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Comparative analysis of the volatiles from flowers and leaves of three Gentiana species

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The volatiles from fresh flowers and leaves of Gentiana lutea L., Gentiana punctata L. (yellow Gentiana spp.) and Gentiana asclepiadea L. (Gentianaceae Juss.) were analyzed by GC/MS and 81 compounds identified. The samples studied showed differences in the volatile profiles of flowers and leaves among the species. In the flower-oils straight chain saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons were dominant along with low concentrations of branched saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons and alkylated benzenes. These compounds were not present in the flowers of G. lutea and G. punctata and in the leaves of G. lutea. The branched saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons were the main constituents of the leaf-oil from G. ascleapidea. Terpenes were found in all flower-oils and in the leaf oil from G. punctata. Some of the identified compounds might have allelopathic activity. The results obtained confirm the accepted taxonomical scheme of the genus Gentiana and are also in agreement with the evolutionary less advanced position of the yellow species of Gentiana.

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... Essential oils may be used in medical and plant pathology. They are obtained from underground and aerial parts, either all together or separated into leaves, flowers and roots [29,88,108,109]. Wild, cultivated, commercial, and different parts of Gentiana species contain different proportions of essential oil. ...
... Branched saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons and alkylated benzenes possess low concentrations. Unlike flowers, straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons and 1,3-dimethoxy-3-methylbutane were not detected in leaves [108]. In another Gentiana species, G. kurroo, sulphur-containing compounds, oxygenated monoterpenes, oxygenated diterpenes constitute 36.1%, ...
... Heat-reflux extraction (HRE) [83], steam distillation or hydrodistillation (HD) [29,108] and simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) [9,116] are conventional methods in volatile compound extraction. SDE uses a combination distillation-extraction apparatus for small quantities of plant material in a less time-intensive extraction and utilizes volatile extraction and distillation simultaneously. ...
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The genus Gentiana comprises approximately 400 species. Many species have a wide range of pharmacological activities and have been used therapeutically for thousands of years. To provide comprehensive guidance, utilization and quality control of Gentiana species, this review presents updated information concerning the recent application and progress of chemical analysis including phytochemical analysis, sample preparation and chemometrics. Detailed and comprehensive data including number of analytes, extraction/separation methods, analytical techniques and chemometrics are shown as corresponding tables. These data illustrate that the development of newly discovered compounds and therapeutic uses, understanding of the structure—activity relationship and establishment of harmonious and effective medicinal herb standards are the direction of advancement in future research.
... Information on the chemical composition of essential oils and extracts obtained from G. asclepiadea has been provided in numerous publications, mostly aimed at evaluation of their biological activities [17]. The volatile profile of flowers and leaves was reported for the natural population of willow gentian [18], and Kozuharova et al. [19] suggested that (Figure 4a). The red ellipse encompasses elements that contain SWZ, and these are belowground parts from populations G1, G2, and G3 (G1B, G2B, and G3B). ...
... Information on the chemical composition of essential oils and extracts obtained from G. asclepiadea has been provided in numerous publications, mostly aimed at evaluation of their biological activities [17]. The volatile profile of flowers and leaves was reported for the natural population of willow gentian [18], and Kozuharova et al. [19] suggested that specific secondary metabolites may have an important role against seed predators. ...
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Natural populations of Gentiana asclepiadea L., located at two mountainous sites, were HPLC-analyzed regarding the contents of six representative secondary metabolites. The contents of swertiamarin (SWM), gentiopicrin (GP), sweroside (SWZ), mangiferin (MGF), isoorientin (ISOOR), and isovitexin (ISOV) were determined in six populations (three per study site), and separately for aboveground and belowground plant parts. PCA showed a clear separation of four groups according to the contents of the analyzed secondary metabolites. Out of six analyzed compounds, five were present in all samples and only one (SWZ) was found in Golija populations (belowground parts) but not in Vlasina populations, and its presence can be indicative of the geolocation of populations. Clear separation of groups was mostly affected by the different contents of chemical compounds in plant parts (aboveground versus belowground) and by the differences related to population origin (higher content of SWM and GP in belowground parts of individuals from Vlasina populations and higher content of MGF and ISOOR of individuals from Golija populations). The results of this study contribute to the spatiochemical profiling of G. asclepiadea populations and a better understanding of inter- and intrapopulation variability of pharmacologically important compounds.
... Qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis: The volatile substances in ginger rhizome were identified by comparing the retention times of the chromatographic peaks with those of authentic compounds run under the same conditions and by comparing the retention indices (as Kovats indices) with the literature data (Smith and Robinson, 1981;Kami et al., 1972;MacLeod and Pieris, 1984;Sakamura, 1987;Chyaui et al., 1992;Georgieva et al., 2005;Chen et al., 1986;Bartley et al., 2000;Yang et al., 2009). Peak enrichment on co-injection with authentic reference compounds was also carried out. ...
... The results obtained by GC/MS might be used for characteristics of the biodiversity in the investigated organisms, as well as for quantitative comparisons between different groups of metabolites in them. This method is suitable for comparing the chemical composition of different organisms, because the deviations caused by the differences in the intensity of the mass spectral fragmentation will be identical (Georgieva et al., 2005). ...
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The sampling techniques headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME), petrol ether extraction (PEE) and steam distillation extraction (SDE) were compared for the GC-MS of volatile constituents present in ginger (Zingiber officinale). The effects of different parameters, such as extraction fibers, extraction time, extraction temperature and particle size ranges, on the HS-SPME of rhizome of ginger were investigated. Zingiberene (53.12%) were predominant components of ginger samples obtained by HS-SPME whereas those levels were 39.01% in the same samples by PEE and 35.05% in those by SDE, respectively. HS-SPME with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fiber was more selective and particularly efficient for the isolation of volatile phytochemical composition and afforded a higher yield of total compounds than PEE and SDE. The specific compound isolated by SPME, which due to effective fiber, was much larger than that isolated by PEE or SDE. HS-SPME is a powerful tool for determining the volatile constitutes present in the traditional Chinese medicines.
... One of the major challenges is the identification of the organic composition of the SOA, which is composed of thousands of organic compounds (Kanakidou et al., 2005). These compounds generally cover a wide range of polarities, volatilities and masses (Goldstein and Galbally, 2007) and therefore it is difficult to find a single analytical technique for their detailed chemical analysis at the molecular level. Conventional chromatographic methods (gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC)) are not capable of resolving the highly complex mixtures with a wide variety of physicochemical properties. ...
