently studied (Leahey et al. 2017), although rarely in the context of entrepreneurship. The most relevant articles of which we are aware are Bercovitz and Feldman (2011) and Kotha et al. (2013), both of which examine the licensing of university invention disclosures as opposed to startup formation. These authors find that more departments spanned by the discovery team (which they interpret as coordination costs) is negatively associated with a lower likelihood of licensing (although the effect reverses for a squared term indicating a curvilinear effect). ...
Article
Which factors shape the commercialization of academic scientific discoveries via startup formation? Prior literature has identified several contributing factors but does not address the fundamental problem that the commercial potential of a nascent discovery is generally unobserved, which potentially confounds inference. We construct a sample of approximately 20,000 “twin” scientific articles, which allows us to hold constant differences in the nature of the advance and more precisely examine characteristics that predict startup commercialization. In this framework, several commonly accepted factors appear not to influence commercialization. However, we find that teams of academic scientists whose former collaborators include “star” serial entrepreneurs are much more likely to commercialize their own discoveries via startups, as are more interdisciplinary teams of scientists. This paper was accepted by Sridhar Tayur, entrepreneurship and innovation.
... A reasonable assumption is that more diverse groups will, on average, contain more diverse perspectives, and this may in turn lead to a higher probability to form novel ideas. More diverse teams have greater opportunity to leverage the expertise of members and to bring a wider range of information to the knowledge creation process (Bercovitz & Feldman, 2011;Cohen & Levinthal, 2000;Wagner et al., 2019). Peterson (2001) showed that multi-national collaboration, where the collaborators have different cultural (and educational) backgrounds, tend to stimulate new ideas and develop new approaches to theoretical or practical problems. ...
Article
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Understanding the nature and value of scientific collaboration is essential for sound management and proactive research policies. One component of collaboration is the composition and diversity of contributing authors. This study explores how ethnic diversity in scientific collaboration affects scientific impact, by presenting a conceptual model to connect ethnic diversity, based on author names, with scientific impact, assuming novelty and audience diversity as mediators. The model also controls for affiliated country diversity and affiliated country size. Using path modeling, we apply the model to the Web of Science subject categories Nanoscience & Nanotechnology , Ecology and Information Science & Library . For all three subject categories, and regardless of if control variables are considered or not, we find a weak positive relationship between ethnic diversity and scientific impact. The relationship is weaker, however, when control variables are included. For all three fields, the mediated effect through audience diversity is substantially stronger than the mediated effect through novelty in the relationship, and the former effect is much stronger than the direct effect between the ethnic diversity and scientific impact. Our findings further suggest that ethnic diversity is more associated with short-term scientific impact compared to long-term scientific impact.
... This means that for the positive spillovers to emerge from the churning of employees, more time is needed. Other research also suggests that teams become more productive the longer they work together (Bercovitz and Feldman 2011). 14 Moreover, the estimations are also run on a subset of plants that do not experience any change in the workforce during the time they are in the sample. ...
Article
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This paper studies how the previous experience among workers relates to the labor productivity of the creative industries in Sweden. Effective knowledge transfers are dependent on the cognitive distance among employees. Using longitudinal matched employer-employee data, I measure the portfolio of the skills within a workplace through (i) the workers' previous occupation, and (ii) the industry they have been working in previously. Estimates show that diversity of occupational experience is positive for labor productivity, but the diversity of industry experience is not. When distinguishing between related and unrelated diversity, the relatedness of occupational experience is positive for labor productivity, while unrelated occupational experience instead shows negative relationship with productivity. These results point towards the importance of occupational skills that workers bring with them to a new employment, for labor productivity.
... Working in interdisciplinary project teams is becoming increasingly popular [47][48][49][50] due to their increasing use in the development of the new processes and products [51] required by Sustainable Industry 4.0. This also affects the composition of project teams, as team members should be highly qualified and have diverse competencies. ...
