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Father-and mother-infant face-to-face interactions: Differences in mind-related comments and infant attachment?

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Abstract

The present research explored the relations among fathers’ and mothers’ appropriate mind-related comments during interactions with their 6-month-old infants, and subsequent infant attachment security. More frequent occurrences of mind-related comments were expected to predict frequency of synchrony which, in turn, was expected to predict attachment security. For both mothers and fathers, frequency of interactional synchrony was found to mediate the relation between mind-related comments and attachment security. Results are discussed in terms of children’s future perspective-taking skills, friendships and social adaptation.

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... Moreover, AMRCs have a positive impact on the development of superior executive function , social understanding (Centifanti et al., 2016), and theory of mind (Goffin et al., 2020;Hughes et al., 2018;Kirk et al., 2015;Laranjo et al., 2010;, and improve the performance of economically disadvantaged children in standardized reading tests at ages 7 and 11 . Furthermore, AMRCs predict secure infant-caregiver attachment (Laranjo et al., 2008;Lundy, 2003;Meins et al., 2001;Miller et al., 2019;Zeegers et al., 2017) and fewer behavioral problems in preschool children from low-SES backgrounds (Meins, Centifanti, et al., 2013). Caregivers' NAMRCs, on the contrary, are related to insecure attachment (Meins, 1997b;Meins et al., 2012Meins et al., , 2018 and may act as risk factors for later social and behavioral problems (Colonnesi et al., 2019). ...
... Regarding the relation between MM and sensitivity, a majority of studies have reported positive significant correlations between the frequency Bordeleau et al., 2012;Ereky-Stevens, 2008;Lundy, 2003;Rosenblum et al., 2008) and/or the proportion (Bigelow et al., 2015;Licata et al., 2014;Meins et al., 2001Meins et al., , 2012 of AMRCs and various indices of maternal sensitivity, although not all scholars have confirmed this evidence (e.g., Lok & McMahon, 2006). ...
... Additionally, research imminently needs to examine mind-mindedness among fathers, given their increased involvement in their children's lives. To date, only a few studies (Arnott & Meins, 2007;Colonnesi et al., 2019;Lundy, 2003) have been conducted in this area, suggesting that parents expose their child to various forms of mind-related speech, affecting the child in unique and sometimes complementary ways. It would also be desirable to include more diverse family configurations in the future as evidence has revealed differences in mind-mindedness, as assessed in interviews, between biological and adoptive or foster parents and between community families that were and were not involved with child protective services (e.g., Fishburn et al., 2017). ...
Article
Mind-mindedness (MM) refers to caregivers’ proclivity to treat a child as having an active and autonomous mental life. It has been shown to be a powerful predictor of many developmental outcomes and to mitigate the impact of risk conditions. However, longitudinal studies on MM reporting changes over time and individual differences among mothers have been scant and quite inconclusive, mainly due to the investigation of changes between only two time points. The current study analyzes MM’s developmental trajectories across four time points (3, 6, 9, and 12 months of infants’ age) along with the moderating effects of four variables (maternal sensitivity, age, education, and family income). The sample included healthy mother–infant dyads (N = 93, 46 female infants), belonging to monolingual Italian predominantly middle-class families, with 15% (n = 14) classified as low income (below the relative poverty threshold). The dyads were videotaped during semistructured play interactions and transcripts were coded for appropriate mind-related comments (AMRCs) and nonattuned mind-related comments (NAMRCs). Mothers’ AMRCs, compared to NAMRCs, showed more temporal stability. Both AMRCs and NAMRCs showed a linear decrease with individual differences across dyads decreasing over time, and dyads becoming increasingly similar one with the other. Low income moderated the normative trend of appropriate mind-related comments. These findings suggest that MM, while depending largely on an individual trait at earlier ages, when infants’ mental states are less intelligible, adapts to the increase of infants’ sociocommunicative repertoire over time. They also highlight the importance of ecological constraints on the quality of caregiving.
... Similarly, studies have reported that higher rates of appropriate MM, reflecting better parental mentalization, are associated with sensitive, structured, non-intrusive maternal behavior (Licata et al., 2014), which in turn, predict toddlers' secure attachment at age 15 months (Laranjo et al., 2008) and theory of mind (ToM) at 24 months (Laranjo et al., 2010). More appropriate MM comments correlate strongly and positively with mothers' synchronous behavior with their 6-month-old infants, which then predict infants' secure attachment at 16 months of age (Lundy, 2003). Finally, non-attuned MM at 4 months, indicating poor parental mentalization, predicts parental reports of poorer social competence among infants at the age of 12 and 30 months (Colonnesi et al., 2019). ...
... The MM coding scheme has been reported to have good reliability in a number of independent samples (e.g. Laranjo et al., 2008;Lundy, 2003;Meins et al., 2001). As suggested by the coding system's developers, we calculated appropriate and non-attuned scores for each mother based on the percentage of utterances in each category out of the total utterances made by her during the interaction. ...
... Appropriate maternal MM rates, reflecting the mother's on-line, verbally expressed, accurate interpretation of her 3-month-old infant's mental states, predicted mother-infant dyadic reciprocity. This finding accords with previous studies showing longitudinal and cross sectional associations between mind mindedness and favorable parenting (Laranjo et al., 2008;Licata et al., 2014;Lundy, 2003;Meins, 2013). The novelty of our findings is their focus on very young infants. ...
Article
We examined the links between mothers’ prenatal attachment dimensions, parental mentalization and mother-infant relational patterns. The sample consisted of 68 mother-infant dyads. During pregnancy, mothers reported on attachment-related anxiety and avoidance. When the infants were three months old, the mothers’ parental reflective functioning (PRF) was assessed via the PDI-R2-S interview. Mothers-infant free play interactions were coded for maternal sensitivity and dyadic reciprocity and mothers’ utterances were coded for appropriate and non-attuned mind-mindedness (MM). Prenatal attachment anxiety was associated with less appropriate MM. Appropriate MM was associated with maternal sensitivity and mother-infant dyadic reciprocity. The models predicting maternal sensitivity and dyadic reciprocity from dimensions of the mothers’ prenatal anxiety/avoidance attachment, mediated by their PRF, appropriate and non-attuned MM, were significant. Univariate analyses revealed a significant direct link only between appropriate MM and mother-infant dyadic reciprocity. We discuss these results as well as the differences between the PRF and MM constructs.
... These two measures have been correlated when used to assess mind-mindedness concurrently (Lundy, 2003), as well as at different time points during development (McMahon, Camberis, Berry, & Gibson, 2016;Meins et al., 2003). However, the differing approaches may tap into distinct facets of the mind-mindedness construct, in that how a child is responded to during an interaction may not be equivalent to what could be said about that same child when describing them in the absence of an ongoing interaction. ...
... With respect to the parent's gender, the testing of its potential moderating effect is also sparse because of the underrepresentation of father-child dyads in the literature. Some small-scale studies reported similar levels of mind-mindedness among mothers and fathers (Arnott & Meins, 2007;Lundy, 2003Lundy, , 2013 and both were significantly related to outcome measures such as attachment (Lundy, 2003) and theory of mind (Lundy, 2013). Nevertheless, there is no test of whether the parent's gender moderates these relationships even though there is some evidence suggesting that the influences of mind-mindedness may affect development via different pathways for mothers than for fathers (Lundy, 2013). ...
... With respect to the parent's gender, the testing of its potential moderating effect is also sparse because of the underrepresentation of father-child dyads in the literature. Some small-scale studies reported similar levels of mind-mindedness among mothers and fathers (Arnott & Meins, 2007;Lundy, 2003Lundy, , 2013 and both were significantly related to outcome measures such as attachment (Lundy, 2003) and theory of mind (Lundy, 2013). Nevertheless, there is no test of whether the parent's gender moderates these relationships even though there is some evidence suggesting that the influences of mind-mindedness may affect development via different pathways for mothers than for fathers (Lundy, 2013). ...
Article
Various lines of research suggest that parental mind-mindedness can facilitate children’s cognitive and social growth (e.g., executive functions and social cognition) in addition to improving parent-child relationships (i.e., attachments). The current research investigated the stability of the relationship between parental mind-mindedness and children’s developmental capacities by conducting a meta-analysis of 42 studies with 170 comparisons. Random effects analyses from the 170 comparisons revealed a modest positive mean effect size (r = 0.14), 95% CI [0.11, 0.16]. Next, the meta-analysis investigated three sets of potential moderators (sample characteristics, methodology, and publication factors) which led to 12 potential moderators in total. Of the 12, developmental capacity domain, children’s ages, mind-mindedness coding, mind-mindedness scoring, and research group were the five found to moderate the strength of the correlation. Parental mind-mindedness (coded for in regard to appropriate mind-related comments and/or mental attributes/comments) most strongly correlates with children’s executive functions, language abilities, and social cognition, and yields the strongest correlations when assessed during toddlerhood. Other analyses revealed that scoring parental mind-mindedness using the proportions of mind-minded utterances within speech is likely a conservative best practice, and that additional data from research groups is needed to ensure the stability of replications. We conclude with summaries of the literature’s quantitative findings currently and what that indicates about where subsequent investigations might focus.
... Though perhaps not as robust a predictor as sensitivity (McMahon & Bernier, 2017), there is evidence that mind-mindedness relates to infant-parent attachment (Laranjo, Bernier, & Meins, 2008;Lundy, 2003). Mothers' mind-related language such as "You're so happy" or "Are you interested in that?" during a 20-minute free play at six months predicted attachment security with infants at 12 months more strongly than did a behavioral measure of maternal sensitivity (Meins et al., 2001). ...
... To our knowledge, few studies have examined how fathers' mind-mindedness relates to infant attachment relationships (McMahon & Bernier, 2017;Zeegers, Colonnesi, Stams, & Meins, 2017), with none including both father behavioral sensitivity and mind-mindedness. Lundy (2003) showed that parents (mothers and fathers) who used more comments reflecting on an infant's thoughts and needs at six months (i.e., "you want Daddy's glasses") had higher security of attachment rated by a parent reported Qsort seven months later. Additionally, mind-related language related to attachment security with mothers and fathers differently (Lundy, 2003). ...
... Lundy (2003) showed that parents (mothers and fathers) who used more comments reflecting on an infant's thoughts and needs at six months (i.e., "you want Daddy's glasses") had higher security of attachment rated by a parent reported Qsort seven months later. Additionally, mind-related language related to attachment security with mothers and fathers differently (Lundy, 2003). Both mothers and fathers who showed greater use of language relating to infants' thoughts (e.g., "are you concentrating on something?") had higher attachment security scores; fathers', but not mothers', increased use of emotionally driven mind-related language (e.g., "You're really fascinated by that," "You're bored with that already") related to higher attachment security scores with fathers. ...
Article
Previous research examining links between parenting and attachment has focused on behavioral aspects of parenting such as sensitivity. However, by assessing how parents reflect on infants' mental states (mind-mindedness) we gain a broader understanding of parenting and how it impacts attachment. Mothers, fathers, and their infants (N = 135) participated in the Still Face Paradigm (SFP) at 3-, 5-, and 7- months of age, and the Strange Situation with mothers at 12 months and fathers at 14 months. Parent sensitivity and infant affect were coded from the SFP and all videos were transcribed and later coded for parents' use of appropriate and non-attuned mind-mindedness toward their infants. Attachment with each parent was coded from the Strange Situation. Mixed effects models examined trajectories of parents' mind-mindedness in relation to parent sensitivity and infant affect across attachment groups. Significant differences between parent gender and attachment category were detected. Specifically, parents who were less sensitive were also less mind-minded toward insecure-avoidant infants; parents used more non-attuned mind-mindedness when infants had higher negative affect. Findings suggest that, in addition to parent sensitivity, parents' use of appropriate and non-attuned mind-mindedness during a parent-infant interaction provides insight into the developing attachment relationship for mothers and fathers.
... Research on the similarities and differences between mothers' and fathers' mind-mindedness is very limited. While mothers' use of mind-related comments has been extensively investigated for almost 20 years, only a few studies explored both fathers' and mothers' spontaneous use of mind-related comments (Arnott and Meins 2007;Lundy 2003Lundy , 2013, providing some evidence of concordance and differences between partners. ...
... Furthermore, fathers, but not mothers, who displayed more appropriate comments also produced more nonattuned comments. Lundy (2003) explored differences between mothers' and fathers' use of mind-related comments, using a similar coding system as Meins and Fernyhough (2015), in which only appropriate comments were coded. Also in this study, no differences were found between fathers and mothers in the overall number of appropriate mind-related comments toward their 6-month-old baby. ...
