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A sociocultural approach to understanding teacher identity, agency and professional vulnerability in a context of secondary school reform

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Abstract

This paper uses a sociocultural theoretical lens, incorporating mediated agency [Wertsch et al. (1993). A sociocultural approach to agency. In A. Forman, N. Minick, & A. Stone (Eds.), Contexts for learning sociocultural dynamics in children's development (pp. 336–357). New York: Oxford University Press] to examine the dynamic interplay among teacher identity, agency, and context as these affect how secondary teachers report experiencing professional vulnerability, particularly in terms of their abilities to achieve their primary purposes in teaching students. Two mediational systems that shape teacher agency and their professional vulnerability are addressed. These are: (a) the early influences on teacher identity; and (b) the current reform context. Interview data revealed that the political and social context along with early teacher development shaped teachers’ sense of identity and sense of purpose as a teacher. Survey and interview data indicate that there was a disjuncture between teacher identity and expectations of the new reform mandates. Teacher agency was clearly constrained in the new reform context. Teachers struggled to remain openly vulnerable with their students, and to create trusting learning environments in what they described as a more managerial profession with increased accountability pressures. Directions for future research are also discussed.

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... Particularly, first-year teachers are more prone to becoming negatively influenced by emotional challenges (Karimi & Nazari, 2021). A significant part of this influence turns back to novices' higher vulnerability in becoming negatively influenced (Lasky, 2005). And a substantial constituent of novices' vulnerability is events that reshape their identity learning as a result of interaction with contextual participants (Schutz et al., 2018), which results in the occurrence of critical incidents and is the focus of the present study. ...
... This behavior change was also evident in the observations as when I asked her about specific emotional challenges, she most often argued that she has reconsidered her behavior: "Yes, this learner is really cheeky and when he says something, I should handle him immediately; otherwise, he disturbs the whole class" [Identity Adjustment] (Postobservation interview, Second semester). Emotions grow as teachers grow in their careers and influence their practices (Zembylas, 2002) and by this growing, they develop their self-knowledge (Lasky, 2005) and learn the range of professional competencies. It seems that as novices start their practices with ideals (Farrell, 2012), they are likely to face emotional challenges that redefine their professional practice and it takes time to develop a nested, context-sensitive understanding of teaching. ...
... Shirin blamed the manager for permitting the parents to voice their opinions on educational functioning and the associated manager comments on her practice. In the extract below, Shirin laments over manager leniency in decision-making, which had "disappointed" her and had influenced her doubts about herself as a professional teacher (Lasky, 2005). Additionally, Shirin's awareness of the parent's request to change her practice seems to have created anger in her. ...
Article
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Despite recognizing the importance of criti- cal incidents (CIs) in teachers’ professionalism, there is a need for more research on novice teachers’ CIs, especially emotional CIs. This study describes the emotional CIs of a novice language teacher during her first year of teaching by relying on Schutz et al.’s (in: Schutz, Hong, Francis (eds) Research on teacher identity: Mapping challenges and inno- vations, Springer, 2018) conceptual framework and Zemby- las’ (Journal of Research in Science Teaching 39:79–103, 2002) three-dimensional framework of intrapersonal, inter- personal, and intergroup levels of teacher emotions. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews, observa- tional field notes, stimulated recall interviews, and online narratives. The teacher’s intrapersonal emotional CIs domi- nantly influenced her current functioning to eschew creating similar negative experiences for her students. The interper- sonal emotional CIs created tensions that largely influenced her claimed identity as a professional teacher. The intergroup emotional CIs made her develop negative perceptions about certain ethnic groups and educational stakeholders. Moreo- ver, the findings indicate that while the teacher could func- tion agentively at the classroom level, her limited agency at the institutional level created tensions in her identity as a professional teacher. The study portrays how novices negotiate and construct their professional identity based on emotional CIs, shows how such CIs accelerate novice teacher attrition, and provides implications for reducing the emotional gap between policymakers and novice teachers.
... Existing studies of vulnerability in educational settings have been primarily focused on teachers' personal narratives during educational reform (Kelchtermans, 2005;Lasky, 2005). The roots of the existing work on vulnerability in education research are often found in research on teachers' professional risk-taking experiences. ...
... While intentionality may play a role in the cause of expressions of vulnerability, that remains an unresolved assumption (Bruk et al., 2018). The roots of conceptualizations of vulnerability in education research are in risk taking (Bullough, 2005;Gallo-Fox, 2010;Lasky, 2005;Uitto et al., 2016). The basis in risk taking fosters a scarcity model in applications of the concept of vulnerability. ...
... Lastly, the majority of research which seeks to address vulnerability does so from a scarcity framework in which it is treated as unavoidable, but to be mitigated (Bullough, 2005;Kelchtermans, 2005;Lasky, 2005). ...
Article
Vulnerability is omnipresent in personal and professional human experiences (Gilson, 2011; Lasky, 2005) and an unavoidable condition of work as a teacher (Bullough, 2005; Kelchtermans, 1996). It plays a role in teachers’ interaction with themselves, their students, and their professional communities, as they engage in making sense of their role in these social environments (Uitto, Kaunisto, Kelchtermans, & Estola, 2016). This study examined the written reflection journals by 12 middle school science teachers in a professional learning community (PLC) in New England. Teachers engaged with each other to co-construct knowledge and emotional understanding of their practice within this professional community. By examining teachers’ expressions in the discourse of their written reflections, vulnerability was brought to the forefront as a situated, relational way in which we open ourselves up by breaking from the expected norms of the space and outcomes of sharing. There was no existing method for analyzing vulnerability in this context therefore, the project also addressed the development of methodological processes in educational research focusing on vulnerability. Hufnagel & Kelly’s (2018) methodological considerations for examining emotional expressions informed the process along with conceptualizations of vulnerability. By examining the subject (aboutness) and discursive features of teachers’ expressions of vulnerability it was made salient what teachers’ expressed vulnerability about and the ways in which they did so. Previously, orientations to vulnerability across all disciplines have been toward minimization, rather than leveraging its necessity and importance in human connection (Gilson, 2011). While this thesis progressed research on vulnerability in education, it remains important to expand the spaces within which we have examined vulnerability to both develop and expand conceptualizations of teachers’ professional experiences and the ways in which we can support them.
... Teacher agency is imperative for the process of implementing curriculum reforms and educational policies (Lasky, 2005;Pyhältö et al., 2012;Hamid and Nguyen, 2016;Tao and Gao, 2017). Current empirical studies show that teacher agency is a temporal and situated achievement and that teachers exercise their agency to respond to educational change in different manifestations, such as compliance, resistance, and negotiation (Robinson, 2012;Priestley et al., 2015;Yang and Clarke, 2018;Le et al., 2020). ...
... Teachers' agentic actions toward educational change are always mediated by the sociocultural contexts in which they are situated. Sociocultural contexts are reflected not only in classroom teaching, school conditions, and local communities but also in educational policy mandates, the promotion of ideological discourses, and changes in assessment practice that can either enable or hinder teachers' agency enactment (Lasky, 2005;Priestley et al., 2015;Poulton, 2020;Tao and Gao, 2021). For example, Liyanage et al. (2015) identified the struggles and dilemmas experienced by English language teachers in their attempts to exercise agency amid the instructional demands of the exam-oriented community in Inner Mongolia in China. ...
... Specifically, agency has been viewed as individuals' intentional acts to make things happen and participate in their development, adaptation, and self-renewal with changing times (Bandura, 2001). This concept emphasizes the psychological mechanism of the self-system in one's agency formation, while some scholars have argued that agency is a socioculturally medicated capacities to act (Ahearn, 2001;Lasky, 2005;Kayi-Aydar, 2019). Goller and Harteis (2017) derived a definition of agency on both a psychological and practical basis suggesting that human agency is the capacity and tendency to make intentional choices, initiate actions based on these choices, and exercise control over the self and the environment. ...
Article
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This study draws on the ecological perspective of teacher agency to examine the manifestation of English teachers' agency toward the ongoing curriculum reform in China and the factors that impact it. This study surveyed 353 high school English teachers and then collected data from three case study participants through in-depth interviews. The findings showed that the majority of teachers surveyed exhibited positive attitudes and beliefs about implementing the reform and inclinations to change, but the teachers also showed a constrained state of agency in practice. Teacher agency developed as the teachers exerted sustained pedagogical change and reflection on reform-based practices. Through the findings, prior experiences and reform-oriented beliefs were found to mediate teachers' agency, and reform-related experiences were more influential than future goals in shaping agency. The factors of perceived school culture that involved teachers' interaction with students, colleague cooperation, and administrative support also medicated teachers' agency in practice. Implications are proposed for policymakers and school leaders to help teachers coordinate inconsistencies between high-stakes examination preparation and holistic education and make positive sense of professional development in the context of educational changes.