Article
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Contemporary project teams are increasingly used to solve problems that are at the crossroads of many disciplines and areas dedicated to Industry 4.0, which is a watershed in the implementation of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Industry 4.0 can serve as a platform for the alignment of SDGs with the ongoing digital transformation. This involves specific challenges for teams, but also allows perspectives that may create innovative and high-quality results. In order to meet these challenges while taking advantage of the opportunities offered by interdisciplinary cooperation, project teams, including the team leader, should have specific competencies. With this in mind, the aim of this article is to identify the challenges and perspectives related to working in interdisciplinary Sustainable Industry 4.0 project teams and to define the competencies necessary to act as a member and leader of these teams. Implementation of this aim will be possible by answering two research questions: (1) What requirements and opportunities are involved with interdisciplinary work amongst members of Sustainable Industry 4.0 project teams; and (2) What are the competencies necessary of members and leaders of such teams to meet these requirements and take advantage of the opportunities for such cooperation? An exploratory case study was conducted among members of interdisciplinary project teams at one of the leading technical universities in Poland. Qualitative data were obtained from many sources: interviews, internal documentation of analyzed projects and managerial notes. The obtained results allow us to state that the most important challenges and perspectives related to the work of interdisciplinary Sustainable Industry 4.0 teams include coordination of individual parts of the project, integrative leadership, establishing a common language, broad views on the issues raised and building a team consisting of specialists with the required competencies. The competencies of the project team that are important for working in the analyzed environment include strategic perspective, communication skills and persuasion, while for leaders, competencies must include the ability to coordinate work, resource management, empowering and motivation.
... According to the knowledge management theory, innovation activity is an interactive process of knowledge creation and accumulation in which novelty is created by combining diverse sets of knowledge (Bercovitz & Feldman, 2011;Hansen & Lema, 2019). In addition to the knowledge acquisition, a second way to compensate for the insufficiency of firms' technological capabilities growth is to enhance the communication and cooperation with other organizations. ...
Article
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This study investigates the effects of knowledge activities including knowledge acquisition, knowledge cooperation, and knowledge transaction based on external knowledge network on the firm’s technological capability. Using the statistical data of China, the paper employs the negative binomial regression random-effects model to study the effects of knowledge activities on technological capability. Results show that knowledge cooperation between firm and research institutions and/or universities has a statistically significant relation with technological capability. The variable of knowledge transaction that is the firm’s technology contract deals by category of technology buyer positively influences the technological capability growth, and another variable that is the technology contracts imported by the type of technology importer also shows this effect. With respect to knowledge acquisition, the results show that the acquisition of foreign technology is not associated with firms’ technological capabilities, while the purchase of domestic technology has a positive impact.
... Patents resulting from collaborations are more important than patents on individual inventions (Fleming, Mingo, and Chen 2007;Bercovitz and Feldman 2011). Forms of collaboration lead to greater knowledge variety and creativity (Reagans and Zuckerman 2001). ...
Article
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Firm’s inter-regional investments are crucial carriers of capital flows between cities, transforming information resources into innovation capabilities. Based on the listed companies’ inter-regional investments data and patent data in China during 2009-2018, the mechanism of the inter-regional investments in technological catch-up and the heterogeneity in different samples have been investigated via the two stage least squares regression. The results show that: (a) Inter-regional investments enhance the innovation capability, narrow the technological distance, and play a more significant role than foreign capital; (b) Technological catch-up is achieved through independent innovation, the transmission mechanism of imitative innovation does not hold; (c) When there is no market segmentation, the role of interregional investments on technological catch-up is realised entirely through independent innovation. Segmentation hinders the technological catch-up process; (d) The partial mediating effect of the manufacturing industry on technological catch-up holds, while in non�manufacturing industries, it is not significant. Inter-regional investments are important for the improvement of local innovation capacity and for China’s catching up with the world’s technological frontiers
... However, because of the vast differences between their perceptions and goals, establishing the most effective method of moving the project forward can provide challenges. Successful innovation is known to require diverse teams with many different characteristics in terms of experience and knowledge [18]. ...
