Article

Dissociating nicotine and nonnicotine components of cigarette smoking

Duke University, Durham, North Carolina, United States
Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior (Impact Factor: 2.78). 10/2000; 67(1):71-81. DOI: 10.1016/S0091-3057(00)00301-4

ABSTRACT

To dissociate the sensorimotor aspects of cigarette smoking from the pharmacologic effects of nicotine, smokers rated the subjective effects of nicotine-containing or denicotinized cigarettes, and intravenous (IV) nicotine or saline infusions. Three groups of participants (n=20 per group) received either: (1) continuous nicotine, (2) pulsed nicotine, or (3) saline. Each group was exposed to an IV condition once while smoking a denicotinized cigarette and once while not smoking, in a 3×2 mixed design. A fourth group (n=20) received saline while smoking their usual brand of cigarette. The dose and rate of nicotine administration were individualized based on previous measures of ad lib smoke intake. Denicotinized cigarette smoke significantly reduced craving and was rated significantly more satisfying and rewarding than the no-smoking conditions. IV nicotine reduced craving for cigarettes, and increased ratings of lightheadedness and dizziness. However, no significant satisfaction or reward was reported after IV nicotine. The combination of IV nicotine and denicotinized cigarette smoke produced effects similar to those of smoking the usual brand of cigarette. The results suggest that sensorimotor factors are critical in mediating the immediate subjective response to smoking, and that the immediate subjective effects of nicotine administered in doses obtained from cigarette smoking are subtle. Thus, addressing smokers' needs for both for the sensorimotor aspects of smoking as well as for the direct CNS effects of nicotine may be critical in enhancing smoking cessation treatment outcome.

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    • "Research into the reinforcing effects of nicotine suggests that while nicotine, the principal reinforcing agent in tobacco, is important in sustained tobacco dependence (Anthony et al., 1994; Caggiula et al., 2001; Goldberg et al., 1981; Rose and Corrigall, 1997), environmental stimuli play a critical role in nicotine reinforcement (Bevins and Caggiula, 2009; Conklin and Tiffany, 2001; Rose et al., 2000). This work has demonstrated both the ability of nicotine to transform neutral, non-drug stimuli into conditioned reinforcers (Geier et al., 2000; Palmatier et al., 2007a; Perkins et al., 1994; Rose and Behm, 1991; Rose and Levin, 1991) and the ability of nicotine to non-associatively enhance responding for other reinforcers (Barret and Bevins, 2013; Barrett and Bevins, 2012; Caggiula et al., 2009; Chaudhri et al., 2006b; Palmatier et al., 2006). "
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    ABSTRACT: Nicotine has been shown to enhance the motivational properties of non-nicotine stimuli. This reinforcement-enhancing property of nicotine has the potential to promote the use of other illicit substances as well as maladaptive patterns of food intake. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine whether nicotine enhances preference for contexts paired with cocaine or sucrose utilizing a place conditioning procedure. Separate groups of adult male rats were administered sucrose or cocaine in one of two compartments of a standard CPP chamber on four consecutive days. Preference was then assessed following no injection, a single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of nicotine, and a s.c. saline injection. Animals preferred the chamber paired with either sucrose or cocaine, as evident from an increased time spent in the paired chamber compared to baseline. Nicotine further increased the time spent in the sucrose- or cocaine-paired chamber, consistent with a reinforcement-enhancement effect. Previous results demonstrate an interaction between nicotine and intake of other drugs or food. The present findings provide an additional mechanism that may underlie these effects and which may have implications for drug dependence and obesity.
    Full-text · Article · Jun 2014 · Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
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    • "been shown to suppress withdrawal symptoms (eg, irritability and anxiety) (Gross et al, 1997; Pickworth et al, 1999) and craving (Buchhalter et al, 2005; Rose and Behm, 2004). For example, smokers reported a reduction in cravings after smoking denicotinized cigarettes and separately after an infusion of intravenous nicotine; however, denicotinized cigarettes produced a pleasurable subjective experience, whereas nicotine alone did not (Rose et al, 2000). Furthermore, smoking behavior among habitual smokers can be maintained by denicotinized cigarettes alone (Donny et al, 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: Smoking cessation results in withdrawal symptoms such as craving and negative mood that may contribute to lapse and relapse. Little is known regarding whether these symptoms are associated with the nicotine or non-nicotine components of cigarette smoke. Using arterial spin labeling, we measured resting-state cerebral blood flow in twenty-nine adult smokers across four conditions: (1) nicotine patch+denicotinized cigarette smoking, (2) nicotine patch+abstinence from smoking, (3) placebo patch+denicotinized cigarette smoking, and (4) placebo patch+abstinence from smoking. We found that changes in self-reported craving positively correlated with changes in cerebral blood flow from the denicotinized cigarette smoking conditions to the abstinent conditions. These correlations were found in several regions throughout the brain. Self-reported craving also increased from the nicotine to the placebo conditions, but had a minimal relationship with changes in cerebral blood flow. The results of this study suggest that the non-nicotine components of cigarette smoke significantly impacts withdrawal symptoms and associated brain areas, independently of the effects of nicotine. As such, the effects of non-nicotine factors are important to consider in the design and development of smoking cessation interventions and tobacco regulation.Neuropsychopharmacology accepted article preview online, 13 May 2014; doi:10.1038/npp.2014.108.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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    • "Research into the reinforcing effects of nicotine suggests that while nicotine, the principal reinforcing agent in tobacco, is important in sustained tobacco dependence (Anthony et al., 1994; Caggiula et al., 2001; Goldberg et al., 1981; Rose and Corrigall, 1997), environmental stimuli play a critical role in nicotine reinforcement (Bevins and Caggiula, 2009; Conklin and Tiffany, 2001; Rose et al., 2000). This work has demonstrated both the ability of nicotine to transform neutral, non-drug stimuli into conditioned reinforcers (Geier et al., 2000; Palmatier et al., 2007a; Perkins et al., 1994; Rose and Behm, 1991; Rose and Levin, 1991) and the ability of nicotine to non-associatively enhance responding for other reinforcers (Barret and Bevins, 2013; Barrett and Bevins, 2012; Caggiula et al., 2009; Chaudhri et al., 2006b; Palmatier et al., 2006). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nicotine has been shown to enhance the motivational properties of non-nicotine stimuli. This reinforcement-enhancing property of nicotine has the potential to promote the use of other illicit substances as well as maladaptive patterns of food intake. Therefore, the current study aimed to examine whether nicotine enhances preference for contexts paired with cocaine or sucrose utilizing a place conditioning procedure. Separate groups of adult male rats were administered sucrose or cocaine in one of two compartments of a standard CPP chamber on four consecutive days. Preference was then assessed following no injection, a single subcutaneous (s.c.) injection of nicotine, and a s.c. saline injection. The animals preferred the chamber paired with either sucrose or cocaine, as evident from an increased time spent in the paired chamber compared to baseline. Nicotine further increased the time spent in the sucrose- or cocaine-paired chamber, consistent with a reinforcement-enhancement effect. Previous results demonstrate an interaction between nicotine and intake of other drugs or food. The present findings provide an additional mechanism that may underlie these effects and which may have implications for drug dependence and obesity.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior
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