Article

Does motorcycle training reduce accidents? Evidence from a quasi-experimental study

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Abstract

This article describes a study conducted in British Columbia to ascertain whether the British Columbia Safety Council's 37-hour motorcycle safety training program has a measurable impact on accidents. Two matched groups of motorcycle riders are compared from 1979 through 1984. Members of one group passed the Safety Council's training course during 1979 and received their Class 6 (motorcycle) license after completing the course. Members of the other group also obtained their Class 6 license in 1979, but did not receive any formal motorcycle training. Comparisons of the driving records of formally trained and informally trained (henceforth untrained) riders reveal that there are observable differences in the frequency and severity of accidents between the two groups. Trained riders tend to have fewer accidents of all kinds (all motor vehicle accidents combined), fewer motorcycle accidents, and less severe motorcycle accidents. Although these differences are not large in a statistical sense, they suggest that when care is taken to carefully match trained and untrained riders, training is associated with a reduction in accidents. Given that motorcycle accidents tend to be much more severe than automobile accidents, the evidence from the study supports the use of training as a means of reducing the human and material costs of motorcycle accidents.

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... The British Columbia Safety Council"s motorcycle safety training program was evaluated by McDavid, Lohrmann, and Lohrmann through a matched-pair study [13]. ...
... According to McDavid et al., a statistical analysis which takes into account different factors, as done in many other studies, is not accurate enough due to the variability in driving behavior between the people in the two groups. Pairing based on number of accidents before attaining a motorcycle license controls for this variable [13]. The untrained group was found to have 32% more motor vehicle accidents than the trained group and 64% more motorcycle accidents during the first five years after licensing. ...
... Moreover, the accidents that trained riders were involved in were less severe. From these findings it appears that training produces desirable outcomes; however, due to the small sample size, no definite conclusions could be drawn [13]. ...
Article
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In 2005 there were 691 fatal crashes and 748 fatalities in New Jersey. The data necessary to adequately understand fatal crashes are not readily available to New Jersey policy makers. The research program has developed a pilot system which links fatal crash data with other associated state data files. This research project has considered the following four databases: (1) New Jersey Crash Records, (2) the New Jersey Motor Vehicle Commission Fatal Accident Database, (3) Fatal Analysis Reporting System (FARS), and (4) the New Jersey State Police Fatal Investigations Division database. By linking these databases, there is an opportunity to investigate the root causes of fatalities in ways that are not possible through analysis of a single database. The project has used New Jersey fatal crash data to conduct two case studies, one on teen driver risk and one on elderly driver risk, to demonstrate the value of a linked data system.
... The British Columbia Safety Council's motorcycle safety training program was evaluated by McDavid et al. through a matched-pair (12). With an entirely male sample, they paired trained and untrained riders on the basis of age, month licensed, and number of automobile accidents involved in before licensing. ...
... According to McDavid et al., a statistical analysis that takes into account different factors, as was done in many other studies, is not accurate enough because of the variability in driving behavior between the people in the two groups. Pairing based on number of accidents before attaining a motorcycle license controls for this variable (12). The untrained group was found to have 32% more motor vehicle accidents than the trained group and 64% more motorcycle accidents during the first 5 years after licensing. ...
... Moreover, the accidents that trained riders were involved in were less severe. From these findings it appears that training produces desirable outcomes; however, because of the small sample size, no definite conclusions could be drawn (12). The Connecticut Rider Education Program (CONREP) was evaluated by Davis (11), and he found that the number of accidents per rider was significantly lower for those who completed CONREP. ...
Article
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Motorcycle crash fatalities in the United States have been increasing since 1997, when the total number of fatalities reached a record low. Motorcycle training programs were enacted before this rise, and many studies have aimed to show their effectiveness. The objective of this study is to review and synthesize the results of existing research on the effectiveness of motorcycle education courses and different licensing procedures. The effectiveness of programs is examined through the effect training has on accident rates, violation rates, and personal protective equipment use found through past research. Research to date has not consistently supported the notion that training is either effective or ineffective. Some studies have demonstrated that accident and traffic violation rates are lower for trained riders than for untrained riders, whereas others have demonstrated that they are higher for trained riders. Training increases the use of personal protective equipment among motorcyclists. Motorcycle licensing procedures have been shown to have different effects on accident rates. Lower accident rates have been observed in areas with stricter regulations for obtaining a license. The studies vary greatly in both the methods used for comparison and the rigor of their evaluation methodology. No standards for evaluation exist. The findings of these previous studies may be more a reflection of the methods used to evaluate motorcycle training than the effectiveness of training itself.
... Many published reports fail to describe the contents of the training program in sufficient detail to be able to identify the relative emphasis on cognitive and vehicle control skills (e.g. McDavid, Lohrmann and Lohrmann, 1989). While many reports state the total length of the course and the amounts of time spent in the classroom versus on the range, this is only a very approximate measure of the split between cognitive and vehicle control skills. ...
... The volunteer courses suggest that training is relatively more attractive to females and persons who are less confident. McDavid et al. (1989) present a table of the percentages of trained and untrained riders who were female in seven comparison group studies. In six of the seven studies, the percentage of females was greater in the trained group than the untrained group. ...
... Mortimer, 1984;Satten, 1980). McDavid et al. (1989) comment that "a common methodological problem in previous studies is the lack of similarity between persons who seek motorcycle training and those who do not. Age and sex differences, as well as other uncontrolled differences between trained and untrained groups, could account for differences in key independent variables (principally accident rates)" (p.62). ...
Article
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This report presents an evaluation of the rider training courses (both the learner and probationary
... The results tend to show that trained and untrained motorcyclists have the same risk of being involved in an accident [9][10][11]. Some research has attempted to demonstrate the effectiveness of training on risk level [12,13]. Several hypotheses have been advanced to explain this ineffectiveness: (1) training focuses too much on driving skills and not enough on the cognitive and perceptive mechanisms associated with them [14], (2) the psychological characteristics of trainees are not sufficiently taken into account because most accidents are not due to a lack of driving skills but to deliberate behaviour [8], (3) training may tend to increase motorcyclists' self-confidence and not their ability to make assessments [15], (4) training rhythms are too intense to allow the stabilization and the retention of the acquired skills [16,17]. ...