Chapter
Public-private partnerships (PPPs) represent an important channel that attracts the participation of private sponsors to invest in transport infrastructure systems in developing countries. PPPs are increasing as an innovative tool to remedy the lack of the dynamics of traditional investment channels of public governments and to stimulate the development of transport infrastructure via the encouragement of participation by private investors. PPP projects are established based on the cooperation rules of public and private sectors on the basic of pursuing common goals; and leveraging their joint resources regarding the competencies and strengths of each actor. However, the poor quality of collaboration mechanisms between public agencies and private organizations is considered to be one of the main causes leading to project delays and the need for unexpected renegotiations, which results in unforeseeable events beyond the control of the contractual parties. Thus, this paper focuses on reviewing the implementation of PPP projects in developing countries to provide a holistic picture of PPP contractual negotiations and identify potential risks and associated consequences during the project stages. A systematic review has been conducted and more than one hundred research papers from 2000 to 2020 have been selected for analysis and synthesis. The initial findings of this study show that political support, legal-financial risk allocation, shared authority and responsibility, communication channels, and conflict resolution are critical factors contributing to the success or failure of the collaboration mechanism between parties in PPP projects. These factors should be examined carefully during investment policy development to improve the success rate of PPP projects and attract the participation of private sector investors.
... At present, the existing literature mainly focuses on the formation mechanism, structural characteristics and innovation performance of industry-university-research innovation network, and there is little research on its time evolution law. The research objects also mostly focus on the research of economically developed areas, advantageous industries and so on, and pay less attention to the industry-university-research innovation network in late developing areas (Huang, 2017; Janet, 2011; Liu, 2014) [1][2][3]. Therefore, this paper takes this opportunity, takes Guizhou Province as the research object, constructs the industry-university-research innovation network based on the cooperative patent data of Guizhou Province, deeply explores its overall characteristics, network time evolution process and characteristics, and improves and enriches the research on the evolution law of industry-university-research cooperation network, It also provides a scientific basis for Guizhou Province and other underdeveloped areas to formulate industry-university-research innovation policies. ...
Article
Based on the industry-university-research cooperation patent data of Guizhou Province from 1986 to 2020, this paper constructs Guizhou industry-university-research innovation network, and empirically explores the overall structural characteristics of Guizhou industry-university-research innovation network, such as network scale and network density, as well as the time evolution dynamics of nodes and cooperation intensity. It is found that the scale of industry-university-research innovation network in Guizhou Province is gradually expanding, the nodes are gradually increasing, and more cooperative groups have been formed, but the overall network is low density; Guizhou University and other universities and scientific research institutions have always occupied the central position of the network. Although enterprises are not in the core position, the intensity of cooperation with institutions is gradually increasing.
... At the initial stage, it is essential for firms to match up with the right types of partnerssuch as vertical (suppliers), horizontal (competitors) or institutional (universities and research institutes) partnersthat complement themselves with the necessary knowledge and resources to achieve the goals pursued. Once a partnership or alliance is formed, it is necessary for team members to become familiar with each other, to develop an enhanced understanding of the problem-solving procedure, to cultivate personal trust, and eventually to build effective research routines so as to improve efficiency and prospect for project success (Bercovitz & Feldman, 2011). Therefore, close face-to-face contact is essential throughout the whole process of innovation collaboration. ...
Article
This study explores the extent to which changes in transport infrastructure counterbalance pre-existing geographical friction and foster innovation collaboration, using the Chinese high-speed rail (HSR) construction as a quasi-natural experiment. Using a comprehensive dataset of city-pair co-patents from 2005 to 2018, we show that HSR connections significantly increase intercity co-patents, patent quality and collaborative partnerships, and such effects are strongest for city-pairs within 250 km and decrease for longer distances. Moreover, the HSR effect is stronger for cities in similar institutional settings, indicating a negative moderating effect of institutional distance. Various robustness methods are used to confirm the validity of our findings.
... Empirical studies have found a positive relationship between team performance and prior team interaction (Huckman, Staats, Upton 2009) or prior social links between team members (Bercovitz & Feldman, 2011). At the same time, negative repercussions have also been reported (Dan et al., 2008;Sales et al., 2018), as repeated interaction may limit the amount of new information that can be obtained through collaboration. ...