... Fathers, however, produced on average more nonattuned mind-related comments than mothers at 4 m and 12 m. These findings add to scant data about the stability and continuity of mind-mindedness (McMahon et al. 2016;Meins et al. 2011) and about differences and similarities between parents (Arnott and Meins 2007;Lundy 2003Lundy , 2013. Except for fathers' higher levels of nonattuned mindedness than mothers in the first year, differences between parents seem more due to individual characteristics than to sex. ...
Article
Full-text available
Parental mind-mindedness, the parent’s propensity to treat the child as an intentional agent, has repeatedly shown to promote children’s development of social understanding and secure attachment. Less is known about whether the impact of maternal and paternal mind-mindedness extends to children’s social and behavior problems. We investigated the combined effect of mothers’ and fathers’ (N = 104) mind-mindedness at 4, 12, and 30 months on children’s social competence and externalizing and internalizing behavior problems at 4.5 years. Besides, we examined the stability, continuity, parental concordance, and inter-parental differences in the use of mind-related comments. Appropriate mind-mindedness (i.e., correct interpretations of the child’s mental states) and nonattuned mind-mindedness (i.e., misinterpretations of the child’s mental states) were observed during parent-child free-play interactions. Social competence, internalizing and externalizing behavior problems were assessed using both parents’ reports. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses showed that, at 12 months, infrequent use of appropriate mind-related comments of both parents predicted children’s externalizing problems, while their frequent use of nonattuned comments predicted children’s low social competence. Furthermore, mothers’ frequent use of nonattuned comments at 12 and 30 months and fathers’ nonattuned comments at 30 months predicted children’s externalizing behavior. The findings suggest that both parents’ low use of mind-related comments, and frequent misinterpretations of their child’s mind, may act as risk factors for later social and behavior problems of their child.
... Though the affective quality and the structural aspects of maternal infantdirected speechhave been extensively studied (Adams & Ramay, 1980;Fernald, 1985;Papousek & Papousek, 1987;Stern, Spieker & McKain, 1982;Stern, Spieker, Barnett & McKain, 1983), little attention has been paid on the semantic categories of maternal infant-directed speech (Rabain-Jamin & Sabeau-Jouannet, 1989) and particularly on maternal mentalizing, that is, on the way mothers treat their infant as a psychological agent by interpreting and commenting on their (infants') mental states and expressive behaviours. To the author's knowledge, limited research on mentalizing capacity in maternal speech in infancy has been examined in relation to infant attachment (Lundy, 2003;Meins, Fernyhough, Fradley and Tuckey, 2001), maternal mirroring behaviour (Bigelow, Power, Bulmer & Gerrior, 2015), joint attention (Roberts, Fyfield, Baibazarova, van Goozen, Culling & Hay, 2013)and understanding children's risk in relation to parental psychopathology (Murray, Kempton, Woolgar and Hooper, 1993;Sethna, Murray & Ramchandani, 2012), but never in relation to infant birth order. Sharp & Fonagy (2008) have suggested that several constructs, such as maternal mind-mindedness, reflective functioning and parental meta-emotion philosophy, from diverse theoretical backgrounds focus on the parent's capacity to treat the child as a psychological agent. ...
... Five empirical measures of MMM in real-life interactions of mothers with their 6-month-old infants have been identified: a) Maternal responsiveness to change in infant's direction of gaze; b) maternal responsiveness to infant's object-directed action; these two measures arose from maternal responses to infant actions (infant's changes in gaze or object-directed activity) that could be interpreted as cues for engagement in or disengagement from activities; c) encouragement of autonomy is regarded as indicative of mind-mindedness given that only mothers who consider their infants capable of intentional action will encourage them to do things autonomously; d) Imitation is considered to be indicative of mind-mindedness since mothers will only imitate their infant vocalizations on the basis of their interpretation as having meaning and as having being performed intentionally; and e) Appropriate mind-related comments measures the mother's ability to "read" the mental states underlying their infant's behaviour and constitutes an index of the mother's representation of her infant's mental states (Meins et al., 2001). To the author's knowledge, the measurement of MMM in infancy has been restricted at 5 (Bigelow et al., 2015) and at 6 months of infant's life (Meins et al., 2001), and it has been investigated as a predictor of security of attachment (Meins et al., 2001), parent-infant interactional synchrony (Lundy, 2003), social understanding (Meins, Fernyhough, Wainwright, Das-Gupta, Fradley & Tuckey, 2002), use of communicative gestures (Slaughter, Peterson & Carpenter, 2008),joint attention (Roberts, Fyfield, Baibazarova, van Goozen, Culling & Hay, 2013) and maternal mirroring behaviour (Bigelow et al., 2015). ...
... Given that nothing is known about the development of these brain circuitries in children, social-environmental factors such as maternal mentalization may play a crucial role in the process of hardwiring mentalization circuitries as the child matures into a mentalizing agent (Sharp & Fonagy, 2008). Taking into account that: a) constructs of parental mentalization are concerned with emotion regulation (Sharp & Fonagy, 2008) and the correlation between it (parental mentalization) and interactional synchrony (Lundy, 2003), and b) that the experience of emotional coordination may have a lasting impact on the infant's brain particularly during the plastic period of brain maturation (Feldman, 2007), we suggest that being mentalized in the course of early infancy may have a crucial impact on the development of brain circuitries to mentalize with implications on the capacity to regulate interpersonal relationships and subjective 'coherence'. These matters may be important given the implications of parental mentalization for symptoms of psychopathology (Murray et al., 1993;Sethna et al., 2012;Sharp & Fonagy, 2008). ...
Chapter
Stereotypic backhanded compliments are defined as compliments that praise a stigmatized individual for violating a negative stereotype (e.g., "You're smart, for a woman."). Although commonly used in everyday language, few studies have examined these comments empirically. As such, the purpose of the present work was twofold. First, we sought to determine if people recognize such comments as prejudiced. Second, we sought to explore the possible consequences that result from exposure to stereotypic backhanded compliments. In Study 1, women rated a commenter who used such compliments as more sexist than men. Study 2 replicated this effect and through the use of mediational analyses also found a contamination effect. Women were more likely than men to dislike the backhanded complimenter and this dislike subsequently contaminated women's evaluation of the person receiving the compliment. We discuss the implications of this work for understanding the social function of backhanded compliments.
... The mind-mindedness 2 of caregivers may protect children from developing insecure attachment and enhance their social development (see McMahon & Bernier, 2017, for a review). Attachment theory provides a valuable frame of reference to understand the mind-mindedness and attachment interplay (Lundy, 2003). In Lundy's study, synchronous caregiver-infant communication partially mediated the relationship between caregiver's mind-mindedness and infant attachment predominantly among Western families. ...
... Olson (1993) proposed the circumplex model that assumes a curvilinear relationship of family cohesion and adaptability with the psychosocial functioning of family members, indicating that either high or low levels of cohesion and adaptability are detrimental to family functioning. Previous studies conducted with White participants found that face-to-face parent-infant communication partially mediated the relationship between mind-mindedness and infant attachment (Lundy, 2003). Moreover, early insecure attachment (for 44-month attachment) also mediated this relationship (Meins et al., 2018). ...
Article
Background China's rapid development and urbanization since the early 1980s have compelled many rural residents to move from rural to urban areas for work, leaving thousands of children at home. Objective This study tested the mediating effect of children's theory of mind on the relationship between caregivers' mind-mindedness and their children's insecure attachment differently depending on the different family status (the moderator) of left-behind and non-left-behind. Participants The participants were 3 to 6 years old 74 left-behind children (LBHC) and 89 non-left-behind children (NLBHC). Settings Participants were from rural counties of central China in Henan province that has experienced a large labor migration. Methods A cross-sectional moderated mediation model linked mind-mindedness (independent variable) and insecure attachment (dependent variable) through the theory of mind (mediator) and family status (moderator: left-behind/non-left-behind), controlling for age, gender, and siblings. Results First, LBHC scored higher on insecure-disorganized attachment than NLBHC. Second, the early childhood theory of mind mediated the relationship between the caregiver's mind-mindedness and young children's insecure attachment. Third, family status moderated the effects of the theory of mind on insecure attachment. The mediating role was established only for the left-behind family, and the lower theory of mind ability was associated with the greater insecure attachment of LBHC. Conclusions Our findings highlight the critical role of mind-mindedness, theory of mind, and family status in the attachment theory and clarify the association between different levels of young children's theory of mind and insecure attachment based on family status.
... In the postpartum period, the prevalence of depression is up to 17% even in mothers with no prior history of mental disorders [40], and PPD is considered to be one of the most disabling conditions due to its impact on maternal psychological wellbeing [41] and maternal caregiving behavior, as well as on child outcomes [42][43][44][45][46]. Concerning the association between maternal depressive symptoms and mentalizing skills in the postpartum period, the findings are not uniform. While some studies find that depression is indeed associated with impaired maternal mentalizing skills [14,[47][48][49] other studies find mixed [50] to non-significant [51,52] associations. The inconsistency among the findings may be due to differences in the conceptualization and measurement of PRF. ...
... Furthermore, in most of the studies mothers' depressive symptoms have been assessed by screening instruments and not by using a diagnostic interview. As evidence suggests that impairments in mentalizing are more pronounced when depression is severe [17,53], it is possible that the depressive symptoms in many cases included in these studies [14,[49][50][51][52] are more transient and less pervasive than in the case of a diagnosed clinical depression. ...
Article
Full-text available
Parental reflective functioning (PRF) refers to the parent's capacity to envision mental states in the infant and in themselves as a parent, and to link such underlying mental process with behavior, which is important for parenting sensitivity and child socio-emotional development. Current findings have linked maternal postpartum depression to impaired reflective skills, imposing a risk on the developing mother-infant relationship, but findings are mixed, and studies have generally used extensive methods for investigating PRF. The present study examined the factor structure and measurement invariance of the Danish version of the 18-item self-report Parental Reflective Functioning Questionnaire (PRFQ) in a sample of mothers with and without diagnosed postpartum depression. Moreover, the association between PRF and maternal postpartum depression in mothers with and without comorbid symptoms of personality disorder and/or clinical levels of psychological distress was investigated. Participants included 423 mothers of infants aged 1-11 months. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a three-factor structure of the PRFQ; however, item loadings suggested that a 15-item version was a more accurate measure of PRF in mothers of infants. Multi-group factor analysis of the 15-item PRFQ infant version indicated measurement invariance among mothers with and without diagnosed postpartum depression. Multinomial logistic regression showed that impaired PRF was associated with maternal psychopathology, although only for mothers with postpartum depression combined with other symptoms of psychopathology. These results provide new evidence for the assessment of maternal self-reported reflective skills as measured by a modified infant version of the PRFQ, as well as a more nuanced understanding of how variance in symptomatology is associated with impaired PRF in mothers in the postpartum period in differing ways.
... These experiences of mutual synch provide a window to shape the infant's emotional and social skills [71]. Mother-infant synchrony observed at 3 and 9 months old has been associated with secure attachment at 1 year [67,86,87]; self-control [73], symbolic play, and internal state talk [60] at 2 years; and empathy at 13 years old [58]. ...
... Both kinds of coordination have demonstrated to be effective in influencing infants' emotional and social skills [71,95]. For example, the self-propelled infant-parent synchrony has been shown to improve the child's development of secure attachment [67,86,87], self-control [73], and internal state talk [60] at 2 years. Similarly, the passively experienced synchrony with an unfamiliar adult has increased infant prosocial behavior [89,[102][103][104]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Infant-adult synchrony has been reported through observational and experimental studies. Nevertheless, synchrony is addressed differently in both cases. While observational studies measure synchrony in spontaneous infant-adult interactions, experimental studies manipulate it, inducing nonspontaneous synchronous and asynchronous interactions. A still unsolved question is to what extent differ spontaneous synchrony from the nonspontaneous one, experimentally elicited. To address this question, we conducted a study to compare synchrony in both interactional contexts. Forty-three 14-month-old infants were randomly assigned to one of two independent groups: (1) the spontaneous interaction context, consisting of a storytime session; and (2) the nonspontaneous interaction context, where an assistant bounced the infant in synchrony with a stranger. We employed an optical motion capture system to accurately track the time and form of synchrony in both contexts. Our findings indicate that synchrony arising in spontaneous exchanges has different traits than syn-chrony produced in a nonspontaneous interplay. The evidence presented here offers new insights for rethinking the study of infant-adult synchrony and its consequences on child development.
... Research suggests that mothers who use more mental state talk with their infants have children who also use more mental state talk and demonstrate greater emotion understanding, false belief understanding, and executive functioning skills by preschool (Racine, Carpendale, & Turnbull, 2007;Taumoepeau & Ruffman, 2006;Taumoepeau & Ruffman, 2008). Mental state talk by other family members, such as fathers, also appears to facilitate children's sociocognitive development (LaBounty, Wellman, Olson, Lagattuta, & Liu, 2008;Lundy, 2003). For example, LaBounty et al. (2008) reported that fathers' use of explanation around desire terms, such as want or like, when children were 3 1 ∕ 2 years old was related to children's theory of mind performance both concurrently and at age 5. ...