... The X nm is a binary value indicating the presence/absence of the molecule m in sample n. The cluster analysis was performed using Statistica 10 (StatSoft Inc., Tulsa, OK, USA), based on the unweighted pair-group average linkage method (or average linkage method) and using the percent disagreement (Georgieva et al., 2005) distance measure. The metric used in this study is analogous to the Jaccard's dissimilarity distance measure that is commonly applied for the analyses of binary patterns (Sneath and Sokal, 1973;Anthony et al., 2002;Cordeiro et al., 2003;Kosman and Leonard, 2005). ...
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Numerous laboratory experiments have been performed in an attempt to mimic atmospheric secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. However, it is still unclear how close the aerosol particles generated in laboratory experiments resemble atmospheric SOA with respect to their detailed chemical composition. In this study, we generated SOA in a simulation chamber from the ozonolysis of α-pinene and a biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) mixture containing α- and β-pinene, Δ3-carene, and isoprene. The detailed molecular composition of laboratory-generated SOA was compared with that of background ambient aerosol collected at a boreal forest site (Hyytiälä, Finland) and an urban location (Cork, Ireland) using direct infusion nanoelectrospray ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry. Kendrick mass defect and van Krevelen approaches were used to identify and compare compound classes and distributions of the detected species. The laboratory-generated SOA contained a distinguishable group of dimers that was not observed in the ambient samples. The presence of dimers was found to be less pronounced in the SOA from the BVOC mixtures when compared to the one component precursor system. The molecular composition of SOA from both the BVOC mixture and α-pinene represented the overall composition of the ambient sample from the boreal forest site reasonably well, with 72.3 ± 2.5% (n = 3) and 69.1 ± 3.0% (n = 3) common ions, respectively. In contrast, large differences were found between the laboratory-generated BVOC samples and the ambient urban sample. To our knowledge this is the first direct comparison of molecular composition of laboratory-generated SOA from BVOC mixtures and ambient samples.
... The essential oil from aerial part also contained alcohols (10.62%) and aldehydes (10.86%) large quantity. Previous chemical studies on the genus Gentiana seemed to indicate that the straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, branched aliphatic hydrocarbons and alkylated benzenes were the most characteristic constituents in the oils from flowers and leaves (Georgieva et al., 2005). Georgieva et al. (2005) described, tridecane (5.6%), tetradecane (4.9%), pentadecane (3.8%) and tricosane (5.8%) as the main constituents of the essential oil from flowers of G. asclepiadea, whereas tetramethylheptane (5.2%), toluene (6.9%) and ethylbenzene (4.1%) were the main compounds of the oil from leaves. ...
... Previous chemical studies on the genus Gentiana seemed to indicate that the straight chain aliphatic hydrocarbons, branched aliphatic hydrocarbons and alkylated benzenes were the most characteristic constituents in the oils from flowers and leaves (Georgieva et al., 2005). Georgieva et al. (2005) described, tridecane (5.6%), tetradecane (4.9%), pentadecane (3.8%) and tricosane (5.8%) as the main constituents of the essential oil from flowers of G. asclepiadea, whereas tetramethylheptane (5.2%), toluene (6.9%) and ethylbenzene (4.1%) were the main compounds of the oil from leaves. The comparison of the oils obtained from G. asclepiadea aerial parts from Bulgaria and Serbia showed some differences. ...
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The present paper describes the chemical composition and antimicrobial activity of the essential oils, methanolic and n-butanolic extracts of the Gentiana asclepiadea L., collected in Serbia. The essential oils were obtained from underground parts (root and rhizome) and aerial parts (stem, leaves and flowers) of the plant by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The major compounds in the oil from underground part were caryophyllene oxide (7.32%), -damascenone (6.98%) and -ionone (2.79%). The main constituents identified in the aerial part oil of G. asclepiadea were toluene (3.79%), tetradecanoic acid (3.37%), linalool (3.17%) and caryophyllene oxide (2.97%). The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils and plant extracts against several pathogenic bacteria and fungi was studied by minimum inhibitory concentration procedures. Klebsiella pneumoniae was very sensitive against oil from roots with MIC of 0.62 µl/ml, while the oil from aerial part exhibited maximum activity against Micrococcus lysodeikticus and Candida albicans with MIC values of 2.5 µl/ml. The methanolic extract of aerial part showed antimicrobial activities on all microorganisms tested at concentrations ranging from 50 to 1600 µg/ml while the n-butanolic fraction of methanolic extract of underground part was found to be less effective (MIC values: 312.5 to 2500 µg/ml). Key words: Antimicrobial, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), essential oils, Gentiana asclepiadea L., minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC).
... Plants in the family Gentianaceae are widely used in many countries for stimulation of appetite and gastric secretion, gastroduodenal and liver protection and antifungal treatment (14). Gentiana asclepiadea belongs to the largest genus of the family with over 300 species (15). Its root has traditionally been used as medicine for hepatitis A virus infections (16). ...
... Plant extracts from Gentianaceae species have been shown to have protective effects on human health, and several biologically active compounds have been identified as possessing positive attributes such as antiarthritic, antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal, antioxidant, anticoagulant, antiviral, neuroprotective, antispasmodic, hepatoprotective, wound healing, immunomodulatory and insecticidal (15,(31)(32)(33). ...
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Among nanomaterials, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have the broadest and most commercial applications due to their anti-bacterial properties, highlighting the need for exploring their potential toxicity and underlying mechanisms of action. Our main aim was to investigate whether AgNPs exert toxicity by inducing oxidative damage to DNA in human kidney heK 293 cells. In addition, we tested whether this damage could be counteracted by plant extracts containing phytochemicals such as swertiamarin, mangiferin and homoorientin with high antioxidant abilities. We show that AgNPs (20 nm) are taken up by cells and localised in vacuoles and cytoplasm. exposure to 1, 25 or 100 µg/ml AgNPs leads to a significant dose-dependent increase in oxidised DNA base lesions (8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine or 8-oxoG) detected by the comet assay after incubation of nucleoids with 8-oxoG DNA glyco-sylase. Oxidised DNA base lesions and strand breaks caused by AgNPs were diminished by aqueous and methanolic extracts from both haulm and flower of Gentiana asclepiadea.