Article
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While their expertise and scientific excellence make academic star scientists attractive collaboration partners for firms, this study indicates that firms face difficulties in capturing value from collaborations with academic stars. Stars are time constrained, may be less committed to commercialization, and can be a source of undesired knowledge spillovers to other firms. The purpose of this study is to recognize the contingencies under which collaboration with star scientists is positively associated with a firm’s ability to produce valuable patents (invention performance). We analyze a panel dataset on the collaborations in basic research(publication data) and invention performance (patent output) of 60 prominent pharmaceutical firms. We find that basic research collaboration with academic stars is on average not associated with a performance premium above the overall positive influence of collaborating with academia. We only observe this premium if the star scientist abstains from simultaneous collaboration with other firms (‘dedication’) and extend her collaboration with the firm to involvenot only basic but also applied research (‘translation’). Extending prior work that has focused on corporate star scientists, we find that if the collaboration involves an internal firm star scientist, a translational contribution of the academic star is no longer a prerequisite, and may even be detrimental to inventive performance. Our findings inform the literatures on industry‐science links and firms’ (scientific) absorptive capacity by revealing the crucial contingencies for firms to benefit from partnering with the best and brightest among academic scientists.
Article
We still do not have a full understanding of how the different missions of academic organisations relate to their performance in knowledge sharing. This paper addresses this gap with a data set of more than 900 Swiss academic institutions and distinguishes between mechanisms of knowledge sharing, different levels and types of missions, and the strength of isomorphic processes. We find that the missions of organisations and fields are more important than the missions of institutes for knowledge exchange through commercialisation and teaching. The opposite is true for industrial PhD students, a research-based mechanism of knowledge exchange. Coercive and mimetic isomorphic processes in organisations and normative isomorphic processes in research areas have different effects: since commercialisation of knowledge is not the main activity in any discipline, low normative isomorphism leaves more freedom for institutes to decide how and by which mechanisms they share knowledge, which correlates positively with commercialisation performance.
Article
This paper investigates how the social environment to which a Ph.D. student is exposed during her training relates to her scientific productivity. We investigate how supervisor and peers' characteristics are associated with the student's publication quantity, quality, and co-authorship network size. Unique to our study, we cover the entire Ph.D. student population of a European country for all the STEM fields analyzing 77,143 students who graduated in France between 2000 and 2014. We find that having a productive, mid-career, low-experienced, female supervisor who benefits from a national grant is positively associated with the student's productivity. Furthermore, we find that having few productive freshman peers and at least one female peer is positively associated with the student's productivity. Interestingly, we find heterogeneity in our results when breaking down the student population by field of research.
Article
This article analyses the determinants of management scholars' scientific productivity using the intellectual capital approach. The paper contributes to the literature with a broad analysis that considers the complex integration of the intellectual capital dimensions and their joint influence on scientific productivity. To do so, we conduct semi‐structured interviews with 15 academics working in research teams, selected based on their experience and research results in the field of management. Through the evidence provided by the expert academics and a systematized and taxonomic study of the literature, we develop a theoretical framework based on the conceptualization of academic intellectual capital and its effects on scientific productivity. In the second step of the empirical analysis, the paper studies the impact of dimensions of intellectual capital on scientific productivity, using data extracted from a sample of 162 management academics. The results of the study have interesting implications for both research team leaders and HR decision‐making within universities.
Article
[Context] Large scale software systems are being increasingly built by distributed teams of developers who interact across geographies and time-zones. Ensuring smooth knowledge transfer and the percolation of skills within and across such teams remain key challenges for organizations. [Research problem] Towards addressing this challenge, organizations often grapple with questions around whether and how repeat collaborations between members of a team relate to outcomes of important activities. In the context of this paper, the word “repeat interaction” does not imply a greater number of interactions; it refers to repeat interaction between a pair of developers who have collaborated before. [Methodology] In this paper, we empirically examine such a question using real-world data from three diverse development ecosystems, collectively involving 400,000+ units of work, and 600,000+ comments exchanged between numerous developers. Our statistical models consistently establish a counter-intuitive relation between repeat developer interaction and bug resolution times. [Results] Our experimental results show that more instances of repeat developer interactions over bug fixing are associated with more time taken for the bugs to be fixed. [Conclusions] Given the expanse and variety of the underlying data, our results offer an unexpected set of insights on a key dynamic of collaboration in software development ecosystems. We discuss how these insights can influence the practice of large-scale software development at individual, team, and organizational levels.