... Our interest in the proximal process of parents' mental state talk is what makes this article unique. An association of parents' mental state talk with children's developmental outcomes has been reported (LaBounty et al., 2008;Lundy, 2003;Racine et al., 2007;Taumoepeau & Ruffman, 2006;Taumoepeau & Ruffman, 2008). What is not well understood is the contextual and child-to-parent effect on parents' mental state talk (Karraker & Coleman, 2008;Smetana, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The current study examined the contributions of cultural and economic contexts and family, child, and parent characteristics to explain variation within and between mothers' and fathers' mental state talk (i.e., cognition, desire, modulation of assertion, and other mental state talk) to their 6‐month‐old infants. Background Growing evidence supports the importance of mental state talk for children, yet few studies have examined factors that might contribute to this type of verbal input. Method In a sample of 582 African American and European American mothers and 582 African American and European American fathers living in low‐wealth rural areas, we explored the extent to which cultural context (ethnicity), economic context (income), family characteristics (partners' use of mental state talk), child characteristics (gender, attention, distress to novelty), and parent characteristics (parental sensitivity) contribute to mothers' and fathers' use of mental state talk in a series of multilevel models. Results Results suggest that parental sensitivity was positively associated with mental state talk for both mothers and fathers, and child attention was positively associated with mental state talk for mothers with significant but small effect sizes. Fathers' mental state talk contributed positively to mothers' mental state talk, but this was true only for African American families. Conclusion Our identified main effects and significant interaction enhance our understanding of factors that contribute to mothers' and fathers' mental state talk with their preverbal infants.
... Mothers and fathers may play a role in modeling communication for their children by demonstrating specific types of complex communication behaviors to their children (Lundy, 2003). The Bridge Hypothesis (Gleason, 1975;Mannle, & Tomasello,1987), suggests that fathers' language models a 'public' style giving children a bridge to communication in the public domain, while mothers may model a 'domestic' style. ...
... One area of interest in the study of conversational exchanges is who initiates a conversation (Hoff, 2006). Mothers and fathers may display different behaviors and contribute differently to the development of a child's language (Lundy, 2003). Fathers may contribute language that is formal in tone but incorporates problem-solving and manipulation of language, while mothers may contribute language that is comment driven and child-content oriented. ...
Article
Full-text available
Children develop, learn, and refine the complex rules of how to have a conversation beginning in their preschool years. Recent work on conversational exchanges and language usage within families has shown differences (and in some cases, similarities) in how mothers, fathers, girls, and boys interact and converse with each other. It has been suggested that mothers contribute more child-oriented and child-driven exchanges, fathers contribute more formal language that includes problem-solving and linguistic manipulation, girls seek to maintain relationships, and boys seek to establish dominance and attract or maintain and audience. These factors may influence the roles each interlocutor plays in a communicative exchange. One aspect of verbal interaction is who initiates a conversational exchange. This study examined 134 daylong audio recordings using automated speech processing techniques to estimate the frequency of conversation initiation for mothers, fathers, girls, and boys. We found that children initiate conversations most frequently, followed by mothers, followed by fathers. We found no rate difference between girls and boys. Results are consistent with the Bridge Hypothesis or Apprenticeship Model in which interlocutors are motivated in part by their social role, in this case by the social modeling parents demonstrate for their children.
... To date, there are no studies examining the relation of maternal MDD to maternal mental state talk. However, there is evidence that maternal depression is related to lower mind-mindedness (Lundy, 2003). Specifically, when speaking to their infants, mothers with higher levels of depression symptoms make fewer references to the child's mind (e.g., "You like that toy!") than non-depressed mothers (Lundy, 2003;Rosenblum, McDonough, Sameroff, & Muzik, 2008). ...
... However, there is evidence that maternal depression is related to lower mind-mindedness (Lundy, 2003). Specifically, when speaking to their infants, mothers with higher levels of depression symptoms make fewer references to the child's mind (e.g., "You like that toy!") than non-depressed mothers (Lundy, 2003;Rosenblum, McDonough, Sameroff, & Muzik, 2008). Further, depressed mothers make fewer mind-related comments when describing their preschool child to others (Ernst & McMahon, 2004). ...
Article
Children of depressed mothers show substantial social impairment, which increases their risk for developing depression. Theory of mind understanding forms the basis of social functioning, and is impaired in children of currently depressed mothers. Models of risk emphasize that a history of any maternal depression confers risk to later psychopathology. Therefore, we tested a novel model of the impact of lifetime maternal depression on children's false belief understanding that accounts for three primary factors that scaffold this understanding: maternal mental state talk, and children's executive functioning and language abilities. Children aged 41 to 48 months with a maternal lifetime history of major depressive disorder (MDD; n = 19) performed significantly more poorly on the false belief battery compared to those without (n = 44). Further, lower levels of mental state talk, child executive functioning, and child language ability were significantly associated with poorer false belief scores. However, the relation between maternal MDD and children's false belief performance was not mediated by any of these factors. These results indicate that maternal depression predicts poorer false belief understanding independently of other crucial scaffolding variables, and may be a social cognitive mechanism underlying the intergenerational transmission of depression. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... [50] Temel ba¤lanma süreci, anne ve çocuk arasındaki iliki olarak ele alınmakla birlikte bu süreçte babanın rolü de oldukça önemlidir. [21] Lundy [51] anne ve babanın duyarlılı¤ının güvenli ba¤lanma ilikilerine zemin hazırladı¤ı sonucunu bildirmektedir. Ayrıca duyarlılı¤ın her iki ebeveynle girilen etkileimler için geçerli oldu¤u da vurgulanmaktadır. ...
... Ayrıca duyarlılı¤ın her iki ebeveynle girilen etkileimler için geçerli oldu¤u da vurgulanmaktadır. [51] Ba¤lanma sürecinde babanın do¤rudan etkisi bebekle kurdu¤u ilikiyi içerirken dolaylı etkisi anne-baba arasındaki iliki ve annenin bu ilikiyi bebe¤iyle kurdu¤u ilikiye yansıtması olarak açıklanmaktadır. [21] Gelimekte olan çocuk, güvenlik arayıı içinde kabul gören yönlerini gelitirme ve vurgulama e¤iliminde olmaktadır. ...
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Individuals with different personality patterns inevitably influence each other in private and business life. This interaction is called interpersonal relations. First experiences with the caregiver constitute the very core of a baby's interpersonal relations. A healthy and cohesive mental development depends on the interaction with the mother/father or primary caregiver. Styles of attachment to parents create a cyclical effect for interpersonal relations and for sustaining these in harmony. Compliance, as well as being an indicator of health, is of great importance for healthcare. It is only possible to provide healthcare effectively through therapeutic relationship that can be described as purposive and contributive communication to treatment. In order to provide a high-quality and efficient healthcare service, there should be a sound therapeutic relationship between healthcare staff and the individuals receiving the care. This soundness can be achieved via improvement of healthcare professionals’ knowledge, skills and insights on attachment relationships and interpersonal relations.
... Maternal mind-mindedness has been shown to predict various positive aspects of children's development, including attachment security (e.g., Arnott & Meins, 2007;Laranjo, Bernier, & Meins, 2008;Lundy, 2003;Meins et al., 2001Meins et al., , 2012, executive abilities (Bernier, Carlson, & Whipple, 2010;Bernier, McMahon, & Perrier, 2017), early language abilities (Bernier et al., 2016;Meins, Fernyhough, Arnott, Leekam, & de Rosnay, 2013), theory of mind (Kirk et al., 2015;Laranjo, Bernier, Meins, & Carlson, 2010, emotion understanding (Centifanti, Meins, & Fernyhough, 2016), and in children from low socioeconomic status backgrounds fewer behavioral difficulties (Meins, Centifanti, Fernyhough, & Fishburn, 2013) and higher school attainment . ...
... In exploring the lines of enquiry for future research discussed above, it is important to include fathers as well as mothers. A few small-scale studies have reported on mindmindedness in both mothers and fathers (Arnott & Meins, 2007Barreto, Fearon, Os orio, Meins, & Martins, 2016;Lundy, 2003Lundy, , 2013, but research has not yet investigated PEM in fathers. Investigating mind-mindedness and PEM in the context of the family unit rather than only the mother-infant dyadic relationship will allow for a more complete understanding of how early parental mentalizing predicts children's development and evolving family relationships. ...
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Relations between two forms of parental mentalizing—maternal mind‐mindedness (appropriate and nonattuned mind‐related comments) and parental embodied mentalizing (PEM)—and their role in predicting infant attachment security were investigated. Maternal PEM and mind‐mindedness were assessed at 8 months (N = 206), and infant attachment security was assessed at 15 months. PEM was positively correlated with appropriate mind‐related comments and was unrelated to nonattuned mind‐related comments. Multinomial regression analyses showed that higher PEM distinguished between secure versus insecure–avoidant infants and between insecure–resistant versus insecure–avoidant infants over and above the contributions of appropriate and nonattuned mind‐related comments. These results suggest that both verbal and nonverbal indices of parental mentalizing make independent contributions in predicting the security of the infant–mother attachment relationship.
... A number of studies have found that mind-mindedness in early infancy predicts infants' later attachment security (Demers et al., 2010;Laranjo, Bernier & Meins, 2008;Lundy, 2003;Meins et al., 2001Meins et al., , 2012. Securely attached infants tend to have mothers who are higher on appropriate mind-mindedness and lower on non-attuned mind-mindedness than their insecurely attached peers (Meins et al., 2012). ...
... The few community sample studies that have investigated the association between mothers' depressive symptoms and their mindminded speech to infants under one year of age have had mixed results. Lundy (2003) found an inverse association between mothers' depressive symptoms and appropriate mind-mindedness, whereas Rosenblum et al. (2008) and Meins et al. (2011) found no association. These studies assessed maternal depressive symptoms and mind-mindedness concurrently in the second half of the infants' first year. ...
Article
The relations among maternal depression risk, maternal mind-mindedness, and infants' attachment behavior were longitudinally examined in a community sample of mother-infant dyads. Maternal self-reported depression risk was measured at the infant ages of 6 weeks, 4 months, and 12 months. Maternal mind-mindedness, assessed from mothers' comments about infants' mental states (e.g., infants' thoughts, desires, or emotions), was measured during mother-infant interactions when infants were 4 months. Infants' attachment behavior was assessed at one year. Mothers' depression risk decreased over the infants' first year, with the sharpest decline between 6 weeks and 4 months. Mothers at risk for depression when infants were 6 weeks showed less appropriate mind-mindedness at 4 months. Mind-mindedness was not related to maternal depression risk at the infant age of 4 months or 12 months. Infants' degree of disorganized attachment behavior at one year was positively associated with maternal depression risk at 6 weeks and negatively associated with maternal appropriate mind-mindedness at 4 months. Mothers who are at risk for depression in their infants' early lives may be hampered in their capacity to respond appropriately to their infants' mental states. Infants with mothers who have difficulty responding appropriately to their mental states, as suggested by low appropriate mind-mindedness, may feel less known and recognized by their mothers, a key theme in the origins of disorganized attachment.
... In another study, Vismara et al. (2020) found that at 6 months postpartum, paternal depressive symptoms were associated with lowered reflective functioning on the AAI (Fonagy et al., 1998;George et al., 1996). Conversely, Lundy (2003) found no association between fathers' depressive symptoms and frequency of mind-related comments, as measured with the Mind-Mindedness coding scheme (Meins & Fernyhough, 2006) during interaction with their 6-month-old infant. ...
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The parents' capacity to reflect upon the psychological processes in their child, termed parental reflective functioning (PRF) can be impaired by parental mental health problems. The present study aimed to investigate the factor structure of an infant version of the Parental Reflective Functioning Questionnaire (PRFQ-I) in a low-risk sample of 259 Danish fathers of 1-11-month-old infants to investigate measurement invariance of the PRFQ-I between fathers and mothers; and to examine the association between PRF and paternal depressive symptoms, psychological distress, and parenting stress. Confirmatory factor analysis supported a three-factor model of the PRFQ-I. Multi-group factor analysis indicated partial measurement invariance. Multiple linear regressions showed that paternal depressive symptoms were not associated with PRF. There was an interaction effect of paternal depressive symptoms and general psychological distress on paternal interest and curiosity in their infant's mental state and certainty of infant mental state. Increased parenting stress was associated with impaired PRF on all three subscales of the PRFQ-I. These results provide further evidence for a multidimensional, brief assessment of paternal reflective skills and insight into how variability in paternal psychological functioning relates to impaired PRF in the postpartum period.