... The genus Gentiana is a large genus comprised about 400 species which are widely distributed in temperate regions of Asia, Europe, the Americas, northwest Africa, eastern Australia and New Zealand (Georgieva et al., 2005;Zając and Pindel, 2011). Gentian root is used in the production of wines, liqueurs, and bitter flavoring in Europe and Australia. ...
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The root of Gentiana scabra is commonly known as Longdan in Chinese herbal medicines and has been used in the treatment of inflammation, anorexia, indigestion and gastric infections for over 2000 years. High market demand had made G. scabra (GS) plants not to be the only source of Longdan in China, other Gentiana spp., G. triflora, G. manshurica and G. rigescens, were also recognized as Longdan in China now. In this study, we identified three Taiwan-specific Gentiana spp., G. davidii var. formosana (GDF) and G. arisanensis (GA) and G. scabrida var. punctulata (GSP) that are phylogenetically different from GS (main source of Longdan). However, the active compounds of Longdan, gentiopicroside and swertiamari, were found in GSP and GDF showed higher antioxidant ability and free radical scavenging activities than Chinese Longdan. This discovery might explore the medicinal potential of GDF. Meanwhile, another Taiwan-specific Gentiana spp., GSP, was found to have the strongest antioxidant ability and free radical scavenging activities which might suggest a possible use of GSP as a source of natural antioxidant agents for industrial purpose. The finding of this study indicated that ITS analysis can be used to identify Taiwan-specific Gentiana spp. Also the Taiwan-specific Gentiana spp. which has strongest antioxidant and free radical scavenging activities among others could be a better choice for industrial purpose.
... It is noteworthy that floral scent play numerous important roles in the interaction between plants and their surrounding as pollinators, phytophageous etc. (Vainstein et al., 2001; Cunningham et al., 2004; Dudareva & Pichersky, 2000). The highest content of essential oils at the flowering stage was reported in other plant species such as Artemisia campestris (Juteau et al., 2002), Gentiana lutea (Georgieva et al., 2005), Hyptis suaveolens (Oliveira et al., 2005), Origanum vulgare (D'antuono et al., 2000) and Hypericum perforatum (Schwob et al., 2004). In contrast, Spanish Eryngium glaciale showed a higher essential oil content in roots, followed by the stems and leaves and finally the inflorescence (Palá-Paúl et al., 2005). ...
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Essential oils obtained by hydrodistillation from different organs (flowers, leaves, stems and roots) of Tunisian coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) was analyzed. GC and GC-MS analysis enabled us to identify 64 compounds and revealed great qualitative and quantitative differences between the analyzed parts. In all organs, the main compound was (E)-2-dodecenal, followed by (E)-2-tridecenal, gamma-cadinene, (Z)-myroxide, neryl acetate and eugenol. Multivariate analysis (PCA) revealed a high similarity in the essential oils composition between upper leaves and flowers in one hand and basal leaves, roots and stems on the other hand. Further, it has been reported an organ-dependant distribution of essential oil compounds.
... At present, the sources of these identified compounds are not well known. Some short-chain (C 16 -C 21 ) dimethylalkanes (166)(167)(168) and monomethylalkanes were identified in cyanobacterial cultures, fungi, and marine algae (12)(13)(14)(15)199). 2,2-Dimethyldocosane was tentatively identified in the desulfurized polar fraction of an Oligocene anhydrite (200), and a pseudohomologous family of 2,2-dimethylalkanes (C 16 -C 28 ) (166)(167)(168)(169)(170)(171)(172)(173)(174)(175) was tentatively identified in Cenomanian and Turonian black shales of Canada (201). Unusual pseudohomologous series of branched alkanes with one (176)(177)(178)(179)(180)(181)(182)(183) or two quaternary (192)(193)(194)(195)(196)(197) carbon atoms were present in the extractable organic matter of Cenomanian and Turonian black shales of Pasquia Hills (Saskatchewan, Canada) (202). ...
Article
This review presents more than 260 naturally occurring (as well as 47 synthesized) neo fatty (carboxylic) acids, neo alkanes, and their analogs and derivatives, isolated and identified from plants, algae, fungi, marine invertebrates, and microorganisms, that demonstrate different biological activities. These natural metabolites are good prospects for future chemical preparations as antioxidants, and also as anticancer, antimicrobial, and antibacterial agents. Described also are some synthetic bioactive compounds containing a tertiary butyl group(s) that have shown high anticancer, antifungal, and other activities. Applications of some neo fatty (carboxylic) acid derivatives in cosmetic, agronomic, and pharmaceutical industries also are considered. This is the first review to consider naturally occurring neo fatty (carboxylic) acids, neo alkanes, and other metabolites containing a tertiary butyl group(s) [or tert-butyl unit(s)].
... Two of the lily odor components are particularly interesting, namely 2,3-butanediol acetate and acetoin acetate. Both compounds are rare in floral bouquets, and have each only been recorded once previously in flowers [13,14]. Interestingly, though, both compounds are characteristically present in the drosophilid attractants par excellence vinegar (in particular in Aceto Balsamico) and wine (e.g., [15,16]), as by-products of the fermentation process, probably formed by acetylation of the yeast-produced chemicals acetoin and 2,3-butanediol [17]. ...
Article
In deceptive pollination, insects are bamboozled into performing nonrewarded pollination. A prerequisite for the evolutionary stability in such systems is that the plants manage to generate a perfect sensory impression of a desirable object in the insect nervous system [1]. The study of these plants can provide important insights into sensory preference of their visiting insects. Here, we present the first description of a deceptive pollination system that specifically targets drosophilid flies. We show that the examined plant (Arum palaestinum) accomplishes its deception through olfactory mimicry of fermentation, a strategy that represents a novel pollination syndrome. The lily odor is composed of volatiles characteristic of yeast, and produces in Drosophila melanogaster an antennal detection pattern similar to that elicited by a range of fermentation products. By functional imaging, we show that the lily odors target a specific subset of odorant receptors (ORs), which include the most conserved OR genes in the drosophilid olfactome. Furthermore, seven of eight visiting drosophilid species show a congruent olfactory response pattern to the lily, in spite of comprising species pairs separated by ∼40 million years [2], showing that the lily targets a basal function of the fly nose, shared by species with similar ecological preference.