... There are two different effects of teachers' administrative duties on students' performance. Clearly, on the negative side, administrative tasks may consume teachers' energy, squeeze teaching time (Kim, 2019;Park & Sung, 2013;Sun & Zhou, 2022), and even create professional stress (Lasky, 2005;Yang et al., 2009), which leads to a decline in teaching quality (Ballet et al., 2006;Kim & Park, 2014). Additionally, there are different work norms and assessment systems between teaching and administrative work, and administrative duties require teachers to switch between different roles and orientations (Kim, 2019;Tsang & Kwong, 2017), accelerating their burnout and sense of job exhaustion (Kim & Park, 2014;Zheng & Sun, 2020). ...
... First, our empirical results show that HTs' administrative duties are detrimental to student achievement, therefore, we added to the literature on the adverse effects of teachers' administrative duties. Previous related studies on teachers holding administrative duties mainly focused on teachers' workload and efficiencies, psychological states, and opportunity costs of instructional activities (Kim, 2019;Lasky, 2005;Tsang & Kwong, 2017;Yang et al., 2009). In addition, a recent study was also interested in the negative effects of teacher administrative duties on student achievement (Sun & Zhou, 2022), but the starting point is not consistent with our paper. ...
... In addition, a recent study was also interested in the negative effects of teacher administrative duties on student achievement (Sun & Zhou, 2022), but the starting point is not consistent with our paper. As in the literature we have mentioned (Kim, 2019;Lasky, 2005), we placed more emphasis on the role of HT and the burden and stress associated with HT administrative duties in China, which in turn affects student achievements. ...
Article
This paper investigated causal effects of homeroom teachers' (HTs') administrative duties on students' achievements in Chinese secondary schools. Using data from China Education Panel Survey, we employed random student-classroom assignment as a quasi-natural experiment, finding that HTs' administrative duties curbed students' achievements, which is supported by some robustness checks like instrumental variable methods. Mechanism analysis indicated that this adverse impact can be explained by less teaching time, reduction of communication with students, and negative peer effects. Furthermore, negative effects of administrative duties were more pronounced among grade team leaders and school leaders, HTs with higher titles, male, and middle-aged HTs.
... It is associated with the young age of teachers and the level of their engagement. The label (Beijaard et al., 2004;Day, Elliot, Kington 2005;Lasky, 2005). Many sources claim the professional identity of a teacher evolves and is shaped through interactions with others in a professional context (Beijaard et al., 2004;Beauchamp and Thomas, 2009). ...
... It is therefore vital to develop it or to refresh the knowledge through repetition. Many researchers (Beijaard et al., 2004;Day et al., 2005;Lasky, 2005) consider professional identity to be the key factor in the professional development of teachers. Therefore, we must take this into consideration, if we are to improve the professional competencies of university teachers. ...
Book
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The educational environment faces multiple challenges induced by dynamic, often turbulent, developments within society during the first decades of the 21st century. The academic environment has not been immune to those changes. Liberalization has generated massification; economisation has led towards a utilitarian evaluation of activities and quantified documentation of technical outcomes, along with a wobbly legislative environment and, last but not least, a crisis in values and authority have substantially rewritten the reality of education – the principal manoeuvring space of its key stakeholders - university teachers. The insinuated preference of measurable, immediately or shortly achievable outputs is based on, among other things, the background of real marginalisation of the importance of educational activities as a core of professional activities of university teachers. In other words, we live in a world where the quality of work of academic professionals is primarily evaluated by the number of sophisticated systems capturing and formally classifying tangible outputs (often also expressing their economic value), and only marginally, if at all, parameters with a potential to evaluate a university professional not only as a respected and productive scientist and researcher, but also as a good teacher capable of educating, guiding and counselling, motivationally evaluating or in any other way facilitating professional and personal development of students are analysed. The authors of this publication do not subscribe to such a status quo. We believe that the quality of a university teacher’s performance dwells in a complementary and balanced structure of all professional competencies. In this given context, we turn our attention to the relatively unexplored area of university teachers acting in andragogical situations. We not only understand the andragogical context as a real component of a broad spectrum of educational activities of university teachers, but also as an epistemological basis for considerations about a professional identity of academic professionals. We suggest perceiving a university teacher as an active subject and object of andragogical actuation based on the knowledge about one’s personality and in a context of professional identity.
... This situation has made it difficult to make a single definition for the concept of identity, which has gained various meanings (with some common points) in the literature (Wetherell, 2010). For this reason, identity has been defined in different ways in the literature according to time, a specific field, and a theoretical perspective (Lasky, 2005;Wenger, 1998). Although identity is a commonly used term in literature today, its origins date back to ancient times. ...
... 51). Lasky (2005) discusses teacher identity as how the teacher sees and defines himself/herself as an educator and how others see him/her as an educator. Van Zoest and Bohl (2005) describe teacher identity as "a cache of capacities and understandings that includes intentions, commitments, knowledge, and beliefs that a teacher has and carries from one context to another." ...
Article
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The roles of teachers in organizing, directing, evaluating, and applying within the school place teachers in a critical position in determining the quality of education. For this reason, it is accepted that teacher qualification is an important indicator of the quality of education. At this point, the concept of professional identity, which includes teachers' professional learning, development, and practices, gains importance. The concept of professional identity emerged as a separate research topic in the literature after the 1980s and has gradually increased in the following years. Although current studies provide an important understanding of the concept, the formation and development of teachers' professional identities continue to be seen as one of the main problem areas in the literature. From this point of view, in this study, the formation and development of teachers' professional identities have been comprehensively discussed based on the relevant literature. The results of the research show that although teachers' professional identity has critical importance in teacher development and teaching practices, important questions remain about how teacher education can participate in identity construction. In this respect, it is thought that the results obtained within the scope of the study are important in terms of showing the basic elements that affect the formation and development of teachers' professional identities. In addition, it is thought that the study may offer various ideas to policymakers and practitioners to establish a standard professional identity development procedure that will prioritize the professional development of teachers.
... Despite their passionate implementation of the new ESP curricula, they experienced self-doubt and frustration when students were not interested in the courses they developed for them. Research has documented that teacher emotion not only influences teachers' sense of efficacy (Zheng et al., 2020) but also plays a key role in sustaining their professional development (Day and Leitch, 2001;Golombek and Doran, 2014;Lantolf and Swain, 2019) and identity construction (Lasky, 2005;Wolff and De Costa, 2017;Tao and Gao, 2021). For this reason, it has become an important concern in language teacher education research as "the emotions are educationally central" (Hargreaves, 1998, p. 851). ...
... I also got some other feedback like: "I studied Japanese in my senior school instead of English, so I am really not good at English" (R3, 1st interview). (Lasky, 2005) to students in the hope of connecting with them and getting them engaged in future classes. The respondent spoke in a "joking" way to involve the student in a discussion of his misbehavior in class. ...
Article
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Teacher emotion has become an important issue in English language teaching as it is a crucial construct in understanding teachers' responses to institutional policies. The study explored teachers' emotion labor and its impact on teachers' pedagogical decision-making in English for Specific Purposes (ESP) teaching in a university of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) in China. Drawing on a poststructural perspective, the study examined data from two rounds of semi-structured interviews, policy documents and teaching artifacts. The analysis of data revealed that the major emotion labor facing the participants revolved around students' disengagement in class. Teachers experienced mixed feelings of anticipation, disappointment, anger, and empathy toward students and distanced themselves from institutional feeling rules enforcing objective assessment of students' performance and punishing students for lack of engagement in class. The study found that teacher emotion labor served as the site for their pedagogical modifications. ESP teachers' beliefs in the importance of attending to students' needs become a powerful discourse in supporting teachers to strategically subvert institutional feeling rules and critically reflect on the dysfunctions of curriculum, orienting teachers' agentic actions in modifying pedagogical practices. We thus underscore this empowering discourse as the bridge to connect teachers' policy negotiation and their actual classroom practices. We also highlight teachers' pedagogical decision-making as a process of the interactions of teacher emotion, teachers' reflexive practices, and power relations. The study ended by suggesting more longitudinal research where teachers' beliefs as previously appropriated discourses could be examined comprehensively as they were both the construct of emotion labor and the potential subverting power in supporting teachers' pedagogical decision-making in policy negotiation.
... Teachers are shown to hold perceptions about numerous challenges, including perceptions about teaching. For instance, secondary school teachers in Lasky's [23] study indicated that rather than just having ideas on how students learn, teachers base their decisions on a more thorough and nuanced viewpoint of students and their basic institutional education. Because of this, teachers' decisions on whether to utilize ICT (and how to use it) depend on whether they think it helps them achieve their pedagogical objectives or not. ...
... Teachers' professional development programs are important to train, support, and provide up-to-date technological skills required for pre-service and in-service teachers [23]. These programs must act as catalysts or sources for transforming teachers' minds by making sure that the use of technology in classroom teaching is compulsory. ...