Article
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Purpose This study is concerned initial motorcycle training delivered in motorcycle schools in France. Novice motorcyclists are a particularly vulnerable group of road users in Europe and in France. However, scientific attempts to achieve a better understanding of their behaviors have been limited. The potential value of studying initial motorcycle training, both for research purposes and with regard to public policy, is readily apparent. The aims of this paper are to describe the real educational content of training in motorcycle schools and analyze to what extent this content is related to riding after licensing. Methods A case study of all the training process of one trainee (38 hours) was carried out in real world. Audiovisual recordings and interview data of the rider and instructors were collected at each session. This study was supplemented by ethnographic observations of the educational content provided in three motorcycle schools throughout the instructors’ working days. Results The results that merged from both studies show (1) the riding skills that were fostered (i.e. control skills, and especially emergency skills, in stable and restricted environments) and undervalued (i.e. hazard perception skills, everyday skills) during initial training, and (2) the poverty of observed training settings: learners spend almost all their training time riding in the same setting that is used in the test. In addition to being repeated to excess, these settings are quite different from the real traffic. Conclusions These results are discussed regarding the scientific literature on motorcycle education. The conclusion presents the implications of these results for public policy in order to design a future rider training system.
... A partir de 18 ans, les jeunes peuvent passer le permis A (motocycle) afin de conduire des véhicules de plus de 125 cm3. Une question récurrente concerne la capacité des systèmes de formation à faire acquérir par apprentissage des compétences similaires à celles qui sont issues de l'expérience. McDavid et al. (1989) ont étudié l'effet d'une formation spécifique sur le niveau d'insécurité des motocyclettes. Ils ont ainsi comparé deux groupes de motocyclistes, l'un composé de motocyclistes ayant reçu une formation spécifique, l'autre composé de motocyclistes disposant d'une formation classique. Ils observent que les motocyclistes ayant reçu une forma ...
Article
Ce rapport présente une revue de question sur les thématiques les plus abordées dans la littérature internationale consacrée à la compréhension des problèmes de sécurité routière rencontrés par les deux-roues motorisés Sont ainsi étudiés : Les difficultés spécifiques vis-à-vis des infrastructures, ; La thématique des obstacles fixes, ; La question de la vitesse et de son contrôle, ; Les motifs de déplacement et leur influence sur l'accidentalité, ; La vulnérabilité et les systèmes de protection, ; Les questions d'expérience, d'âge et de formation, ; Les problèmes de détectabilité. Deux-roues motorisés - sécurité - cyclomoteur - motocyclette - accidentologie - psychologie
... A partir de 18 ans, les jeunes peuvent passer le permis A (motocycle) afin de conduire des véhicules de plus de 125 cm3. Certaines études (Raymond & Tatum, 1977 ;Jonah et al., 1982 ;Manders, 1984 ;Brown, 1987 ;Mortimer, 1988 ;McDavid et al., 1989) ont émis l'hypothèse que la mise en place de formations initiales ou complémentaires spécifiques aux conducteurs de deux-roues motorisés pourrait réduire la probabilité d'occurrence d'un accident de la circulation. Les résultats montrent des effets parfois mitigés, voire contreproductifs, de certains stages post permis, qui amènent des auteurs à conclure qu'une formation, trop axée sur la maîtrise du véhicule, et notamment sur les situations d'urgence, n'est pas une réponse adaptée pour faire diminuer l'accidentologie des deux-roues (Jonah et al., 1982 ;Mortimer, 1988). ...
Article
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Cette étude a pour objectif d'appréhender et mieux comprendre les interactions de facteurs et les mécanismes en jeu dans les accidents des deux-roues motorisés. Elle vise également à mettre en évidence la diversité de ces accidents de façon à permettre la définition de mesures plus adaptée à chaque problème en jeu. Les deux-roues motorisés se distinguent des autres modes de transport terrestres par des différences d'ordre dynamique, perceptif, mais aussi comportemental, attitudinal et social. Parmi les particularités qui les caractérisent, on développera les points suivants : Une population d'usager qui s'accroît de manière continue ; des usagers dont les facteurs socio-démographiques sont de plus en plus hétérogènes, Une offre de véhicules croissante avec une grande diversité de cylindrées, de types etc. ; Un comportement dynamique et une conduite spécifiques en fonction du type de véhicule et de ses capacités ; Une place à part au sein du trafic ; Une accidentalité particulière : grande vulnérabilité des usagers, inadéquations entre les deux-roues motorisés et le système de circulation, les interactions. Partenariat : INRETS-MA, LAB-GIE PSA/Renault
... Journal of Advanced Transportation the helpfulness of e-bike license plate use on road safety and traffic management. This finding is similar to previous study on motorcycles demonstrating that motorcycle safety training program could reduce motorcycle crashes and crash severity [36]. The result suggests that traffic safety education is an effective countermeasure to improve e-bike safety and to promote e-bike license plate use. ...
Article
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The primary objective of this study is to evaluate factors affecting e-bike involved crash and license plate use in China. E-bike crashes data were collected from police database and completed through a telephone interview. Noncrash samples were collected by a questionnaire survey. A bivariate probit (BP) model was developed to simultaneously examine the significant factors associated with e-bike involved crash and e-bike license plate and to account for the correlations between them. Marginal effects for contributory factors were calculated to quantify their impacts on the outcomes. The results show that several contributory factors, including gender, age, education level, driver license, car in household, experiences in using e-bike, law compliance, and aggressive driving behaviors, are found to have significant impacts on both e-bike involved crash and license plate use. Moreover, type of e-bike, frequency of using e-bike, impulse behavior, degree of riding experience, and risk perception scale are found to be associated with e-bike involved crash. It is also found that e-bike involved crash and e-bike license plate use are strongly correlated and are negative in direction. The result enhanced our comprehension of the factors related to e-bike involved crash and e-bike license plate use.