Article
Purpose Building on network theory, this study aims to examine how network resources and network knowledge utilization influence mobility within networks of knowledge workers. Specifically, it examines how the availability of resources in a network and knowledge utilization, in a period impacts the structure of the focal network in the following period. Design/methodology/approach The study uses data from the National Basketball Association to depict the mobility of knowledge workers in a network. Because of the nature of the dependent variable, the study used a conditional fixed-effects quasi-maximum-likelihood Poisson regression as an analytical methodology. Findings The study finds that network resources are partially significant in predicting knowledge workers’ mobility and that knowledge utilization of networks of knowledge workers in one period negatively affects networks’ structure in the following period. Originality/value The study advances our understanding of the knowledge workers’ mobility phenomenon by examining network-level factors that influence the mobility of knowledge workers. It addresses the issue from a different theoretical perspective that is rarely used in studies of knowledge workers, which mostly draw from the traditional human resource literature. Additionally, it contributes to the emerging literature of network dynamics by studying factors that affect network changes. The study also responds to the calls that advocate using sports data to examine organizational phenomena.
Article
The theoretical model developed in this article predicts that collaboration with top-funded scientists positively affects the number of scientific publications of an individual scientist. Having combined data on funding and publication of Quebec scientists, this article empirically tests the theoretical predictions. This article examines numerous definitions of top-funded scientists as those in the top 10 per cent, or top 5 per cent in terms of total funding, funding from the public sector, and funding from the private sector. The results show that collaborating with such top-funded scientists has a positive effect on a scientist’s number of publications, hence confirming our theoretical predictions.
Article
A new indicator (the disruption index) quantifying the extent to which a paper disrupts or consolidates established knowledge was recently introduced from the perspective of subsequent use of the current knowledge. This study explored whether different types of collaboration (i.e., at the author, institution, and country levels) equally affect the disruption of papers. We selected 505,168 papers from Neurosciences indexed in the Web of Science from 1954–2011 and employed logistic regression analysis. Our principal findings are that team size and international collaboration are negatively associated with the disruption of articles, while an additional increase in the number of domestic institutions of a team statistically favors disruption.
Article
Although teamwork shows stronger innovation ability than individuals and this advantage has been increasing over time, the negative effects of larger teams also appear as the number of inventor members increases. This study discusses the double-edged sword role of inventor teams in innovation quality at two extremes: the high quality and the low quality. We argue that, inventor team size influences innovation quality because diversity works in the evolutionary process of innovation, but different types of diversity play distinct moderating roles in these relationships. Using patent data from the US pharmaceutical industry, empirical results show that there is an inverted U-shape relationship between inventor team size and high-quality innovation, and a negative relationship between inventor team size and low-quality innovation. These relationships are moderated at different degree by technological and geographic diversity. Our findings contribute to existing literature of innovation and also provide meaningful implications for innovation management.
Article
University-enterprise cooperation has experienced nearly 30 years of development in China, there are still a large number of failure cases in practice, and academic research often presents a unilateral situation of ‘enterprise-university’. This study starts with the bilateral matching between enterprises and universities, using data on invention patents jointly applied for by Chinese enterprises and universities from 2010 to 2020, discusses the influence of university-enterprise knowledge potential matching on the innovation performance of university-enterprise cooperation and the influence of university level and enterprise R&D investment intensity on the innovation performance of university-enterprise cooperation when the knowledge potential difference is similar. The results show that: (1) knowledge potential matching has a significant effect on the innovation performance of university-enterprise cooperation: the smaller the knowledge potential difference, the higher the innovation performance; (2) with similar knowledge potential difference, the level of the university has no significant impact on the innovation performance, and the R&D investment intensity of enterprises is positively correlated with the innovation performance of university-enterprise cooperation; (3) geographical proximity has a significant inverted U-shaped moderating effect on the relationship between knowledge potential matching and the innovation performance of university-enterprise cooperation.