Article
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This study looked at qualitative papers that focused on teacher perceptions of how technology is integrated in the classroom. It synthesized 22 qualitative research studies using the meta-ethnography method to trace, assess, and synthesize the findings in order to gain a better understanding of the diversity of teacher perceptions concerning ICT integration in the classroom. The outcomes were determined by the positive and negative attitudes teachers had toward ICT integration in the classroom. The synthesis revealed that local settings and global educational trends both influence teacher perceptions. It is stated how crucial teacher professional development programs are, and contextual elements influencing teacher perceptions about ICT integration into classroom are highlighted. Recommendations for further study are explored by integrating the review’s findings.
... Teachers make unique plans for their professional development, resulting from the interplay between multiple factors, including personal attributes and context (Lasky, 2005). Teachers' agency enactment in their identity formation is dynamic and complicated (Morgan, 2004;Lasky, 2005), involving interplays with their life experiences, interpersonal relations, and social values and conditions. ...
... Teachers make unique plans for their professional development, resulting from the interplay between multiple factors, including personal attributes and context (Lasky, 2005). Teachers' agency enactment in their identity formation is dynamic and complicated (Morgan, 2004;Lasky, 2005), involving interplays with their life experiences, interpersonal relations, and social values and conditions. The education they received before entering the profession, their language learning experience, and their academic training shape their teaching philosophy and instructional activities. ...
Article
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Although previous studies on teacher agency have examined its manifestations and significance from the socio-cultural perspective, university English as a foreign language (EFL)-speaking instructors’ professional agency has been underrepresented in the Chinese context. Based on a narrative inquiry approach and cross-case analysis, this qualitative multiple case study explores how four university EFL-speaking instructors exercise their professional agency and the key factors facilitating their agency enactment. The study finds that EFL-speaking instructors work as agentic practitioners to translate their career pursuits into concrete teaching duties, teacher learning, and researching. Their different professional agency enactment is closely related to their agency competence, agency disposition, and identity commitment as well as multifarious contextual factors. The findings imply that understanding the trajectories of teachers’ career development and fostering their teacher agency can assist more practitioners in getting ready for future challenges. It is suggested that frontline teachers hold onto the notion of life-long learning, build academic research profiles, and conduct active reflections to enhance their agency. University administrators should consider creating a more conducive environment to boost EFL-speaking instructors’ agency to facilitate their professional development.
... According to Meng and Chen (2015), there are certain divisions of beliefs concerning family roles and social identities between male teachers and female teachers, and the research engagement among male EFL teachers is found to be far more active than their female counterparts. There are certain reasons contributing to the aforementioned phenomenon, for instance, the glass ceiling effect (Morrison et al., 1987), suggesting women encounter invisible barriers that prevent them from rising to the upper rungs of career ladder (Hymowitz and Schellhardt, 1986), the loss of agency (Smith, 2011), etc. Agency is found to be closely related to female identity, and female teachers' professional agency is intertwined with their gender identity (Lasky, 2005). According to the post-structuralist assumption, gender identity is something individuals do or actively perform, rather than some qualities they have (Davies, 1997). ...
... It is also claimed in this study that female EFL teachers' professional agency is intertwined with their female identity commitment, which reveals that professional agency is an open entity influenced by gender agency (Lasky, 2005;Rasmussen, 2009). It is found that female EFL teachers face role conflicts between career development and family commitment when they exercise their agency. ...
Article
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A large and growing body of literature has investigated the role of teachers’ agency in their career trajectories. However, far too little attention has been paid to English as a Foreign Language (EFL) teachers’, especially female EFL teachers’, professional agency for their career development in the Chinese higher education setting. To address this gap, this study explores female EFL teachers’ professional agency from a self-discrepancy theory perspective, namely, how the participating teachers have perceived discrepancies in their professional development and how they have enacted their professional agency to realize sustainable development. Based on a metaphor investigation of 167 teachers and interviews with nine of them, the current study found that (1) there are certain discrepancies between female EFL teachers’ self-guides and actual selves concerning their professional identity construction; (2) female EFL teachers’ professional agency is manifested in the continuum of iteration, practical evaluation, and projectivity processes, as well as in the entity of personal and environmental factors; and 3) female EFL teachers’ professional agency and gender identity are closely intertwined with each other. This study can offer implications for teacher agency research and female teachers’ sustainable development at large.
... In this study, these involve striving for students' futures (14 times), pursuing personal professional development (5 times), and promoting educational reform (2 times). Lasky (2005) noted that teachers' aspirations might be entirely positive, relating to the development and welfare of students and leading to the agency that projects students' interests. In this study, Louis continuously mentioned the phrase "students' future development, " which evidenced that his aspirations were inseparable from his students. ...
Article
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Despite the increasing interest in teacher agency in the field of language teacher psychology, little attention has been paid to how language teachers enact their agency in an under-resourced environment. To address the research gap, this narrative study explored how a secondary English as a foreign language teacher in Western China enacted his agency for professional development and identified its sources. The findings revealed that this teacher enacted his agency through passionate exploration of adaptive teaching and continuous investment in autonomous learning. His agency was attributed to the interplay of his past experiences, long-term goals, teaching beliefs, and the challenging working environment. Consequently, implications for teacher agency research and practice are discussed.
... For the research sampling, the researchers took advantage of the purposive sampling technique as it is useful for selecting individual(s) who have experience with the phenomenon understudying (Creswell, 2003). Unlike that some researchers have been done on reconstruction of teacher identity in social context and interaction (Cohen, 2010;Lasky, 2005;Olsen, 2008), scant research exists to describe the need of building and rebuilding teacher identity in shifting environment, teaching context (Kanno & Stuart, 2011;Xu, 2014) or identity shift (Tsui, 2007;Beauchamp & Thomas, 2011). Singularly particularly, little is known about a) how English replaces teachers' perception of identity shifts after teaching Persian or Arabic; b) the extent to which English teachers' social identity differs from other language teachers (Arabic and Persian). ...
Article
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There have been some researches on the way teacher identities are (re)constructed; however, the study which investigates the improvement of the identity through the shift in language teaching has not been conducted. Thus the present qualitative study set out to investigate Iranian EFL teachers' professional development who had been teaching either Arabic or Persian languages for more than six years prior to entering the English language teaching profession. Eleven Iranian in-service teachers took part in the study through purposeful sampling. For the purpose of the data collection, in-depth interviews, teachers' narratives, and focus group interviews were used. The thematic analysis of the data through the Identity Theory (Burke & Stets, 2009) perspective revealed three main themes: identity shift, identity development, and productive identity. The results indicate that teachers' professional learning requires rebuilding identity perception, and constructing a new identity will lead, in turn, to the professional development of teachers and their constructive learning. The present study contributes to the existing knowledge of teachers' professional identity in that changes in the languages teachers teach will lead to reconstructing their professional identity in a positive way and happen as a result of opportunities for professional development. The results have a number of implications for policymakers, teacher educators, and language teachers.
... Desde hace varias décadas, las reformas de los sistemas educativos públicos están basadas en los principios del gerencialismo y los regímenes de rendimiento que influyen severamente sobre la identidad profesional de los docentes (Day y Kington, 2008). La identidad profesional es considerada como uno de los factores más decisivos para la implementación exitosa de las reformas educativas (Lasky, 2005). Desde una aproximación general, la identidad profesional trata de dar respuestas a la pregunta: «¿quiénes somos como miembros de una profesión?» ...
... of their ways of working in line with their professional goals and interests (Biesta and Tedder 2016;Evelien et al. 2014;Eteläpelto, Vähäsantanen, and Hökkä 2015). Previous studies have indicated that professional agency is significant for the professional growth of individuals and the community, coupled with the continuous improvement and transformation of learning organisations (e.g., Lasky 2005;Eteläpelto, Vähäsantanen, and Hökkä 2015;King and Nomikou 2018). ...
Article
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Teachers are frontline actors in actualising educational innovations. In some contexts, teachers' professional agency is undervalued. This study investigated teachers' agency and its related workplace affor-dances in Hong Kong, which features a centralised-decentralisation education governance system, and a hierarchical work culture. The study was based on 21 semi-structured interviews with teachers, and employed a deductive thematic analysis. Agency enactment was categorised into 1) pedagogical agency within classrooms, and 2) relational agency in the professional community. The factors contributing to workplace affordances were grouped as pertaining to 1) the collegial community, 2) school leadership, 3) access to resources, and 4) availability of time, space, and job stability. Agency-supportive leadership and a favourable collegial environment significantly facilitated teachers' agentic actions. Teachers did not explicitly resist but implemented emotionally meaningless order in a 'work-to-rule' manner. The study contributes to professional agency research as applied to a particular political, regional, and socio-cultural context.
... Identity pertains to how people describe themselves to themselves and others (Lasky, 2005). Identity is a dynamic concept with several aspects used to incorporate individual and others' beliefs (Richardson and Watt, 2018). ...
