Article

Revisiting Fear and Place: Women's Fear of Attack and the Built Environment

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The effort to `design out fear' through altering built environments has been popular amongst academics and planners. Success is limited, as simplistic notions of the fear of crime – its experience by individuals and its constitution as a social reality – tend to be employed. This paper examines the relationship between the built environment and women's fear of crime, based on qualitative studies in two European cities. While particular environments are often identified when women talk about the threat of attack, this reflects much broader processes operating to create fear. Fear influences our experience of places, as much as places influence our experiences of fear.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... The gender and age of the respondents had been taken into consideration the analysis. Only a few articles have focused on the intuitive fear of the women only (Hashim et al., 2016;Koskela & Pain, 2000; Jack L. Nasar & Jones, 1997). Most of the studies have incorporated Quantitative and Mixed method approaches while only a few articles have collected data from qualitative research. ...
... Both extremities of the presence of too many people and a small number of people were discussed in different articles. Overcrowded areas are analyzed as not psychologically safe for many users (Hung & Crompton, 2006;Koskela & Pain, 2000;Mak & Jim, 2017;Özgüner, 2011). The presence of only a few people in the vicinity is also considered to increase the intuitive fear in the urban green spaces (Koskela & Pain, 2000;Yokohari et al., 2006). ...
... Overcrowded areas are analyzed as not psychologically safe for many users (Hung & Crompton, 2006;Koskela & Pain, 2000;Mak & Jim, 2017;Özgüner, 2011). The presence of only a few people in the vicinity is also considered to increase the intuitive fear in the urban green spaces (Koskela & Pain, 2000;Yokohari et al., 2006). As mentioned in most of the studies, co presence or the mutual use of the spaces is confirmed as safe for most of the users (Brower et al., 1983;A. ...
Conference Paper
At present, the urban green space is acknowledged as one of the most important part of the busy lives of the urbanites as a relaxing space which supports social interactions, recreation and conviviality. Still the intuitive fear while inhabiting these urban green spaces is an issue which has led such spaces being under used or neglected. This intuitive fear or the sense of insecurity or risk is a result of the anxiety or distress in the mind of the users. Thus, many studies have been carried out to explore the causes for this intuitive fear or the psychological aspects of the fear of crime in the urban green spaces. Most of these studies suggest that a combination of various attributes has resulted in the psychological insecurity among the users of urban green spaces. This paper aims to systematically review the causes for the intuitive fear when using these spaces. The study is carried out by reviewing the existing literature published on the area of the investigation. There are total of thirty-seven articles which met the selection criteria. The assessed articles were reviewed with the authorship, geographical location of the study, journal and other basic data following a comprehensive analysis of the variables assessed and the key findings. Majority of the articles highlight that the physical parameters have impacted more on the intuitive fear in urban green spaces compared with the perceptual (personal) parameters and the societal (social) parameters. The outcome of the study; the developed framework of the causes of intuitive fear in urban public spaces would help the both future practitioners and researchers.
... Studies have shown that perceived insecurity discourages people from walking [4,6,[23][24][25][26][27], affects women more than men [18,[28][29][30][31] and that determined elements of the built environment contribute to perceived insecurity among pedestrians [28]. However, there is a dearth of research about how security affects their preferences for walking. ...
... However, creating green spaces may not be enough to encourage individuals to walk, both because of the difference in contexts and because more elements have to be taken into account [78]. For instance, a well-integrated transport system, long sight lines along pavements, walkways visible from nearby buildings, no confined spaces to entrances and courtyards, and no poor lighting conditions promote security by improving the chances of being seen and escaping, are key factors in improving perceived security [29,[79][80][81][82][83]. Lee et al. [84] determines that security, along with convenience and comfort, is one of the attributes controllable through policies to improve the positive factors, while reducing the effects of the negative factors. ...
... Gender is considered a very relevant variable of perceived insecurity and its relationship with walking. In general, women's fear differs from that of men and there is evidence of a greater perception of insecurity by women in their journeys on foot [18,[28][29][30][31]. The reasons that make women present higher levels of insecurity include the likelihood of being a victim of crime, previous victimization, and witnessing other people's victimization [85][86][87][88]. ...
Article
Full-text available
A sustainable city must be a safe place for its inhabitants when walking, with the absence of fear of crime being one of its main attributes. Although perceived insecurity is one of the main deterrents of walking activity, this relationship requires some clarification in environments which are walkable and safe, with low crime rates. This article contributes to the evidence for the influence of perceived security on walking activity and, as a novel aspect, also analyzes the effects of perceived security on walking as the preferred travel mode. In order to study this relationship, we use a method that combines non-linear principal component analysis (NLPCA) and a logit model (LM). The data are taken from a survey of university students carried out in the city of Granada. Results show that gender and perceived security have a greater effect on the choice of walking as the preferred travel mode, while location factors have significantly more weight in the explanation of the choice of walking as the most usual travel mode. These findings may be extended to other urban areas and can be of use for the implementation of urban policies aimed at designing the built environment to develop more sustainable cities.
... This makes it a particularly interesting environment for criminological research Noble, 2015;Yavuz -Welch, 2010). Moreover, some researchers have shown that the perception of the risk of crime can be higher in certain types of public places, such as car parks, wooded areas, underground passageways and public transport (Koskela -Pain, 2000). ...
... Her findings did not show any difference between fear levels in winter and summer. More than the lack of light, it would thus seem to be the social perception of night-time, associated with the perceived risk of sexual assault, which generates a concern for personal safety (Koskela, 1999;Koskela -Pain, 2000). ...
... The time slots avoided are therefore mainly nocturnal. As we have mentioned above, this can be linked to the fact that these times of the day particularly provoke anxiety, for several reasons: poor lighting is often a source of worry on the one hand (Loewen et al., 1993;, and the social dimension of the night, associated with a higher perceived risk of victimisation, also provokes anxiety (Koskela, 1999;Koskela -Pain, 2000). ...
... Additional research suggests that levels of perceived danger are higher than the empirical probability of victimisation (Hassinger,1985;Burgess,1994;PNUD, 2006a). People create their own mental maps based on personal experiences of victimisation (Koskela & Pain, 2000); those perceptions might intensify if the area has been reported in media stories (Shotland et al., 1979;Koskela & Pain, 2000). However, Godfrey (2017) argues that people have imprecise memories and it is not always possible to reproduce a complete set of events, therefore they highlight specific memories to make a credible narrative and the feelings conveyed are charged with current concerns. ...
... Additional research suggests that levels of perceived danger are higher than the empirical probability of victimisation (Hassinger,1985;Burgess,1994;PNUD, 2006a). People create their own mental maps based on personal experiences of victimisation (Koskela & Pain, 2000); those perceptions might intensify if the area has been reported in media stories (Shotland et al., 1979;Koskela & Pain, 2000). However, Godfrey (2017) argues that people have imprecise memories and it is not always possible to reproduce a complete set of events, therefore they highlight specific memories to make a credible narrative and the feelings conveyed are charged with current concerns. ...
... Despite statements generalising women's fear, Koskela and Pain (2000) point out that postmodern feminist approaches to fear of crime claim for the recognition of a diversity among women, as reactions can vary according to ethnicity, age, incomes, sexuality or settlement. To achieve this end, the feminist scholar and activist Angela Y. Davis claims that feminism must address either race or economic equality and go beyond the traditional gender structures (Bhandar & Ziadah, 2020). ...
Conference Paper
This thesis explores the distribution of fear of crime in neighbourhoods next to gated communities, and their variants, by considering poverty levels and elements of the built environment. Fear of crime is a constant concern in Latin America and gated communities have been spreading rapidly as they are seen as 'shelters' against crime. They are typically walled or fenced, with private security and surveillance devices; their externalities are commonly associated with spatial segregation, socio-economic effects and alterations of the urban fabric. However, there is still a lack of empirical data about the effect of gated communities on the fear of crime at their peripheries. This thesis addresses that research gap by investigating the urban area of Costa Rica (GAM). The research design is a qualitative approach based on eight case studies. These are neighbourhoods bordering gated communities within the GAM and represent a diverse range of poverty. In each neighbourhood, a walking interview was carried out with community members; it was tracked by GPS and audio recorded. Additionally, there were focus groups, observations and in-depth interviews. A set of maps were produced by georeferencing people's comments through qualitative software and GIS. The core of the empirical data was analysed mostly through thematic analysis by a comparative structure of the eight case studies. The findings suggest that the physical presence of gated communities produces an emotional response in people living outside their gates, which is fuelled by features of the built environment, residential segregation and inequalities. This research found that non-gated residents in high and middle poverty feel anxious about gated residents, and self-reported intensity of fear increases next to gated communities’ edges in almost all poverty ranges. It suggests that fear of crime might also operate in the opposite direction, from neighbouring areas to gated communities.
... Ferraro's thesis has been explored in feminist qualitative studies that focus on women's fear of attack in public space. Valentine (1989) emphasizes that women may perceive public space to be particularly fearful due to the perceived threat of sexual assault, which leads to coping mechanisms such as distancing oneself and choosing not to go out or altering one's movement (see also Cockburn, 1986;Koskela, 1999;Koskela & Pain, 2000). ...
... Similarly, we found that perception of criminal activity in one's neighborhood was more important in explaining fear of crime for men than for women. This result suggests that women's reasons for feeling fearful are not necessarily rooted in perceived risk of victimization from what is perceived as criminal activity in one's neighborhood in similarity to other feminist research (Koskela & Pain, 2000). On the other hand, even though women's fear of crime was less impacted by what they perceived as "criminal activity," women who perceived their neighborhoods to be prone to human behavior-related disorder were more fearful than men. ...
... This may be other types of threatening sexual behaviors that are far more commonly experienced by women than men (Bowman, 1993), which are poorly captured in statistics due to under-reporting as well as exclusion. Women's higher levels of fear might not necessarily be a reaction to risk of victimization from criminal activity (Lupton & Tulloch, 1999;Sparks, 1992) or the physical environment (Koskela & Pain, 2000), but a product of more complex socio-political factors that we could not capture in this study. Koskela and Pain (2000) for example, argue that gendered power relations rather than crime or the built environment is a key aspect to women's fear of crime. ...