... Gentiana contains as main components compounds such as secoiridoid glycosides (gentiopicroside, sweroside, swertiamarin and amarogentin), xanthone glycosides (gentioside and its isomer), terpenes, xanthones (gentisin and isogentisin), secoiridoids (gentiopicrine), alkaloids (gentianine), anthocyanins (delphinidine) and flavone Cglucosides. [9][10][11][12][13][14][15] Iridoids are the most common constituents of genus Gentiana, and they have been found to exhibit a wide range of bioactivities including antiallergic, antiarthritic, antibacterial, anticancer, antifungal, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant, antiviral, neuroprotective, antispasmodic, wound-healing, immunomodulatory and insecticide properties. 16 In this study, we evaluated the protective effect of G. asclepiadea methanolic and aqueous extracts obtained from flower or haulm against DNA damage caused by hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) in human lymphocytes and HEK 293 cells and established their antioxidant potential in scavenging 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals. ...
Article
The objectives of this study were to examine whether the methanolic and aqueous extracts from the haulm and flower of Gentiana asclepiadea exhibited free radical scavenging and protective (antigenotoxic) effect against DNA oxidation induced by H(2)O(2) in human lymphocytes and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293). All four extracts exhibited high scavenging effect on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals at concentrations 2.5 and 25 mg ml(-1). The level of DNA damage was measured using the alkaline version of single-cell gel electrophoresis (comet assay). Challenge with H(2)O(2) shows that the pre-treatment of the cells with non-genotoxic doses of Gentiana extracts protected human DNA-either eliminated or significantly reduced H(2)O(2) induced DNA damage. The genotoxic activity of H(2)O(2) was most effectively decreased after 30 min of pre-incubation with 0.05 mg ml(-1) (range, 93.5%-96.3% of reduction in lymphocytes) and 0.25 mg ml(-1) (range, 59.5%-71.4% and 52.7%-66.4% of reduction in lymphocytes and HEK 293 cells, respectively) of G. asclepiadea extracts. These results suggest that the tested G. asclepiadea extracts could be considered as an effective natural antioxidant source.
... Some plants produce and emit VOCs (Georgieva et al., 2005). In this study, comparison of the control with treatment plants demonstrated that none of the investigated species emitted detectable quantities of benzene. ...
Article
Phytoremediation—using plants to remove toxins—is an attractive and cost effective way to improve indoor air quality. This study screened ornamental plants for their ability to remove volatile organic compounds from air by fumigating 73 plant species with 150 ppb benzene, an important indoor air pollutant that poses a risk to human health. The 10 species found to be most effective at removing benzene from air were fumigated for two more days (8 h per day) to quantify their benzene removal capacity. Crassula portulacea, Hydrangea macrophylla, Cymbidium Golden Elf., Ficus microcarpa var. fuyuensis, Dendranthema morifolium, Citrus medica var. sarcodactylis, Dieffenbachia amoena cv. Tropic Snow; Spathiphyllum Supreme; Nephrolepis exaltata cv. Bostoniensis; Dracaena deremensis cv. Variegata emerged as the species with the greatest capacity to remove benzene from indoor air.
... In order to expand the demand for gentian flowers, the improvement of cultivars without unpleasant odor and/or with pleasant scent is important. However, few investigations of volatile compounds emitted by the flower of gentian have been reported yet, except for one report by Georgieva et al. (2005) who detected volatiles from flowers and leaves of three other Gentiana spp. (G. ...
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Gentians (Gentiana triflora, G. scabra) are one of the most important ornamental plants, however, repellent odor emitted from their flowers makes them undesirable in indoor floral utilization. It is necessary to under-stand the component of their flower scent for breeding of new cultivars without repellent odor. Floral scent compounds of gentians were analyzed by the method of Head Space-Solid Phase Micro Extraction with GC-MS (HS-SPME/GC-MS). The level of scent emission from gentian flowers increased with the age of the flower and reached a maximum at three days after anthesis and decreased thereafter. Their flowers emitted volatiles throughout the day, and the amounts were higher at night than during the day. A total of 98 com-pounds were detected in 13 genotypes examined, and quantitative and qualitative variations were found. Of these compounds, several kinds of lilac aldehydes (terpenoids) were only detected in G. scabra. The results of principal component analysis showed that cultivars/lines classified in the same species were grouped with each other. Of the 13 genotypes, Ashiro-no-Natsu emitted the most abundant volatiles and has strong un-pleasant odor. 2-Methylbutanoic acid is considered to be one of the major constituents responsible for the unpleasant odor of gentians.
... The highest content of essential oils at the flowering stage was reported in other plant species such as Artemisia campestris (Juteau et al., 2002), Gentiana lutea (Georgieva et al., 2005), Hyptis suaveolens (Oliveira et al., 2005) and Hypericum perforatum (Schwob et al., 2004). In contrast, Spanish Eryngium glaciale showed a higher essential oil content in roots, followed by the stems and leaves and finally the inflorescence (Palá-Paúl et al., 1993). ...
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The essential oil and fatty acid composition of two provenances of Ruta chalepensis from four organs (leaves, flowers, stems and fruits) was determined. The effect of the plant part on total fatty acid contents, essential oil yields, fatty acid and volatile constituents was significant.Fatty acid profiles varied significantly among the studied provenances and organs. Linolenic acid had the highest amount in leaves of the two provenances. From R. chalepensis, in all organs, the main fatty acids were palmitic (13.10–25.31%), followed by palmitoleic (0–15.72%), stearic (1.03–6.85%), oleic (1.90–24.04%), arachidic (0.11–4.03%), eicosatetraenoic (0.10–5.60%) and behenic (0.47–6.09%) acids. Saturated fatty acids had the highest amounts in growing wild R. chalepensis flowers, and cultivated R. chalepensis stems were characterized by the predominance of polyunsaturated fatty acids. Oil composition of all studied organs has a healthy and nutritionally value. Essential oil yields varied from 0.39% to 2.46% and showed a remarkable variation with plant organs. Thirty-six volatile compounds were identified in different analyzed essential oils; 2-undecanone, 2-nonanol and 2-dodecanone had the highest percentages.
... The genus Gentiana of the family Gentianaceae comprises over 400 species that are widely distributed in alpine habitats of temperate regions of Asia, Europe, and America. Some species also thrive in Northwest Africa, Eastern Australia, and New Zealand (Georgieva, Handjieva, Popov, & Evstatieva, 2005). Gentiana scabra Bunge roots, commonly known as "Longdan" in Chinese herbal medicine, have been used to treat inflammation, anorexia, indigestion, and gastric infections. ...