Article
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Teaching is a career with a high rate of anxiety and burnout in all phases of teaching with specific challenges related to the feature of language education. The concept of motivation can be an important basic mechanism since educators who are not motivated are distressed because of the anxious characteristic of the education profession. Moreover, educator identity is a new issue that has built a perspective to examine educators’ growth by thinking about who they are as well as how they perform what they perform in a specific situation. Recently, programs that are based on mindfulness are known as efficient interventions enhancing motivation and decreasing tension in people. Given the prominence of mindfulness in educational settings and its neglected role in foreign language learning, the contemporary review attempts to inspect the function of mindfulness on English as a foreign language (EFL) teachers’ motivation and identity. Subsequently, some pedagogical recommendations for the educational representatives such as teachers and teacher trainers are offered.
... In addition, teacher identity has been the subject of some scrutiny. How teachers think about themselves-their abilities, their roles, their professional goals-has been examined and determined to be an important component in job satisfaction and professional motivation (Lasky, 2005;Watt, Richardson & Wilkins, 2014). In this project, we were particularly interested in the ways that feelings of vulnerability affect teacher identity, and how those associations change over time as teachers gain experience in the profession. ...
... The primarily sociocultural approach to identity (Lasky, 2005;Block, 2007b) taken here situates this work within the disciplinary field of SLA and its recent historical development and responsiveness to a changing language teaching and learning context. Writing from this disciplinary perspective, which is relevant to the research context, Block (2007b) defines identity as a "complex and multi-layered construct" (p. ...
Thesis
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Teachers across a wide range of educational, geographic and practice contexts are being confronted with technologies that have the potential to both disrupt and transform their classrooms, relationship to students, and their own understandings of themselves as professionals. As educational technologies become more integrated into the teaching and learning of English for Academic Purposes (EAP) at universities, developing better understandings of why and in what ways teachers implement and use them can support this integration in constructive ways for both teachers and learners. This thesis explores the idea that interrogating teachers’ ideas about who they are, their identities, may shed light on how they perceive, engage with, and choose whether and to what extent to adopt technologies in the context of their educational practice. This approach may also be useful in supporting EAP teachers’ learning and integration of technology in ways that enhance their practice and relationships to students. Using Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), this study explores the experiences of university EAP teachers using Moodle in their teaching practice. It seeks to develop a clearer understanding of the identities they construct within the context of the language centre of a large European research university. This research also explores the construct of identity as a means of understanding educational technology adoption and use, an approach that has not been widely explored to date, as well as the usefulness of IPA as a methodology suitable for interrogating such experiences within the field of Education. Over the course of a single semester, six EAP teachers took part in focus groups and individual interviews and provided written narratives through which they shared their experiences and individual journeys, their aspirations, frustrations, and changes in their teaching practices. Using IPA data analysis, these narratives together were used to create idiographic sketches of each participant and to develop a detailed analysis of both convergence and divergence of themes across the participants. The study found that participants’ experience of educational technology is always viewed in light of their teaching practices and their relationships to students. It also suggests that professional precarity and beliefs in unsubstantiated myths such as the “digital native” may constitute barriers to teachers’ educational technology integration. These findings support a useful role for identity, conceived as a holistic model incorporating various aspects of a teacher’s being and doing, in not only understanding but also supporting these technology-related practices. The results generate recommendations for practice, including first and foremost that professional learning and support for technology integration begin with teachers, their ideas about themselves, and their concrete practices rather than the technologies themselves. Keywords: Educational Technology, English for Academic Purposes (EAP), Higher Education Teaching, Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA), Language Teacher Identity, Teacher Identity, Technology Integration
... Research suggests that teachers' experiences and beliefs play an important role in the achievement of agency (Lasky, 2005;Sloan, 2006;Vähäsantanen, 2015). In Priestley et al.'s (2012) investigation of the agency of three teachers, only two teachers were able to teach in student-centred ways, though all experienced accountability pressures from their respective schools. ...
... El maestro coloca en juego un doble rol, por un lado, sus capacidades individuales, y por el otro su influencia sociocultural. Esta doble agencia del maestro ha sido ampliamente analizada por algunos autores como Lasky (2005), desde una perspectiva sociocultural. ...
Article
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En este texto se hace una introducción y una breve presentación de las distintas contribuciones al dossier. Específicamente, en el texto se precisan los distintos sentidos y perspectivas en los que se han planteado reflexiones filosóficas sobre los distintos aspectos de la educación en América Latina, se muestran algunas líneas temáticas de las reflexiones, se relacionan esas reflexiones con algunos de los planteamientos de la filosofía latinoamericana, se justifica la importancia de continuar y fomentar el trabajo filosófico en este amplio terreno de reflexión filosófica, y se plantean algunos retos para las futuras reflexiones. Finalmente, se presentan y comentan los artículos que forman parte del dossier.
... Unlike the traditional approach, which tends to view teachers as passive technicians, recent studies have begun to regard teachers as active participants who engage in making sense of their teaching practices and professional positioning in societies (Duff & Uchida, 1997;Tsui, 2007, among many others). Teachers' professional identities refer to how teachers understand their careers and social positioning and simultaneously reflect on their commitment to a teaching career (Hammerness et al., 2005;Lasky, 2005). Teachers' identity of being a teacher practitioner is not fixed but rather is a constantly negotiated and reconstructed sense of becoming a professional self while adopting social changes such as accepting educational reforms or receiving teacher education. ...
Article
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As the pandemic has brought in a paradigm shift in the way we educate and interact with our students, it has also had profound impacts on the practicum of pre-service teacher education. Focusing on the case of 14 South Korean student teachers who completed their teaching practicum in Spring 2020, this paper explores how the new form of teaching practicum, triggered by the current outbreak, affected student teachers’ professional development and their views on teaching practice and profession. In particular, it examines the ways by which teaching practicums conducted under unpredictable circumstances negatively or positively affect student teachers’ professional identities as teaching practitioners and their motivation to become a teacher. The findings of this study show that the teaching practicum conducted in times of crisis enabled pre-service English language teachers to develop a positive image toward teachers and teaching profession, and realize their potential as innovative and inspiring teachers in the post COVID-19 era.
... The professional identity is the framework through which an employee articulates their professional qualities (Lasky, 2005). According to Sardabi et al. (2018), the term "professional identity" refers to "the attitudes, values, knowledge, beliefs, and abilities shared with others within a professional community." ...
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The purpose of this study is to examine the link between English foreign language teacher’s professional identity and employee success via mediating role of critical thinking. Further, we examined the moderating role of leader motivational language between employee professional identity and critical thing and also indirect effect on employee success via critical thinking. We collected data from Chinese MNC’s school by using time lagged study design. We used hierarchical linear regression for direct hypotheses and Hayes PROCESS model’s for mediation, moderation, and mediation moderation analysis. The results show that there is positive relation between employee’s professional identity and teacher’s success. Further, critical thinking mediates the link between professional identity and employee success. The results of the moderated mediation analysis show that critical thinking mediated the interaction of employee’s professional identity and leader’s motivational language on teacher’s success.
... Sachs (2003) is critical of the current emphasis on competences in the teacher education curriculum, which she argues produce 'designer teachers' who connect their professional identity with compliance, efficiency and accountability, rather than agency and professional autonomy. Lasky (2005) also reflects on recent reforms and the resultant managerialism in education and concludes that teachers can choose to 'adopt, adapt or ignore' education policies that directly impact their practice. In the light of Sachs' argument, student teachers would fall into the 'adopt' category and therefore it will be essential that qualitative data arising from this research seeks to compare the level of compliance and sense of professional autonomy as a facet of teacher professional identity in the three comparison countries. ...
Thesis
Student teachers today must be equipped with a wide repertoire of skills to meet the challenges of increasingly complex, diverse and inclusive classrooms. At a time when many countries in Europe are facing teacher shortages, it is vital that student teachers develop a strong teacher professional identity. This study examines how student teachers in Germany, France and England construct this identity and provides fresh insights into the powerful influence that the social and cultural context has on teacher education and conceptions of the teacher’s role. As such, the study addresses a gap in empirical comparative research looking in depth at student teachers’ experiences in these countries. Professional identity formation is understood as a fluid and dynamic process, developed through events, experiences and interactions and firmly rooted in the historical and sociocultural context. Compelling narratives produced from interviews with student teachers in each of these countries are analysed comparatively to identify key themes. A new, original analytical model is applied that charts student teachers’ professional journeys in three distinct but interconnected stages that begin at school and incorporate theoretical and practical elements of teacher education. The research found that all the participants recognised the didactical and pedagogical skills needed for today’s classroom and all prioritised the practicum over academic elements of their programmes. Both structural and perceptual barriers resulted in a disconnection of theory and practice experienced by all participants. Divergences were found in the motives for becoming a teacher and in the intentional use of pre teacher education experiences as a testing ground for career choice. The recourse to rubrics of competences to assess teaching was common to all participants, however, whilst this constrained the practice of English student teachers, it was perceived very differently in Germany and France. This perception led to significant differences in the level of professional autonomy student teachers expected to have in their future role and how this was reflected in teachers’ status in society.