Article
Full-text available
Women generally feel more fearful than men. We study this so-called fear-gender gap, by contributing to a growing body of quantitative gender-sensitive research inspired by feminist theory. We depart from traditional quantitative fear of crime research that fails to examine how determinants of fear of crime impact women and men differently. We use a Dutch governmental survey, linked to neighborhood characteristics, to conduct multilevel modeling using multifaceted sociospatial aspects on individual and neighborhood level, to explain the fear-gender gap in the city of Eindhoven. Findings indicate that the sociospatial environment and the perceptions thereof offer insights into gendered differences in fear. A central finding is that fear of crime among women is particularly complex. We discuss the concept of fear of crime, the importance of feminist theory to inform data gathering in order to further future quantitative research on fear of crime, and make suggestions for future research.
... En este sentido, la percepción del espacio construido no estaría relacionado únicamente con el presente, sino también con las memorias que se tienen y transmiten sobre el lugar. Koskela y Pain (2000) sostienen que las personas crean sus propios mapas mentales que inciden en sus temores y seguridad. ...
... Este tipo de análisis permitió entre otras cosas, conocer como los muros en muchos de estos desarrollos generan espacios solitarios y oscuros que incrementan la percepción de inseguridad en las comunidades vecinas; en la Figura 7 puede apreciarse que el comentario más frecuente dentro del barrio obedece a una actitud positiva hacia la seguridad, en contraste con el comentario más frecuente junto a las barreras de los barrios cerrados. Si bien, existen miedos pre-existentes en las personas participantes, la carencia de permeabilidad en áreas junto a muros de condominios podría exacerbar esos sentimientos (Barrantes-Chaves, 2020), contribuyendo a la creación de mapas mentales de peligro que posteriormente son alimentados con narrativas y experiencias que incrementan aún más el temor en ciertos sitios (Koskela y Pain, 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
En los últimos años se han incrementado las investigaciones donde la persona entrevistadora camina con sus participantes para capturar sus percepciones sobre el entorno. Este artículo explora una aproximación metodológica basada en tecnologías móviles para estudiar la percepción de (in)seguridad en barrios. Se propone la creación de mapas de “Rastro de plática” basados en la georreferenciación de códigos a partir en entrevistas caminantes. Esta herramienta emplea un rastreo mediante aplicaciones de GPS para localizar los comentarios de participantes. La metodología combina software para análisis cualitativo (NVivo) con SIG, la codificación de la información se lleva a cabo a partir de Análisis Temático. El resultado de este proceso es una serie de mapas donde los códigos son representados por íconos asociados a la base de datos en SIG. De esta forma la información tiene múltiples formas de representación para su análisis, tales como clasificación por temas, subtemas, por actitud del participante, por género, entre otras. Esta metodología permite asociar narrativas sobre el espacio con las características físicas del ambiente construido. Aunque la investigación en la cual se probó esta herramienta se enfoca en el temor al delito, esta metodología es fácilmente replicable para otros propósitos que engloben la percepción del entorno construido.
... Even without the empirical evidence here to link the two, such a strategy alone cannot account for engendering women's perceptions of feeling unsafe. Several factors mesh to influence women's perceptions of safety including previous victimisation (Sironi and Bonazzi 2016), the design of the built-up environment (see Roberts et al. 2022), wider social and patriarchal processes (Koskela and Pain 2000), such as media (mis)representations of men's violence against women (see Roberts 2019) and accounts about women's experiences of sexual violence in public places (Roberts et al. , 2022. ...
... However, students' suggestions to keep out dangerous others by using surveillance measures, such as swiping and tapping their university card to access campus buildings, security on the doors of such buildings to check who is entering them and students wearing their ID lanyards-a sign to mark them out as different from others, are unlikely to alter students' perceptions of dangerous others. This is particularly so given the wider social and patriarchal processes at play that also serve to enhance women's feelings of unsafety (Koskela and Pain 2000). Such surveillance measures, which students suggested, are 'markers', which 'exhibit and establish a party's claim to territory' (Goffman 2017, p.202), and as such, they serve to spatially exclude others. ...
Article
Full-text available
Contemporarily, universities are perceived as neoliberal entities, self-absorbed, driven by corporate interests, markets and economic goals, rather than perceived as providing a public good, concerned for the wider world (del Cerro Santamaria in Review of European Studies, 12(1), 22–38, 2020). This perception of universities as individualised communities rather than collective communities (Rousseau in Social Currents, 7(5), 395–401, 2020) accentuates the responsibilisation of individuals who are viewed as responsible for solving their own problems (Martinez and Garcia in What is neoliberalism, 2000), including ensuring their own safety (Garland in The British Journal of Criminology, 36(4), 445–471, 1996). Set against this social-political backdrop, this paper, using data from an online survey about students’ perceptions of on-campus safety at a university in the north of England, shows how some students, particularly women students, view others as dangerous, rather than view them as vulnerable groups who are residing on the margins of an inequitable society. The porous borders of the university campuses amplify some students’ perceptions of dangerous others and students’ suggestions for campus security to keep out such others arguably serve to aggravate rather than relieve their perceptions of unsafety. Yet the porous borders of the campuses should be seen as advantageous because an ecological university can connect its students to the wider world to help facilitate care for the other (Barnett in The ecological university, 2018). In doing so, this may enhance students’ own sense of well-being and safety in the urban environment. This is a timely argument amidst a global pandemic, where the university restricts access to unauthorised others and, in doing so, facilitates the makings of an exclusive community.
... They argue that such alignment result "in oppressive gendered production of space" (by Rose, G. [1993] in Blazek, M. 2015Blazek, M. , 1998. Additionally, feminist geography brings "a critical awareness of gendering emotions", most typically fear for that matter (Valentine, G. 1989;Koskela, H. and Pain, R. 2000;Smith, M. et al. 2009, 11). ...
... Mostly in western context such issues have been addressed through new forms of privatisations in urban planning to enable/ empower women through planning and policies (Beebeejaun, Y. 2009). However, these practices (e.g., gated parks) are often in the favour of reinforcing traditional gender roles (Kern, L. 2010) as well as reinforcing other forms of differences and discriminations (Koskela, H. and Pain, R. 2000;Lawton, C.A. and Kallai, J. 2002;Phillips, D. 2006;Beebeejaun, Y. 2009;Koskela, H. 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
A multi-scalar understanding of fear has not been completely absent from geographical theory, however, it has not been given the attention it deserves and definitely has not been utilised in empirical research to the extent it has explanatory power to our globalised world infused with fears. By a multi-scalar understanding I refer to geographical scale as social production or social construction following critical geographers, who see the relationship between these scales as non-hierarchical. This paper draws on and combines theoretical works understanding fear as a socially and politically produced emotion that is politically exploited – most often through Othering – and operates on multiple geographical scales. It is an everyday experience that is produced and made sense across the scales of the body, home, neighbourhood, city, nation, region, supranational unions, the global scale and beyond. This paper draws together three particular areas concerning fear related research; (1) it emphasises that fear is an emotion; but (2) it is deeply embedded in social, economic, political and spatial relations and often closely linked to – if not dependent on – Othering and marginalisation; and (3) fear is reproduced in a transscalar way at all geographical scales. By drawing together these three interlinked approaches to fear, on the one hand, this paper aims to contribute to the literature by demonstrating the way the “us” versus “them” nexus is reimagined at different scales according to political convenience. On the other, it hopes to inspire more research in the field of emotional geography in general and that of fear in particular in Hungary (and more broadly in the CEE region), where this sub-field has been underrepresented even though its great explanatory potentials.
... Two important variables which influence experiences of fear of crime are gender and age, with women and the elderly experiencing higher levels of fear of crime than men and young people, especially in the dark (Foster, Giles-Corti, & Knuiman, 2010;Koskela & Pain, 2000). Different studies report on the positive effect of improved street lighting on experienced fear of crime for these vulnerable groups (Atkins et al., 1991;Herbert & Davidson, 1994;Ramsay & Newton, 1991). ...
... There are several possible explanations for the difference between men and women. First, it is assumed that women are more subjected to stories told in the media and by others about their vulnerability and risk for (sexual) crimes (Koskela & Pain, 2000;Valentine, 1989). Second, some authors suggest that there is a tendency towards over-reporting by women and under-reporting by men about their feelings of unsafety and fear (Innes, 2017;Sutton & Farrall, 2005). ...
... Research indicates that women are more fearful in public space than private space. However, this is paradoxical as most incidents against women occur in the home by men known to them (Koskela & Pain, 2000). To better understand this spatial paradox, feminist geographers advocate the theory that women are misinformed about the principal location of danger through various sources including family, friends, and media (Pain, 2001;Valentine, 1992). ...
... The success of CPTED approaches in reducing fear of crime is highly debated. Whilst Crowe (2000) and Valentine (1990) cite several case studies where CPTED changes to the built environment have reduced fear of crime, Koskela & Pain (2000, pg 371) sceptically conclude that any improvement can 'never be more than local or partial.' Forwarding physical design as the main means of addressing complex issues of fear, in particular gendered fear, is labelled a 'crude, mechanistic' approach, ignorant of wider social causes (Koskela & Pain, 2000). Alongside these criticisms, CPTED has also been accused of displacing crime to nearby neighbourhoods and unintentionally fostering a 'fortress mentality' amongst residents whereby individuals withdraw behind walls and fortified homes (Cozens et al. 2005, pg 338), leading to the development of exclusive gated communities. ...
Article
Full-text available
This article aims to investigate the extent to which urban design can explain white, middle-class women's perceptions of safety in Hammarby Sjöstad, Stockholm, whilst simultaneously contributing to the urgent need for intersectional perspectives on CPTED planning. The design of this newly-built residential area was inspired by Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles in order to reduce residents' fear of crime. Whilst crime surveys have illustrated that residents feel very safe in the area, there has been limited investigation into the extent to which Hammarby Sjöstad's urban design contributes to low fear of crime and, more specifically, women's perceived safety. To close this gap, interviews were conducted with female residents in Hammarby Sjöstad alongside interviews with key stakeholders. Contributing to ongoing discussions on fear, whiteness and place, findings report that women in Hammarby Sjöstad understood their perception of safety to stem from the homogeneity of their neighbourhood as most inhabitants were white and middle-class. Along with its clear physical boundaries, this led some women to liken the neighbourhood to a gated space. Learning from this, its CPTED design played a large role in reducing women's fear of crime, albeit not in the way that was initially anticipated.
... At the same time, participatory and deliberative approaches have also been criticized as 'de-politicising' (Mouffe, 1999; and 'post-political' (Swyngedouw, 2005;, because these inclusive and consensual modes of governance risk obscuring dimensions of power, responsibility, exclusion and conflict. Along the same lines, we can see that the feminist critique of planning practices for safety often highlight an extensive focus on problems in the physical environment at the expense of being attentive to the gendered, social and power-related dimensions of safety (Koskela & Pain, 2000;Whitzman, 2007). ...