Article
While innovation has increasingly become a collaborative effort, there is little consensus in research about what types of team configurations might be the most useful for creating breakthrough innovations. Do teams need to include inventors with knowledge breadth for recombination or do they need inventors with knowledge depth for identifying anomalies? Do teams need overlapping knowledge to integrate insights from diverse areas or does this redundancy hamper innovation by creating inefficiencies? In this paper, we offer evidence that the answers to these questions may depend on the characteristics of the technologies. Focusing on the degree of modularity and the breadth of application in patent data, we identify empirical patterns suggesting that differing team configurations are associated with different technological domains. MANAGERIAL SUMMARY While innovation has increasingly become a collaborative effort, there is little guidance for managers about how you can construct teams to create novel breakthroughs. Who should be on the team? Some have suggested that inventors should have broad knowledge in order to facilitate the recombination of ideas, which is at the heart of creativity. Others suggest that only deep knowledge in an area can lead to novel solutions. How much diversity in backgrounds is useful? Some find that inventors need to have common knowledge in order to integrate their insights. Others worry that this redundancy will lead to inefficiencies that slow down innovation. In this paper, we resolve these conflicting recommendations by showing that the team you pick depends on the type of technology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
Chapter
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The economic strength of nations worldwide is increasingly dependent on its research systems to sustain innovation and new product and service development. Besides research, education and entrepreneurial innovation are seen as core factors to promote a dynamic and competitive modern economy and nearly all governments in the world pursue research and technological development programs to fund research activities especially at universities, research laboratories, and companies, intending to constantly advance their economy. How can knowledge from basic research be used for industrial practice at an early stage? What are the different channels of knowledge transfer? And above all, how can this process be accelerated? In this chapter, we will discuss the mechanisms and consequences of new technology transfer instruments and approaches and depict their relevance for a more productive technology transfer. We end with an outlook on the potential role of artificial intelligence and machine learning for the future of technology transfer.
Article
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Collective efforts of masses provide access to funding and ideas. While such endeavors in a business-to-customer context are well-described, they are less well understood in other contexts such as business-to-business. A literature review that exacts knowledge and inspiration from B2C crowdsourcing and other forms of collective innovation is used. This review generates new knowledge to close this gap and develops a 6-stage innovation framework for Collective Engagement, Intelligence & Innovation (CEI^2) that begins with task specification and concludes with management of inputs generated from the CEI^2 efforts. The framework and the accompanying list of questions may be used by theorists to explore different contexts, and for managers to structure B2B or P2P crowdsourcing more effectively. Contributions of this study include exploration of the theoretical areas of open-source innovation that extend beyond a B2C model, and new ways of effectively structuring CEI^2. Further research may explore the CEI^2 framework through a case study or test it through quantitative study.
Chapter
Die Beziehung zwischen Innovation und Organisation ist widersprüchlich: Organisation beschränkt Innovation und ermöglicht sie gleichzeitig dadurch. In diesem Beitrag rezipieren wir aktuelle prozessorientierte Ansätze in der Organisationsforschung, die diese Beziehung auf unterschiedliche Arten und Weisen adressieren. Dabei argumentieren wir, dass Innovation weder allein von besonders kreativen Individuen noch von bestimmten Organisationsstrukturen abhängt, sondern von situativen, kollektiven Praktiken, welche durch Organisation unterstützt werden können.
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The geography of innovation describes the importance of proximity and location to innovative activity. As part of what has been termed the new economic geography, this area of research is less than 20 years old, and is now developed sufficiently so that the discussion can be organized around certain stylized and commonly accepted facts: • Innovation is spatially concentrated; • Geography provides a platform to organize economic activity • All places are not equal: urbanization, localization, and diversity; • Knowledge spillovers are geographically localized; • Knowledge spillovers are nuanced, subtle, pervasive, and not easily amenable to measurement; • Local universities are necessary but not sufficient for innovation; • Innovation benefits from local buzz and global pipelines; and • Places are defined over time by an evolutionary process. The purpose of this chapter is to summarize recent work on innovation and location in light of these themes, and to consider how these stylized facts shed light on the broader process of technological change ad economic growth. While firms are one venue to organize economic activity, the resources required to generate innovation are typically not confined to a single firm, and geography provides another means to organize the factors of production. Geography is additionally a venue for complex multifaceted social relationships, and human community and creativity that are beyond the economic sphere. Economies are complex: highly integrated, globally interconnected, and highly agglomerated on centers of activity. There is always the temptation to analyze economic institutions and actors individually, however the new economic geography literature considers the large context. Of course, once the analysis is open to consider geography there is a need to understand history, building a deep contextualized understanding of a place and the relationships that define it. The present review of the literature summarizes the advancements made in this stream of inquiry, but also indicates that many open avenues for research remain, thus encouraging others to contribute to the emerging field of economic geography.