... Policy exists within a range of contextual factors related to policy, pedagogy, and students' lives for the development of curriculum and instruction (Ball, 1995(Ball, , 2000McDonnell & Ellmore, 1987;Stromquist & Monkman 2000;Tetlock, 1985). It contributes to what scholars suggest is a need for increased knowledge about the relationship between teachers' decisions and the broader influential contexts (Shavelson & Stern, 1981;Lasky, 2005;Luke, 2006;Malsbary, 2015;Wyatt, 2015;Neumann, 2016). ...
... b. Were able to engage in activist ways of reading and writing, including writing about various forms of oppression, particularly racism in the US, both in the focal classroom and other school and social contexts 6. Antiracist teaching/racial literacy teaching practices and strategies beneficial to the implementation of an antiracist curriculum include a) providing students discursive tools, b) discussing varieties of historic and contemporary texts that Teacher Agency, Racial Literacy, and Antiracist Curricular Choices in a Secondary Reading and Writing Classroom 6 differ in modes and sources in conjunction with one another, c) emphasizing counter-narrative not only as a concept but as a teaching and learning tool, and d) practicing vulnerable confidence (Lasky, 2005). ...
... Methodologically an ecological approach to understanding agency thus focuses the attention on the unique configurations of such 'factors.' (Biesta & Tedder, 2007, p. 137) As described in this quote, the ecological viewpoint of teacher agency is inevitable, given that teachers work with many intertwining factors (Ketelaar, et al., 2012;Lasky, 2005). Moreover, many of these factors are often unobservable, as Stepanek and her colleagues note: "Classroom life is full of habits and routines that pass unnoticed. ...
Article
This paper investigates how Japanese lesson study has been modified in the context of the U.S., and how this modification has affected teacher agency based on the framework of the ecological approach proposed by Priestley et al. (2016). There are two major findings. First, Japanese lesson study has been adapted and modified in the U.S. as an effective form of professional development which tends to focus on a single subject, primarily mathematics. Math-focused lesson study has significantly contributed to the development of U.S. lesson study and promoted agency of math teachers, but may have hindered the expansion of lesson study into whole-school professional development, involving all subject teachers. Second, Japanese lesson study is inherently inseparable from the whole-school professional development called kounaikenshu, but, in the U.S., seems to have been adapted as a stand-alone activity. Consequently, the crucial role of long-term goals in lesson study has tended to be overlooked. The study concludes that lesson study disconnected from whole-school professional development may limit achievement of teacher agency, and in turn, professional identity.
... In urban schools, adverse conditions tend to produce low self-and collective efficacy (Goddard & Goddard, 2001;Goddard & Skrla, 2006) and burnout (Abel & Sewell, 1999;Farber, 1991) amid reform discourses that cast teachers as scapegoats for societal inequities and discount their struggles as "excuses" (Goldstein, 2014). A neoliberal era of social disinvestment (Kantor & Lowe, 2006;Schram & Soss, 1998) and high-stakes accountability exposed many teachers in urban schools to increasing imbalances between resources and demands, "traumatic" indignities of sanctions (Jeffrey & Woods, 1996;Mintrop, 2004) and widespread demoralization (Ball, 2003;Lasky, 2005;Payne, 2008;Santoro, 2011). ...
Chapter
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As critical friends, we participated in a longitudinal collaborative self-study to explore and challenge our assumptions and beliefs for purposes of improving our understanding and practice (Bullough & Pinnegar, 2001). During this process, we became critical friends as co-authors-- that is, dynamic meaning-makers whose critical friendship surpassed our expectation to act as “a sounding board” (Schuck & Russell, 2005 p. 107), challenge one another, support the reframing of events, and join in the professional learning experience (Loughran & Northfield, 1996). As co-authors, we pushed the boundaries of what we expected of a critical friend through dialogue and collaborative meaning-making. Valuing our whole selves in pursuit of our self-study, we crossed the borders of professional practices to include the silent and unspoken stories from our complex individual identities (Hostetler, Mills, & Hawley, 2014) beyond that of teacher educator researchers. We also invited the knowledge, experience, tensions, and life narratives stemming from our identities as mothers, wives, women of faith, and as minorities in our institutions. In this paper, we describe the process of being and becoming critical friends as co-authors by answering the following questions: How do these recursive processes--meaning-making transactions/ dialogic interactions-- generate our critical friendship? How do these processes evoke and/or sustain critical friends as co-authors? Our discoveries make visible how self-study guided us to: (1) disarm the boundaries of our individual selves by disrupting our existing understanding of self in relationship to our past lived experiences; (2) cross into a collaborative space where we are able to co-author our narrative lives through a collaborative conference protocol; and (3) push the boundaries of our present work as teacher educator researchers by transforming our professional inquiries through co-authoring.
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The researchers of this hermeneutic phenomenological study applied Colaizzi’s (1978) method to analyze and interpret English Language Arts (ELA) teacher candidates’ (TC) learning experiences with literacy quadrants and narratives while attending secondary writing instruction methods courses in diverse institutional settings. Qualitative strategies of data collection included inquiry-driven activities such as drawing and written reflections to literacy quadrants, as well as oral responses to open-ended questions. TCs, moving from knowledge to action, were reflexive about their literacy and learning experiences and the application of knowledge and practices when preparing to teach English to all students. Analysis of TCs’ narratives showed reliance on prior assumptions about teaching writing, increased reflexive stance toward literacy practices, and improved awareness of their professional identities, efficacy, and agency as teachers. The Journal of Writing Teacher Education
Article
A critical gap exists between research-driven early reading disability (RD) prevention efforts and practice. To help bridge this gap, we describe the development of a technology-based tool to help preschool teachers implement responsive “assessment-guided” practices (screening, intentional teaching, and reflective monitoring, evaluation, and individualizing of learning progress) to reduce children’s risk for RD prior to school entry. The tool comprised tablet and website embedded supports for initiating and sustaining these practices, such as: online assessment and reports, teacher training, downloadable classroom materials, implementation guidance, and progress monitoring capabilities. We also report preliminary findings from four tool-implementing classrooms (n = 33) and four non-implementing classrooms (n = 37) for evaluating the impact of this technological RD prevention approach. Over 6 months, prekindergarten teachers thrice administered a tablet screener, implemented 1-h strategic classroom activities (Circle, Story, Play, and Center) 9 days per month, and engaged in systematic, ongoing monitoring of learning and individualization of supports for children with identified RD risk. Statistically significant between-group mean differences in spring pre-reading performance was found between tool implementing and comparison “business-as-usual” non-implementing classrooms. By spring, only 13.5% of children in tool-implementing classrooms remained at-risk for RD (down from 45.9% in the fall) compared to 48.6% of children in non-implementing classrooms (down from 56.8% in the fall). In addition, teachers positively rated their implementation experience. Our findings suggest that with embedded technological support, prekindergarten teachers can feasibly and effectively engage in evidence-informed practices to systematically reduce children’s risk for RD.
Conference Paper
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The researchers of this hermeneutic phenomenological study applied Colaizzi’s (1978) method to analyze and interpret English Language Arts (ELA) teacher candidates’ (TC) learning experiences with literacy quadrants and narratives while attending secondary writing instruction methods courses in diverse institutional settings. Qualitative strategies of data collection included inquiry driven activities such as drawing and written reflections to literacy quadrants, as well as oral responses to open-ended questions. TCs, moving from knowledge to action, were reflexive about their literacy and learning experiences and the application of knowledge and practices when preparing to teach English to all students. Analysis of TCs’ narratives showed reliance on prior assumptions about teaching writing, increased reflexive stance toward literacy practices, and improved awareness of their professional identities, efficacy, and agency as teachers.
Article
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Driven by Beijaard, Verloop, and Vermunt's (2000) theory of Professional Identity (PI), this study aims to investigate teachers' perception of their PI in relation to the English textbooks they use in EFL classes. An in-depth interview with four Iranian EFL teachers and the school principal was conducted. The teachers' reports were employed to investigate their PI in relation to the textbooks they used. Furthermore, the school curriculum was analyzed through an interview with the school principal and examining the school documents. Content analysis of the interview data revealed that all the teachers viewed the content knowledge dimension of their PI reliant on the textbooks. Over the years, they had gained more autonomy in adapting the content or selecting more supplementary sources. Overall, the participants in this research highlighted the pivotal role of textbooks in the construction of their PI, most importantly in the formation of their content knowledge, and the least in the development of their pedagogical knowledge. The analysis of the school curriculum revealed a heavy reliance of many decisions on textbooks directly or indirectly. The findings in this study could provide more insights for curriculum developers, language school managers, teacher educators, and teachers who have a say in curriculum decisions when learning about the crucial role of textbooks in PI.