... (b) Interactional synchrony in the mother-infant relationship is associated with a more positive cognitive and psychosocial development. In particular synchrony predicts better adaptation overall [e.g., the capacity for empathy in adolescence (Feldman, 2007)], symbolic play and internal state speech (Feldman and Greenbaum, 1997), the relation between mind-related comments and attachment security (Lundy, 2002(Lundy, , 2003, and mutual initiation and mutual compliance (Rocissano et al., 1987;Lindsey et al., 1997;qtd. in Leclere et al., 2014). ...
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In individual psychotherapy verbal communication and movement synchronization are closely interrelated. The microanalysis of timing, rhythm and gestalt of movement has established dynamic movement coordination as a systemic property of the dyadic interaction. Movement synchronization supports and enhances the unfolding of linguistic meaning. In order to substantiate the importance of the concept of synchrony for adult psychotherapy we review evidence from developmental psychology and discuss approaches to measure synchrony with particular reference to the naturalistic setting of dyadic psychotherapy. As the concept of synchrony is still ambiguous, and the respective interactional phenomena are ephemeral and fluid, in the current paper we suggest a set of five criteria for the description of synchronization in general terms and eight additional criteria which specifically enable the description of phenomena of movement synchronization. The five general dimensions are: (1) context, (2) modality, (3) resources, (4) entrainment, and (5) time-lag. The eight categories for the description of movement synchrony are: (1) spatial direction, (2) amplitude, (3) sinuosity, (4) duration, (5) event structure, (6) phase, (7) frequency, and (8) content. To understand the process of participatory sense-making and the emergence of meaning in psychotherapy, synchrony research has to cope with the multimodality of the embodied interaction. This requires an integrated perspective of movement and language. A system for the classification of synchrony phenomena may contribute to the linking of variations and patterns of movement with language and linguistic utterances.
... (b) Interactional synchrony in the mother-infant relationship is associated with a more positive cognitive and psychosocial development. In particular synchrony predicts better adaptation overall [e.g., the capacity for empathy in adolescence (Feldman, 2007)], symbolic play and internal state speech (Feldman and Greenbaum, 1997), the relation between mind-related comments and attachment security (Lundy, 2002(Lundy, , 2003, and mutual initiation and mutual compliance (Rocissano et al., 1987;Lindsey et al., 1997;qtd. in Leclere et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
In individual psychotherapy verbal communication and movement synchronization are closely interrelated. The microanalysis of timing, rhythm and gestalt of movement has established dynamic movement coordination as a systemic property of the dyadic interaction. Movement synchronization supports and enhances the unfolding of linguistic meaning. In order to substantiate the importance of the concept of synchrony for adult psychotherapy we review evidence from developmental psychology and discuss approaches to measure synchrony with particular reference to the naturalistic setting of dyadic psychotherapy. As the concept of synchrony is still ambiguous, and the respective interactional phenomena are ephemeral and fluid, in the current paper we suggest a set of five criteria for the description of synchronization in general terms and eight additional criteria which specifically enable the description of phenomena of movement synchronization. The five general dimensions are: (1) context, (2) modality, (3) resources, (4) entrainment, and (5) time-lag. The eight categories for the description of movement synchrony are: (1) spatial direction, (2) amplitude, (3) sinuosity, (4) duration, (5) event structure, (6) phase, (7) frequency, and (8) content. To understand the process of participatory sense-making and the emergence of meaning in psychotherapy, synchrony research has to cope with the multimodality of the embodied interaction. This requires an integrated perspective of movement and language. A system for the classification of synchrony phenomena may contribute to the linking of variations and patterns of movement with language and linguistic utterances.
... Nonetheless, existing research on parents' perceptions of their child's mental states has almost exclusively considered mothers' perceptions, and the few studies examining how fathers' perceptions of their child's mental states might predict or be reflected in their parenting behavior have yielded conflicting evidence. In one study on mind-mindedness, mothers and fathers were found to use different types of mind-related comments while interacting with their child (e.g., mothers more often spoke from the child's point of view, whereas fathers more often referenced their child's problem-solving process); however, greater mind-mindedness in general was associated with more sensitive and responsive parent-infant interactions among both mothers and fathers (Lundy, 2003). In contrast, in a more recent study, mothers and fathers did not differ in mind-mindedness, but only fathers' mind-mindedness was related to parenting quality (in terms of warmth and sensitivity; Zeegers et al., 2018). ...
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We examined whether parents’ mind perception of young children (i.e., perceptions of young children’s cognitive, emotional, and perceptual capacities), as well as their interest in and curiosity about their own young child’s mental states are associated with parenting behavior. In a sample of 234 US parents (58% mothers; Mean age=35.62 years) of 3- to 5-year-olds, we found that mind perception, interest and curiosity, and self-reported positive parenting behavior were all positively related. Mediation analyses suggested that parents who attributed more mental capacities to young children in general were more interested in their own child’s mental states and, in turn, more likely to report engaging in positive parenting behaviors. Compared to fathers, mothers reported perceiving greater mental capacities in young children, and greater interest and curiosity in their own child’s mental states. We explored these perceptions as possible mediators for an association between parent gender and parenting behavior.
... The recruitment of these areas while interacting with their own infant or being exposed to related stimuli is not surprising, as fathers have to pay attention to social cues that facilitate the understanding of infants' mental and socio-emotional status. Previous research has highlighted that fathers have similar capacity to understand and interpret infants' social cues and to produce mind-related comments when compared to mothers [62]. The recruitment of these circuits may sustain the observed capacity of fathers to provide accurate interpretations of their infants' social cues. ...
Article
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As fathers are increasingly involved in childcare, understanding the neurological underpinnings of fathering has become a key research issue in developmental psychobiology research. This systematic review specifically focused on (1) highlighting methodological issues of paternal brain research using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and (2) summarizing findings related to paternal brain responses to auditory and visual infant stimuli. Sixteen papers were included from 157 retrieved records. Sample characteristics (e.g., fathers' and infant's age, number of kids, and time spent caregiving), neuroimaging information (e.g., technique, task, stimuli, and processing), and main findings were synthesized by two independent authors. Most of the reviewed works used different stimuli and tasks to test fathers' responses to child visual and/or auditory stimuli. Pre-processing and first-level analyses were performed with standard pipelines. Greater heterogeneity emerged in second-level analyses. Three main cortical networks (mentalization, embodied simulation, and emotion regulation) and a subcortical network emerged linked with fathers' responses to infants' stimuli, but additional areas (e.g., frontal gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex) were also responsive to infants' visual or auditory stimuli. This review suggests that a distributed and complex brain network may be involved in facilitating fathers' sensitivity and responses to infant-related stimuli. Nonetheless, specific methodological caveats, the exploratory nature of large parts of the literature to date, and the presence of heterogeneous tasks and measures also demonstrate that systematic improvements in study designs are needed to further advance the field.
... Research over the last two decades has demonstrated positive associations between caregivers' mind-mindedness (Meins, 1997) and children's cognitive and behavioral development (see McMahon & Bernier, 2017 for a review). In particular, there are well established links between caregivers' ability to be mind-minded about their children-to view them as individuals with their own thoughts, feelings, desires, and beliefs-and secure attachment spanning the first decade of life (Lundy, 2003;Meins et al., 2012;Meins, Bureau, & Fernyhough, 2018;Meins, Fernyhough, Fradley, & Tuckey, 2001;Meins, Fernyhough, Rus-sell, & Clark-Carter, 1998;Miller, Kim, Boldt, Goffin, & Kochanska, 2019). Long-term predictive relations have also been reported for children's understanding of other people (Centifanti, Meins, & Fernyhough, 2016) and educational attainment (Meins, Fernyhough, & Centifanti, 2019). ...
Article
Mind‐mindedness is a measure of the tendency to represent significant others in internal state terms and is central to supportive parent–infant relationships. The two studies reported here explored whether mind‐mindedness generalizes to representations of unknown individuals, using a novel task that assessed individual differences in adults’ tendency to interpret others’ behavior with reference to their internal states: the Unknown Mother–Infant Interaction Task (UMIIT). We compared UMIIT performance with measures of mind‐mindedness from (a) adults’ descriptions of close friends and partners (Study 1, N = 96) and (b) mothers’ appropriate versus nonattuned comments on their infants’ internal states (Study 2, N = 56). In line with the proposal that mind‐mindedness is a relational construct, UMIIT performance was unrelated to mind‐mindedness in both studies.
... (b) Interactional synchrony in the mother-infant relationship is associated with a more positive cognitive and psychosocial development. In particular synchrony predicts better adaptation overall [e.g., the capacity for empathy in adolescence (Feldman, 2007)], symbolic play and internal state speech (Feldman and Greenbaum, 1997), the relation between mind-related comments and attachment security (Lundy, 2002(Lundy, , 2003, and mutual initiation and mutual compliance (Rocissano et al., 1987;Lindsey et al., 1997;qtd. in Leclere et al., 2014). ...
... It has been shown that marital conflicts may have an adverse impact on parent-infant bonding, and that fathers' prenatal marital withdrawal is associated with a more negative affect and detachment in family interactions, including child interaction (Paley et al., 2005). Likewise, Lundy (2002) reported that marital dissatisfaction adversely affected paternal synchrony and the security of father-infant bonding. Fathers seem to be consistently more involved in interaction with their infants when they and their partners have supportive attitudes toward paternal involvement. ...
Article
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This study investigates whether fathers’ adverse childhood experiences (ACE) and attachment style reported during pregnancy predict fathers’ perception of child behavior assessed 12 months postpartum, expressed by the Parenting Stress Index (PSI), Child Domain. Prospective fathers (N = 835) were recruited to “The Little in Norway (LiN) study” (Moe & Smith) at nine well‐baby clinics in Norway, with data collection composed of five time points during pregnancy and two time points postpartum (6 and 12 months). The main analyses included linear regression, path‐analysis modeling, and intraclass correlation based on mixed effects modeling. First, linear regression analyses showed that neither fathers’ ACE nor attachment style significantly predicted perceived child behavior postpartum directly. Furthermore, path analyses showed that ACE and less secure attachment style (especially avoidant attachment) measured early in pregnancy strongly predicted negatively perceived child behavior, mediated by fathers’ mental health symptoms during pregnancy and partner disharmony postpartum. Second, intraclass correlation analyses showed that fathers’ perceived child behavior showed substantial stability between 6 and 12 months postpartum. Family interventions beginning in pregnancy may be most beneficial given that fathers’ early experiences and perceptions of attachment in pregnancy were associated with later partner disharmony and stress.
... De plus, les chiens utilisent leur propriétaire comme base de sécurité, sa présence augmentant l'exploration et les épisodes de jeux . Interaction avec la figure d'attachement et qualité du lien La qualité de l'interaction avec la figure d'attachement et particulièrement la sensibilité maternelle, c'est-à-dire la capacité de la mère à percevoir et répondre de manière adéquate aux besoins du jeune (Ainsworth et al., 1974), a été suggérée comme jouant un rôle dans la mise en place d'un attachement secure (Ainsworth et al., 1974Atkinson, et al., 2005 ;Laranjo et al., 2008 ;Lundy, 2003 ;McElwain & Booth-Laforce, 2006 ;Meins et al., 2001). ...
... Evidence suggests that approximately 5-10% of fathers experience depression in the postnatal period (Paulson & Bazemore, 2010). The disorder is associated with both parenting difficulties (Davis, Davis, Freed, & Clark, 2011;Arnott & Meins, 2007;Wilson & Durbin, 2010;Lundy, 2003) and an increased risk of behavioral and emotional problems in their children (LaBounty, Wellman, Olson, Lagattuta, & Liu, 2008;Ramchandani et al., 2008;Paulson, Keefe, & Leiferman, 2009). Nevertheless, differences emerged regarding the child's perceived temperament. ...
Article
Objective Infant temperament is biologically determined. However, there is increasing proof that environmental factors may also have a relevant influence. The present study focuses on the role of parental reflective function (RF; Fonagy et al., 1998), that is, the psychological basis of emotion regulation. Methods RF was assessed in 40 low-risk first-time parents during the seventh month of pregnancy, using the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI; Main, Goldwyn, & Hesse, 1984–2002). At the baby's sixth month, parents responded to the Infant Behavior Questionnaire–Revised (Gartstein & Rothbart, 2003), aimed to evaluate the child's perceived temperament and the Parenting Stress Index–SF (Abidin, 1995). Parents’ depression was measured with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS; Benvenuti et al., 1999). Results No difference was found between mothers and fathers regarding RF and depression scores. Self-reported depression was associated with lower scores of RF. Lower RF during pregnancy was associated with higher child dysfunctional interaction in both mothers and fathers. Also, lower maternal RF was associated with higher perceived infant sadness whereas lower paternal RF was associated with higher infant negative affectivity. Conclusions Early parenting programs should enhance maternal and paternal reflective functioning to promote sensitive caregiving behaviors and support the child's development.