... The dilemma described here makes visible the discrepancy between the often social, gendered and power-related problems addressed in the walks, and the technical, physical measures that are presented to solve them (cf. Koskela & Pain, 2000;Sandberg & Rönnblom, 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
In Sweden, ‘safety walks’ are a well-established planning practice for improving safety. They involve citizens and local authorities evaluating public spaces in terms of safety. Building on observations, interviews and policy materials, this paper examines safety walks from a governmentality perspective. Our analysis shows that, through the governing techniques employed in the walks, safety problems are rendered technical, auditable and governable, while becoming disconnected from the social and political. Furthermore, the participatory rationale of the walks serves to produce self-governing communities, who are responsible for managing their own safety, while risking the reinforcement of boundaries of inclusion and exclusion within the imagined ‘safe community’.
... Without a sense of familiarity, individuals may underestimate or overestimate the consequential impacts of future victimisation. Because places are dynamic, and individuals are entering and exiting specific places at all times of the day, the point of surveying may impact individual assessments of crime risk (Pain, 2000). Contemporary research has shown that familiarity and an individual's awareness space may contribute to feelings of safety and security when in specific places (Chataway 2019;Koskela and Pain 2000). ...
... Because places are dynamic, and individuals are entering and exiting specific places at all times of the day, the point of surveying may impact individual assessments of crime risk (Pain, 2000). Contemporary research has shown that familiarity and an individual's awareness space may contribute to feelings of safety and security when in specific places (Chataway 2019;Koskela and Pain 2000). It is for these reasons, that further research is required to unpack these potential context effects, and explore the dynamic nature of places, and their influence on individual's assessments of crime risk and worry or concern about crime. ...
Article
Full-text available
Fear of crime can have significant consequences for physical and mental wellbeing. Although our understanding of the causes of fear of crime has improved over the years, there remains a lack of research examining the connections between individual, situational, and social factors that may contribute to concerns about crime within an individual’s immediate environment. The current study examines fear of crime as a context dependent experience, in order to better understand these connections. Data are collected from a sample of N = 180 residents living and working in Brisbane City, Australia. Using Factor Score Path Analysis, we show that signals of crime (i.e., physical and social disorder) in the immediate environment increase the likelihood of worry about crime. Results of this study indicate that in order to reduce concerns about crime researchers should consider dynamic signals of disorder in the immediate environment when designing interventions.
... Future work that examines vulnerability and fear must begin to capture ecological assessments of gendered incivilities that may be central to women's perceptions of vulnerability. Moreover, gendered mobility patterns and the built environment may also influence women's exposure to and experiences of different places (Valentine, 1989;Koskela & Pain, 2000). There have been significant advancements on the measurement of place and environmental cues, yet the fear of crime scholarship has not fully engaged with this literature to better understand why women and men differ in their perception of vulnerability and their worry about crime. ...
... As shown in Figure 3, Chinese urban residents visit community parks for a variety of motives, among which the biggest motivation is "to exercise" (24.2%). This is similar to the situation in other countries [84,85]. This demonstrates the significance of these minor green spaces in the city, where they provide residents with free places to exercise conveniently [31,43,45]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Urban community parks have significant benefits for city residents, both physical and spiritual. This is especially true in developing countries, such as China. The purpose of our study is to describe the current situation of the community parks in five main districts of Jinan City while recognizing features of the community parks that influence usage patterns. Our study also means to determine the desired improvements of visitors that promote access to and use of community parks on the basis of the Chinese context. We conducted a survey among 542 community park visitors and obtained valid responses. The findings of respondents show that community parks are mostly used by people over 55 years (34.7%) and children under 10 years (23.6%). The main motives for using community parks are for exercise (24.2%) and to socialize with others (21.6%). The majority of respondents (65.7%) rated the community park as satisfactory and considered only a few improvements needed. Regarding the desired improvements, numerous respondents mentioned adding more physical training facilities (13.3%) and activity areas (7.6%), as well as emergency call buttons in areas frequented by children and older people (7.6%). Furthermore, most of the respondents (79.9%) indicated that they would like to use the community parks more frequently if there is additional progress to make the parks more attractive, cleaner, and friendlier. These results can help park designers, government agencies, and community groups to provide the planning and design strategies for community parks to promote their upgrading in China.
... These studies are often case-based and use mapping techniques to meet the goals of the study [13]. Moreover, urban studies can have alternate foci related to fear of crime and vulnerability which affect women and their presence and activity levels in urban public spaces [14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27]. Another aspect of urban studies focuses on the physical characteristics of urban public spaces, which can influence gender-based behavior [28][29][30]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Urban public spaces are the spatial nexus of social interactions, activities, and expressions. Society manifests itself within these spaces through different lenses such as cultures and norms. The framework and restrictions related to gender-based behavior play a central role in the discourse about inclusivity and equity in urban public spaces when viewed through these lenses. There is, however, a gap in the literature that addresses how culture and gender influence public space behaviors and intentions within a traditional and modern cultural framework. The current study tests whether culture correlates with public space behavior on a neighborhood scale. A comparative study was conducted between two distinct neighborhoods in the city of Kerman, Iran. The two cases were selected due to their significant differences in how women use and interact with urban space. The effects of gender differences and perceived constraints on how residents manifest their behavior in public spaces were investigated. The study further investigated whether gender has a significant relationship with the level of appropriateness of certain public space behaviors and the intention to pursue them. The findings indicate significant cultural differences in both behavioral practice and behavioral intentions among the respondents. Furthermore, in traditional neighborhoods, the findings support significant gender-dependent differences in public space behavior, even though this gap is not apparent regarding intentions toward public space behaviors. The findings show a significantly greater disparity between traditional and modern districts in women’s perceived behavioral restrictions on personal expression.
... that blind walls alongside of the urban streets are negatively related with the sense of safety of the users. Thus, active facades in the streets are an assurance of possible help in case of a probable threat/ crime [66,67]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Increase in the variety of development in urban context has made it more complicated and complex for the users of public spaces. Absence of sufficient information to read the surrounding causes psychological anxiousness leading to perceived danger or discomfort for the urbanites. Consequently, perceived safety and comfort of the users is distinctively low in urban contexts, creating neglected and underused spaces. Complexity is one of the information processing variables as per Kaplan and Kaplan’s informational model which helps users to comprehend the surrounding environment. The streetscape plays a vital role in the daily movement patterns within the urban cities and is the transition boundary between the public and private realms. Visual complexity of these streets is a result of different configurations of elements within the urban areas. This research is conducted to ascertain the relationship between visual complexity levels of the streets with the perceived safety and comfort of the users. Shannon Diversity Index (SDI) and Fractal dimension analysis were conducted with 48 SVIs (Street View Images) selected within 1km radius of Colpetty junction, Colombo Sri Lanka covering all the possible compositions found within the context. The visual index data extraction had identified ten major components within the selected 48 SVIs. 78 subjective ranking responses for perceived safety, comfort (preference) and perceived complexity were collected from snowball sampling. Findings of the study revealed that perceived safety levels and preference scores for the SVIs are related to the Shannon Diversity Index calculation in an inverted ‘U’ shape where the highest and lowest SDI values are related with low preference scores and low safety levels. The SVIs with medium SDI values are perceived as the safest and most preferred by the users of urban streets of Colombo Sri Lanka. The SDI and fractal dimension values were significantly correlated with the perceived complexity scores of the users. The results of this study can be accommodated in the planning and designing of urban streetscapes of tropical climates for sustainable and friendly urban expansions.
... The question about safety is often included in emotional mapping projects in the Czech Republic (Jíchová and Temelová 2012;Pánek et al. 2018;Pánek 2019) and internationally (Koskela and Pain 2000;Jansson et al. 2013;Jorgensen et al. 2013;Pödör and Dobos 2014;Pödör 2016). In our case, a total of 441 responses and 389 comments were collected in 2020. ...
Chapter
The chapter presents a case study of GeoParticipatory tools in action: usage of participatory mapping in Jeseník, Czech Republic. The aim of the case study was to compare the results of two emotional mapping events in the town of Jeseník in the Olomouc Region, Czech Republic. An online map questionnaire was used to collect data for the more recent mapping from the end of October 2020 to the beginning of March 2021. Respondents could mark any number of points on the map and add a comment to each one. 240 respondents participated in the 2020 mapping exercise and added a total of 2,088 comments to the 2,488 points marked. The number of respondents decreased since 2017, when 533 people completed the emotional mapping and marked 4,452 points. Nevertheless, the number of comments was greater in 2020. This may have been caused by the COVID-19 situation, but we do not have any evidence to support this.KeywordsEmotional mapsParticipationGeoparticipationE-participationJeseník
... Women often avoid these spaces; a typical feeling that women describe in these circumstances is that of "discomfort" (Ranade 2007). The repetitive evading of some particular places by women is reinforced by the fear of strange men (Koskela and Pain 2000). Therefore, women's decision about the routes and places they choose to go are shaped by the risk of violence and in the process of identifying "safe" routes and "dangerous" areas, women frame different spaces-specifically the night city-divided into "masculine" and "feminine" areas (Koskela 1999). ...
Chapter
Globally, cities are under enormous pressure due to burgeoning population growth, stranded economic reforms, and climatic distress. Realizing the need to cope up with these challenges, strong initiatives are being taken the world over, to make cities smart and sustainable. In this chapter, the authors synthesize the conceptual framework and contents of the various chapters detailed in the book. This chapter while dovetailing the national and international status of smart cities presents in a nutshell, the works presented in various chapters ranging from innovative concepts and technologies in smart city development to presenting a way forward. Although in developed countries urban development is very strong and systematic, in developing countries including countries like India, smart city development is faced by several challenges such as deferred investments, coordination of stakeholders at local, state, and central level, timelines, and displacement of funds toward rural infrastructure instead of urban infrastructure, etc. As a way forward, undeterred attention of policymakers is suggested for the successful development of cities that are smart and sustainable.KeywordsSmart citiesLocal bodiesUrban governancePolicymakersSustainable development
... While women's' fear of crime in public spaces has been widely studied (e.g. Gilchrist et al., 1998;Hall, 1985;Koskela & Pain, 2000;Pain, 2001;Riger & Gordon, 1989;Valentine, 1990), safety in cycling spaces has received little statistical attention. Does the perception of safety affect cycling decisions by gender, and if so, to what extent? ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper tests whether and to what extent the implementation of bike infrastructure increases the propensity to cycle overall and by gender. We develop statistical models to test for gender-differentiated responses to the implementation of different types of bike lanes. We use large-scale Citibike data which records customer behaviours for New York city for years going from 2013 to 2019. Results indicate that an increase in bike infrastructure has a significant impact on the number of cyclists as well as on the gender composition of those who cycle. More precisely, we find that dedicated cycling infrastructure increases women's participation in cycling by 4% to 6%. This corroborates the hypothesis that both men and women are more likely to bike when it is safer, and even more so for women. This is in line with previous literature findings showing the presence of a gender gap in the perception of safety in transport. Results are stable across specifications and robust to the inclusion of city-level and time controls.