... The casualty rates were higher for trained than for untrained riders. (Chesham, Rutter & Quine, 1991, Jonah, Dawson & Bragg, 1981, McDavid, Lohrman & Lohrman, 1989, Mortimer & O'Rourke, 1980. ...
... However, the criticisms of previous studies on the effectiveness of motorcycle training courses have been numerous, including the lack of consideration of variables that go beyond violation and accident statistics (4), the lack of control for exposure (the number of miles ridden) (2,3), a lack of complete consideration of the dissimilarity between individuals who seek motorcycle training and those who do not (5)(6)(7)(8)(9), and a lack of consideration of possible risk compensation as trained riders acquire new skills that may enable them to ride faster instead of safer (10). ...
Article
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Persistent increases in motorcycle fatalities and injuries in recent years have heightened safety awareness and have focused attention on the role that motorcyclist training and education can play in reducing accident rates. In this study a 2005 sample of Indiana motorcyclists was used to estimate statistical models of the effectiveness of existing training programs in reducing accident probabilities. Statistical models relating to motorcyclist speed choice and helmet usage behavior were also estimated. The findings showed that those individuals who took beginning rider training courses were more likely to be involved in an accident than those who did not and that those who took the beginning course more than once were much more likely to be involved in an accident. Although explanations for these findings can range from the use of ineffective course material to changes in risk perception as a result of taking the course, another explanation is that riders who take the course are inherently less skilled than those who do not. The findings underscore the need for a careful and comprehensive study of rider skills and risk perceptions to maximize the effectiveness of motorcycle training courses.
... It seems to be the case that in situations where the car driver or motorcyclist is seen to be at fault, motorcyclists expect to use defensive techniques, whether this be to anticipate the mistake of the car driver in order to protect themselves, or use these skills in order to make a decision about safe overtakes. Although defensive skill training has been seen to reduce motorcycle accidents (McDavid et al., 1989), it should not be the case that motorcyclists alone have to anticipate the behaviour of another road user in order to feel safe on the road or make themselves known. As the LIWC highlighted in both road user groups' responses throughout the questionnaire, the visual attention of both road users at intersections is extremely important and should be a target of investigation, in particular car drivers' visual attention. ...
Article
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Motorcyclists are involved in a disproportionate number of crashes given the distance they travel, with a high proportion of these crashes occurring at junctions. Despite car drivers being solely responsible for many road crashes involving a motorcycle, previous research has mostly focussed on understanding motorcyclists' attitudes towards their own safety. We compared car drivers' (n = 102) and motorcyclists' (n = 579) opinions about junction crashes using a web-based questionnaire. Motorcyclists and car drivers were recruited in similar ways so that responses could be directly compared, accessing respondents through driver/rider forums and on social media. Car drivers' and motorcyclists' opinions were compared in relation to who they believe to be blameworthy in situations which varied in specificity, ranging from what road user they believe is most likely to cause a motorcyclist to have a road crash, to what road user is at fault in four specific scenarios involving a car and motorcycle at a junction. Two of these scenarios represented typical 'Right of way' (ROW) crashes with a motorcycle approaching from the left and right, and two scenarios involved a motorcycle overtaking another vehicle at the junction, known as 'Motorcycle Manoeuvrability Accidents' (MMA). Qualitative responses were analysed using LIWC software to detect objective differences in car drivers' and motorcyclists' language. Car drivers' and motorcyclists' opinions about the blameworthiness of accidents changed depending on how specific the situation was that was being presented. When respondents were asked about the cause of motorcycle crashes in a general abstract sense, car drivers' and motorcyclists' responses significantly differed, with motorcyclists more likely to blame car drivers, demonstrating an in-group bias. However, this in-group favouritism was reduced when asked about specific scenarios, especially in MMA situations which involve motorcyclists manoeuvring their motorcycles around cars at a junction. In the four specific scenarios, car drivers were more likely to blame the car driver, and motorcyclists were more likely to blame the motorcyclist. In the typical ROW scenarios, the responses given by both road users, as analysed by the LIWC, show that the law is taken into account, as well as a large emphasis on the lack of observation given around junctions, especially from car drivers. It is concluded that the perception of blameworthiness in crashes is very much dependent on the details of the crash, with a more specific situation eliciting a fairer evaluation by both car drivers and motorcyclists.
... A comparative study on the participants of two-wheel riders in a lecture program in Ontario State in Canada from 1974 to 1977 an samples of drivers of equal age and gender showed a lower percentage of traffic rule violations, but no significant difference of accident occurrence between the groups (Jonah, et al., 1982). In a similar research about the lecture program in 1979 in British Columbia State in Canada, attendance to the program did not have any significant effects either on rule violation or accident occurrence percentage (McDavid, et al., 1989). However, these comparative methods cannot statistically measure the effect of lecture because drivers who seek to improve safety tend to attend these lectures. ...
Article
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This paper discusses possible countermeasures for traffic accidents involving university students using mopeds, based on recent research findings. The first part of this paper is a review of research about traffic accidents involving mopeds. Second, we show the importance of decreasing the encounter of mopeds with large-sized vehicles in order to decrease the number of accidents, in particular the number of fatalities caused by these accidents, based on a macroscopic statistical analysis of Japanese traffic accidents classified by vehicle types. In the last part of our paper, we argue for the necessity of a time dimensional transport demand management on campus as one possible and effective way to reduce encounters between mopeds and heavy vehicles.
... It should be recognized that mixed results have been found on the effectiveness of motorcycle training programs. Some previous studies have shown that motorcycle training is effective to improve motorcycle safety Baldi et al. 2005;Billheimer 1998;Davis 1997;McDavid et al. 1989), whereas others found otherwise (Jonah et al. 1982;Mayhew 2007;Rutter and Quine 1996;Savolainen 2007 programs are necessary to improve motorcycle safety. Nevertheless, motorcyclists are strongly recommended to take training programs due to the following reasons: ...