... Behavioral coding studies often analyze synchrony according to descriptive measures calculated from the raw data of the scale. By means of behavioral coding, synchrony has been studied as a mediator of relations between attachment and mind-related comments (Lundy, 2003) and attachment and infant cardiac vagal tone (Waters and Mendes, 2016). Behavioral coding has been utilized to study factors that modulate motherinfant behavioral synchrony, such as maternal anxiety (Moore et al., 2016), maternal nurturance and child emotional negativity (Skuban et al., 2006). ...
Article
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The temporal dynamics of parent-infant synchrony have been well documented. In recent years, the introduction of more accurate technologies for tracking movements has allowed the distinction of different morphological patterns of dyadic coordination. However, the potential of these technologies to explore infant-adult synchrony has not yet been explored. In the present study, we examined the temporal, spatial, and morphological synchrony patterns of infant-unknown adult pairs participating in a storytime session by a motion capture system (mocap). We find low but significant correlation levels of body synchrony between infants and unknown adults. This synchronized coactivity adopted two differentiated forms: mirror-like and anatomical. While the infants’ movements mirrored those of the adults with a lag (0.9 s), the adults’ reactions to the infants were anatomical with delay (0.4 s). This evidence could contribute novel insights to rethink synchrony and its measurement.
... On the other hand, when the social partner in play is the mother, appropriate mind-related comments might predict greater symbolic play abilities because this attunement to the infant's thoughts and feelings may relate to mothers engaging in the types of mother-toddler interactions that allow play themes to be developed more fully. The fact that appropriate mind-related comments have been shown to predict secure mother-child attachment (e.g., Lundy, 2003;Meins, Bureau, & Fernyhough, 2018;Meins et al., 2012;Zeegers, Colonnesi, Stams, & Meins, 2017) is in line with this suggestion. ...
Article
Relations between mothers' mind-mindedness (appropri-ate attunement to their infants' internal states) at 6 and 12 months and infants' early symbolic play during infant-mother pretense at 12 and 18 months were investigated in a sample of 43 mothers and infants. Mothers' appropriate mind-related comments were associated with average level, length, complexity, and maturity level of symbolic play. Specific sub-categories of appropriate mind-related comments were identified as independent predictors of chil-dren's symbolic play. Appropriate comments about desires and cognitions at 6 months were associated with average level and length of episodes, as well as with maturity level of symbolic play at 12 months. Longitudinal stability in the appropriateness and content of mothers' mind-related comments was also investigated. The results are discussed in terms of the proposal that attunement to specific types of internal state should vary as a function of infant age in order to index mind-mindedness.
... Research over the past two decades has documented how caregivers' early mind-mindedness is associated with a number of positive child outcomes (see [7] for a review). Appropriate mind-related comments in the first year of life predict secure infant-caregiver attachment [5,8,9], whereas non-attuned comments predict insecure attachment [6,10]. Early appropriate mind-related comments are also predictive of superior mentalizing abilities throughout the preschool years [11][12][13][14][15]. ...
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The present study reports on the first evaluation of a parenting intervention utilizing a smartphone app, BabyMind. The intervention aimed to facilitate mothers' mind-mindedness-attunement to their infants' internal states. Mothers in the intervention group (n = 90) used the BabyMind app from their infants' births and were followed up at age 6 months (n = 66). Mothers in the control group (n = 151) were recruited when their infants were age 6 months and had never used the BabyMind app. Mind-mindedness when interacting with their infants was significantly higher in intervention group mothers than in control group mothers. The intervention was equally effective in facilitating mind-mindedness in young and older mothers. These findings are discussed in terms of the potential for interventions utilizing smartphone apps to improve parenting and children's developmental outcome in vulnerable and hard-to-reach groups.
... This tendency to interpret the infant's behavior as meaningful and intentional can be conceptualized as parental mind-mindedness-the parent's attunement to their infant's internal states (Meins, Fernyhough, Fradley, & Tuckey, 2001;Meins et al., 2012). Parental mind-mindedness in the first year of life has been found to predict a range of relational and cognitive outcomes including attachment security, language ability, theory of mind, and behavioral functioning (Kirk et al., 2015;Laranjo, Bernier, & Meins, 2008;Laranjo, Bernier, Meins, & Carlson, 2010, 2014Lundy, 2003;Meins, 2013;Meins et al., 2002;Meins, Muñoz-Centifanti, Fernyhough, & Fishburn, 2013;Meins, Fernyhough, Arnott, Leekam, & de Rosnay, 2013). There is some evidence that mothers with clinical levels of depression are less likely to comment appropriately on their infants' mental states compared with psychologically healthy mothers (Pawlby et al., 2010), and mothers with severe mental illness have been found to have lower levels of mind-mindedness compared with psychologically healthy controls (Schacht et al., 2017). ...
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Little is known about the relation between levels of restricted and repetitive behavior (RRB) in infants and parent factors. The present study investigated maternal and psychosocial factors (depressive symptoms, socio‐economic status, social support) and mother–infant engagement factors (mind‐mindedness, sensitivity, and infant–mother attachment security) as predictors of children's RRB at age 26 months in a sample of 206 mothers and children. Maternal depressive symptoms predicted levels of sensory and motor repetitive behavior and rigid, routinized, and ritualistic repetitive behavior. Lower socioeconomic status also predicted independent variance in children's sensory and motor repetitive behavior. The relations between maternal depressive symptoms and both types of RRB were not mediated through observational measures of maternal sensitivity or mind‐mindedness at 8 months, or attachment security at 15 months. The results are discussed in terms of whether stress regulation, self‐stimulation, and genetic susceptibility can help explain the observed link between maternal depressive symptoms and RRB in the child.
... Otra competencia del adulto que ha mostrado estar relacionada con el desarrollo del niño es la mentalización (Laranjo et al., 2008;Lundy, 2003;Meins et al., 2001;Stern, 1985). La mentalización se refiere a la capacidad de significar la experiencia de uno mismo y de otros en estados mentales como pensamientos, creencias, deseos y sentimientos, de manera que se otorgue sentido a la experiencia y se anticipen las acciones (Fonagy et al., 2002). ...
Article
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El personal educativo (PE) es una figura que provee soporte físico y emocional al niño, y su interacción contribuye al desarrollo del lenguaje. A su vez, se ha demostrado que la mentalización y sensibilidad del adulto son competencias que influyen en el desarrollo infantil. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar la asociación de la sensibilidad y mentalización del PE sobre el desarrollo del lenguaje de los niños a los 12 y 30 meses, contro-lando la sensibilidad y mentalización del apoderado. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 78 diadas PE-niño que asistían a centros de educación ini-cial de Santiago de Chile. Los resultados mostraron una asociación entre la escala de sensibilidad "interacción lúdica" del PE y el lenguaje expresivo de los niños a los 12 meses, lo cual predijo un mayor lenguaje a los 30 me-ses. No se observaron asociaciones entre mentalización y lenguaje a los 12 meses; únicamente efectos predictivos a los 30 meses. Teaching staff (TS) provide children with physical and emotional support, and their interaction contributes to language development. In turn, it has been proved the adult awareness and mentalization are competences that influence children's development. This study identifies the connection between awareness and mentalization among TS on the development of children's language at 12 and 30 months, controlling the awareness and mentalization levels of the teacher in charge. The sample consisted of 78 TS-child pairs at basic education institutions in Santiago de Chile. The results showed an association between the "playful interaction" awareness scale of TS and the expressive language of children at 12 months, which predicted greater language ability at 30 months. No associations were observed between mentalization and language at 12 months; only predictive effects at 30 months.
... While a body of research exists on the impact of mothers' mindmindedness on children's emotional development, research on the impact of fathers' mind-mindedness is to our knowledge limited to three studies on the prediction of infant attachment security and the prediction of children's social understanding and self-regulated conduct (Arnott & Meins, 2007;Gagné, Bernier, & McMahon, 2018;Lundy, 2003Lundy, , 2013. Although these studies had small sample sizes, the outcomes suggest that fathers' mind-mindedness is also predictive of children's socio-emotional development, highlighting the relevance of including both mothers and fathers in developmental research on mind-mindedness. ...
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The main aim of this study was to test whether mothers’ and fathers’ mind-mindedness predicts infants’ physiological emotion regulation (Heart Rate Variability; HRV) across the first year of life. Three hypotheses were examined: a) parents’ mind-mindedness at four and 12 months predicts infants’ HRV at 12 months over and above infants’ initial HRV levels at four months, b) mothers’ and fathers’ mind-mindedness independently predict infant HRV, and c) the effects of mind-mindedness on infant HRV (partially) operate via parenting behaviour. Infants’ HRV was assessed during rest and a stranger approach. Mind-mindedness was assessed by calculating the proportions of appropriate and non-attuned mind-related comments during free-play interactions, and parenting quality was observed at four and 12 months in the same interactions. Path analyses showed that mothers’ appropriate mind-related comments at four and 12 months predicted higher baseline HRV at 12 months, whereas mothers’ non-attuned comments predicted lower baseline HRV at 12 months. Similar, but concurrent, relations were found for fathers’ appropriate and non-attuned mind-related comments and infant baseline HRV at 12 months. Additionally, fathers’ appropriate mind-related comments showed an indirect association with infant baseline HRV at 12 months via fathers’ parenting quality. With regard to infant HRV reactivity during the stranger approach, mothers’ appropriate mind-related comments at four months and fathers’ non-attuned mind-related comments at 12 months predicted a larger HRV decline during the stranger approach at 12 months. Infants’ HRV at four months did not predict parents’ later mind-mindedness. The results indicate that mothers’ and fathers’ appropriate and non-attuned mind-related speech uniquely impacts the development of infants’ physiological emotion regulation.
... Otra competencia del adulto que ha mostrado estar relacionada con el desarrollo del niño es la mentalización (Laranjo et al., 2008;Lundy, 2003;Meins et al., 2001;Stern, 1985). La mentalización se refiere a la capacidad de significar la experiencia de uno mismo y de otros en estados mentales como pensamientos, creencias, deseos y sentimientos, de manera que se otorgue sentido a la experiencia y se anticipen las acciones (Fonagy et al., 2002). ...
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Teaching staff (TS) provide children with physical and emotional support, and their interaction contributes to language development. In turn, it has been proved the adult awareness and mentalization are competences that influence children's development. This study identifies the connection between awareness and mentalization among TS on the development of children's language at 12 and 30 months, controlling the awareness and mentalization levels of the teacher in charge. The sample consisted of 78 TS-child pairs at basic education institutions in Santiago de Chile. The results showed an association between the "playful interaction" awareness scale of TS and the expressive language of children at 12 months, which predicted greater language ability at 30 months. No associations were observed between mentalization and language at 12 months; only predictive effects at 30 months.
... The present study also focused exclusively on mothers and therefore did not assess fathers' contribution to predicting children's educational attainment. Research on mind-mindedness in fathers suggests that paternal mind-mindedness relates to children's development in the preschool years in the same way that maternal mind-mindedness does (Lundy, 2003(Lundy, , 2013. It would thus be interesting to investigate how both maternal and paternal mind-mindedness predict children's development over the longer term. ...
Article
Relations between mothers' mind-mindedness (appropriate and nonattuned mind-related comments) at 8 months (N = 206), and children's educational attainment at ages 7 (n = 158) and 11 (n = 156) were investigated in a British sample. Appropriate mind-related comments were positively correlated with reading and mathematics performance at both ages but only in the low-socioeconomic status (SES) group. Path analyses showed that in the low-SES group, appropriate mind-related comments directly predicted age-11 reading performance, with age-4 verbal ability mediating the relation between appropriate mind-related comments and age-7 reading. In contrast, maternal sensitivity and infant–mother attachment security did not predict children's educational attainment. These findings are discussed in terms of genetic and environmental contributions to reading and mathematics performance.
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There is now ample evidence from the preclinical and clinical fields that early life trauma has both dramatic and long-lasting effects on neurobiological systems and functions that are involved in different forms of psychopathology as well as on health in general. To date, a comprehensive review of the recent research on the effects of early and later life trauma is lacking. This book fills an obvious gap in academic and clinical literature by providing reviews which summarize and synthesize these findings. Topics considered and discussed include the possible biological and neuropsychological effects of trauma at different epochs and their effect on health. This book will be essential reading for psychiatrists, clinical psychologists, mental health professionals, social workers, pediatricians and specialists in child development.