Article
Two polysaccharide fractions, GSP I-a and GSP II-b, were isolated from Gentiana scabra Bunge roots. Both GSP I-a and GSP II-b comprised seven monosaccharides: fructose, mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glucose, galactose, and fucose. Ultraviolet and infrared analyses show that GSP I-a and GSP II-b are proteoglycans. In vitro evaluation of the antioxidant activity suggests that GSP I-a and GSP II-b scavenge 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radicals. However, the scavenging activity of the latter is stronger than that of the former. GSP I-a and GSP II-b have relatively low reducing powers and scavenging activities toward superoxide anions and hydroxyls. GSP I-a and GSP II-b significantly increase lymphocyte proliferation when lipopolysaccharide is used as a mitogen for lymphocytes, but only GSP I-a can significantly increase lymphocyte proliferation within the test-dosage range when concanavalin A is used as a mitogen.
... (20S)--13 (17) [20] [21] gentiacaulein gentiakochianin [22] G. punctata L. G. asclepiadea L. [23] Urbain G. campestris (L.) B bellidin, bellidifolin , norswertianolin swertianolin [24] Odontuya G. tenella Rottb G. azurea Bunge Holub (isoorientin) B2 [25] gentianine -α TNF-α -6 IL-6 [26] [27] ...
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730000) [摘 要] [关键词] New advances in research of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of genus gentiana CAO Fei-hua, [Abstract] The major chemical constituents of genus gentiana include iridoids, secoiridoids, triterpenoids, flavonoids and xanthones, etc. And the pharmacological activities of genus gentiana include inhibition of AChE activity, antiinflammatory and antioxidant activit ies, antidepressant effect, anti-tumor activity, hepatoprotective effect, antihypertensive effect, etc. Through referring and collecting the data reported in literatures on main chemical constituents and the pharmacological activities of genus Gentiana, we summarized the current research status of their phytochemistry constituents and the pharmacological activities to provide the reference on further researches and developments of plant resources of genus gentiana. [Key words] Gentiana; chemical constituents; pharmacological activities.
... These two hydrocarbons were found for the first time in the pequi pulp. 2,3,5,8-tetramethyldecane was identified in the essential oils of Panax japonicas roots (ZHANG; ZHANG; SUN, 2011), and 2,5,9-trimethyldecane was found in the profile of volatile compounds from the leaves of Gentiana asclepiadea (GEORGIEVA et al., 2005). Among all hydrocarbons identified, only heneicosane, eicosane, octadecane, and undecane have been previously identified in the pequi by other authors (PASSOS et al., 2002;MAIA;ANDRADE;SILVA, 2008;DAMIANI et al., 2009). ...
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In order to determine the variability of pequi tree (Caryocar brasiliense Camb.) populations, volatile compounds from fruits of eighteen trees representing five populations were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Seventy-seven compounds were identified, including esters, hydrocarbons, terpenoids, ketones, lactones, and alcohols. Several compounds had not been previously reported in the pequi fruit. The amount of total volatile compounds and the individual compound contents varied between plants. The volatile profile enabled the differentiation of all of the eighteen plants, indicating that there is a characteristic profile in terms of their origin. The use of Principal Component Analysis and Cluster Analysis enabled the establishment of markers (dendrolasin, ethyl octanoate, ethyl 2-octenoate and β-cis-ocimene) that discriminated among the pequi trees. According to the Cluster Analysis, the plants were classified into three main clusters, and four other plants showed a tendency to isolation. The results from multivariate analysis did not always group plants from the same population together, indicating that there is greater variability within the populations than between pequi tree populations.
... The genus Gentiana comprised about 400 species which are widely distributed in temperate regions of Asia, Europe, the Americas, northwest Africa, eastern Australia and New Zealand (Georgieva et al. 2005;Zając and Pindel 2011). In Asia, the root of Gentiana scabra is commonly known as 'Longdan' in Chinese herbal medicines and has been used in the treatment of inflammation, anorexia, indigestion and gastric infections for over 2000 years (Tang and Eisenbrand 1992). ...
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Background: Gentiana scabra is commonly known as 'Longdan' is an important herb in traditional Chinese medicines, commonly used for the treatment of inflammation, anorexia, indigestion and gastric infections. Iridoids and secoiridoids are main bioactive compounds which attributed to the pharmacological properties of this plant. The use of hairy root cultures as an excellent alternative for the production of pharmaceutically important metabolites in less time period with ensured quality of raw materials. Results: An efficient hairy root culture system of Gentiana scabra and influence of different plant growth regulators (PGRs) on the production of gentiopicroside, swertiamarin and loganic acid constituents were described. Leaf explants were infected with Agrobacterium rhizogenes, which induced hairy roots up to 21%. The transformed hairy root lines were confirmed by PCR using rolB and rolC gene-specific primers. Among various solid and liquid media, B5 liquid medium resulted maximum root biomass (36- fold higher) in 4-weeks. Quantitative analysis showed loganic acid was 6.6- fold higher in the presence of zeatin (1 mg/l) and gentiopicroside accumulation was 1.8- fold higher in the presence of naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA, 1 mg/l), as compared to the roots of plants grown in greenhouse. On the other hand, 1.4- and 2.5- fold higher gentiopicroside and swertiamarin were observed in the presence of 1.0 mg/l NAA as compared to commercial Gentiana herb No. 2. The result also showed iridoid and secoiridoid contents affected greatly by age, physiology and growing environment of the plant. Conclusions: The use of hairy root cultures is an excellent alternative to harvesting natural or in vitro grown plants to produce pharmaceutically important metabolites in less time with ensured quality.
... To the best of our knowledge, there are no published reports on the use of headspace-solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) coupled to GC-MS for the analysis of volatile aroma compounds of G. lutea roots. Moreover, there are only few reports dealing with the volatile constituents extracted from the roots of G. lutea by steam distillation (Arberas et al. 1995;Chialva et al. 1986;Georgieva et al. 2005;Arino et al. 1997). ...