Article
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Objectives: In order to improve motorcycle safety, this article examines the correlation between crash avoidance maneuvers and injury severity sustained by motorcyclists, under multiple precrash conditions. Method: Ten-year crash data for single-vehicle motorcycle crashes from the General Estimates Systems (GES) were analyzed, using partial proportional odds models (i.e., generalized ordered logit models). Results: The modeling results show that "braking (no lock-up)" is associated with a higher probability of increased severity, whereas "braking (lock-up)" is associated with a higher probability of decreased severity, under all precrash conditions. "Steering" is associated with a higher probability of reduced injury severity when other vehicles are encroaching, whereas it is correlated with high injury severity under other conditions. "Braking and steering" is significantly associated with a higher probability of low severity under "animal encounter and object presence," whereas it is surprisingly correlated with high injury severity when motorcycles are traveling off the edge of the road. The results also show that a large number of motorcyclists did not perform any crash avoidance maneuvers or conducted crash avoidance maneuvers that are significantly associated with high injury severity. Conclusions: In general, this study suggests that precrash maneuvers are an important factor associated with motorcyclists' injury severity. To improve motorcycle safety, training/educational programs should be considered to improve safety awareness and adjust driving habits of motorcyclists. Antilock brakes and such systems are also promising, because they could effectively prevent brake lock-up and assist motorcyclists in maneuvering during critical conditions. This study also provides valuable information for the design of motorcycle training curriculum.
... Les résultats montrent, pour l'essentiel, que les motocyclistes formés ont un niveau de risque d'être impliqués dans un accident égal ou supérieur au groupe contrôle (Mayhew, Simpson & Robinson, 2002). Seules, quelques recherches démontrent l'efficacité des curriculums sur le niveau de risque (McDavid, Lohrmann & Lohrmann, 1989 ;Billheimer, 1998). Plusieurs hypothèses ont été avancées pour expliquer ce constat. ...
Article
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Novice motorcyclists are vulnerable people as regards road safety. The scientific efforts made to understand the phenomena associated with that group of people are still limited. The study herein focuses on initial motorcycle training and is based on two founding assumptions: optimizing riding can reduce accident hazards, and studying what is really taught can lead to better training courses. The teaching content has been systematically analyzed as part of a study made from real teaching situations. Observations and remarks have been gathered all through the motorcycle rider training and completed by observations done in three other driving schools. The results show the relative poverty of the observed teaching situations: overrating the teaching of ‘closed’ skills to the detriment of more ‘open’ riding skills, focusing on skills that are rarely used when riding a bike, and repeating exam situations to excess. Ways to better the initial training are suggested for discussion.
... Previous studies have provided a mixed review on the impact of training on violation rates [8]. A study [9] shows that motorcycle riders who have been trained show fewer violations. Another study [10] has analyzed the combined impact of previous years of motorcycle driving experience and training on the number of violations. ...
Technical Report
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Effective July 1st 2008, Florida law requires mandatory training to obtain a motorcycle endorsement. This report presents the results of the following objectives of this study: 1) Review of the new mandatory training law and the content of training courses offered by the training providers, 2) Analysis of the number of unendorsed riders involved in the total number of crashes to estimate Florida‟s unendorsed rider population, 3) Trends of Florida motorcycle crashes in terms of fatalities and injuries to examine and compare the trends before and after the new training law with respect to licensed and unendorsed riders, 4) Analysis of FHP citation data to assess violation types and associated percentages before and after the new training law, 5) Results of motorcycle dealerships opinion survey on the new endorsement law and the support required to appropriately address training, and 6) Results of statewide motorcycle helmet use observational survey and comparison of the findings with previous helmet use survey results. In the 2002 survey (after the helmet law repeal), the observed helmet use (including DOT-compliant and novelty helmets) reduced to 52.7 percent and in the 2010 survey (after the mandatory training law) the helmet use showed a slight increase to 55.3 percent. For the last 18 years motorcycle registrations have increased 3.5 times in Florida as compared to only 1.86 times in U.S. The appearance of unendorsed motorcycle riders in crash data had been somewhat stable (approximately 32 percent) until 2007, and then decreased to 29.3 percent in 2008 and 25.3 percent in 2009. About 67% of dealerships stated that they support the 2008 statute and 56% were interested in obtaining more information about ways to partner with Florida‟s Motorcycle Safety Coalition.
... l to a decline in risk perception as a consequence of following the course or , furthermore , to the fact that riders attending the training were inherently less skilled than those who did not . Thus , on the basis of this study it remains unclear whether riding - skills training reduces the incidence rate of motorcycle crashes . On the contrary , McDavid et al . ( 1989 ) ' s study supported evidence that trained riders tend to have fewer or less severe motorcycle accidents . Other studies , which focused on driver education programs that trained the ability to detect areas of scenario from which hidden risks could emerge , demonstrated that these kinds of procedures are effective in improving scanning ...
Article
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This work aimed to test the long-lasting effects of learning acquired with a virtual motorcycle-riding trainer as a tool to improve hazard perception. During the simulation, the rider can interact with other road actors and experience the most common potential accident situations in order to learn to modify his or her behavior to anticipate hazards and avoid crashes. We compared performance to the riding simulator of the two groups of participants: the experimental group, which was trained with the same simulator one year prior, and the control group that had not received any type of training with a riding or driving simulator. All of the participants had ridden a moped in the previous 12 months. The experimental group showed greater abilities to avoid accidents and recognize hazards in comparison to their performance observed a year before, whereas the performance of the control group was similar to that of the experimental group one year before in the first two sessions, and even better in the third. We interpreted this latter result as a consequence of their prior on-road experience. Also, the fact that the performance of the experimental group at the beginning of the follow-up is better than that recorded at the end of the training—one year before—is in line with the idea of a transfer from the on-road experience to the simulator. The present data confirm our main expectation that the effectiveness of the riding training simulator on the ability to cope with potentially dangerous situations persists over time and provides additional evidence in favor of the idea that simulators may be considered useful tools for training the ability to detect and react to hazards, leading to an improvement of this higher-order cognitive skill that persists over time. Implications for the reciprocal influence of the training with the simulator and the on-the road experience are discussed as well.