... In contrast, older or less mobile persons have a more urgent need for adequate seating possibilities and safe paths facilitating recreational quality and usability of GBI (Kabisch and Kraemer 2020). Combined with the installation of sufficient lighting, increasing the presence of the regulatory authority in public GBI, can support perceived safety and security and therefore justice of GBI, especially for vulnerable groups like older persons or women (Koskela and Pain 2000, Veitch et al. 2006, McCormack et al. 2010). The separation of use areas for active (doing sports, cycling) and passive (quiet relaxation in GBI) recreational activities has been a frequent request from citizens and the peaceful coexistence of several activities is already a major focus of local planning strategies, enforced by fairness zones with mutual respect, the establishment of attractive areas for doing sports, and opening schools' sports grounds for team sports off teaching time (Stadt Leipzig 2017b). ...
Article
Full-text available
Ongoing urbanization leads to problems such as densification, loss of biodiversity, and social injustice in cities. For increasing urban populations, green–blue infrastructure (GBI) is an important element in compact cities contributing to human health, well-being, and the provision of important ecosystem services. We analyzed responses from two open-ended questions about visions, ideas, and topics for the development and management of GBI important for citizens of the city of Leipzig, Germany. The questions were part of an online survey accompanying the development of the local GBI planning strategy: Master Plan Green. The strategy is focusing on five guiding themes that are leading local and global debates about sustainable and resilient cities: biodiversity, climate adaptation, environmental justice, health, and sustainable mobility. We categorize citizens' ideas and suggestions, summarize frequent problems and conflicts, and link ideas and visions to the five guiding themes. As the last step, we discuss citizens' suggestions in order to minimize conflicts in GBI and to identify deficits in present local planning. Major problems and conflicts that were addressed by respondents relate to quality, usability, other users, activities, and safety and security of GBI. Numerous suggestions aimed to tackle these problems, for example, by designating separate use areas, adding naturalness, improving maintenance, and enhancing facilities. A range of ideas and suggestions were based on diverging expectations underpinning the challenge of matching heterogeneous demands of GBI users in an equitable fashion. Linking these suggestions to the five guiding themes reveals that most ideas are covered by one or several guiding themes and are considered in local planning strategies. However, findings also demonstrate that increasing the quantity of Leipzig's GBI is a central request from respondents. Sociocultural and economic aspects as well as conflicting demands among citizens should further be central to GBI planning to avoid injustice and achieve sustainability objectives. This analysis gives insights into opinions and visions of citizens regarding the development of the city's GBI network and thus substantiates major strategic and planning themes leading global and local urban strategies toward sustainable cities. Considering specific suggestions and GBI deficits that bother citizens on a local level, offers the opportunity to improve the social and ecological resilience of GBI.
... Women perceived less security while walking through recreational areas than men and others (Table 4). Previous studies have also reported that men perceived more security than women while walking through different land use environments, e.g., residential neighbourhoods, woods and parklands, shopping centres, restaurants (Koskela & Pain, 2000;Paydar et al., 2017). The possible reason is that women pedestrians are concerned about different types of sexual violence such as sexual assault, intimidation, groping, harassment, and threats (Kash, 2019;Loukaitou-Sideris, 2015;Stanko, 1990;King et al., 2021). ...
Article
Perceptions of the walking environment can encourage or discourage walking for transport. However, the influence of the built environment (BE) on pedestrians' perceptions of the walking environment has not been fully understood. To address this gap, the present research investigates how BE characteristics of a suburban walking environment are associated with the perceptions of attractiveness (i.e., pleasantness, friendliness), safety, and security. Using a cross-sectional design, 995 participants reported their perceptions about the attractiveness, safety, and security of different suburban BE scenarios in Brisbane (Australia). Univariate and bivariate random effect ordered probit models were estimated to identify the associations between BE characteristics and perceived attractiveness, safety, and security whilst controlling for psychosocial factors. Results indicated that perceived attractiveness (i.e., pleasantness and friendliness) was higher for recreational areas than residential land use. Women perceived the walking environment as more pleasant with trees. The perception of safety was higher for recreational and vacant land compared to residential areas. Young pedestrians perceived that the likelihood of being assaulted/robbed/harassed at night was lower if they walked through an area with commercial and mixed land use. Women pedestrians perceived that the corresponding risk at night was higher in recreational areas. Overall, the findings suggest that urban design strategies such as increasing land use diversity and providing adequate trees enhance perceived environmental attractiveness, safety, and security, ultimately resulting in more walking for transport.
... Vilalta (2011) opined that fear of crime is an important construct in the formation of quality of life, yet it is usually jettisoned from a public policy standpoint. Some studies suggest a link between fear of crime and social disorder and other serious crimes (Kelling and Coles 1997;Koskela and Pain 2000;Doran and Lees 2005). Students have been known to be susceptible to internalisation of negative influences from peers and colleagues, and in an evolutionary bid to 'belong' or feel appreciated and accepted by peers, they have either become victims of crime or perpetrators (Abonyi 2006). ...
Article
Full-text available
The study investigated the phenomenon of fear of crime in the Nigerian University system by recruiting 106 students with mean age of 23.44 years and standard deviation of 3.62. To assess the study variables in a cross-sectional survey, a 25-item preliminary development of Students Opinion Inventory on Fear of Crime was used. Statistical analysis of a two-way ANOVA for data analysis indicated that female students reported more fear of crime and perceived the campus as more unsafe than male students. And students’ location (campus hostel or off-campus) did not differ with respect to their fear of crime. There is a link between prevalent crimes and reported preventive measures, informing the conclusion that the fear of crime is basically precipitated by socio-demographic characteristics of people. Redesigned situational crime prevention strategies that are rooted in proactive policing and target hardening were recommended to further direct policy approach.
... Participants lacking a background in landscape design showed a higher PA under photo elicitation, which is consistent with the findings of Wang et al. [59], but is contrary to the findings of other studies [60,61]. Men prefer woodland landscapes more than women do, possibly because women are often afraid of passing through woodland landscapes because women feel fear in remote places [59,62,63]. With regard to professional background, each academic major corresponds to some specific "knowledge", and this "knowledge" may act as an intermediary variable in the process of preference formation [64], indicating that school education in different majors may be a mechanism for transmitting preferences [65]. ...
Article
Full-text available
We investigated the effects on humans, in terms of skin conductance levels (SCLs) and positive and negative affect schedule (PANAS) scores, of plant communities that differed in their vegetation structure (single-layer woodland, tree-shrub-grass composite woodland, tree-grass composite woodland, and single-layer grassland) through two perceptual methods: onsite surveying and photo elicitation. The results showed that (1) the choice of perception method significantly impacted the PANAS scores of the participants but had no influence on the SCL and (2) viewing a single-layer grassland reduced the SCL (representing the physiological stress level) and improved the positive affect score. The recovery effects for the four vegetation communities were ranked in the order of single-layer grassland > tree-shrub-grass composite woodland > single-layer woodland > tree-grass composite woodland. (3) Gender and professional background significantly impacted the plant community perception methods and landscape experience, and negative affect scores were lower for male participants than for female participants. Participants without backgrounds in landscape design exhibited higher positive affect scores under photo elicitation. Based on the conclusions drawn above, the onsite survey is preferable between the two perception methods. It is recommended that in future landscape designs, combinations of plant community types should be reasonably matched through onsite perception. These research results can provide a scientific basis for the future design of landscapes based on perception experience.
... The questions regarding keeping or removing poisonous urban trees are also relevant for other UEDS such as infrastructure-damage from urban trees (Lyytimäki et al., 2008), feelings of insecurity from improperly managed greenspaces (Koskela and Pain, 2000;Wolfe and Mennis, 2012), or high emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) from traffic emissions that support the formation of ozone (Calfapietra et al., 2013). The continuing urbanisation, currently at 55 %, estimated to reach 68 % of the world population by 2050 (UN, 2019), highlights the importance of including natural elements as green infrastructure in the planning processes. ...
Article
Urban trees play an important role in green infrastructure planning for the ecosystem services they provide. These services include carbon sequestration, the provision of clean air through oxygen production and filtering of airborne pollutants, and the offsetting of the urban heat island effect by providing shade and cooling. In addition to the well-studied positive effects of urban trees, under specific conditions, there are some unwanted side effects that need to be considered. Such negative side effects, such as allergies caused by tree pollen, traffic hazards from falling trees or tree parts or damage from roots or branches in resource supply or waste disposal infrastructures, are termed ecosystem disservices. An ecosystem disservice that is not very often illuminated in the urban context is the presence of poisonous urban trees. This paper provides a spatially explicit view of the distribution of poisonous urban trees in the city of Berlin, relating the spatial distribution of the hazard from this urban ecosystem disservice with the conditions under which it can have the most damaging effect by considering nearby playgrounds and areas with a high population density of children under 5 years old, the most vulnerable group within the urban population.
... Accounts of feelings of safety during the pandemic simultaneously revealed female participants' 'securitising strategies' in normal times, for example wearing headphones without music on to hear a possible approaching threat or avoiding passing a group of males at night time (referred to as digital means of coping by Honkatukia and Svynarenko 2019). These observations support previous findings of 'safety in numbers' where an increased number of pedestrians enhance individuals' feelings of safety against cars (Jacobsen 2015) and other people (Koskela and Pain 2000). ...
Article
Full-text available
While unlimited pedestrian mobility is usually considered a key characteristic of open democracies and healthy urban communication, a global pandemic has re-organised how public space can be used. By analysing places of interaction, infrastructure, and politics and civil society, this article examines walking in the pandemic city as a form of urban communication. The article explores meanings that young adults give to walking in semi-lockdown Helsinki, Finland by employing a qualitative multi-method approach. The findings underline participants’ emotional and social motivations for walking, highlighting the need to plan for local places of connection. The article argues that an individual’s chance to shape affordances of walking relies on their own walking practices and personal resources instead of understanding walking as a point of planning intervention.