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The aim of this research was to develop a new observation-based measure for assessing caregivers' mind-mindedness in the preschool years and investigate whether this measure could explain the link between mothers' early appropriate mind-related comments and children's later mentalizing abilities. The new measure was developed using a sample of mothers and 44-month-olds (N = 171), characterizing mind-mindedness in terms of (a) solicited child involvement, (b) adaptive communication, and (c) internal state talk. These indices were positively related to established assessments of mind-mindedness at 8, 44, and 61 months. Positive associations were also observed with children's later mentalizing abilities. The new measure of mind-mindedness did not, however, mediate the relation between mind-mindedness in the first year of life and children's mentalizing abilities. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).
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In a conversational exchange, interlocutors use social cues including conversational turn-taking to communicate. There has been attention in the literature concerning how mothers, fathers, boys, and girls converse with each other, and in particular who initiates a conversation. Better understanding of conversational dynamics may deepen our understanding of social roles, speech and language development, and individual language variability. Here we use large-scale automatic analysis of 186 naturalistic daylong acoustic recordings to examine the conversational dynamics of 26 families with children about 30 months of age to better understand communication roles. Families included 15 with boys and 11 with girls. There was no difference in conversation initiation rate by child sex, but children initiated more conversations than mothers, and mothers initiated more than fathers. Results support developmental theories of the different and variable roles that interlocutors play in a social context.
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Substantial developmental changes in sleep occur during the preschool period, but few studies have investigated the factors that forecast these developments. The aim of this study was to examine whether three aspects of father–child relationships in toddlerhood predicted individual differences in developmental patterns of change in five actigraphy‐derived sleep variables during the preschool period (N = 67; sleep assessed yearly between 2 and 4 years). In a predominantly White and middle‐to‐higher income sample, paternal mind‐mindedness and quality of father–child interactions were assessed during father–child free play at 18 months and fathers self‐reported on their involvement in childrearing at age 2. Multilevel growth modeling revealed that children whose father made more mind‐related comments during father–child interactions had a higher proportion of sleep taking place during nighttime as well as shorter daytime and total sleep duration at 2 years. This was, however, followed by a relative leveling off (i.e., less rapid change) of these sleep features between 2 and 4 years. Given previous studies documenting that nighttime sleep proportion increases while daytime and total sleep duration decrease during preschool years, the findings suggest that children who are exposed to more paternal mind‐mindedness may reach more mature sleep patterns earlier in development.
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Parental mentalization captures the parent’s abilities to represent his/her child as a psychological agent and the parent’s proclivity to understand and interpret child’s behavior in terms of mental states. Under this label, the literature emphasizes three different constructs: mind-mindedness, parental reflective functioning and insightfulness. Presently, there is no integrative review addressing all three constructs comprehensively through a comparative analysis. Furthermore, there is some confusion as to where the concepts overlap and differ, how they are distinctively operationalized and which measures are used to tap into each one of them. To address this issue, this article aims to synthesize the literature in a critical manner, reviewing mind-mindedness, parental reflective functioning and insightfulness. This study identifies key theoretical and methodological aspects of parental mentalization constructs (e.g., definition and conceptualization, measurements, parental and child correlates, strengths and weaknesses). Moreover, the constructs are compared based on their similarities and differences regarding definition, conceptualization and measurements. Finally, the paper offers some directions for further research. This review informs research in the field by providing an integrative and comprehensive understanding of parental mentalization.
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Introduction: Father-infant interactions are important for optimal offspring outcomes. Moreover, paternal perinatal psychopathology is associated with psychological and developmental disturbances in the offspring, and this risk may increase when both parents are unwell. While, the father-offspring relationship is a plausible mechanism of risk transmission, there is presently no “gold standard” tool for assessing the father-offspring relationship. Therefore, we systematically searched and reviewed the application and performance of tools used to assess the father-offspring relationship from pregnancy to 24-months postnatal. Methods: Four electronic databases (including MEDLINE, PsycINFO, Maternity and Infant Care Database, and CINAHL) were searched. Selected articles included evidence of father-offspring relationship assessment in relation to parental perinatal psychopathology and/or offspring outcomes. Data was extracted and synthesized according to the following: (i) evidence supporting the performance of tools in terms of their psychometric properties when applied in the context of fathers, (ii) tool specific characteristics, and (iii) study specific methodological aspects in which the tool was embedded. Results: Of the 30,500 records eligible for screening, 38 unique tools used to assess the father-offspring relationship were identified, from 61 studies. Ten tools were employed in the context of paternal psychopathology, three in the context of maternal psychopathology, and seven in the context of both maternal and paternal psychopathology, while nine tools were applied in the context of offspring outcomes only. The remaining nine tools were used in the context of both parental psychopathology (i.e., paternal, and/or maternal psychopathology) and offspring outcomes. Evidence supporting the psychometric robustness of the extracted observational, self-report and interview-based tools was generally limited. Most tools were originally developed in maternal samples—with few tools demonstrating evidence of content validation specific to fathers. Furthermore, various elements influencing tool performance were recognized—including variation in tool characteristics (e.g., relationship dimensions assessed, assessment mode, and scoring formats) and study specific methodological aspects, (e.g., setting and study design, sample characteristics, timing and nature of parental psychopathology, and offspring outcomes). Conclusion: Given the strengths and limitations of each mode of assessment, future studies may benefit from a multimethod approach to assessing the father-offspring relationship, which may provide a more accurate assessment than one method alone.
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This article of the Zeitschrift für Psychodrama und Soziometrie describes a programme conducted with children living in foster care institutions in Bulgaria. The programme was based on psychodrama with the children group approach established by Aichinger and Holl (2017) and the Evidence-Based Trauma Stabilisation Programme (EBTS, Flegelskamp et al. 2020). It included ten group sessions specifically designed for the purpose of the project focusing on the fulfilment of the basic needs of children first defined by Grawe (2007). Twenty-four six- to ten-year-old children from four institutions in Bulgaria participated in the programme. The conclusion of the programme following a qualitative analysis of the group process was that it is effective and at least partially fulfils the basic psychological needs of the children.
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Introduction: Facial palsy is often associated with impaired facial function and altered appearance. However, the literature with regards to the psychological adjustment of children and adolescents with facial palsy has not been systematically reviewed to date. This paper aimed to review all published research with regards to psychosocial adjustment for children and adolescents with facial palsy. Methods: MEDLINE, CINAHL, Embase, PsychInfo and AMED databases were searched and data was extracted with regards to participant characteristics, study methodology, outcome measures used, psychosocial adjustment and study quality. Results: Five studies were eligible for inclusion, all of which investigated psychosocial adjustment in participants with Moebius syndrome, a form of congenital facial palsy. Many parents reported their children to have greater social difficulties than general population norms, with difficulties potentially increasing with age. Other areas of psychosocial adjustment, including behaviour, anxiety and depression, were found to be more comparable to the general population. Discussion: Children and adolescents with Moebius syndrome may experience social difficulties. However, they also demonstrate areas of resilience. Further research including individuals with facial palsy of other aetiologies is required in order to determine the psychosocial adjustment of children and adolescents with facial palsy.
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Growing research on parental mind-mindedness has revealed significant positive associations between parents' appropriate mind-minded (MM) comments to their infants and children's future theory of mind (ToM). In turn, ToM has been broadly linked with a range of social-moral competencies. However, few (if any) studies have examined long-term paths from mothers' and fathers' mind-mindedness in infancy to conscience at early school age, with ToM serving as a mediator of those links. We tested such a model in a prospective longitudinal study of 102 community infants, mothers, and fathers. Parents' MM comments to their infants were coded in naturalistic interactions in snack and play contexts at 7 months. Children's ToM was assessed in false-belief tasks at 4.5 and 5.5 years, and two aspects of their conscience were assessed at 6.5 years: discomfort following transgressions and prosocial judgments in hypothetical moral dilemmas. We tested our model in a comprehensive path analysis that accounted for developmental continuity of both aspects of conscience. Children's ToM was positively associated with both measures of future conscience. The long-term paths from parental mind-mindedness in infancy to conscience were found for mother-child relationships only. For mothers and children, we supported the paths from maternal appropriate MM comments during a snack context in infancy to both aspects of children's conscience mediated by children's ToM. The findings extend earlier evidence suggesting the potentially important role of the parent-child interactive context for long-term effects of early parental mind-mindedness and highlight differences in the roles MM comments may play in mother-child and father-child relationships.
Article
Background: Children who are securely attached to at least one parent are able to be comforted by that parent when they are distressed and explore the world confidently by using that parent as a 'secure base'. Research suggests that a secure attachment enables children to function better across all aspects of their development. Promoting secure attachment, therefore, is a goal of many early interventions. Attachment is mediated through parental sensitivity to signals of distress from the child. One means of improving parental sensitivity is through video feedback, which involves showing a parent brief moments of their interaction with their child, to strengthen their sensitivity and responsiveness to their child's signals. Objectives: To assess the effects of video feedback on parental sensitivity and attachment security in children aged under five years who are at risk for poor attachment outcomes. Search methods: In November 2018 we searched CENTRAL, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, nine other databases and two trials registers. We also handsearched the reference lists of included studies, relevant systematic reviews, and several relevant websites SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and quasi-RCTs that assessed the effects of video feedback versus no treatment, inactive alternative intervention, or treatment as usual for parental sensitivity, parental reflective functioning, attachment security and adverse effects in children aged from birth to four years 11 months. Data collection and analysis: We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. Main results: This review includes 22 studies from seven countries in Europe and two countries in North America, with a total of 1889 randomised parent-child dyads or family units. Interventions targeted parents of children aged under five years, experiencing a wide range of difficulties (such as deafness or prematurity), or facing challenges that put them at risk of attachment issues (for example, parental depression). Nearly all studies reported some form of external funding, from a charitable organisation (n = 7) or public body, or both (n = 18). We considered most studies as being at low or unclear risk of bias across the majority of domains, with the exception of blinding of participants and personnel, where we assessed all studies as being at high risk of performance bias. For outcomes where self-report measures were used, such as parental stress and anxiety, we rated all studies at high risk of bias for blinding of outcome assessors. Parental sensitivity. A meta-analysis of 20 studies (1757 parent-child dyads) reported evidence of that video feedback improved parental sensitivity compared with a control or no intervention from postintervention to six months' follow-up (standardised mean difference (SMD) 0.34, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.20 to 0.49, moderate-certainty evidence). The size of the observed impact compares favourably to other, similar interventions. Parental reflective functioning. No studies reported this outcome. Attachment security. A meta-analysis of two studies (166 parent-child dyads) indicated that video feedback increased the odds of being securely attached, measured using the Strange Situation Procedure, at postintervention (odds ratio 3.04, 95% CI 1.39 to 6.67, very low-certainty evidence). A second meta-analysis of two studies (131 parent-child dyads) that assessed attachment security using a different measure (Attachment Q-sort) found no effect of video feedback compared with the comparator groups (SMD 0.02, 95% CI -0.33 to 0.38, very low-certainty evidence). Adverse events. Eight studies (537 parent-child dyads) contributed data at postintervention or short-term follow-up to a meta-analysis of parental stress, and two studies (311 parent-child dyads) contributed short-term follow-up data to a meta-analysis of parental anxiety. There was no difference between intervention and comparator groups for either outcome. For parental stress the SMD between video feedback and control was -0.09 (95% CI -0.26 to 0.09, low-certainty evidence), while for parental anxiety the SMD was -0.28 (95% CI -0.87 to 0.31, very low-certainty evidence). Child behaviour. A meta-analysis of two studies (119 parent-child dyads) at long-term follow-up found no evidence of the effectiveness of video feedback on child behaviour (SMD 0.04, 95% CI -0.33 to 0.42, very low-certainty evidence). A moderator analysis found no evidence of an effect for the three prespecified variables (intervention type, number of feedback sessions and participating carer) when jointly tested. However, parent gender (both parents versus only mothers or only fathers) potentially has a statistically significant negative moderation effect, though only at α (alpha) = 0.1 AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: There is moderate-certainty evidence that video feedback may improve sensitivity in parents of children who are at risk for poor attachment outcomes due to a range of difficulties. There is currently only little, very low-certainty evidence regarding the impact of video feedback on attachment security, compared with control: results differed based on the type of measure used, and follow-up was limited in duration. There is no evidence that video feedback has an impact on parental stress or anxiety (low- and very low-certainty evidence, respectively). Further evidence is needed regarding the longer-term impact of video feedback on attachment and more distal outcomes such as children's behaviour (very low-certainty evidence). Further research is needed on the impact of video-feedback on paternal sensitivity and parental reflective functioning, as no study measured these outcomes. This review is limited by the fact that the majority of included parents were mothers.