... Therefore, the kinetic energy to absorb is greater when accident happens and even if a helmet was worn, it is not sufficient to avoid a more severe accident. Such results suggest to develop specific safety equipment for powerful motorcycles and to develop education campaigns and information campaigns in favor of drivers of light motorcycles (Simpson and Mayhew, 1990;McDavid et al., 1989;Billheimer, 1998). ...
Article
The present article deals with individual probabilities of different levels of injury in case of a motorcycle accident. The approach uses an empirical Bayesian method based on the Multinomial-Dirichlet model, see [Leonard, T., 1977. A Bayesian approach to some Multinomial estimation and pretesting problems, J. Am. Stat. Association, 72, 869-874], to conduct an analysis of the probability distributions about the severity of accidents at the level of individuals in large and dense French urban areas during year 2003. We model accident severity using four levels of injury: material damages only, slight injury, severe injury, fatal injury. Our application shows that sociodemographic characteristics of motorcyclists and factors influencing their speed behaviors, the suddenness of their collision and the vigilance of road users play significant roles on the shapes of their probability distributions of accident severity. The computation of posterior distributions of the levels of injury for different groups of motorcyclists enables us to rank them with respect to their risk of injury using second order stochastic dominance orderings. It is found that women motorcyclists between 30 and 50 years old driving powerful motorcycles are the most exposed to risk of injury.
... The effectiveness of training for motorcyclists has been a subject of debate, with contradictory evidence on both sides. McDavid, Lohrmann, and Lohrmann (1989) suggested that training was effective with a sample of riders of all ages and showed that those who were trained had fewer car accidents, motorcycle accidents, and if they did have a motorcycle accident, it tended to be less severe. Other research has produced less optimistic results in terms of training, some of which found no changes in the number of accidents after training (Simpson & Mayhew, 1990). ...
Conference Paper
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Motorcycle training and licensing both play an important educational role for preventing traffic accidents and ensuring public safety. While the majority of motorcycle research focuses on preventing accidents, there is relatively little research focusing on the critical skills needed for improving motorcycle training manuals and instructional programs. Previous research showed that accident rates, safety precautions, and risks have been linked to human performance. However, little is known about the effectiveness of motorcycle training programs and instructional course materials. In the present study, the gaps in learning to ride a motorcycle in a training course are identified. Ninety-four current motorcyclists ranging from 18 to 77 years of age completed an online questionnaire in an effort to better understand the components missing in the most frequently used motorcycle training manual in the United States, the Motorcycle Safety Foundation’s (MSF) Basic RiderCourse℠. Additionally, the implications of this survey for motorcycle training, safety, and educational programs are discussed.
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After decreasing to a historic low in 1997, motorcycle crash-related fatalities are increasing. Although causes remain unclear, motorcycle rider education and licensing play key roles in reducing motorcycle crashes and injuries. Yet, little is known about what constitutes effective rider training and licensing. This study develops a model of best practices in motorcycle rider education and licensing and combines primary and secondary data to identify states that most closely adhere to this model. Evidence on the validity of the model is also examined. States were rated along three areas of best practices: (a) program administration; (b) rider education; and (c) licensing based on 2001 data collected for a National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA)-sponsored study. Results indicate wide variation in states' adherence to best practices; several states meet most, others very few. When the areas of best practices are considered separately, a state tends to behave similarly on all three. Initial evidence supports the validity of the model, with high best practices states having the lowest rates of motorcycle fatalities. IMPACT ON TRAFFIC SAFETY: As motorcycle-related crashes increase and state and federal support for rider education programs diminishes, it is critical that states identify deficiencies in their program and learn from successful states about efficient, cost-effective strategies for increasing best practices in motorcycle rider education and licensing.
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Injury in children and young people is not inevitable. Accidents and the injuries that result from them, are not chance events. Patterns of injury can be identified that reflect a person's age, the environment in which children and young people live, and the activities in which they are engaged. Greater understanding of the causes of injury can help us in the development of effective preventive strategies. Opportunities to prevent injuries occur through a range of educational, environmental, and legislative approaches. We need to fully mobilise these opportunities to save lives and improve the health of children and young people in the UK. When one considers the worldwide public health importance of injuries to this age group, it is surprising that only a small number of potential interventions have been rigorously evaluated. Moreover, of those with proven efficacy, many prevention measures have been poorly implemented. But there are a number of interventions that we know to be effective and others that have the potential to be effective. In this chapter, we attempt to distill the essence of injury prevention by first providing an overview of the broad approaches. We then discuss the specific interventions and methods that have been shown to be effective. The broader context of policies and cultures that affect injury are then set out. Finally, we pull together the strands to consider what is still required for more effective preventive action in the UK. The problems of injuries to children and young people stem from their complexity and wide ranging nature. Typical examples include an 18 month old child reaching up in a kitchen and pulling down a mug of scalding tea, an 8 year old falling from a climbing frame in a playground and fracturing her leg, or a 12 year old pedestrian knocked down by a …
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Formal driver education/training programs exist in almost all jurisdictions around the world. They are generally accepted as an efficient and effective means for learning to drive, and, more importantly, for learning to drive safely, although empirical evidence for safety benefits is lacking. Recently, there has been a heightened interest in driver education/training, largely as a result of the adoption of graduated licensing in a few jurisdictions in North America and elsewhere. These jurisdictions have effectively elevated the status of driver education/training by integrating it into the licensing system. Implicitly, this suggests that driver education provides safety benefits. This article provides a contemporary review of the value of driver education/training, particularly in relation to new licensing systems such as graduated ones. The article examines the safety benefits of driver education/training and considers the merits of integrating driver education/training programs with new approaches to the licensing of young drivers.