... On the other hand, the presence of litter/garbage and graffiti are associated with increased burglary, crime, and fear (Lorenc et al., 2012). A number of studies reported that darkness, desolation, vacant land, and lack of natural surveillance are negatively associated with perceived security (Ceccato, 2013;Kelly, 1986;Koskela and Pain, 2000;Lynch and Atkins, 1988). These findings confirm that the BE plays a significant role in perceptions of security. ...
Article
Introduction Studies have shown that perceived security discourages pedestrians from walking, which in turn reduces physical activities and associated health benefits. However, there is a dearth of research about what elements of the built environment contribute to perceived security among pedestrians and, in particular, how the perception varies amongst women and amongst men in suburban environments. The present study aims to address this gap in the literature. Methods A range of scenarios (i.e. more/less diversity of land use, presence/absence of trees) were presented in an online experiment to 995 participants in Brisbane (Australia). Participants reported their perceptions of being assaulted/robbed/harassed in each scenario. Random effects ordered probit models were estimated for men and women to identify the association between perceived security and built environment factors, controlling for other confounders such as age and attitudes. Results Women have a higher perceived risk of being assaulted/robbed/harassed compared with men in all scenarios tested in the present study. Importantly, the results indicated that while residential, commercial, and mixed land use provide a sense of security for pedestrians compared to vacant land, the effect was larger for women compared to men. There were no significant differences between vacant and recreational land use in terms of perceived security. At night, pedestrians perceived suburban environments as insecure, and the change in the level of security was higher for women than men. Also, night time security varied over different land-use types between men and women. Conclusions The findings suggest that targeted urban design practices (e.g., functional use of vacant land, increasing diversity of land use, adequate street lights) could be used to improve perceived security and also reduce gender inequality in security perceptions. In turn, improved perceptions of security can help to increase walking as a mode of transport.
... Abida's poem calls attention to the racist, sexist, Islamophobia circulating in public spaces that land differently on her than many other students in the class; the affective dimensions of public space and classroom rules and regulations impact students differently. Koskela and Pain (2000) describe how fear is the guiding affective marker in women's experiences of walking in urban areas and I would add that this fear is often compounded for racialized and trans-queer people. 14 Ahmed's Queer Phenomenology (2006) demonstrates how some spaces or places, such as the city street, are barred from the experience of certain people, even as those spaces co-produce such feelings. ...
Book
Feminist Speculations and the Practice of Research-Creation provides a unique introduction to research-creation as a methodology, and a series of exemplifications of research-creation projects in practice with a range of participants including secondary school students, artists, and academics. In conversation with leading scholars in the field, the book outlines research-creation as transdisciplinary praxis embedded in queer-feminist anti-racist politics. It provides a methodological overview of how the author approaches research-creation projects at the intersection of literary arts, textuality, artistic practice, and pedagogies of writing, drawing on concepts related to the feminist materialisms, including speculative thought, affect theories, queer theory, and process philosophy. Further, it troubles representationalism in qualitative research in the arts. The book demonstrates how research-creation operates through the making of or curating of art or cultural productions as an integral part of the research process. The exemplification chapters engage with the author’s research-creation events with diverse participants all focused on text-based artistic projects including narratives, inter-textual marginalia art, postcards, songs, and computer-generated scripts. The book is aimed at graduate students and early career researchers who mobilize the literary arts, theory, and research in transdisciplinary settings.
... Tu• avia, alcuni autori (Gilling, 1997;Koskela & Pain, 2000) hanno cri• cato fermamente questo approccio perché ritenevano che esso non tenesse in debito conto le implicazioni derivan• dalle cause socioeconomiche della criminalità. Inoltre, non sono mancate ulteriori obiezioni sul possibile verifi carsi dell'eff e• o spostamento, anche in mancanza di un ogge• vo riscontro dai da• rileva• . ...
Chapter
Full-text available
The theories of physical space and prevention-oriented approaches situational highlighted as an urban planning incorrect can reduce informal natural control by favoring criminal opportunities and increasing citizens' insecurity. Urban planning and design become an element fundamental for the prevention of crime through the reduction of criminogenetic factors. The paper intends, through the analysis of the different theoretical approaches present in the literature, analyze the relationship between lighting, crime e perceived insecurity. Urban public lighting systems well planned can help increase security of citizens and prevent crime. The possibility of using the urban spaces at any time of the day without worries, not only improves the quality of life of the residents but contributes to the construction of the image of that territory as safety.
... That is why our research, like a range of others that focus on the issue of fear and danger (e.g. Evensen et al. 2021;Haans and de Kort 2012;Koskela and Pain 2000;Nasar and Jones 1997), was conducted on this particular group of respondents. ...
Article
Full-text available
Urban parks and forests are important for wellbeing, but feelings of unsafety limited their usage. Removal of vegetation from hotspots of fear is sometimes recommended as a means of boosting safety. However such actions should be approached with caution. One explanation, based on prospect-refuge theory, is that plants increase perceptions of danger because of their contribution to a setting’s effectiveness in concealing criminals. It is also believed that people do not like urban green spaces parks containing trees and shrubs that can act as hiding places because of the sense of danger that this vegetation evokes. To test this explanation, participants rated 57 photos of urban parks and forest parks settings park settings on perceived danger, effectiveness of concealment, and landscape preference. In addition, the effectiveness of concealment in the photos was measured assuming that the value of this variable is expressed by the percentage of the pixels occupied by trees and shrubs offering concealment in a photograph. Results confirmed that concealment and danger are highly correlated mediation analysis confirmed that the impact of concealment on preferences can be explained by perceived danger. When the danger was controlled, the efficiency of concealment had no influence on preferences.
... In other cases, women's experience of public space is shaped by factors related to the overall gendered societal structures of power and access (Pain, 2000;Koskela & Pain, 2000). Other examples of research on gender and public space includes Ilahi's (2009) work in Cairo, addressing the issue of street harassment and its implications for women's access to public spaces, and Viswanath and Mehrotra's (2007) study, which explores the nature of violence and women's perception of safe and unsafe places in Delhi. ...
Article
This article examines the role that physical design plays in shaping women’s everyday experiences in public space by studying gender differences in the use of a 1.3-acre urban park in a specific cultural enclave. Through direct observation, behavior mapping, and quantitative analysis, the project reveals an obvious gender separation of space usage in Portsmouth Square in the Chinatown district of San Francisco, California. In-depth interviews exposed a range of reasons for this separation and revealed how some Chinese immigrants construct and negotiate their social dynamics and territoriality on the urban square. The findings reaffirm that men and women often have different preferences in open spaces as well as different concepts of optimum public space experiences. Results also indicate that observed segregation by gender is not all voluntary. In this case, besides the known factors such as cultural and social norms, physical space design is important in shaping women’s use of public space, perpetuating and even intensifying gender separation and inequity. This study addresses and highlights some spatial elements that can be easily overlooked by landscape architects and environmental planners. It argues that to create a gender-inclusive—or, at a minimum, gender aware— public space, designers must consider not only the differences of ability, movement, and designated spots but also barriers, interruptions, and spaces avoided or inaccessible by specific populations.
... In addition, our results demonstrated that women preferred residences more than men. The possible reason may be that women sensed fear in isolated places (Koskela and Pain 2000), while residences in the rural internal environment could provide a sheltered and safe supportive location. Besides, stress level was the key factor for woodland and farmland. ...
Article
Full-text available
The fast pace of work life has resulted in increased attention toward the rural landscape. Most research on rural landscapes has focused on visual preferences based on public consensus, but in-depth studies assessing a broad range of individual factors influencing visual and auditory preferences are still lacking. This study assessed the influence of 6 social/demographic/health factors and 7 visit-related factors on the preference for 11 visual and auditory elements of rural environments. Visit-related factors had a more significant impact on landscape preference than social/demographical/health factors. Length of stay was the most important factor, associated with 5 visual elements and 4 sounds. Females and older people showed greater preference for biological sounds. Thus, it is necessary to pay attention to the influence of individual factors on landscape preference and strengthen the support of rural internal and external environment to people’s needs to provide more rich and satisfying experiences in rural areas.
Chapter
Smart technologies have a remarkable potential for making our cites more liveable and safer. However, gender equity and gendered violence is largely ignored by mainstream smart cities and intelligent spatial planning approaches. Current approaches can exacerbate existing inequalities and violence due to the lack of awareness of the scale of the problem. For example, recent data form the Australian Bureau of Statistics Personal Safety Survey show that nine out of 10 women who experience a sexual assault do not report the incident to the police with the repercussion that mainstream approaches overlook the seriousness and extent of gendered violence. Counter to this, there is a burgeoning movement amongst tech and gender activists to identify and raise awareness around such problems and to apply technology to make urban spaces safer and more inclusive for women and gender diverse people. A range of social entrepreneurs and gender activists have revealed the extent of street harassment and gender-based violence in public areas and begun to suggest approaches for tackling this injustice. This chapter reviews recent innovative initiatives to harness the Internet of Things and Big Data to address such injustice in a two-part approach. Firstly, to investigate the range of safety tech available and critique these initiatives. And secondly to identify gender-based safety factors relevant for designing and creating safer urban environments. To foster intelligent and safer environments spatial technologies offer an innovative approach to analyse these issues at scales ranging from local to national, and the uptake of such tools is likely to improve liveability in cities worldwide. To answer these questions, this chapter methodically reviews a database of 82 papers to identify 21 relevant peer-reviewed articles and critiques twelve innovative urban technology initiatives focused on gender and urban safety. Our findings are presented as a set of recommendations that can help urban managers better understand how to address, for example, UN Sustainable Development Goals 5 (gender equality) and 11 (sustainable cities) and a range of related inclusive initiatives in cities around the world.
Article
As Philadelphia’s postindustrial River Wards landscape undergoes a development boom, dust from construction projects settles on surrounding parks, gardens, and homes, and in the lungs of residents. Concerned about the reemergence of the area’s toxic history—especially the material legacies of lead refineries—and its impacts on their children’s health, local parents are organizing to understand and address the risks associated with the circulation of this “fugitive dust.” In this article, I examine latent and emergent risks of urban redevelopment by tracing the indeterminate, intimate trajectories of toxic dust as it traverses the spatial and temporal boundaries of property and proprietary subjects. In doing so, I consider the ways it disrupts racialized notions of improvement and refigures questions of socioenvironmental justice. Finally, in considering the possibilities for more just urban futures informed by present pasts, I attend to the fugitivity of dust: how its indeterminacy not only unsettles, but potentially escapes, the improvement–waste dichotomy in urban development praxis.