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In this study, optimization of smashing tissue extraction (STE), preliminary chemical characterization and antioxidant activity in vitro of crude polysaccharides (CPS) from Gentiana scabra bge (G. scabra) were investigated. The optimal extraction conditions were determined as follows: sample particle size of 80 mesh, solid/liquid ratio of 1:34, extraction voltage of 157.09 V and extraction time of 130.38 s. Under these conditions, the extraction yield of CPS had reached 15.03 ± 0.014% (n = 3). Chemical composition analysis indicated CPS was mainly composed of mannose, rhamnose, galacturonic acid, glcose, galactose, arabinose and fucose in a molar ratio of 1.00: 9.89: 51.59: 35.37: 38.06: 99.13: 21.34, respectively. The average molecular weight of CPS was estimated to be 3.8 × 10⁴ Da. In addition, the potential antioxidant activity of CPS extracted by STE were demonstrated by DPPH radical scavenging assay, superoxide anion radical scavenging assay, hydroxyl radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing power assay. Overall, this study provided an effective extraction technique for G. scabra polysaccharides which would be explored as a promising natural antioxidant agent applied in functional foods or medicines.
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The purpose of this study was to assess whether a methanol extract isolated from the flower of Gentiana asclepiadea had potential cytotoxic or genotoxic effect on COS 1 (monkey kidney) cell line. Five various concentrations of the extract were investigated for cytotoxicity and genotoxicity and to determine non-cytotoxic and non-genotoxic concentrations suitable for utilization in pharmacology and medicine. Cytotoxicity was determined using the proliferation (growth activity) and the plating efficiency (colony forming ability) assays after 24 hour incubation of COS 1 cells with different concentrations of methanolic flower extract from G. asclepiadea. To assess potential genotoxicity, the comet assay or SCGE (Single-Cell Gel Electrophoresis) was used. We found that only the highest (5 and 25 mg/ml) concentrations of the extract revealed cytotoxic and genotoxic effect. We have also determined concentrations that stimulated cell growth (0.25 mg/ml) and colony forming ability (0.25-2.5 mg/ml) and did not exhibit genotoxic effect (0.25-2.5 mg/ml). We found out that extract of G. asclepiadea was neither cytotoxic nor genotoxic in a wide range of concentrations (0.25-2.5 mg/ml) and thus can be used to further investigate potential beneficial usage in pharmacology and medicine.
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Zeocin is a member of bleomycin/phleomycin family of antibiotics isolated from Streptomyces verticullus. This unique radiomimetic antibiotic is known to bind to DNA and induce oxidative stress in different organisms producing predominantly single- and double- strand breaks, as well as a DNA base loss resulting in apurinic/apyrimidinic (AP) sites. The aim of this study was to induce an adaptive response (AR) by zeocin in freshly isolated human lymphocytes from blood and to observe whether plant extracts could modulate this response. The AR was evaluated by the comet assay. The optimal conditions for the AR induction and modulation were determined as: 2 h-intertreatment time (in PBS, at 4°C) given after a priming dose (50 µg/ml) of zeocin treatment. Genotoxic impact of zeocin to lymphocytes was modulated by plant extracts isolated from Gentiana asclepiadea (methanolic and aqueous haulm extracts, 0.25 mg/ml) and Armoracia rusticana (methanolic root extract, 0.025 mg/ml). These extracts enhanced the AR and also decreased DNA damage caused by zeocin (after 0, 1 and 4 h-recovery time after the test dose of zeocin application) to more than 50%. These results support important position of plants containing many biologically active compounds in the field of pharmacology and medicine.
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There has been a renewed interest in the use of herbal medicines throughout the world due to toxicities and health hazards associated with synthetic drugs and antibiotics. The World Health Organization estimates that up to 80% of people still rely mainly on traditional remedies such as herbs for their medicine, resulting in the increasing demand for medicinal plants. About 85% of traditional medicines involve the use of plant extracts. However, a large number of medicinal plants are needed to be investigated for their possible pharmaceutical value. Many pharmaceutical industries harness wildly growing plant populations for the supply of raw materials for extraction of medicinally important compounds. Many of the medicinal plants are severely threatened owing to illicit and indiscriminate collection and destruction of natural habitat. Advanced biotechnological methods of culturing plant cells and tissue provide an alternative means for rapid propagation and conservation of rare and endangered and/or commercially important medicinal plants. This chapter reviews the work carried out by our group in Taiwan on in vitro propagation of Pinellia ternata, Momordica charantia, Gentiana scabra var Bunge and Taraxacum formosanum and production of secondary metabolites from the callus of Stephania tetrandra, hairy root of Salvia miltiorrhiza and cell suspension culture of Gentiana davidii and Dioscorea doryophora.
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The methanol extracts from the underground and aerial part of the two species of Gentiana genus, Gentiana asclepiadea L. and Gentiana cruciata L. from Serbia, were investigated for their antigenotoxic activity against wellestablished mutagenic agent ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) using the in vivo sexlinked recessive lethal (SLRL) test on Drosophila melanogaster. For this purpose, three days old Canton S males were treated with the potent mutagen EMS in concentration of 0.75 ppm, alone and combined with methanol extracts obtained from underground or aerial part of G. asclepiadea and G. cruciata in concentration of 5%, separately. Although EMS in concentration of 0.75 ppm increased the mutation frequency in all three broods, post-treatments with methanol extracts obtained from the underground and aerial part of G. asclepiadea and G. cruciata in concentration of 5%, respectively, drastically reduced the frequency of sex-linked recessive lethal mutations induced by EMS. Compared to the sucrose, as a negative control, methanol extract obtained from underground part of G. cruciata showed the most potent antigenotoxic activity. Extracts from the underground and aerial part of the two species of Gentiana genus, G. asclepiadea L. and G. cruciata L. from Serbia used in our experiments showed a clear antimutagenic effect, reducing the frequency of mutations induced by a strong mutagen such as EMS.
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Ethnoveterinary medicine (EVM) comprises a complex system of beliefs, skills, knowledge and practices relating to animal husbandry and general animal care (McCorkle 1986). The practice of EVM includes the use of diagnostic procedures, animal husbandry practices, surgical methods and traditional veterinary theory in addition to the use of ethnoveterinary plants to prevent and control disease (Schillhorn van Veen 1997, Van der Merwe et al. 2001). Ethnoveterinary medicine, the scientifi c term for traditional animal health care, provides low-cost alternatives to allopathic drugs. Research into ethnoveterinary medicine is often undertaken as part of a community-based approach that serves to improve animal health and provide basic veterinary services in rural areas (Mathius-Mundy and McCorkle 1989). In many poor rural areas, ethnoveterinary medicine can play an important role in animal production and often becomes the only available means for farmers to treat sick animals (Maine et al. 1996, Tamboura et al. 2000, Jabbar et al. 2005).