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As part of the Department of Health strategy The Health of the Nation, a systematic review of published and unpublished literature relating to the effectiveness of interventions in reducing accidental injury in the population aged 15-24 years was carried out. The literature was reviewed under the standard setting headings of road, work, home, and sports and leisure, and graded for quality of evidence and strength of recommendation using a scale published in the UK national epidemiologically based needs assessment programme. The most effective measures appear to be legislative and regulatory controls in road, sport, and workplace settings. Environmental engineering measures on the road and in sports have relatively low implementation costs and result in fewer injuries at all ages. There is little evidence that purely educational measures reduced injuries in the short term. Community based approaches may be effective in all age groups, and incentives to encourage safer behaviour hold promise but require further evaluation. The potential of multifactorial approaches seems greater than narrowly based linear approaches. Few interventions to reduce injury in adolescents have been rigorously evaluated using good quality randomised controlled trials, and where such evidence is available, fewer have been shown to be definitely worthwhile. Many studies relied on surrogate measures rather than actual injury rates, and substantial issues relating to the efficacy or implementation of preventive measures in adolescent and young adult populations remain unresolved.
Article
Official casualty statistics show that young motorcyclists are more likely than older motorcyclists to be killed or seriously injured on the roads. We address two main issues: might the statistics be attributable to inexperience rather than youth; and might accidents be associated with particular patterns of behaviour which may themselves be predictable from riders' beliefs? From a national prospective survey of over 4000 riders in the U.K., the data showed that youth played a much greater role than inexperience, and that accidents were associated with a particular pattern of behaviour, namely a willingness to break the law and violate the rules of safe riding, which was predictable from the riders' beliefs measured 12 months earlier. The implications of the findings are discussed both for theory and for policy and practice, and particular emphasis is placed on suggestions for modifying training courses.
Article
Serious injuries to young motorcyclists represent an important public health problem. Little is known about the opinions and behaviours of the young riders at risk. We document the training experiences of young motorcyclists, and their reasons for riding or discontinuing riding, and identify the role models and sources of disapproval of motorcycling. The research was part of a longitudinal study of health, development, attitudes and behaviours of a birth cohort. At age 18 years, cohort members who had ridden a motorcycle during the past year completed a comprehensive questionnaire. Initial riding instruction was rarely received from a qualified instructor but was usually informal, from a male friend or father, and occurred off the road, usually on a farm. The most commonly given reasons for riding were excitement and economy. Most motorcyclists who had ceased riding attributed this to the lack of access to a motorcycle, and few mentioned safety. Mothers were the main source of disapproval. The young riders were not a homogeneous group. More licensed than unlicensed riders said manoeuvrability in traffic and ease of parking were reasons for riding. Licensed motorcyclists had more friends who rode and were more likely than unlicensed riders to have received paternal instruction. Early informal training off the road may establish attitudes and behaviours inappropriate in a traffic context. The main reasons for motorcycling (excitement, economical and manoeuvrable transport, freedom from supervision) and for discontinuing riding (lack of access) indicate motivations that should be considered before implementation of injury prevention interventions.
Article
The literature on motorcycling safety research is reviewed, and it is argued that there have been two main periods. The first, spanning the 1970's, was based on accident analysis, and the main objective was to identify and control factors that contribute to the severity of motorcycling accidents. The main concerns were to reduce head and brain injuries through safety helmets, to reduce multi-vehicle collisions through daytime use of headlamps, and to reduce drink-riding. The second period, the 1980's shifted the emphasis of research to what might be called 'riding analysis'--that is, analysis of the process of motorcycle riding. Particular attention was paid to skills testing, training evaluation and perceived risk. Now, in the early 1990's, a third period is developing, in which the rider is seen as 'active agent'. The theoretical basis of the new research has come from the models of social psychology, and the main concern is to use riders' beliefs and attitudes about safe riding to predict their behaviour on the roads and so their accident involvement. The three periods of research are reviewed in turn, and the paper concludes with an outline of the key research issues that remain to be addressed.
Article
Of 846 adolescents interviewed near their 15th birthday, 51% could drive a motorcycle. A further 13% intended to learn. Drivers reported friends (mean age 16.5 years) as the most common source of instruction. Forty-four per cent of drivers and 69% of intending learners planned to apply for licences. Thirty-five per cent of the sample had driven or ridden as passengers on a motorcycle on-road in the past year and 85% of these had worn a helmet on the last occasion. The commonest cause of injuries to motorcyclists resulting in hospitalization (lower limb injury) was correctly identified by 52% of the sample. Fear of injury was the reason given for not learning to ride by 55% of confirmed non-drivers. Fifteen medically treated motorcycling injuries were reported for a 2-year recall period. Females reported significantly less exposure and less use of protective clothing than males. The issues of initiation, training, constraints on use and preventive strategies are discussed.
Article
Per vehicle mile traveled, motorcycle riders have a 34-fold higher risk of death in a crash than people driving other types of motor vehicles. While lower-extremity injuries most commonly occur in all motorcycle crashes, head injuries are most frequent in fatal crashes. Helmets and helmet use laws have been shown to be effective in reducing head injuries and deaths from motorcycle crashes. Alcohol is the major contributing factor to fatal crashes. Enforcement of legal limits on the blood alcohol concentration is effective in reducing motorcycle deaths, while some alcohol-related interventions such as a minimal legal drinking age, increased alcohol excise taxes, and responsible beverage service specifically for motorcycle riders have not been examined. Other modifiable protective or risk factors comprise inexperience and driver training, conspicuity and daytime headlight laws, motorcycle licensure and ownership, riding speed, and risk-taking behaviors. Features of motorcycle use and potentially effective prevention programs for motorcycle crash injuries in developing countries are discussed. Finally, recommendations for future motorcycle-injury research are made.