Article
This article explores police perspectives of sexual harassment on the London Underground. Drawing on 15 semi-structured interviews with the British Transport Police this article demonstrates how the police a) use their ‘situated knowledges’ to make sense of the dynamics of the London Underground and seek out offenders within the network, often without a report of harassment; and b) engage with technologies in order to (re)construct incidents of sexual harassment so that they can be investigated. The article argues that the BTP occupy a ‘soft cyborg ontology’, and claims the implications this has on epistemologies and methods of policing as significant. As well as permitting new insights into the procedures of policing sexual harassment on public transport, it contributes a critical perspective to the role of technology in police culture, practice and methods.
Article
Athough young women have an equal right to public space, socio-cultural influences both manifested in and sustained by the built environment contribute to their exclusion. Using mixed qualitative methodologies, this research explores the spatial and non-spatial causes of this injustice, and examines solutions presented by Key Independent Organizations addressing the issue in London. The analysis problematizes how inequitable social conditions may constrain young women’s design preferences, potentially leading to solutions that perpetuate gendered behaviours with detrimental outcomes. This study provides a point of reference for future initiatives addressing the problem and adds to the growing discourse surrounding inequality in public space.
Book
En introduktion till grundläggande kriminologiska perspektiv kring situationens betydelse för brott, rädsla för brott och otrygghet.Situationsbaserad brottsprevention ingår i serien "Kriminologiska perspektiv på ..." och tar upp hur man kan använda förebyggande strategier för att minska otrygghet och brottsutsatthet.Boken- ger en fördjupad kunskap om interaktionen mellan individ och miljö.- analyserar platsen, dess användare och användning.- behandlar jämställdhet, intersektionalitet och social hållbarhet.
Article
Institutional actors in urban areas in Latvia are increasingly concerned about reducing violence on multiple scales and temporalities. Imagining such achievements, however, often too easily focuses on the aesthetics of security and infrastructure in public space that obscure the social causes of violence and effects this has on unequal development and social marginalization. Drawing on fieldwork on practices of domestic violence prevention in three Latvian urban areas during the autumn and winter of 2019, this paper examines how the geographical imagination of where violence resides connects violence prevention and spatial development as projects of European modernisation in post-Soviet space. We identify four spatial fields most often associated with violence: (1) neighbourhoods and infrastructural elements, (2) dark and isolated spaces, (3) spaces associated with intoxication, and (4) private spaces. We analyse the most common individual and institutional strategies for violence prevention in each of these fields, noting the logics of dispossession, surveillance, and connectivity behind them. We show how gendered practices and disciplining are emphasised on an individual level, while spatial fixes to violence in public space often focus on men’s violence against men. All in all, we show how violence prevention figures in imagining living in ‘European’ spatial and institutional infrastructural regimes.
Article
Purpose Given their young age, students are at a heightened risk of violent victimisation. Yet few studies have considered students’ perceptions of safety and the impact of these, on a British university campus. The purpose of this research was to close this gap. Design/methodology/approach From late 2019–2020, using an online university wide survey, data was gathered over a three-month period from 550 students studying at a university in the north of England on “city” campuses about their perceptions of safety and security on-campus. Findings Students, particularly women students, felt unsafe on the university campuses because of poor lighting, limited CCTV, security patrols and the presences of others. They felt unsafe in and around teaching buildings, moving around the campuses and in transport locations. Research limitations/implications The response rate of the survey was 6%. Consequently, the findings are not representative of the wider student population on the campuses. Practical implications Campus Security should consider enhancing surveillance on the campuses. Social implications Students, particularly women, limited the time they spent on-campus studying because they felt unsafe. Their choices about when and how to engage in their university education were therefore restricted. Originality/value This study addresses the gap in research on students’ perceptions of safety and the impact of these, on a British university campus. In doing so, it forefronts the responsibility of higher education institutions to enhance students’ safety, including their perceptions of safety, on-campus.
Chapter
Public space is gendered, where men have better access at all times of the day, while women have a purpose for their legitimate access to public spaces. City planning and public services are responsible for violence and intimidation faced by urban women, especially poor transportation and street-lighting make them more vulnerable. What indicates all this is that the fear of crime is continuously modifying a woman’s spatial realities. This paper, through a critical review of literature related to gender and urban planning, attempts to suggest directions for the planning of “inclusive cities” respectful to the specific needs of women, which can contribute to reducing violence and enhancing safety for women.KeywordsGendered spacesFear of violenceCrimeGender-sensitive planningRight to the city
Article
Confronting gender-based violence is a key area of concern and one that calls for urgent action. These debates have become particularly relevant in light of the Covid-19 pandemic and the unveiling of underlying inequalities. Amongst the many unintended consequences of the pandemic lies the increased risk of domestic violence for vulnerable women who have been required to self-isolate. There is increasing evidence that we are facing more than one pandemic with quite worrying and widespread problems in global systems, whether they relate to public health or to human rights. As academics, we can contribute by theorizing with intersectionalities, translating research into practice, engaging with our local communities and creating non-stigmatized environment. But most of all, we can advocate for victims.
Article
The rights that guarantee public passage across private land are known as Rights of Way. In this paper, we argue that Rights of Way are a literal manifestation of a politics of space. The paper’s purpose is to suggest Rights of Way are central to issues surrounding social and spatial inequality, specifically with regards to public access to urban and rural space. They are a neglected topic in geographical research, despite their relevance to many subbranches including landscape studies, urban natures, GIS and open‐source geospatial research. Rights of Way in England and Wales are currently facing their biggest legal threat to date. On the 1st January 2026, unregistered Rights of Way (RoW) are set to be extinguished. Path Extinguishment threatens 1000s of kilometres of footpath, bridleway, restricted byway and byways open to all traffic. The paper concludes by examining how the aforementioned geographical approaches help reveal the cultural and historical value of two at‐risk footpaths in Coventry, England.
Article
Peace is a spatio-social and temporal experience, dependent on a number of variables that are influenced by positionality and privilege. Often “peaceful” spaces are inherently violent due to racism, sexism, classism, ableism, transphobia, homophobia, and agism among other forms of oppression. This article presents the conceptualisation of the violence of space, as a means by which inequalities are maintained spatially and socially, and demonstrates how in Cape Town, South Africa this exacerbates displacement and reinforces the persistence of violence in townships and informal settlements or temporal and physical spaces of violence. Empirically, through thematic analysis I evidence the conceptualisation of peace without justice as a form of violence through participant narratives of movement and use of space in the post-apartheid city. Using a spatial lens, I demonstrate how these inequalities perpetuate violence and observe the work still to be done in addressing maintained transgenerational inequalities. I utilise interviews with a range of actors working across different city spaces to demonstrate the violence of maintained divides with a specific focus on materialisations of violence, both structural and direct violence, in the areas of housing and transport. In this paper I also highlight organisation and resistance to inequalities, while overall, arguing that the product of the violence of space and spaces of violence is a violent peace whereby engineered poverty and systemic inequalities are maintained.
Article
Full-text available
Women’s constricted daily mobility has been a key topic in transportation research. Gender role and women’s limited access to efficient transport means are recognised as causing their constricted daily mobility when compared with men. However, could there be another reason for this observation? This study offers an ulterior explanation by bridging feminist theory on the spatiality and temporality of women’s fear of violence in public spaces with quantitative travel behaviour studies. By theorising and empirically examining women’s fear-induced time-sensitive immobility, this study investigates women’s sensitivity relating to fear of violence during nocturnal travel. Moreover, it explores how fear of violence impedes women from having equal nocturnal mobility with respect to men in terms of whether to engage in nocturnal travel, time of nocturnal travel, and mode choice for nocturnal travel. This study also goes beyond the dichotomy between women and men to examine the variations in sensitivity to fear and fear-induced constricted nocturnal travel behaviour amongst women, particularly in consideration of individual differences in capability and agency in mitigating fear. The empirical examination is based on a structural equation model approach to the analysis of 1,112 questionnaires collected from two Chinese cities. Drawing from the empirical findings, policy implications for mitigating the fear-induced immobility of women and other fear-vulnerable groups are proposed. Overall, this study offers an integrated approach to bridging feminist geography and travel behaviour studies that pays due attention to gender, fear, time, urban space (transportation settings), and mobility.
Article
Full-text available
Rapid urbanization and a drastic socioeconomic transition from the centrally planned system to a market system in China provide a rare opportunity of observing urban transport equity. Literature on urban transport equity in Chinese cities is increasing. However, our understanding of urban transport equity in China is dominated by individual empirical studies, and an overall picture remains absent. This paper contributes the first literature review on urban transport equity in transitional China. Two key questions are answered. They are how transport equity is understood and examined in China, and what progress can be made to obtain universal knowledge of urban transport equity. This paper addresses the two questions by engaging with recent theoretical dialogue between the political philosophy of justice and Western transport equity research. This theoretical dialogue reconceptual-izes transport equity into the equitable accessibility distribution mediated by institutional architecture to achieve equality of social opportunity among people. Based on a critical review of equity-concerned China transportation research and its reconceptualization, we propose an agenda for furthering urban transport equity research in transitional China. This research agenda calls for a shifted research focus (a) on evaluating the accessibility distribution of specific transport projects and policy, (b) on unpacking the political economy of transitional urban transport governance that determines the triumph/failure of the pro-growth/pro-equity accessibility distribution in the real setting, (c) on tracking the impact of accessibility distribution on disadvantaged groups' socioeconomic status and social mobility and putting forward appropriate policy/institution to improve the accessibility of disadvantaged groups, and (d) on revealing how the emerging social trends (e.g., information technology revolution and the aging society) reshape the individual capability to move/accessibility distribution.
Chapter
Urban spaces are recognized as contested spaces where the ‘right to the city’ itself is contingent upon a number of social variables which includes gender. The United Nations agenda for sustainable development includes 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) of which Gender Equality (SDG 5), Reduced Inequalities (SDG 10), Sustainable Cities and Communities (SDG 11) could be used to address the issue of women in urban spaces more directly. While these UN Development goals focus quite explicitly on material infrastructure and measurable indicators, it is argued here that the idea of a sustainable city is simply untenable unless such cities are free of fear of violence for women. The objectives of this chapter are manifold. Firstly, drawing upon literature it builds on the idea of a gender equal and fear free city as an inclusive urban space. Secondly, it seeks to provide a theoretical framework for mapping gendered resistances in urban spaces as a means to achieve such inclusive, fear free and sustainable city spaces. Finally, contemporary urban movements are examined as gendered resistances to reclaim space and inclusivity at different scales. The study is theoretical in its approach and eschews the data driven positivist perspective in favour of feminist readings of urban spaces, and gendered resistances.