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This chapter describes the different methodologies used for in vitro micropropagation and cell suspension culture in Gentiana sp. Low concentrations of auxins and kinetin enhanced the growth of suspension cells. Maximum growth in suspension cultures of Gentiana sp. was obtained at shaker speed of 80–100 rpm, pH 4.2–5.2, and a light intensity of 2.33 μE m−2 s−1. Attention is also given to the metabolite content of different plant organs of Gentiana sp. The aerial and underground parts of G. davidii contain the greatest amounts of gentiopicroside and swertiamarin. These findings may be implemented for micropropagation, germplasm conservation, and commercial cultivation, and their active principles analysis in other members of the Gentianaceae.
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The genus Gentiana extends across the temperate regions of Asia, Europe and North and South America, largely in mountainous areas. The Willow Gentian (Gentiana asclepiadea L.) extends from the mountainous areas of Spain through the Balkan States to the Ukraine in their more temperate regions. The plant characteristics are described, including roots, seed germination, the blue-violet flowers and their altitudinal variability, together with uses of the plant in traditional medicine. The dried roots and rhizomes are used as remedies for poor appetite and digestive problems. The Willow Gentian is also popular as an ornamental due to its late flowering time, when few other plants are in the generative phase. The popularity of this plant has led to instances of overharvesting and it is now strictly protected in Poland. The authors recommend special attention to this species in the field and close management of existing stands and surrounding areas. Further development of in vitro techniques will provide an excellent tool to support in situ plant protection. However, methods for in vitro micropropagation of this species require further development.
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Headspace solid-phase micro extraction (HS-SPME) coupled with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) has been used in the present study to isolate and identify volatile aroma components from the aerial parts of Gentiana kurroo Royle, a critically endangered and endemic medicinal plant growing wild in Kashmir Himalaya (India). The present study is the first report on the composition of volatile aroma of this plant species. The analysis has led to the identification of 16 volatile components constituting 99.3% of the total HS-SPME extract. The chemical composition of the HS-SPME extract of G. kurroo comprises mainly of sulphur containing compounds constituting 36.1% of the total identified components. Oxygenated monoterpenes constitute 31.3%, oxygenated diterpenes 12.6%, aldehydes 11.5% and alcohols 3.9%. The major identified components were α-terpinyl acetate (23.5%), 2-ethyl furan (17.5%), dimethyl sulphide (14.7%), methandriol (12.6%), 1, 8-cineole (7.8%), 3-methyl butanal (4.4%) and pentanal (3.2%). The characteristic aroma of the dried leaves of G. kurroo might be because of high content of sulphur compounds.
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Olfactory-mediated chemotaxis in nematodes provides a relatively simple system to study biological mechanisms of information processing. Analysis of the kinetics of chemotaxis in response to 100% benzaldehyde revealed an initial attractive response that is followed by a strong aversion to the odorant. We show that this behavior is mediated by two genetically separable attraction- and aversion-mediating response pathways. The attraction initially dominates behavior but with prolonged exposure habituation leads to a behavioral change, such that the odorant becomes repulsive. This olfactory habituation is susceptible to dishabituation, thereby re-establishing the attractive response to the odorant. Re-examination of the putative olfactory adaptation mutant adp-1(ky20) revealed that the phenotype observed in this line is due to a supersensitivity to a dishabituating stimulus, rather than a defect in the adaptation to odorants per se. A modified benzaldehyde chemotaxis assay was developed and used for the isolation of a mutant with a specific defect in habituation kinetics, expressed as a persistence of the attractive response.
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Enantiomerically pure (S)-(+)-linalool was the main constituent in the extracts of the cephalic secretions of virgin females, mated females, freshly emerged males, and patrolling males of the solitary bee Colletes cunicularius. After copulation, the content of (S)-(+)-linalool emitted by the female was strongly reduced. Electrophysiological experiments revealed that both enantiomers of linalool elicited responses from the antennae of the males. Field tests using the pure enantiomers and the racemate of linalool showed that the number of male bees attracted was highest for (S)-(+)-linalool. The search flight activity in the mating flight area increased dramatically when patrolling males were presented with (S)-(+)-linalool vs (R)-(-)-linalool. Taken together, these data indicate a mate attractant pheromone function of (S)-(+)-linalool.
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Adult male and female rustic borers, Xylotrechus colonus F. (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae), aggregate on cut logs and fallen trees that are the hosts of their larvae. Our studies show that male X. colonus actively search for females, and only respond to them after contacting them with their antennae. Stripping cuticular hydrocarbons from females with solvent rendered them unattractive to males, suggesting that males did not recognize females by mechanoreception alone. Reapplying solvent extract to washed females restored their attractiveness to males, confirming the role of cuticular hydrocarbons in mate recognition. Female cuticular hydrocarbon extracts contain n-pentacosane, 9-methylpentacosane, and 3-methylpentacosane, components that were either absent or present in very small amounts on males. We demonstrate that the contact pheromone is a blend of these three cuticular hydrocarbons.
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We measured the effects of exposure to volatile compounds produced by host plants on the rate of capture of male Spodoptera exigua using synthetic sex pheromones. Exposure to volatile compounds stimulated strong electroantennographic responses of male S. exigua. The behavioral responses of male moths to combinations of sex pheromone and volatile compounds were tested in wind tunnel experiments. When lures were baited with synthetic sex pheromone plus benzaldehyde, phenylacetaldehyde, (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, or linalool, respectively, the landing rate of S. exigua males was increased by 101.4%, 79.6%, 60.6%, and 34.3%, respectively, compared to sex pheromone alone. In field tests, traps baited with either pheromone + (E)-2-hexenal, pheromone + phenylacetaldehyde, pheromone + (Z)-3-hexenyl acetate, or pheromone + (Z)-3-hexenol enhanced moth catches by 38.8%, 34.6%, 24.6%, and 20.8%, respectively compared to traps baited with pheromone alone. In a second field experiment, more S. exigua males were trapped with a combination of a synthetic sex pheromone blend and several individual host plant volatiles compared to synthetic sex pheromone alone. These results suggest that some host plant volatiles enhance the orientation response of S. exigua male moths to sex pheromone sources.