Article
To determine the causes of and countermeasures for motorcycle accidents in rural areas of China, a study was undertaken to consider three primary contributors to such accidents: people, vehicles, and management. A self-report questionnaire was developed and administered to a sample of motorcycle riders (n = 480) in Linyi, Shandong Province. All statistical analyses were performed with SPSS, Version 17.0. Four hundred and three valid questionnaires were collected, only 60 of which recorded drivers with a license. Many riders carried passengers (74.9%) or goods (62.5%) on their motorcycles. Although the rate of helmet use among these motorcyclists was low, speeding and drunk driving were prevalent. The results consistently showed that in rural areas, motorcyclists had little awareness of traffic safety and that risky driving behavior was common among them. Therefore, education and prevention strategies need to be targeted at motorcycle riders to enhance their safety awareness. Administrative officials must also strengthen their management of motorcycles in rural areas.
Article
Riders of motorcycles (a two-wheeled vehicle that is powered by a motor and has no pedals - Oxford English Dictionary Online), especially novice riders, have an increased risk of being involved in fatal crashes compared to other road users. Motorcycle rider training could be an important way of reducing the number of crashes and the severity of injuries. The authors of this review examined all research studies that report an evaluation of the effectiveness of motorcycle rider courses in reducing the number of traffic offences, motorcycle rider crashes, injuries and deaths. This review included 23 research studies, including three randomised trials, two non-randomised trials, 14 cohort studies and four case-control studies. The types of rider training that were evaluated varied in content and duration. The findings suggest that mandatory pre-licence training may present a barrier to completing a motorcycle licensing process, thus possibly indirectly reducing crash, injury, death and offence rates through a reduction in exposure to riding a motorcycle. However, on the basis of the existing evidence, it is not clear if (or what type of) training reduces the risk of crashes, injuries, deaths or offences in motorcyclists and the selection of the best rider training practice can therefore not be recommended. It is likely that some type of rider training is necessary to teach motorcyclists basic motorcycle handling techniques and to ride a motorcycle safely. It is therefore important that further research work be conducted to rigorously evaluate motorcycle rider training courses, particularly in low income countries where the main burden of motorcycle injuries and deaths occur.
Article
The California Motorcyclist Safety Program (CMSP) is a legislatively mandated, statewide program that has trained more than 100,000 motorcyclists in the 10 years since its implementation in July 1987. The program is mandatory for riders under 21 seeking a California motorcycle license. The current evaluation traces motorcycle accident trends before and after the formation of the CMSP, compares accident trends in California with those in the remainder of the United States, and analyzes the riding records of matched pairs of 2,351 trained and untrained Southern California riders. Analyses of statewide accident trends indicate that fatal motorcycle accidents have dropped 69 percent since the introduction of the CMSP, falling from 840 fatal accidents per year in 1986 to 263 in 1995. If accident trends in California had paralleled those in the rest of the United States over this period, the state would have experienced an additional 124 fatalities per year. In the case of novice riders with less than 805 km (500 mi) of prior experience, a matched-pair analysis indicates that trained riders experience fewer than half the accident rates of their untrained counterparts for at least 6 months after training. Beyond 6 months, riding experience begins to have a leveling effect on the differences between the two groups. In the case of riders with more than 805 km (500 mi) of experience prior to training or interviewing, no significant differences in accident rates were detected between the two groups, either before or after riders took the basic training course. There was no evidence that riders electing to enter a safety course voluntarily rode any more safely than their untrained counterparts before taking training.
Article
Novice motorcyclists are vulnerable people as regards road safety. The scientific efforts made to understand the phenomena associated with that group of people are still limited. The study herein focuses on initial motorcycle training and is based on two founding assumptions: optimizing riding can reduce accident hazards, and studying what is really taught can lead to better training courses. The teaching content has been systematically analyzed as part of a study made from real teaching situations. Observations and remarks have been gathered all through the motorcycle rider training and completed by observations done in three other driving schools. The results show the relative poverty of the observed teaching situations: overrating the teaching of 'closed' skills to the detriment of more 'open' riding skills, focusing on skills that are rarely used when riding a bike, and repeating exam situations to excess. Ways to better the initial training are suggested for discussion.
Article
This study reports an experiment that compared the hazard perception abilities of experienced and novice motorcycle riders using an interactive, closed-loop, simulator. Participants (n = 49) were categorized into four groups: experienced motorcycle riders with full driver licence, inexperienced motorcycle riders with full driver licence, novice motorcycle riders with full driver licence, and novice motorcycle riders with probationary driver licence. The participants were tested on three scenarios, each consisting of eight hazardous events. They were instructed to ride normally, but to respond appropriately to avoid the hazards. Under certain conditions in the simulator, we found that experienced riders (relative to inexperienced or novice riders) crashed less often, received better performance evaluations, and approached hazards at more appropriate speeds. Interestingly, we also found that some novice riders were overconfident in their riding ability. We discuss how this overconfidence might be related to hazard perception.
Article
This study aimed to investigate the relationship between age, gender, and risky behaviors of motorcyclists and their involvement in accidents. The results of a self-reported survey on motorcyclist behavior in the Taipei metropolitan area were analyzed. A two-step cluster analysis was used to classify motorcyclist behavior to different levels of risk within each of three risky behavior types. This was used to examine the regression relationship with accident risk. The results indicated that young and male riders were more likely to disobey traffic regulations, and that young riders also had a higher tendency towards negligence of potential risk and motorcycle safety checks. These “error” and “violation” behaviors increased the likelihood of an accident. However, in addition to these risks, there are additional factors that put young riders, particularly young female riders with the least riding experience, at increased risk of having an accident. These additional factors may be poor driving skills and less experience, all of which may result from the slack motorcycle licensing system. There should be increased emphasis on the necessity of providing appropriate training and a lower risk environment for novice riders.