Article
Full-text available
As many now recognize, fear of crime is an inadequately theorized concept. In particular, it is premissed on rational, calculating individuals who routinely miscalculate their 'true' risk of crime. Hence the repeatedly found paradox that the least at risk group (elderly females) are most fearful. The risk literature has adopted a cultural/anthropological rather than an individual perspective, but, in so doing has not succeeded in retheorizing the notion of the rationally calculating subject it critiques (Douglas), even if rational calculations are no longer possible in today's 'risk society' (Beck). We develop these cultural perspectives in a way which is founded on a post-structuralist theory of individuals wherein inter-subjective defending against anxiety replaces rational calculation as central to the understanding of fear. Not only does this re-link the concepts of fear and anxiety, currently divorced in the fear of crime debate, but it offers the prospect of understanding the paradoxical mismatch between risk and fear at both the level of the individual and of society.
Article
Studies investigating the positive effect that improved street lighting has on crime and the fear of crime have become remarkably popular. Impressive results have regularly been reported. However, while most use the ‘before-and-after’ interview format, many neglect to have a long enough follow-up period or to control for the effect that interviewing at different times of the year may have. The study reported here is based on a twelve-month follow-up period, and controls exactly for time of year at follow-up interview stage. Further, in addition to relighting the area surrounding the homes of respondents, other external environmental improvements were effected, and the security precautions of the homes of respondents were substantially improved. In spite of this, little improvement in victimization or fear of victimization could be documented. Some improvement might have been noticed had respondents been consulted when the nature and type of improvements were being planned. It is more likely that improved street lighting is no panacea for all ills, and may only be effective under certain conditions.
Article
This article describes the analysis and body of work coming out of Toronto in the past 10 yr aimed at the prevention of public violence against women through planning and design. The "Toronto School' of planners, academics, and community activists share a common feminist analysis. This consists of treating "crime' and "fear of crime' as gendered phenomena, and treating public violence as part of the continuum of acts that harm women; relying on a participatory research and evaluation process, allowing the people who are most affected to define the problem and suggest solutions; integrating design improvement and community development. Projects have included studies on where women fear crime, broad changes to the public transit system, and the integration of women's safety concerns into the planning process at the City of Toronto. Research directions are also outlined. This article acts as a combination chronology and annotated bibliography of what might be called the "Toronto School' of including women's safety and security in planning and architectural practice. -from Author
Article
Three of five attempts to organise focus groups 'failed' when only two participants showed up. The decision to go ahead with the discussion with only a very small group was by way of experiment. I discuss my experiences of this 'small group method' in relation to post structuralist feminist research on the 'geographical experiences' of pregnant women who live in Hamilton, New Zealand/Aotearoa.
Chapter
Victimisation surveys note that individuals commonly fail to report criminal incidents to the police. Only about one-third of all serious crime is reported to the police in the United States and England, Wales and Scotland (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1983; Chambers and Tombs, 1984; Hough and Mayhew, 1983 and 1985). Researchers have noted that failure to report crime involves assessments of individuals about how ‘private’ they feel the dispute is; the fear of reprisal for reporting the matter to police; the feeling that the police would not think the matter serious; that, even if reported, nothing could be done to resolve the matter; or that despite its statutory seriousness, the matter was not important enough to report to the police (Bureau of Justice Statistics, 1983; Hough and Mayhew, 1983 and 1985; Chambers and Tombs, 1984). As such, reporting of serious criminal events to the criminal justice system also reflects the confidence of individuals in the authority of the police to resolve disputes involving criminal matters.
Article
This paper describes a research strategy based on participant-observation and focus groups to explore the social and cultural bases of risk and fear of crime in recreational woodlands The main findings from the project, carried out for the Community Forest Unit of the Countryside Commission in 1993 are also reported.
Article
This article is based on the findings of the Home Office Safter Cities Projects and a series of interactive meetings organised at the Institute of Planning Studies, University of Nottingham, bringing together women's groups and planning officers. The article attempts to make those responsible for transport and land-use planning aware of how seriously women's use of town centres and access to work and leisure is affected by the fear of attack. It explores some of the planning remedies that are being proposed to make the environment less conducive to crime or to insulate women from their effects. Recommendations and planning proposals are explored in three areas: transport services; city centres; and residential areas. -Authors
Article
Research upon the fear of crime has grown substantially in recent years. From its very inception, this field has relied almost exclusively upon quantitative surveys, which have suggested that the fear of crime is a prevalent social problem. However, doubts about the nature of the instruments used to investigate this phenomenon have cumulatively raised the possibility that the fear of crime has been significantly misrepresented. Dealing with the epistemological, conceptual, operational and technical critiques of quantitative surveys in general and of fear of crime surveys in particular, this article suggests that our understanding of the fear of crime is a product of the way it has been researched rather than the way it is. As the aim of the research project under which this data was collected was to develop and design new quantitative questions, the article ends with some possible solutions to the epistemological, conceptual, operational and technical problems discussed which may improve future quantitative research in this field.
Article
Sample survey data from Seattle are used to examine fear of rape among urban women. The magnitude and prevalence of such fear are striking, particularly among younger women, who fear rape more than any other crime. The high fear attached to rape stems from the fact that it is perceived to be both extremely serious and relatively likely; and from the fact that it is closely associated with other serious offenses such as homicide and robbery. Fear of rape also lies behind fear of other offenses among women in our sample, and is strongly associated with certain social or lifestyle precautions.
Article
ABSTRACT This article explores women's fear of urban violence from a spatial perspective. It is based on qualitative data collected in Finland. It shows first that women do not have to be fearful. Boldness is associated with freedom, equality, and a sense of control over, and possession of space. Secondly, the article considers how and why fear of violence undermines some women's confidence, restricting their access to, and activity within, public space. Fear of violence is a sensitive indicator of gendered but complex power relations which constitute society and space. Women's fear is generally regarded as 'normal' and their boldness thought to be risky: the conceptualisation of women as victims is unintentionally reproduced. However, a more critical view might regard fear as socially constructed and see how it is actually possible for women to be confident and take possession of space.
Article
The purpose of this study war to look for causes of women's fear of crime. It was hypothesised that experiences of sexual harassment, which usually are not serious but could occur relatively often, can lead women to be fearful and restrict themselves to their homes. A distinction was made between victimisation inside the family and outside the family. The results showed a strong relation between fear/anticipation and victimisation for situations inside the family frame. However, there appeared to be a weaker relation between victimisation and fear/anticipation outside the family; a low educational level war the best predictor of higher fear/anticipation scores. Techniques of neutralisation can explain the difference in results for situations inside and outside the family frame. Finally it is suggested that women differ in there ability to handle potentially dangerous situations (by neutralising feelings of insecurity). This means that there are two “explanations” for women's high scores on fear and anticipation scales: they have experiences of sexual harassment, which men usually do not have to confront; and thg score highr on fators which influence people's ability to handle potentially dangerous situations.
Article
This paper assesses explanations for women's fear of sexual violence. Many existing analyses share a common theoretical basis, but certain conflicts arise in the empirical evidence. These concern a number of paradoxes between fear and violence, in terms of their extent, their nature and in particular their spatial situation. A research project on women's fear of crime in Edinburgh aimed to improve understanding of these. Evidence from the questionnaire survey showed a further mismatch between women's common sense knowledge about general risks and their perceptions of personal risk. Many women know that the usual location of violence is private space, yet only fear attack in public places. Data from qualitative interviews suggest that this contradiction is preserved by the tendency to distance violence from the self, a process which is central to the management of danger and consequent lifestyle adaptation.
Article
In this essay, I paint a portrait of women in public places and their concerns with crime prevention, based on a survey of the literature and in-depth interviews with women. I argue that there is a situationally appropriate self that crime-prevention advice literature suggests women adopt and that women attempt to adopt. This situated self, however, is sometimes constrained by the general character of public places and by the particular character of the belief system that women have and that the literature recommends with regard to crime prevention. In particular, I view normative beliefs about crime prevention as a “rhetoric” that involves negative contingencies for the woman's situated self in public, including frequent reliance on others, self-profanation, and lengthy or consuming preparations.
Article
In the present political climates of Western democracies, the `criminology of the self' (Garland, 1996) dominates crime prevention literature. What this means for women, in effect, is that we are asked (and expected) to see the ordinary as risky. This article argues that conventional analyses of women's risk of violence, and `fear of crime' overlooks the effective self-regulation inherent in women's strategies of safekeeping. Women's safety talk demonstrates that men's violence operates as a `technology' of regulating the `self'.
Article
The “crime prevention through environmental design” approach suggests that the public's fear of crime might be reduced through redesigning the built environment. Two studies are reported examining the relationship between fear and the environment. The first study, an inventory of unsafe places, provides an answer to the question that characteristics mainly determine the perceived lack of safety of a location. Results suggest that unsafe places are particularly those that are quiet and deserted and are poorly lighted. In the second study, an experiment, the impact of improved street lighting on fear, subjective victimization risks, and the perceived likelihood of bystander intervention is evaluated. Results suggest that increases in the level of street lighting decrease fear and the other parameters. Some policy implications are discussed.
Article
My aim in this paper is to find an understanding of the concept of space which could be used in urban design, but which could also be shared by others with an interest in space. Social scientists, geographers, architects, urban planners, and designers use the term space in their academic and professional involvement with the city. But when they meet each other their discourse seems to be handicapped partly because of a difference in their usage and understanding of the concept of space. I will argue that to arrive at a common platform in which a meaningful communication can become possible, we need to confront such fragmentation by moving towards a more unified concept of space. I will argue for a concept of space which would refer to our objective, physical space with its social and psychological dimensions, a dynamic conception which accommodates at the same time constant change and embeddedness, and that can only be understood in monitoring the way space is being made and remade, at the intersection of the development processes and everyday life.
Article
In the 1990s closed circuit television (CCTV) surveillance cameras have become a common feature in the public spaces of urban Britain. Drawing on research into city centre CCTV in general and Glasgow's City Watch scheme in particular, this paper examines the phenomenon in terms of the construction of CCTV systems, the limits to their potential effectiveness and the resistance to their development.