Thesis
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This study takes place in Chile, where neoliberal policies have framed teachers’ work, prioritising individualism and competition over collaborative experiences and collegial dialogue. Challenging such a reality, from a Freirean positioning of science education, this critical ethnography explores how science educators’ agency can be strengthened through participation in a teacher-led community outside of their workplace. I draw on a Community of Practice theoretical framework and, philosophically, I embrace the work of Paulo Freire to explore what teachers identify as limiting their agency, as well as how they hope beyond such limits through agentic praxis. Methodologically, through a critical ethnography approach, I participated in meetings of two teacher-led communities in the city of Valparaiso for four months, facilitated one focus group with each, and conducted biographical interviews to produce data which was analysed through a critical narrative analysis approach. The findings of this study show that the participants encountered a hegemonic culture of science education characterised by a strong demarcation between being a teacher and a scientist, setting limits to their identities. This demarcation led to a hierarchisation of knowledges with a dismissive attitude towards pedagogy and the prevalence of banking pedagogies and relationships. Moreover, neoliberal values have strengthened such banking pedagogies, resulting in the de-professionalisation of teaching. Nevertheless, the findings also show that the communities to which participant teachers belong, act as spaces for cultivating hope and rethinking science education, strengthening teachers’ agency with the field. As such, they have reclaimed their agency by challenging expert discourse using their free time for collaboration and practising epistemological humility. Furthermore, they have broken the culture of silence that dominates the field by building a culture of professional dialogue and active listening. This new culture they created resulted in placing collaboration over individualism, moving from a fragmented and strongly insulated view of the field to a transdisciplinary worldview. Moreover, by having their communities out of the workplace, they have expanded the possibilities for science education, authoring themselves as a community of science teachers embracing the hybridity of their identities as science educators and overcoming the hegemonic imposed dichotomy. Finally, the teachers extended such agency outside of the community context by reinterpreting the relationship they have with the science curriculum, widening spaces for participation and facilitating spaces for agency for them, their students, and colleagues. This study contributes theoretically to the communities of practice framework in praxis and problematises the static notion of periphery and centre. It also contributes to a conceptualisation of agency in Freirean terms, considering the historicity of the context and the dialectical dynamics between agency and identity. By exploring agency in the context of teacher-led communities, this study highlights the need for teachers’ time to be managed by themselves in order to advance in spaces where science educators can define and revise what counts as science education, its values, norms, practices, and relationships. This study problematises the politics of teacher education, and the need to revise its curriculums in terms of what types of knowledges are privileged over others and how (or not) they interact with each other. Furthermore, this study problematises the notion of “the teacher” in order to raise its ontoepistemic status as an intellectual agent that inhabits the periphery and the centre of science education, in a constant search for being more fully human, expanding possibilities to be within the field.
Chapter
This chapter explores the notion of teacher educators as agents of change against an education policy reform backdrop of greater scrutiny, standardisation, and accountability than ever before. The following twelve chapters of this volume, all written by teacher educators across various parts of the world, are discussed and analysed using Margaret Archer’s perspective of critical realist social theory. This theory provided a useful framework for drawing the parts and chapters in this volume together; looking for the ways in which teacher educators have made sense of their personal, cultural, and structural contexts; and analysing the types of enablements and constraints that each social context offered them. The individual chapters and collective volume offer the wider teacher educator community illustrative ways in which teacher educators have ‘found space in policy through agentic approaches’ and taken action, even when social structures sought to normalise or restrain their practices. The analysis revealed a variety of ways teacher educators used their knowledge of policy, partnerships, and scholarly disposition to navigate through a highly regulated space. Such agentive practices provide a hopeful stance for facing the next waves of teacher education reform ahead.KeywordsTeacher educatorsPolicy reformAgencyCritical realist social theoryEnablements
Article
Purpose This paper attempts to review and conceptualize how different scholars approach the research on teacher identity through the lens of three human interests defined by Jürgen Habermas. Design/Approach/Methods This literature review, guided by Habermas's three human interests, illustrates the characteristics of three different approaches to the inquiry into teacher identity. Findings This paper summarizes three approaches to researching teacher identity and their characteristics, namely the technical approach, the practical approach, and the critical approach. The implications for future research and teacher development are also discussed. Originality/Value Through incorporating Habermas's three human interests into teacher identity inquiries, this article offers a theoretical narrative review of the approaches to investigating teacher identity. Strengths and weaknesses of each approach as well as the possibility of a combined application of different approaches provide an original discussion on teacher identity research.
Article
p style="text-align: justify;">A transition from pre-service training programs to teaching is a dramatic and somehow painful experience for novice teachers. The question is what difficulties novice teachers face and how they negotiate their professional identity to cope with difficulties and find joys in their career. This study is aimed to investigate novice teachers’ professional identity reconstruction, from their imaged-identities to their practiced identities. The use of semi-structured interviews collected data from four Vietnamese English as a foreign language (EFL) novice teachers. According to the data, cue-based was the most common type of novice teachers’ imagined identity. Regarding the practiced identities, the interviewees reported different professional identity reconstructions in the first five years of teaching practice. The participants’ excerpts enlisted some challenges that the novices faced such as students’ learning attitudes, working environments, or unorganized colleagues. Based on the research findings, some solutions were proposed in order to help novice teachers get through their difficult times at the very beginning of their career.</p
Article
Com a cultura digital, os professores vêm sendo pressionados para inovar suas práticas, mesmo estando a serviço de uma instituição que ainda tem como meta a transmissão do conhecimento e que resiste, por diversos fatores, às mudanças que invadem os demais âmbitos da vida moderna. Neste sentido, o objetivo deste artigo é problematizar o conceito de identidade (profissional) docente através das demandas da cultura digital e de uma nova conformação da escola que podem estar implicando numa mudança da (auto)percepção do professor na contemporaneidade. Como exemplo apresentaremos os resultados de um curso a distância de formação docente que teve como metodologia uma proposta de autorreferenciamento por meio de narrativas autobiográficas. Os resultados mostraram que parece estar em construção uma identidade midiática docente (IMD) encontrada no perfil dos professores como resposta à tensão promovida pelas mídias digitais na escola. O estudo concluiu que a identificação dessa IMD no perfil dos professores em formação pode levar os cursos a apresentarem propostas de reflexão e de revisão de práticas midiáticas mais voltadas às suas necessidades de incorporar a produção crítica e criativa das mídias no seu cotidiano profissional, indo além do mero consumo.
Article
Our aim with this study was to gain a better understanding of the emotional landscape of curriculum making by exploring the variety of emotions embedded in shared sense‐making about the national curriculum reform implementation at the district level. Focus group interview data were collected from 12 curriculum reform steering groups around Finland, that were responsible for orchestrating curriculum reform work at the district level. The data were qualitatively content analysed. The results showed that the local steering group members experienced a wide range of emotions in shared sense‐making. Positive emotions were described slightly more often than negative emotions. The emotional landscape of the sense‐making strategies applied in curriculum reform work varied depending on the strategy applied.
Chapter
This chapter focuses on the professional development of 60 teachers over a 2-year period, as they were introduced to new concepts, pedagogies, tools, and technologies related to designing, developing, implementing, and evaluating a maker approach to teaching and learning. We provide a brief overview of the professional learning landscape in Canada and some context related to promising practices for teacher professional development in general. We follow with a description of the professional learning sessions provided to participants in the study and outline the specific challenges and opportunities the teachers experienced in their journeys as maker educators.
Article
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Three individual cases, drawn from a larger body of case study data, illuminate a relatively unexamined aspect of teachers’ participation in large‐scale reform‐‐teachers’ experience of heightened emotionality and its relationship to career discontinuity or career risk. Disappointed reform enthusiasts point to three conditions that intensify emotional responses to reform and appear to result in career turning points: (1) the nature and extent of reform‐related conflict within salient work groups; (2) the degree of equilibrium among multiple sources of pressure and support; (3) institutional or administrative capacity to manage the pace, scale and dynamics of reform.
Article
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In this article, the authors argue that the notion of local capacity needs to be rethought in light of the extraordinary demands for learning imposed on local educators by the current wave of instructional reforms. Confining their discussion to the local education agency (LEA), the authors argue that the LEA’s capacity to support ambitious instruction consists to a large degree of LEA leaders’ ability to learn new ideas from external policy and professional sources and to help others within the district learn these ideas. Drawing on a study of nine school districts, they identify three interrelated dimensions of this capacity—human capital, social capital, and financial resources.
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This research report argues for viewing the complex, often messy process of school reform implementation as a "conditional matrix" coupled with qualitative research. As illustration, two studies (of six reform efforts in one county and of implementation of an untracking program in Kentucky) are reported. Preliminary analysis reveals that the reform implementation process is marked by several important considerations: (1) reform efforts in schools do not succeed on simple technical considerations alone, nor in a linear fashion; (2) consequences of actions taken in one context become the conditions for actions taken in other contexts, as part of a complex dynamic shaped by the structural and cultural features of school and society; (3) the implementation process is viewed differently from different perspectives; (4) school culture mediates educators' actions and structural constraints; and (5) school site educators do not respond to design team or government actions passively and automatically. The actions of educators in Kentucky and Florida in the face of state mandates suggest that the way in which power is interpreted must be examined as well as the way in which it is imposed. Contains 39 references. (MSE)
Book
Peter Woods sets out to describe and analyse exceptional educational events - periods of particularly effective teaching representing ultimates in teacher and pupil educational experience. The events themselves are reconstructed in the book through teacher and pupil voices and through documentation. A model of 'critical event' is derived from the study, which might serve as a possible framework for understanding other such occurrences in schools
Book
The book develops a model of the life-cycle of the teacher and shows how 'critical incidents' affect passage through it. It explores how teachers view coping with problems and constraints, and how they adapt to the teacher role. It examines institutional contexts for their effect on teacher careers, and explores other factors (such as teaching subject, pupils, personal life) that seemed to the teachers concerned to have a bearing on the nature and direction of those careers. These include the concentration on teachers' own subjective perceptions over the whole range of the teacher's life, and the use of the life history method - all of which has yielded new research data. This is of considerable interest in itself, but it also suggests new theoretical directions for work in the area.