Article
We compared systematically the structure and the content of maternal and paternal speech to infant boys and girls while we also investigated the effect of infant’s age. Six girls and five boys were observed in the interaction with their mothers and their fathers (dyads came from the same families) at home from the second to the sixth month after birth at 15- day intervals. Detailed analysis of time revealed that fathers favour systematically the temporal structure of their speech to both girls and boys, while mothers favour boys in infant emotion/attention thematic sequences and girls in infant attention speech. Variations are counterbalanced in the way mothers and fathers respond sensitively to known marked changes in infant- parent communication over the first 6 months of life. These results are discussing in relation to the theory of innate intersubjectivity and the complementary company and care both parents give to developing infant girls and boys.
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Recent studies suggest that mind-mindedness is an important element of caregiver–child interactions in family and childcare context. This study investigated caregivers’ mind-mindedness in a nationally representative Dutch sample and its relation with structural quality factors (i.e., group size, caregivers’ education and work experience, group type, and situation) and caregivers’ interactive skills. Participants were 99 caregivers recruited in 50 childcare centers. Mind-mindedness was assessed with observations during free-play and lunch situations in infant, preschool, and mixed-age groups (0–4-year-olds). Caregivers’ appropriate and nonattuned mind-related comments were coded as individual (over/toward one child) or group related (over or toward more than one child). Caregivers’ interactive skills were assessed using the Caregiver Interaction Profile (CIP) scales. Research Findings: Caregivers generally refer to children’s desires, thoughts, and emotions in about 10% of their verbal interactions, with a low incidence rate of nonattuned comments (< 1%). Mind-mindedness was found to be significantly associated with structural quality characteristics and caregivers’ interactive skills. Caregivers with greater interactive skills produced fewer individual and more group appropriate mind-minded comments in mixed-age groups. Practice or Policy: We discuss the relevance of mind-minded comments at individual and group level for the future study of mental-state talk in early childhood education and care. © 2019, © 2019 The Author(s). Published with license by Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.
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We examined the association between maternal Mind-Mindedness (MM) and secure attachment in an Arab sample in Israel. Seventy-six infant–mother dyads were observed during free play to assess maternal MM and in the Strange Situation Procedure to assess attachment. Mothers of secure infants were hypothesized to use more appropriate and fewer non-attuned mind-related comments than mothers of insecure infants. The results showed that mothers of secure infants used more appropriate mind-related comments than mothers of disorganized infants, with no significant differences compared to mothers of ambivalent infants. Also, mothers of secure infants used less non-attuned mind-related comments than both mothers of disorganized infants and mothers of ambivalent infants. In addition, the findings showed that: (1) mothers of secure infants were most likely to show the combination of high appropriate and low non-attuned mind-related comments; (2) mothers of disorganized infants were most likely to show the combination of high non-attuned and low appropriate mind-related comments; and (3) a nonsignificant trend indicated that mothers of ambivalent infants were most likely to show a combination of high appropriate and high non-attuned mind-related comments.The findings support the relevance of MM in an Arab sample.
Article
This study examined the prospective links between paternal mind‐mindedness (MM) and 2 indices of preschoolers' self‐regulated conduct, namely, inhibitory control and rule‐compatible conduct. Ninety‐two families (47 boys) participated in 2 assessments. Paternal MM was assessed with a 10‐min father–child free‐play session when children were aged 18 months. Children's rule‐compatible conduct was reported by mothers when children reached 3 years of age, and inhibitory control was measured with a Snack Delay task, also administered at 3 years. The results suggested that after accounting for the contribution of child temperament (social fearfulness), paternal MM was positively related to children's inhibitory control. In contrast, the relation between paternal MM and mother‐reported rule‐compatible conduct was not significant. The results are interpreted in light of the mechanisms that may account for the links between paternal MM and preschoolers' emerging capacity to voluntarily control their behaviour. Highlights • This study examines the prospective links between paternal mind-mindedness and two indices of preschoolers' subsequent self‐regulated conduct. • Paternal mind‐mindedness was assessed with father‐child free‐play, and self‐regulated conduct with an inhibitory control task and a mother questionnaire. • The results suggest that paternal mind‐mindedness is positively related to children's inhibitory control.
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This chapter reviews recent research concerning the levels, origins. and consequences of paternal involvement. Its focus is restricted to adult lathers in heterosexual two-parent families, as other chapters in this volume consider other important paternal groups. Investigations conducted in the United States provide most of the data discussed here, but some research from other industrial countries is included. Several themes guide the chapter. Data on fathers' average level of involvement are of great interest to many people, but these assessments vary considerably according to many factors, not least the measures used. Descriptive results on fathers' average levels of involvement are actually far more variable than is generally realized. Nonetheless there is a tendency to think that the question "How involved are U.S. fathers?" should have a simple answer. Further conceptualization is needed of the origins and sources of paternal involvement. Lamb. Pleck, Charnov, and Levine (1985: Pleck, Lamb, & Levine 1986) proposed a four-factor model for its sources: motivation, skills and self-confidence. social supports. and institutional practices. This framework needs to be integrated with other available models for the determinants of fathering, and with more general theoretical perspectives on parental functioning. Because the construct of paternal involvement called attention to an important dimension of fathers' behavior neglected in prior research and theory. it was an important advance. However, the utility, of the construct in its original. content-free sense now needs to be reconsidered. The critical question is: How good is the evidence that fathers' amount of involvement, without taking into account its content and quality, is consequential for children, mothers, or fathers themselves?
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This research report describes a search for possible relations between children's developing theories of mind and aspects of their social-emotional maturity conducted by comparing the performance of 3-year-olds on measures of false belief understanding with teacher ratings of certain of their social-emotional skills and behaviours. The intuitions guiding this exploratory effort were, not only that a working grasp of the possibility of false belief would prove broadly predictive of social-emotional maturity, but also that such associations would be missing in the specific case of those preschool behaviours largely governed by a simple mastery of social conventions. As a step toward evaluating these possibilities a group of 40 preschoolers were given a battery of six measures of false belief understanding. The preschool teachers of these same children then completed a 40-item questionnaire covering a wide variety of markers of social-emotional maturity. Half of these items (termed “Intentional”) featured behaviours and skills thought to require some measure of insight into the mental lives of others, whereas the remainder (termed “Conventional”) were meant to sample a less heady domain of abilities open to those with no more than a simple grasp of social conventions, or the exercise of self-control. Consistent with the view that individual differences in children's early false belief understanding would express themselves primarily in those areas least governed by heavily routinised social conventions, our own summary measure of false belief understanding correlated positively only with those behavioural items classified as “Intentional”.
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A perspective on continuity in development and adaptation was proposed and examined in light of data from the second year of life. Within this perspective it is assumed that despite discontinuous advances in developmental level and despite dramatic changes in the behavioral repertoire, there is continuity in the quality of individual adaptation. Such quality is assessed by examining the child's functioning with respect to issues salient for the particular developmental period. In this study the link between quality of attachment in infancy (the organization of attachment behavior) and quality of play and problem-solving behavior at age 2 years was examined in 48 infants. Based on completely independent assessments, infants assessed as securely attached at 18 months were predicted and found to be more enthusiastic, persistent, cooperative, and, in general, more effective than insecurely attached infants in the 2-year assessment. All measures were in the predicted direction; in some cases there was virtually no overlap between groups. The differences apparently were not due to development quotient (DQ) or temperament. The earlier infant behavior also predicted mother's behavior in the 2-year assessment. Implications for developmental theory and research are discussed.
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Hypothesized that a rudimentary capacity to impute internal states to self and to other emerges with the onset of communicative intentions. The ability to speak about mental states begins late in the 2nd yr and burgeons in the 3rd yr. Mothers of 30 28-mo-olds were asked to report child utterances containing 6 categories of internal-state words (perception, physiology, affect, volition/ability, cognition, and moral judgment/obligation). Of these, affect, cognition, and moral terms were less common than the others. Ss who applied a specific label to self and other tended to use it also to speak about nonpresent states. Use of a term for only self was more common than use for only other. Causal statements referred primarily to affect. Three categories of causal statements were identified: state change/maintenance, antecedents of states, and definitions of states in terms of other states, physical symptoms, and behaviors. Assessments of internal-state language that were obtained through maternal observation/report and directly from the child were highly correlated. (40 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Early attachment quality was related to social competence with an unfamiliar peer at age four, and to maternal management of peer interaction. Subjects were thirty-eight children, eighteen insecure and twenty securely attached children at twenty months. Approximately half of each group was middle-class and half was lower-class, high risk. At age four, each focal child and an unfamiliar play partner were videotaped during dyadic free play; the mother and the two children were videotaped building a house out of Duplo blocks. Behaviors of the mother and the focal child were coded using a social problem-solving framework. Results indicated that mothers of insecurely attached children were more adult-centered and less likely to use questions to meet their goals than were mothers of securely attached children. High-risk mothers were more adult-centered and more likely to use coercive, power assertive strategies than middle-class mothers. Four-year-old children who were insecurely attached as toddlers were more aggressive and their social interchanges were more likely to involve negative affect than securely attached children. Attachment x social class interactions suggested diverging maladaptive developmental pathways for insecures from different family environments.
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The purpose of this study is to investigate the determinants of maternal and paternal socioemotional investment in the child. Participants were part of a substudy at one of 10 sites participating in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Study of Early Child Care. Sixty-five fathers residing in families already participating in the larger NICHD study were recruited to participate in additional data collection during visits to the families' homes when the target children were 15 months of age. The dependent variables were three subscales (Acceptance and Responsivity, Delight, and Knowledge and Sensitivity) of the Parental Investment in Children (PIC) scale. Based on domains of influence identified by Doherty and colleagues, the relative influence of the following factors were examined; context (income-to-needs), the child (temperament and developmental status), the co-parental relationship (marital quality), the mother's employment status, and the quality of father's employment (strains from work). Differences in the determinants of mothering and fathering were found. For fathers, the child's Bayley score, and father's work strain had a negative influence on paternal acceptance and responsivity, while marital quality had a positive influence and mother employed and father's work strain had a negative influence on knowledge and sensitivity. None of the predictors influenced paternal delight. For maternal acceptance and responsivity, the child's temperament had a negative influence and being employed had a positive influence. Marital quality was a significant predictor of maternal knowledge and sensitivity while father's work strain had a positive impact on maternal delight. © 1999 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health
Article
Four groups (N = 80 families) of depressed (depressive symptoms) and nondepressed fathers and mothers were compared during interactions with their 3‐ to 6‐month‐old infants to determine how depressed versus nondepressed fathers interacted with their infants and how their interactions compared with depressed mothers interacting with their infants. Depressed and nondepressed fathers received similar ratings and depressed fathers received higher interaction ratings than depressed mothers. Although depressed fathers did not seem to behave negatively with their infants, their nondepressed partners showed less optimal interaction behaviors with their infants. © 1999 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health
Article
Families were examined at 6, 9, and 12 months in an intensive longitudinal study that included Home Behavior Attachment Q-sorts, laboratory Strange Situation assessment, home observations of infant temperament behavior on 24 occasions, observations of maternal parenting sensitivity on 12 occasions, and maternal reports of infant temperament. Maternal sensitivity was modestly related to Q-sort security and unrelated to Strange Situation classification. In contrast, observed infant temperament was more strongly related to both maternal sensitivity and Q-sort security. The relation between home and laboratory assessment of attachment security, which was at the level found in prior work (e.g., B. E. Vaughn & E. Waters, 1990), remained after the effects of observed and mother-reported infant temperament were partialed. Our data highlight the need to consider other factors besides maternal sensitivity in the explanation of variability in the attachment status of 1-year-olds.
Article
The present investigation explored (1) fathers’ contributions to children’s theory of mind (ToM) development, (2) the similarity between maternal and paternal mindmindedness (MM) in relation to children’s ToM, and (3) the relative predictive strength of two concurrently administered measures of MM (an online and an interview assessment) in relation to children’s ToM. Thirty-nine fathers, mothers, and their four-year-olds participated. Paternal MM was positively correlated with children’s ToM performance. In addition, the two groups of parents performed similarly on both measures of MM.The findings also suggest that mothers and fathers who scored higher on the MM interview were more attuned to their children’s mental processes during the online interaction measure of MM. The online measure of MM was found to mediate the relationship between the interview measure of MM and children’s ToM for the maternal–child data only.
Article
Data are presented from a longitudinal investigation examining the relationship between maternal mind-mindedness (MM) in infancy and socio-cognitive development in childhood. We revisited children (n = 18) who had taken part in a longitudinal study as infants. MM had been assessed at 10, 12, 16, and 20 months of age. We followed up these children at 5-6 years of age to test their higher order theory of mind (ToM) (using the strange stories task). The convergent validity, temporal stability, and predictive validity of the construct of MM were examined in a longitudinal data set. The five measures of MM were not significantly correlated. Mother's production of appropriate mind-related comments (but no other measures) showed evidence of temporal stability throughout infancy. Thus, MM (as measured by appropriate mind-related comments) was confirmed as a stable construct. Children's ToM at 5-6 years of age was significantly predicted by their mother's MM up to 4 years earlier, with MM accounting for 40% of the variance of the strange stories task scores. These findings identify a relationship between MM across a protracted period of infancy and socio-cognitive development at 5-6 years of age. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.