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It is now accepted wisdom that a major challenge facing managers in the next century will be an increasingly diverse workforce. But what conclusions can be drawn from the research on demography and diversity about meeting this challenge? Is there, as some researchers suggest, a "value in diversity", or, as suggested by others, does diversity make group functioning more difficult? The purpose of this paper is to provide a systematic review of the literature on organizational demography and diversity as it applies to work groups and organizations. We review over 80 studies relevant for understanding the effects of demography as it applies to management and organizations. Based on this review, we summarize what the empirical evidence is for the effects of diversity and suggest areas for further research.
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In this study, we investigate a central tenet of the resource-based view of the firm-that tacit knowledge often lies at the core of sustainable competitive advantage-and attempt to articulate it with greater theoretical precision than has been done previously. Using data from the National Basketball Association, we find support for a predicted positive relationship between shared team experience and team performance that declines as shared experience grows, eventually becoming negative. The implications of this study for non-sports-related firms are discussed along with suggestions for future research.
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This paper explores the executive origins of firms' competitive moves by focusing on top management team characteristics, specifically on team heterogeneity, rather than on the more often studied environmental and organizational determinants of such behaviors. Arguing that competitive actions and responses represent different decision situations, we develop propositions about how heterogeneity may enhance some competitive behaviors but impair others. With a large sample of actions and responses of 32 U.S. airlines over eight years, we find results that largely conform to our propositions. The top management teams that were diverse, in terms of functional backgrounds, education, and company tenure, exhibited a relatively great propensity for action, and both their actions and responses were of substantial magnitude. Heterogeneous teams, by contrast, were slower in their actions and responses and less likely than homogeneous teams to respond to competitors' initiatives. Thus, although team heterogeneity is a double-edged sword, its overall net effect on airline performance, in terms of changes in market share and profits, was positive.
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Functional diversity in teams has been conceptualized in a variety of ways without careful attention to how different conceptualizations might lead to different results. We examined the process and performance effects of dominant function diversity (the diversity of functional experts on a team) and intrapersonal functional diversity (the aggregate functional breadth of team members). In a sample of business unit management teams, dominant function diversity had a negative, and intrapersonal functional diversity, a positive effect on information sharing and unit performance. These findings suggest that different forms of functional diversity can have very different implications for team process and performance and that intrapersonal functional diversity matters for team effectiveness.
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"Kenney's work is the first major effort to provide a detailed analysis of the birth of the new industrial field of biotechnology and its impact on universities...Kenney's book abounds in rich description and valuable conjectures. It also provides important insights into the structural and institutional aspects of the biotechnological revolution. It is informed by an extensive literature including reports from the financial community, university-industry contracts, trade journals, personal interviews, and company prospectuses."-Sheldon Krimsky, American Scientist "Probably never before has the emergence of a technology-based new industry been so exhaustive covered-while still in its gestation period...An excellent and very readable review."-S. Allen Heininger, Chemical and Engineering News "The author raises important questions about whether the character of this university-industrial complex adequately allows for the kind of public discussion and participation necessary to insure consideration of social, economic, and moral issues in the development of this important new technology."-Harvard Educational Review "A fine description of a vital new field. It deserves wide readership."-David Silbert & Duncan Neuhauser, Ph.D., New England Journal of Medicine
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This is a book about the formation, development, and success or failure of new high technology companies, focusing on those that grew under the auspices of entrepreneurs from Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in Boston at the end of World War Two. Trained in high-technology in MIT's labs and academic departments or in the local industrial marvel that became known as the "Route 128 phenomenon", these entrepreneurs took their technical and innate skills with them to found their own new companies. The book is based on extensive empirical research on these firms conducted over a period of twenty-five years and much previously written work on the subject, and is the culmination of such earlier work and synthesized findings. It centers on people, technology, money, and markets, and its main goal is to provide insights that may eventually contribute to fulfilling other entrepreneurs' dreams and other communities' hopes. The book chapters comprise three connected sections - treating birth, transition and growth, and success or failure.