Article
This article explores the possibility that state educational policies, involving accountability and instructional reform, and local district and school conditions interact with teachers’ personal and professional backgrounds to shape two tracks of new teachers that reinforce existing educational inequities. The present 2-year study incorporated mixed methods and a multilevel design that included state policy, local conditions, and teachers’ beliefs and practices, highlighting two cases from a larger database. The authors report how differences in district capital shape responses to state policy, influence teacher recruitment, interact with teacher characteristics, and create learning opportunities for new teachers that suggest the creation of two classes of teachers for two classes of students. While previous researchers have identified student tracking as reproducing inequities, this article examines the largely unexplored terrain of new teacher tracking: the sorting and socialization of novices.
Article
I don't know how to correct this, but certainly I've never published with Lisa A Cook. The title of this publication is that of my (sole authored) book — Tripp, D.H. (1993) Critical incidents in teaching: developing professional judgement. London and New York: Routledge (The 2011 edition has a new preface on reflection and action research and is now published in the Routledge Classics of Education series). It might be the the author of a review of my book in the British Journal of Educational Studies 1994 #42(4). I haven't found a way to remove this reference from this site (help welcome!) and I cannot find an active contact address for Lisa A Cook. David Tripp 16/09/2016 About the book (from the publishers' blurb): Good teachers use good techniques and routines, but techniques and routines alone do not produce good teaching. The real art of teaching lies in teachers' professional judgement because in teaching there is seldom one "right answer". This combination of experience, flexibility, informed opinion and constant self-monitoring is not easy to acquire, but in this re-released classic edition of Critical Incidents in Teaching - which includes a new introduction from the author - David Tripp shows how teachers can draw on their own classroom experience to develop it. In this practical and unique guide, the author offers a range of strategies for approaching critical incidents and gives advice on how to develop a critical incident file. Illustrated with numerous classroom examples for discussion and reflection, Critical Incidents in Teaching is for everyone concerned with the development of professionalism in teaching. Although aimed at teachers who want to improve their own practice and pass on their expertise to others, as a teacher educator David’s long term agenda is to improve the public status of teaching and to encourage more inductive research in education; he sees classrooms as situations to be explained rather than as places in which to apply theories developed in other disciplines. By way of encouragement while I'm at it, all 30-odd reviews have been very positive! For instance, the Teacher Training Journal (27(3) had this to say about the 2011 edition: This exceptionally useful classic for teachers and teacher trainers/educators/mentors remains unrevised save for a new preface in which Tripp considers the impact his book has had since 1993 and outlines his thinking on action enquiry, reflection, and inductive research methods with regard to critical incidents. The unchanged body of the book still details the creation and analysis of critical incidents, the development of a critical incident file, the development of professional judgement, and the practical and social implications stemming from work on critical incidents. Highly recommended. Unfortunately, I cannot put the book up for download, so your library is the best solution.
Article
In an increasingly complex world, continuous and broad-based learning is essential to keep up with the rapid pace of change. Drawing on research and development work in school effectiveness and school improvement, it is argued in this article that internal capacity is vital in developing and sustaining the teacher and organisational learning necessary to promote and enhance student learning. Influences on internal capacity at the individual teacher, school context and external context levels are discussed, and principles offered for building capacity from within and outside schools. Differences between schools in their internal capacity are highlighted and questions posed for further research and development work to understand better how the influences interact in different types of schools.
Article
Researchers and practitioners attest to the importance of school culture for school effectiveness, however, critics contest that school culture is neither measurable, nor manipulable. Results from the present study suggest otherwise. The frequency of prosocial and antisocial student behaviors were rated by 1503 students and 92 teachers in four urban middle schools rank ordered by achievement. The highest achieving school combined an emphasis on academics with a culture of caring that was reflected in higher rates of prosocial behaviors and lower rates of antisocial behaviors among students. The second ranked school had a law and order environment but lacked the synergy that a culture of caring achieved. The lower achieving schools had significantly lower rates of prosocial behaviors and higher rates of antisocial behaviors among students. Both student and teacher perceptions supported these findings.
Article
This paper conceptualizes the development of teacher professionalism as passing through four historical phases in many countries: the pre-professional age, the age of the autonomous professional, the age of the collegial professional and the fourth age-post-professional or postmodern. Current experiences and perceptions of teacher professionalism and professionalization, it is argued, draw on all these ages. Conclusions are drawn regarding new directions in teacher professionalism, and the linking of professional projects to wider social movements for public education and its transformation.
Article
This paper explores the emotions of teaching and teacher development in times of rapid change. It treats the emotional lives of educators not only as matters of personal disposition or commitment, as psychological qualities that emerge among individuals, but also as social and political phenomena that are shaped by how the work of teaching is organized, structured and led. The paper develops a conceptual framework of seven interrelated elements that are formed by sociological and social‐psychological literature, to cast light on how emotions are located and represented in teachers’ work and professional development. The paper closes with ten implications and recommendations for leaders and policymakers to embrace and engage the emotions as part of their own and other educators’ work.
Article
Observations of and interviews with teachers and administrators in three elementary and three secondary schools provided support for the hypothesis that the social organization of the school as a workplace affects the fruitfulness of staff development efforts and the effectiveness of the school as a whole. This report reviews the relevant literature on organizational theory and role theory, applies these theories to the school setting, and presents the findings of the research based on these theoretical approaches. The first of two sets of findings centers on the character of the school as a workplace in which teachers' role expectations inhibit or encourage collegiality and openness to innovation. The character of the school is explored in terms of the kinds of work practices followed; the degree, location, frequency, practicality, relevance, reciprocity, and inclusivity of staff interactions; the status, knowledge levels, and role competence of the individual staff members; and the general and specific influence of the principal. The second set of findings focuses on characteristics of influential staff development efforts, notably the degrees of collaboration, collective participation, focus, and time involved. The relationship between school effectiveness and each characteristic considered in both sets of findings is explored as each characteristic is discussed. (PGD)
Article
Teachers' diverse goals for students reflect differences in teachers' conceptions of the teaching task and students' needs. This segment of the teachers' workplace research project (fieldwork and surveys in 16 public and private secondary schools) concentrated on ways in which workplace features generated dissimilar patterns of pedagogical response. The critical finding was that teachers within the same school or department developed different responses to different students depending on the character of their collegial environment. The survey data showed that collegiality indicates more than supportive relationships among teachers; rather, it indicates a professional community with norms of innovation and learning, where teachers are enthusiastic about their work, and where focus is upon devising strategies that enable all students to prosper. Important factors in collegial professional communities are capacity for reflection, feedback, and problem solving. Frustrated teachers in the study all existed in professional communities with powerful norms of privacy. Findings suggest that the school workplace is a physical setting; a formal organization; an employer; and a social and psychological setting in which teachers construct a sense of practice, of professional efficacy, and of professional community. More than any other factor, the nature of the professional community that exists in the workplace appears critical to the character of teaching and learning for teachers and their students. (LL)
Article
From time to time, education is marked by critical events. In contrast to routine processes and any gradual cumulation of learning, these bring radical change in both pupils and teachers. They also have a confirmatory and preservation function in sustaining teachers’ beliefs, interests and commitment, and aiding strategic redefinition. They could have a wider influence through a ‘community of interactive professionals’. The critical events studied are marked by constructivist learning theory and relationships that generate distinct forms of communitas. They go through fairly well‐defined stages from initial conceptualisation to final celebration, with a rhythm of learning between structure and freedom developing. The conditions favourable to the occurrence of critical events include legitimation within the curriculum structure, a facilitative school ethos and, above all, a critical agent.
Article
The sociological investigation of public policy continues to be plagued by scholarly adherence to a conventional framework that reifies the policy process as a set of segmented and sequential stages. To overcome this problem, policy is presented as the processual, ongoing practical accomplishment of the transformation of intentions. Within this framework, the realization of intentions is shown as both constrained and enabled by (1) organizational context and conventions, (2) linkages between multiple sites and phases of the policy process, (3) the mobilization of resources, and (4) a dynamic and multifaceted conceprualization of power.