Article
Building upon Wood & Middleton's (1975) concept of parental scaffolding, the influence of parent-child interactions on children's competence within several tasks was investigated. Thirty-two 2-year-old children visited our lab twice, once with their mothers and once with their fathers. During each session dyads participated in problem-solving and literacy tasks, followed by independent child performance tasks. Although subtle differences were found between mothers' and fathers' contingent behaviours displayed during the interactions, at a global level, parents were equally effective in their ability to scaffold their children's emerging skills. Specifically, parental scaffolding behaviours were associated with children's success measured both during the interaction and independently (i.e. following the interactions). These results have implications for the interpretation of research comparing mothers and fathers, and lend support to the claim that scaffolding can be an effective instructional strategy.
Book
In spite of the upset children experience after parental separation, Furstenberg and Cherlin find that most children adapt successfully as long as their mother does reasonably well financially and psychologically, and as long as conflict between parents is low. The casualty of divorce is usually the declining relationship between fathers and their children.
Article
Does human cognitive development advance through a series of broad and general stages? If so, the child's mind at any point in its development should seem quite consistent and similar across situations in its maturity level and general style. That is, it should be relatively "homogeneous" rather than "heterogeneous" at any given age. There appear to be factors and considerations that make for both heterogeneity and homogeneity in the child's cognitive life. As to heterogeneity, many cognitive items (concepts, skills, etc.) may develop independently; they may not assist each other's development and there may be no common mediator to assist their codevelopment. Likewise, mental heterogeneity may occur because human beings have evolved to cope with certain cognitive tasks earlier or more easily than others. Intraindividual differences in aptitudes and experiences could also produce considerable heterogeneity. As to homogeneity, the child's information-processing capacity may impose an upper limit on how heterogeneous her mental level could be. There may also be more cognitive homogeneity (1) in the child's initial reaction to inputs than in her subsequent management of them; (2) at the beginning and end of an acquisitional sequence than in the middle of it; (3) in spontaneous, everyday cognition than in formal task or test situations; (4) in some cognitive domains than in others; (5) in some children than in others. It was concluded that cognitive development might appear more general-stage-like than many of us believed, if only we knew how and where to look.
Article
Mothers' mental-state references predict individual differences in preschoolers' false-belief (FB) understanding; less is known about the origins of corresponding variation in school-age children. To address this gap, 105 children completed observations with their mothers at child ages 2 and 6, three FB tasks and a verbal comprehension test at age 3, and five FB tasks at age 6. Seventy-seven of these children completed five Strange Stories at age 10. Individual differences in mothers' cognitive references at child age 2 predicted variation in children's FB understanding at age 6 and Strange Stories scores at age 10 (controlling for number of mothers' turns and children's mental-state references, verbal comprehension and FB understanding at age 3, and mothers' cognitive references at child age 6).
Article
This study examines the contribution of children's linguistic ability and mothers' use of mental-state language to young children's understanding of false belief and their subsequent ability to make belief-based emotion attributions. In Experiment 1, children (N = 51) were given three belief-based emotion-attribution tasks. A standard task in which the protagonist was a story character and the emotional outcomes were imagined, and two videos in which the story protagonist was a real infant and the emotional outcomes were observable (high and low expressed emotion conditions). Children's verbal ability (semantic competence) was also measured. In Experiment 2, children (N = 75) were given two belief-based emotion tasks: the standard story task and the high expressed emotion video. In addition, children's verbal ability (syntactic competence) and mothers' use of mental-state attributes when describing their children were also measured. The results showed that: (1) the lag between understanding false belief and emotion attribution was a stable feature of children's reasoning across the three tests; and (2) children who were more linguistically advanced and whose mothers' described them in more mentalistic terms were more likely to understand the association between false belief and emotion. The findings underline the continuing importance of verbal ability and linguistic input for children's developing theory-of-mind understanding, even after they display an understanding of false belief.
Article
This study tests a number of predictions about the effectiveness of four different strategies for teaching three to four year old children how to master a difficult construction task. These strategies were derived from previous studies of mother-child and experimenter-child interactions in an assisted learning situation. One strategy the 'contingent approach' was based primarily on theoretical considerations and when used in earlier work as a basis for describing and evaluating maternal teaching it enabled us to predict how well children taught by their mothers would do with a task after instruction. The three other strategies are idealised versions of the teaching methods used by less successful mothers-as-teachers. On the basis of our analysis of effective instruction it is possible to predict how well children taught by these four different techniques by a trained instructor should perform after instruction. The present study largely confirms these predictions. In so doing, it strengthens the supposition that it was maternal behaviour in the earlier work which influenced the children's task abilities and it also corroborates various hypotheses about the essential nature of effective face-to-face instruction.
Article
The CES-D scale is a short self-report scale designed to measure depressive symptomatology in the general population. The items of the scale are symptoms associated with depression which have been used in previously validated longer scales. The new scale was tested in household interview surveys and in psychiatric settings. It was found to have very high internal consistency and adequate test- retest repeatability. Validity was established by pat terns of correlations with other self-report measures, by correlations with clinical ratings of depression, and by relationships with other variables which support its construct validity. Reliability, validity, and factor structure were similar across a wide variety of demographic characteristics in the general population samples tested. The scale should be a useful tool for epidemiologic studies of de pression.
Article
In three experiments, children aged 3 to 7 years were tested for their understanding of the impact of beliefs and desires on emotion. Children watched while animal characters were offered various types of container and then predicted their emotional reaction. In Experiment 1, the children (but not the characters) knew that the desirable contents of each container had been removed. The majority of 6-year-olds and a minority of 4-year-olds understood that the characters would be happy with the gift, given their mistaken belief about its contents. In Experiment 2, characters were given containers apparently containing an object they wanted but really containing an object they did not want, or vice versa. Predictions of emotion based on both the desire and the mistaken belief of the characters increased with age. In Experiment 3, characters were given closed containers that might or might not contain an item they wanted. Both 3-and 5-year-olds grasped that the characters' emotional reaction would depend on both their (unconfirmed) beliefs and desires about its content.The experiments show that preschool children deploy a theory-like conception of mind in predicting emotional reactions. They understand that the emotional impact of a situation depends not on its objective features but on the beliefs and desires that are brought to it.
Article
Objective. The purposes of this study were to identify mother, child, and dyadic determinants of effective mother–child collaboration and to determine the impact of this collaboration on children's cognitive development. Design. Ninety-two mother–child dyads from the Massachusetts site of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development participated in a site-specific, home-based instructional task through which they were assessed for scaffolding effectiveness. Cognitive characteristics of both mothers and children, as well as dyadic characteristics from infancy, were examined as predictors of effective dyadic scaffolding when the children were in 1st grade. In addition, concurrent cognitive capabilities of the children were regressed on scaffolding while controlling for earlier cognitive test scores. Results. Mothers' verbal intelligence and children's mental development, as well as shared sensitivity, predicted the effectiveness of scaffolding collaborations, which in turn uniquely predicted cognitive capabilities of the children. Conclusions. Effective mother–child scaffolding is a function of individual mother and child characteristics, as well as the nature of the mother–child relationship; scaffolding predicts children's cognitive outcomes.
Article
Examined the relation between individual differences in 36-mo-old children's conversations about feeling states with their mothers and siblings and their later ability to recognize emotions in an affective-perspective-taking task at 6 yrs. Ss were 41 children observed at home. Differences in discourse about feelings (in frequency, causal discussion, diversity of themes, and disputes) were correlated with later ability to recognize emotions. The associations were independent of children's verbal ability and of the frequency of talk in the families. Results highlight the significance of family discourse in even very young children's developing emotional understanding. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A comparison was made between the videotaped behaviors of primary caretaker mothers and both primary and secondary caretaker fathers during face-to-face interactions with their 4-mo-old infants. The sample consisted of 36 infants, 12 observed with their primary caretaker mothers, 12 with primary caretaker fathers, and 12 with secondary caretaker fathers. Fathers in general tended to engage in significantly more game playing and less holding of their infants. Primary caretaker fathers and mothers engaged in significantly more smiling, imitative grimaces, and high-pitched imitative vocalizations than did secondary caretaker fathers. These differences were related to the primary caretaker mothers' and fathers' greater familiarity with their infants. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Reviews the problems of the construction of depression scales, especially for the aged. Issues relevant to the diagnostic utility, reliability, and validity of the Center for Epidemiological Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) are discussed. The psychometric properties of the CES-D in the general population are described, including the purposes for which it was originally developed, and the evidence about these properties when used with older adults are evaluated. Data indicate that the CES-D is a promising scale for use with older adults. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Observed 1-, 3-, and 9-month infant–mother interaction to examine antecedents of 1-year attachment quality. Frequency data were recoded using theory-guided measure of interactional synchrony; chi-square and prediction analyses tested hypothesis that development of secure attachments is predictable from synchronous, and insecure attachments from asynchronous interactions across first year. Findings from 30 dyads (10 secure, 10 avoidant, 10 resistant) supported hypothesis at 1 and 3 months, with synchronous interaction observed at significantly, disproportionately frequent rate for securely attached dyads. Also identified theoretically consistent aspects of interaction (e.g., responsiveness) that differentiated mothers of secure, avoidant, and resistant babies. Authors discuss findings as they support major tenets of attachment theory and suggest usefulness of a priori methodological approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
In this chapter, the author discusses two different activities that appear to facilitate children's understanding of mind: conversation and pretend play. A review is first presented of the evidence suggesting that each has an influence. Then the author goes on to discuss the relationship between these two factors. The author speculates that variation in conversational input to the child might interact with children's role-taking ability. Under optimal conditions, children will often be invited in the course of conversation to consider the world from another person's point-of-view, and they will have the capacity to respond to those invitations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes methods for determining sidedness and eye dominance in infants under 12 wk. of age, in 2-5 yr. olds, and in Ss over 5 yr. of age. The effects of imitation on developing left or right handedness is discussed. Research is noted which indicates the deleterious effects of crossed dominance. It is suggested that those children and adults who are experiencing ill effects due to crossed dominance should be encouraged to change their handedness. Methods for changing handedness are discussed. The beneficial aspects of a club which was developed for left handed students are described. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
for some years we have been concerned with research into the development of the attachment relationship between an infant and his mother in the first year of life / in the course of this, research findings have emerged that seem relevant to issues that are commonly conceived to pertain to 'socialisation' two of these issues are considered in some detail in this chapter / under what conditions does an infant learn to cry less than he did in the beginning and thus become less demanding and less of a nuisance / under what conditions does an infant come to comply readily with his mother's commands and prohibitions before presenting research findings pertinent to these issues, it is first desirable to discuss the theoretical context of the research itself gives a condensed account of our attachment theory (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Families were examined at 6, 9, and 12 months in an intensive longitudinal study that included Home Behavior Attachment Q-sorts, laboratory Strange Situation assessment, home observations of infant temperament behavior on 24 occasions, observations of maternal parenting sensitivity on 12 occasions, and maternal reports of infant temperament. Maternal sensitivity was modestly related to Q-sort security and unrelated to Strange Situation classification. In contrast, observed infant temperament was more strongly related to both maternal sensitivity and Q-sort security. The relation between home and laboratory assessment of attachment security, which was at the level found in prior work ( e.g., B. E. Vaughn & E. Waters, 1990 ), remained after the effects of observed and mother reported infant temperament were partialed. Our data highlight the need to consider other factors besides maternal sensitivity in the explanation of variability in the attachment status of l-year-olds. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This research investigated (a) the relationship between the quality of attachment and symbolic play development and (b) differences in the ways mothers of secure and anxious children involved themselves in play. Fifteen mother–child dyads (7 secure, 8 anxious) were filmed at regular intervals in free play from 20–28 months. Results indicated that secure children had longer episodes of symbolic play overall and that at 26 and 28 months they spent more time in the highest level of symbolic play than their anxious peers. When symbolic play variables were contrasted across maternal involvement conditions, secure children were found to have longer episodes and higher level play when mothers were actively engaged in play with them. Thus, mother's involvement appeared to serve a facilitating function for secure, but not anxious, children. When engaged in conversation with an experimenter, mothers of secure children were more involved in their children's play and appeared to favor play in which they actively interacted with the child; in contrast, mothers of anxious children favored passive participation in their children's play. (43 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)