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Characteristics of higher plant terpenoids that result in mediation of numerous kinds of ecological interactions are discussed as a framework for this Symposium on Chemical Ecology of Terpenoids. However, the role of terpenoid mixtures, either constitutive or induced, their intraspecific qualitative and quantitative compositional variation, and their dosage-dependent effects are emphasized in subsequent discussions. It is suggested that little previous attention to these characteristics may have contributed to terpenoids having been misrepresented in some chemical defense theories. Selected phytocentric examples of terpenoid interactions are presented: (1) defense against generalist and specialist insect and mammalian herbivores, (2) defense against insect-vectored fungi and potentially pathogenic endophytic fungi, (3) attraction of entomophages and pollinators, (4) allelopathic effects that inhibit seed germination and soil bacteria, and (5) interaction with reactive troposphere gases. The results are integrated by discussing how these terpenoids may be contributing factors in determining some properties of terrestrial plant communities and ecosystems. A terrestrial phytocentric approach is necessitated due to the magnitude and scope of terpenoid interactions. This presentation has a more broadly based ecological perspective than the several excellent recent reviews of the ecological chemistry of terpenoids.
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Six prenylated benzoic acid derivatives and three chalcones have been isolated from the dichloromethane extract of the leaves of Piper dilatatum (Piperaceae). Their structures were elucidated by means of mass spectrometry, UV and NMR spectroscopy. Four of the benzoic acid derivatives displayed antifungal properties against Cladosporium cucumerinum in direct bioautography on TLC plates. Taboganic acid has been obtained for the first time from plant origin.
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The predaceous stinkbug Perillus bioculatus is attracted towards volatiles emitted by damaged potato plants. Whereas mechanically damaged plants lost attractiveness 1 h after damage was inflicted, attraction was long-lasting when the plants were damaged by Colorado potato beetles Leptinotarsa decemlineata, a prey of P. bioculatus. A range of sesquiterpenoids was previously shown to be induced upon beetle damage. In order to evaluate the potential role of sesquiterpenoids in the attraction response, volatiles from damaged potato plants were collected and analyzed with GC-MS and GC-EAG. The antennae of P. bioculatus responded to β- caryophyllene, α-humulene, (E)-β-farnesene, (-)-germacrene D, and germacrene D-4-ol. Two sesquiterpenes that coeluted, α-zingiberene and bicyclogermacrene, together also elicited olfactory responses of P. bioculatus, whereas the individual compounds did not. The response of P. bioculatus to a variety of sesquiterpenes at low dosages suggests a role for these compounds in prey detection of this stinkbug
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Olfaction is a versatile and sensitive mechanism for detecting volatile odorants. We show that the nematode C. elegans detects many volatile chemicals, which can be attractants, repellents, or attractants at low concentrations and repellents at high concentrations. Through laser ablation, we have identified chemosensory neurons that detect volatile odorants. Chemotaxis to volatile odorants requires different sensory neurons from chemotaxis to water-soluble attractants, indicating that C. elegans might have senses that correspond to smell and taste, respectively. Single neurons have complex sensory properties, since six distinguishable volatile odorants are sensed by only two types of sensory neurons. Chemotaxis to subsets of volatile odorants is disrupted by mutations in the odr genes, which might be involved in odorant sensation or signal transduction.
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Feeding by Pieris brassicae caterpillars on the lower leaves of Brussels sprouts (Brassica oleracea var. gemmifera) plants triggers the release of volatiles from upper leaves. The volatiles are attractive for a natural antagonist of the herbivore, the parasitoid Cotesia glomerata. Parasitoids are attracted only if additional damage is inflicted on the systemically induced upper leaves and only after at least three days of herbivore feeding on the lower leaves. Upon termination of caterpillar feeding, the systemic signal is emitted for a maximum of one more day. Systemic induction did not occur at low levels of herbivore infestation. Systemically induced leaves emitted green leaf volatiles, cyclic monoterpenoids, and sesquiterpenes. GC-MS profiles of systemically induced and herbivore-infested leaves did not differ for most compounds, although herbivore infested plants did emit higher amounts of green leaf volatiles. Emission of systemically induced volatiles in Brussels sprouts might function as an induced defense that is activated only when needed, i.e., at the time of caterpillar attack. This way, plants may adopt a flexible management of inducible defensive resources to minimize costs of defense and to maximize fitness in response to unpredictable herbivore attack.
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The antitermitic activities of the essential oils from the leaves of two Cinnamomum osmophloeumclones (A and B) and their chemical ingredients against Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki were investigated according to direct contact application. Results from this experiment have demonstrated that the indigenous cinnamon B leaf essential oil has a more effective antitermitic activity than indigenous cinnamon A leaf essential oil. Furthermore, when cinnamaldehyde, eugenol, and alpha-terpineol are extracted from indigenous cinnamon leaf essential oil and used at the strength of 1 mg/g, their antitermitic effectiveness is much higher than that using indigenous cinnamon leaf essential oil. Among the congeners of cinnamaldehyde examined, cinnamaldehyde has exhibited the strongest termiticidal property.
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Laboratory and field investigations were carried out to investigate the nature and role of the male pheromone emitted by the Dynast beetle Scapanes australis and to develop a mass trapping technique against this major coconut pest in Papua New Guinea. We report the biological data obtained from natural and synthetic pheromone, previously described as an 84:12:4 (w/w) mixture of 2-butanol (1), 3-hydoxy-2-butanone (2), and 2,3-butanediol (3). EAG recordings from natural and synthetic pheromone and a pitfall olfactometer were poorly informative. In contrast, extensive field trapping trials with various synthetic pheromone mixtures and doses showed that 1 and 2 (formulated in polyethylene sachets in 90:5 v/v ratio) were necessary and sufficient for optimum long-range attraction. Beetles were captured in traps baited with racemic 1 plus 2, with or without a stereoisomer mixture of 3 (2.5- to 2500-mg/day doses). Plant pieces, either sugarcane or coconut, enhanced captures by the synthetic pheromone, which was active alone. Traps with the pheromone caught both sexes in a 3:2 female-male ratio. A pheromone-based mass trapping led to the capture of 2173 beetles in 14 traps surrounding 40 ha of a cocoa-coconut plantation. The captures followed a log-linear decrease during the 125-week trapping program. The role of the male pheromone and its potential for crop protection are discussed.
Higher plant terpenoids: a phytocentric overview of their ecological roles Role of contact pheromones in mate recognition in Xylotrechus colonus Systemically induced plant volatiles emitted at the time of
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Subgenus Eugentiana of genus Gentiana Tourn
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Contribution to the investigation on population of populations Gentiana punctata L. and G. lutea L. in Vitosha mountains
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