Article
This article seeks to explore the ways in which the culture and organization of teaching influences the experiences and emotions teachers report in their interactions with parents. Hargreaves’ framework, based on the emotional politics of teaching, is used here to analyze fifty-three primary and secondary teachers’ interview responses in which they described interactions with parents that elicited negative and positive emotions. Parent–teacher interactions are explored as emotional practices that are inseparable from teachers’ moral purposes, shaped by influences of culture and relationship, and inextricably interconnected elements of status and power. Data suggest that the culture and organization of teaching influence the values, discourses and senses of purpose teachers hold and thus the experiences and emotions they report in their interactions with parents. The article closes with suggestions for further research and policy considerations.
Article
In this paper transitions in the operational definitions of professionalism over the last 20 years will be discussed. As a consequence of (imposed) changes in the control of curriculum and assessment and increased measures of public accountability, teachers in most countries now work within cultures in which their careers are ever more dependent upon external definitions of quality, progress and achievement for their success. Although many experienced teachers have maintained their identities, finding room to manoeuvre within a general reduction in their traditional classroom autonomy, the pressure on these and younger colleagues is to comply with competency based agendas. In such cultures, attention to teachers’ identities—arguably central to sustaining motivation, efficacy, commitment, job satisfaction and effectiveness—has been limited.
Article
This paper describes the conceptual framework, methodology, and some results from a project on the Emotions of Teaching and Educational Change. It introduces the concepts of emotional intelligence, emotional labor, emotional understanding and emotional geographies. Drawing on interviews with 53 teachers in 15 schools, the paper then describes key differences in the emotional geographies of elementary and secondary teaching. Elementary teaching is characterized by physical and professional closeness which creates greater emotional intensity; but in ambivalent conditions of classroom power, where intensity is sometimes negative. Secondary teaching is characterized by greater professional and physical distance leading teachers to treat emotions as intrusions in the classroom. This distance, the paper argues, threatens the basic forms of emotional understanding on which high-quality teaching and learning depend.
Article
The purpose of this study was to investigate experienced secondary school teachers’ (N=80) current and prior perceptions of their professional identity. A questionnaire was used to explore the way teachers see (and saw) themselves as subject matter experts, didactical experts, and pedagogical experts. The teachers currently see their professional identity as consisting of a combination of the distinct aspects of expertise. Most teachers’ current perceptions of their professional identity reportedly differ significantly from their prior perceptions of this identity during their period as beginning teachers. On the basis of their current perceptions of their professional identity, five groups of teachers could be distinguished. These groups had different learning experiences throughout their careers for each aspect of expertise. Also, teachers from different subject areas did not undergo the same changes in their perceptions of their professional identity. The differences among the groups in teachers’ current perceptions of professional identity were not related to contextual, experiential, and biographical factors that might influence these perceptions.
Article
This paper reports research which focuses on ways of enhancing understandings by teachers of the key role that emotions play in their personal professional growth. It combines the narrative, autobiographical accounts of teachers attending part-time masters degree programmes in England (Continuing Professional Development and School Improvement) and Northern Ireland (Personal and Social Development) with an interrogation of the underlying values which affect the practices of their tutors. It reveals the effects of powerful and often unacknowledged interaction between personal biography and professional and social contexts upon teachers in schools and higher education.
Book
Experience and Educationis the best concise statement on education ever published by John Dewey, the man acknowledged to be the pre-eminent educational theorist of the twentieth century. Written more than two decades after Democracy and Education(Dewey's most comprehensive statement of his position in educational philosophy), this book demonstrates how Dewey reformulated his ideas as a result of his intervening experience with the progressive schools and in the light of the criticisms his theories had received. Analysing both "traditional" and "progressive" education, Dr. Dewey here insists that neither the old nor the new education is adequate and that each is miseducative because neither of them applies the principles of a carefully developed philosophy of experience. Many pages of this volume illustrate Dr. Dewey's ideas for a philosophy of experience and its relation to education. He particularly urges that all teachers and educators looking for a new movement in education should think in terms of the deeped and larger issues of education rather than in terms of some divisive "ism" about education, even such an "ism" as "progressivism." His philosophy, here expressed in its most essential, most readable form, predicates an American educational system that respects all sources of experience, on that offers a true learning situation that is both historical and social, both orderly and dynamic.
Article
Incl. biographical notes on the authors, bibliographical references, index We also have:The meaning of educational change,1st ed. (1982) and 2nd ed.(1991)
Article
American high schools have never been under more pressure to reform: student populations are more diverse than ever, resources are limited, and teachers are expected to teach to high standards for all students. While many reformers look for change at the state or district level, the authors here argue that the most local contexts—schools, departments, and communities—matter the most to how well teachers perform in the classroom and how satisfied they are professionally. Their findings—based on one of the most extensive research projects ever done on secondary teaching—show that departmental cultures play a crucial role in classroom settings and expectations. In the same school, for example, social studies teachers described their students as "apathetic and unwilling to work," while English teachers described the same students as "bright, interesting, and energetic." With wide-ranging implications for educational practice and policy, this unprecedented look into teacher communities is essential reading for educators, administrators, and all those concerned with U. S. High Schools.
Article
Estudio introductorio del pensador norteamericano John Dewey (1859-1952) a la psicología social, publicado originalmente en 1922 y en el que plantea un equlibrio entre la naturaleza humana innata y el medio ambiente social como factores incidentes en el comportamiento. Así, la moral -entendida en un sentido amplio, como un campo abarcante de todas las disciplinas sociales respecto a su vínculo estrecho con la vida del hombre y a su influencia en los intereses de la humanidad- es para Dewey una función resultante de la acción recíproca de esas dos fuerzas.
Article
Obra que desde una perspectiva interdisciplinaria estudia el desarrollo cognoscitivo del niño, a la luz del contexto sociocultural; pone de manifiesto los procesos socioculturales mediante los que el niño adquiere y amplia sus habilidades y como desarrollo su inteligencia, a partir del contacto con el pensamiento compartido con otras personas.
Article
The present article examines the nature and function of human agency within the conceptual model of triadic reciprocal causation. In analyzing the operation of human agency in this interactional causal structure, social cognitive theory accords a central role to cognitive, vicarious, self-reflective, and self-regulatory processes. The issues addressed concern the psychological mechanisms through which personal agency is exercised, the hierarchical structure of self-regulatory systems, eschewal of the dichotomous construal of self as agent and self as object, and the properties of a nondualistic but nonreductional conception of human agency. The relation of agent causality to the fundamental issues of freedom and determinism is also analyzed.
The means of correct training
  • Foucault
Learning to change teaching beyond standards
  • A. Hargreaves
  • L. Earl
  • S. Moore
  • S. Manning
  • A. Hargreaves
  • L. Earl
  • S. Moore
  • S. Manning
Rethinking the practice of teacher professionalism
  • Sachs
Impact 2000: Report of the impact of government reforms on education
  • L. Earl
  • S. Sutherland
  • S. Lasky
  • L. Earl
  • S. Sutherland
  • S. Lasky
Open schools/healthy schools
  • W. Hoy
  • C.J. Tarter
  • R. Kottkamp
  • W. Hoy
  • C.J. Tarter
  • R. Kottkamp
Three views of curriculum policy in the school context: The school as policy mediator, policy critic, and policy constructor
  • Clune
Impact 2000: Year two report of the impact of government reforms on education
  • L. Earl
  • S. Lasky
  • S. Sutherland
  • L. Earl
  • S. Lasky
  • S. Sutherland
Introduction: Emotion, discourse and the politics of everyday life
  • Abu-Lughod
Abu-Lughod, L., & Lutz, C. (1990). Introduction: Emotion, discourse and the politics of everyday life. In C. Lutz, & L. Abu-Lughod (Eds.), Language and the politics of emotion (pp. 1–27). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
The lives of teachers
  • M Huberman
Huberman, M. (1993). The lives of teachers. London and New York: Cassell and Teachers' College Press.
The means of correct training The Foucault reader
  • M Foucault
Foucault, M. (1984). The means of correct training. In P. Rabinow (Ed.), The Foucault reader (pp. 179–206). New York: Pantheon.
Self-efficacy: The exercise of control Steps to an ecology of mind Teachers' perceptions of professional identity: An exploratory study from a personal knowledge perspective
  • A W H Bandura
  • Freeman
  • G Bateson
Bandura, A. (1997). Self-efficacy: The exercise of control. New York: W.H. Freeman. Bateson, G. (1972). Steps to an ecology of mind. New York: Ballantine Books. Beijaard, D., Verloop, N., & Vermunt, J. (2000). Teachers' perceptions of professional identity: An exploratory study from a personal knowledge perspective. Teaching and Teacher Education, 16, 749–764.
Outline of a theory of practice Three views of curriculum policy in the school context: The school as policy mediator, policy critic, and policy constructor The contexts of teaching in secondary schools: Teachers' realities (pp
  • P Bourdieu
  • W Clune
Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a theory of practice. Cambridge, MA: Cambridge University Press. Clune, W. (1990). Three views of curriculum policy in the school context: The school as policy mediator, policy critic, and policy constructor. In M. McLaughlin, J. Talbert, & N. Bascia (Eds.), The contexts of teaching in secondary schools: Teachers' realities (pp. 256–271). New York: Teachers College Press.