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This study investigated the communication behaviors and performances of 50 R&D project groups that varied in terms of group longevity, as measured by the average length of time project members had worked together. Analyses revealed that project groups became increasingly isolated from key information sources both within and outside their organizations with increasing stability in project membership. Such reductions in project communication were also shown to affect adversely the technical performance of project groups. Furthermore, variations in communication activities were more associated with the tenure composition of project groups than with the project tenures of individual engineers. These findings are presented and discussed in the more general terms of what happens in project groups with increasing group longevity.
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The task performance of laboratory work groups whose members were trained together or alone was investigated. At an initial training session, subjects were taught to assemble transistor radios. Some were trained in groups, others individually. A week later, subjects were asked to recall the assembly procedure and actually assemble a radio. Everyone performed these tasks in small work groups, each containing three persons of the same gender. Subjects in the group training condition worked in the same groups where they were trained, whereas subjects in the individual training condition worked in newly formed groups. Groups whose members were trained together recalled more about the assembly procedure and produced better-quality radios than groups whose members were trained alone. Through an analysis of videotape data, the mediating effects of various cognitive and social factors on the relationship between group training and performance were explored. The results indicated that group training improved group performance primarily by fostering the development of transactive memory systems among group members.
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Exploring the factors that explain the choice of governance structures in interfirm alliances, this study challenges the use of a singular emphasis on transaction costs. Such an approach erroneously treats each transaction as independent and ignores the role of interfirm trust that emerges from repeated alliances between the same partners. Comprehensive multiindustry data on alliances made between 1970 and 1989 support the importance of such trust. Although support emerged for the transaction cost claim that alliances that encompass shared research and development are likely to be equity based, there is also strong evidence that repeated alliances between two partners are less likely than other alliances to be organized using equity.
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We argue that the debate regarding the performance implications of demographic diversity can be usefully reframed in terms of the network variables that reflect distinct forms of social capital. Scholars who are pessimistic about the performance of diverse teams base their view on the hypothesis that decreased network density--the average strength of the relationship among team members--lowers a team's capacity for coordination. The optimistic view is founded on the hypothesis that teams that are characterized by high network heterogeneity, whereby relationships on the team cut across salient demographic boundaries, enjoy an enhanced learning capability. We test each of these hypotheses directly and thereby avoid the problematic assumption that they contradict one another. Our analysis of data on the social networks, organizational tenure, and productivity of 224 corporate R&D teams indicates that both network variables help account for team productivity. These findings support a recasting of the diversity-performance debate in terms of the network processes that are more proximate to outcomes of interest.
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This research considers how different features of informal networks affect knowledge transfer. As a complement to previous research that has emphasized the dyadic tie strength component of informal networks, we focus on how network structure influences the knowledge transfer process. We propose that social cohesion around a relationship affects the willingness and motivation of individuals to invest time, energy, and effort in sharing knowledge with others. We further argue that the network range, ties to different knowledge pools, increases a person's ability to convey complex ideas to heterogeneous audiences. We also examine explanations for knowledge transfer based on absorptive capacity, which emphasizes the role of common knowledge, and relational embeddedness, which stresses the importance of tie strength. We investigate the network effect on knowledge transfer using data from a contract R&D firm. The results indicate that both social cohesion and network range ease knowledge transfer, over and above the effect for the strength of the tie between two people. We discuss the implications of these findings for research on effective knowledge transfer, social capital, and information diffusion.
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In this paper we present an integrative model of the relationships among diversity, conflict, and performance, and we test that model with a sample of 45 teams. Findings show that diversity shapes conflict and that conflict, in turn, shapes performance, but these linkages have subtleties. Functional background diversity drives task conflict, but multiple types of diversity drive emotional conflict. Race and tenure diversity are positively associated with emotional conflict, while age diversity is negatively associated with such conflict. Task routineness and group longevity moderate these relationships. Results further show that task conflict has more favorable effects on cognitive task performance than does emotional conflict. Overall, these patterns suggest a complex link between work group diversity and work group functioning.