Article
This paper analyses motorcycle educational content in a number of French motorcycle schools on the basis of a naturalistic study of riders' and trainers' behaviour. The aim is to specify the situations delivered in motorcycle schools and to study the rider's activity in these situations. The methodology includes ethnographic observation within the motorcycle schools and the longitudinal monitoring of 14 trainee motorcyclists during their initial training. The training situations were described by the combination of audio-visual recordings and interviews data (i.e. concomitant or interruptive verbalization, and self-confrontation data). The results permit to (1) compare the "real" and "official" durations of track and on-road training, (2) characterize the real training situations, (3) describe the preferred forms of instruction, and (4) conduct an in-depth analysis of the situations used during training in traffic. The discussion show, in first, the poverty of the training situations which are based on the repetition of the exercises in the test, and, in second, disparities between the riding situations encountered during training and the demands made by riding in natural traffic. The usefulness and the applications of this type of approach - based on the integration of the rider's point of view notably by self-confrontation interview - for understanding real riding behaviours and how such approaches could supplement vehicle-based data are discussed in a large conclusion.
Book
This book discusses several methodological problems in traffic psychology which are not currently recognized as such. Summarizing and analyzing the available research, it is found that there are a number of commonly made assumptions about the validity of methods that have little backing, and that many basic problems have not been researched at all. Suggestions are made as to further studies that should be made to address some of these problems. The book is primarily intended for traffic/transport researchers, but should also be useful for specialized education at a higher level (doctoral students and transportation specialists) as well as officials who require a good grasp of methodology to be able to evaluate research.
Article
Moped and motorcycle riders, along with pedestrians and cyclists, constitute a category of road users who are particularly vulnerable in case of accident, given that the slightest collision exposes them to injury. The growth in the use of powered two-wheelers in towns and the over-involvement of this category of users in injury accidents demonstrate the need for a better understanding of powered two-wheeler accident phenomena in order to develop countermeasures, notably through road engineering. This research uses an indepth, qualitative analysis of a representative sampling of 278 police reports on urban accidents involving at least one powered two-wheeler and the concentration of these accidents in prototypical accident scenarios. Twenty-five prototypical accident scenarios accounting for approximately 80% of the accidents in the sampling were drawn up and were used to demonstrate the influence of certain engineering choices in the production of accidents among this category of users. The principal prototypical scenarios are presented in detail in this article. Possibilities for engineering countermeasures based on these prototypical scenarios are discusses at the end of the article.
Article
Full-text available
Cette thèse porte sur la conduite moto et son apprentissage. Elle s'inscrit dans un effort d'analysescientifique des comportements des motocyclistes novices, population particulièrement exposée entermes d'accidentologie routière. L'objectif de la thèse est d'étudier l'activité de motards en situationd'apprentissage, en formation initiale et durant les premières expériences de conduite après le permis,dans une perspective ergonomique d'amélioration des formations. L'étude a été menée avec lacollaboration de 16 élèves motards dans une approche « d'anthropologie cognitive située »(Theureau, 2004). Des enregistrements audiovisuels du comportement (390 heures), des données surla cinématique du véhicule enregistrées à l'aide d'une motocyclette instrumentée en capteurs (140heures), et des verbalisations en entretien d'auto confrontation (110 heures) ont été recueillis lors dela totalité des sessions de conduite des motocyclistes. Les résultats montrent (1) la relative« pauvreté » des situations de formation pour l'apprentissage de la conduite moto, (2) ladécontextualisation de la formation au regard des exigences de la conduite réelle, (3) l'existence d'un« curriculum caché » après l'obtention du permis, (4) le poids des émotions associées à la conduitemoto et sa non prise en compte dans les contenus d'enseignement. En vue de développer uneformation plus riche au plan de l'apprentissage et en meilleure adéquation avec la conduite réelle,plusieurs pistes de conception sont proposées. Elles intègrent notamment la création de dispositifs deformation « hybrides » associant conduite réelle et simulée.
Article
The present study was conducted to determine whether graduates of the Motorcycle Training Program (MTP) were less likely to have had an accident or committed a traffic violation while riding a motorcycle compared to informally trained (IT) motorcyclists. Since motorcyclists could not be randomly assigned to the training program, multivariate analyses were used to impose statistical control on the data. Samples of MTP graduates (N = 811) and IT motorcyclists (N = 1080) were interviewed about their riding experiences during the past four years including accidents and violations. Univariate analyses indicated that the MTP graduates were less likely than IT riders to have had accidents and violations during the criterion period. However, the graduates and IT riders differed in sex, age, time licensed, distance travelled, education and riding after drinking, all characteristics significantly related to accident and violation likelihood. Multivariate analyses, controlling for the differences in these characteristics, revealed that the MTP graduates and IT riders did not differ in accident likelihood but the MTP graduates were significantly less likely to have committed a traffic violation than the IT riders. Although the lower incidence of traffic violations among graduates could be attributed to the training program, it is possible that the graduates sought formal training because they were safety conscious and this attitude also influenced their riding behaviour.
Article
A sample of 516 persons who had taken the Motorcycle Safety Foundation's motorcycle rider course within the prior three years and a control group who had not taken the course completed a questionnaire about their riding exposure, violations and accidents, as a means of evaluating the effects of the course. The major findings were: (a) when controlling for age and years licensed, those who took the course did not have a lower accident rate than the control group; (b) there were no differences in the violation rates between the groups; (c) the cost of damage to the motorcycles per million miles was not less for those who took the course; and (d) the estimated cost of medical treatment of injuries per million miles was not significantly less for the group which took the course; but, (e) the mean cost of damage to the motorcycles was less for those who took the course; and (f) the mean medical cost per accident was less among those who took the course than the control group. The latter may be attributable to the finding that (g) those who took the course made more use of protective clothing, such as helmets, than the control group, and to other exposure factors affecting the severity of the accidents.
An examination of novice motorcyclists' accident involvement
  • Lawlor
An evaluation of the effectiveness of the 1979 South Dakota Motorcycle Rider Course Program
  • Osga