Article
There has been a sharp rise in recorded crime in post-war Britain: since 1960 known offences have increased by an average annual amount of at least 6 per cent. Most analysts, of course, believe this reflects changes in policing and in public reporting behaviour as much, if not more, than it indexes real trends in offending. Nevertheless, there are now more than 3m offences committed annually in England and Wales alone; and between 1980 and 1985, domestic burglary increased by over 150 per cent. Residental burglary and vandalism are a major component of the modern crime problem, accounting for 13 per cent and 15 per cent respectively, of known offences in 1985 (if thefts from dwellings were added, residential property crime would account for an even greater proportion of the total). This is, in itself, a sobering thought. Equally disturbing are the increasing expenditure on policing that crime trends have encouraged (40 per cent since 1979); the real cost of solving burglaries (which is currently estimated at £1.2bn per year in England and Wales); and the amount of property stolen or damaged (which was estimated at £35m in 1983 for one Northern police force area alone). Add to this the discovery of the British Crime Survey (conducted for the first time in 1982, and repeated two years later) that as few as two-thirds of the burglaries and one-fifth of the incidents of vandalism experienced by private victims ever comes to the notice of the police and it is obvious why residential crime is causing such concern among both politicians and the public.
Article
Traditional approaches to mapping fear of crime are limited to describing or explaining the impact of sexual and physical violence as a reflection of gender inequality. Using empirical evidence from recent research, a social geography of women's fear is developed. Four important areas of geographical analysis are highlighted: the imposition of constraints on the use of urban space, the distinction between public and private space in perceptions of danger, the social construction of space into 'safe' and 'dangerous' places, and the social control of women's spaces. Within this framework, it is shown how women's experiences of social class, age, disability and motherhood can determine their experience of, and reactions to fear of, violent crime.
Article
Reviews and summarizes the mass of material written on some aspect or other of fear of crime over the past 30 yrs. The paper examines in detail reasons why fear of crime has become a recurring theme in academic and policy discussions by considering its consequences. Early work looking for possible correlates of fear concentrated on the notion of physical, emotional, and economic vulnerability, and the level of crime or crime experience. Further work has suggested that fear depends on an individual's perception of the personal risk of being a victim and the assessment of how serious the consequences of crime victimization are likely to be. Possible policy options are considered; it is clear that there is no single approach to reducing fear that will work in all communities. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
With the increase in recorded crime and evidence of greater fear of crime in many cities, the issue of community safety has become of great significance. There are many ways in which crime prevention can be implemented and experiments with different measures have had varying levels of success. One approach is to modify the built environment in which people live on the assumption that there are design features which reduce an area's vulnerability to crime. Street lighting is one facet of the built environment and a nationwide initiative involving six cities examined the impact of improved street lighting upon crime and community safety. A comparative study of two of those cities, Hull and Cardiff, shows some of the results of this experiment. Whereas the impact upon crime per se was difficult to assess, there were clear indicators that improved street lighting led to higher levels of community safety amongst residents of the two study areas. Fear of crime was diminished and the fact that street lighting had been improved was seen as a positive investment in the two areas which achieved real and recognizable gains.
Article
This paper examines how women's fear of violence is realised as spatial exclusions. Quantitative surveys on fear are used to show the number of women who are afraid, and the nature of the most frightening places. However, it is argued that quantitative surveys are of limited value in approaching the mental and social processes behind fear and in understanding the fear-related production of space. Qualitative research methods are used to explain the matter in more depth. It may be argued that fear is a consequence of women's unequal status, but it also contributes to perpetuating gendered inequalities. The paper reveals multiple experiences that change women's relations to space. Experiences and attempts at violence, and incidents of sexual harassment produce a space from which women are excluded on account of their gender. Social and emotional aspects, such as increased feelings of vulnerability, lack of social support, and a feeling of not having control over what is happening to oneself, have spatial consequences. These feelings often increase along with ageing, injuring, bereavement or moving to another place, as well as pregnancy and motherhood. I argue that the spatial exclusions in women's lives are a reflection of gendered power relations. Women's subjective feelings contribute to the intersubjective power-related process of producing space. Urban space is produced by gender relations, and reproduced in those everyday practices where women do not-or dare not-have a choice over their own spatial behaviour.
Article
As people navigate their social and physical environment, what cues or signs lead them to believe that they are in danger of becoming victims of crime? Using Goffman's essay on “Normal Appearances” as a backdrop, we argue that there are three central cues that evoke fear of victimization. The effects of these cues are tested using data from a factorial survey (Rossi & Nock 1982) conducted in Dallas. We then consider an additional social cue, and the conditions under which cues do and do not operate.
Article
The article offers a descriptive analysis of strategies of crime control in contemporary Britain and elsewhere. It argues that the normality of high crime rates and the limitations of criminal justice agencies have created a new predicament for governments. The response to this predicament has been recurring ambivalence that helps explain the volatile and contradictory character of recent crime control policy. The article identifies adaptive strategies (responsibilization, defining deviance down, and redefining organizational success) and strategies of denial (the punitive sovereign response), as well as the different criminologies that accompany them.
Article
Over the last 15 years or so the study of criminal victimization has proceeeded apace. That study has frequently drawn together an understanding of the nature and extent of criminal victimization with the question of risk from such victimization. Yet while what is actually meant by criminal victimization has been subject to considerable scrutiny, what is meant by risk in this context has been less closely examined. The purpose of this paper is to suggest that thinking about risk through a gendered lens might better inform those wider concerns of criminal victimization in general.
Article
"A critique has recently been made of research and theory on ageing in spatial research, arguing for the development of approaches which are informed by critical theoretical perspectives. Perhaps the most significant of these is the recognition that 'old age' is culturally constructed. This paper illustrates the value of such an approach with reference to understanding of fear of crime. It is suggested that many difficulties with past research result from epistemological problems, including ageism. A number of assumptions about elderly people and crime can be contested if scrutiny is informed by humanistic, feminist and social constructionist perspectives. Drawing on in depth interviews with elderly people, some of the problems and prospects of work on old age are discussed. Age is only one dimension by which people situate themselves and are situated by others in relation to the risk of crime. Local contexts, life course experiences and other social identities are involved in the constitution of fear for each individual. While the role of ageing can be understood within a framework of power relations, its positive as well as negative impacts on reactions to crime require representation. Similar analysis could profitably be developed in other areas of urban research." Copyright Joint Editors and Blackwell Publishers Ltd 1997.
Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies. Harrow and Heston
  • R V Clarke
Clarke, R.V. (Ed.), 1992. Situational Crime Prevention: Successful Case Studies. Harrow and Heston, New York.
News and the dissemination of fear Design against crime. Beyond the rhetoric of residential crime prevention Social relations, neighbourhood structure, and the fear of crime in Britain The Geography of Crime
  • S J Smith
  • S J Smith
Smith, S.J., 1985. News and the dissemination of fear. In: Burgess, J., Gold, J. (Eds.), Geography, the Media and Popular Culture. Croom Helm, London. Smith, S.J., 1987. Design against crime. Beyond the rhetoric of residential crime prevention. Property Management 5 (2), 146±150. Smith, S.J., 1989. Social relations, neighbourhood structure, and the fear of crime in Britain. In: Evans, D., Herbert, D. (Eds.), The Geography of Crime. Routledge, London.
Y okaupunki-pelon kaupunki? (Night-city-the city of fear?) Helsingin Y o (The Night of Helsinki) The City of Helsinki Information Management Centre
  • H Koskela
  • M Tuominen
Koskela, H., Tuominen, M., 1995. Y okaupunki-pelon kaupunki? (Night-city-the city of fear?). In: L ahteenmaa, J., M akel a, L. (Eds.), Helsingin Y o (The Night of Helsinki). The City of Helsinki Information Management Centre, Helsinki.
Gender and Crime: An Introduction
  • S Walklate
Walklate, S., 1995. Gender and Crime: An Introduction. Prentice-Hall, London.
Journeying in reverse: possibilities and problems in feminist research on sexual violence
  • L Kelly
Kelly, L., 1990. Journeying in reverse: possibilities and problems in feminist research on sexual violence. In: Gelsthorpe, L., Morris, A. (Eds.), Feminist Perspectives in Criminology. Open University Press, Milton Keynes, pp. 107±114.
Women and Planning. Creating Gendered Real-ities. Routlegde Fear of crime: a review of the literature
  • C H Greed
Greed, C.H., 1994. Women and Planning. Creating Gendered Real-ities. Routlegde, London. Hale, C., 1996. Fear of crime: a review of the literature. International Review of Victimology 4, 79±150.
The 1996 British crime survey, England and Wales
  • C Mirrlees-Black
  • P Mayhew
  • A Percy
Mirrlees-Black, C., Mayhew, P., Percy, A., 1996. The 1996 British crime survey, England and Wales. Home Oce Statistical Bulletin, 19/96.
Environmental improvements and the fear of crime Design for vulnerability: cues and reactions to fear of crime
  • G Nair
  • J Ditton
  • S Phillips
  • ±
  • J L Nassar
  • B Fisher
Nair, G., Ditton, J., Phillips, S., 1993. Environmental improvements and the fear of crime. British Journal of Criminology 33 (4), 555±561. Nassar, J.L., Fisher, B., 1992. Design for vulnerability: cues and reactions to fear of crime. Sociology and Social Research 76 (2), 48±58.
Women, Violence and Social Change. Routledge Whom can you trust. The politics of grassing' on an inner city housing estate
  • R E Dobash
  • R P Dobash
Dobash, R.E., Dobash, R.P., 1992. Women, Violence and Social Change. Routledge, London. Evans, K., Fraser, P., Walklate, S., 1996. Whom can you trust. The politics of grassing' on an inner city housing estate. Sociological Review 44 (3), 359±380.
Ask Any Woman: A London Enquiry into Rape and Sexual Assault Well Founded Fear: A Community Study of Violence to Women Women, Violence and Crime Preven-tion. Avebury, Aldershot. Hay, I.M., 1993. Fear of violence and the use of urban space in the City of Unley
  • R E Hall
  • Bristol
  • J Hanmer
  • S Saunders
Hall, R.E., 1985. Ask Any Woman: A London Enquiry into Rape and Sexual Assault. Falling Wall Press, Bristol. Hanmer, J., Saunders, S., 1984. Well Founded Fear: A Community Study of Violence to Women. Hutchinson, London. Hanmer, J., Saunders, S., 1993. Women, Violence and Crime Preven-tion. Avebury, Aldershot. Hay, I.M., 1993. Fear of violence and the use of urban space in the City of Unley. Discipline of Geography, Flinders University, Adelaide.
Changing perspectives on crime prevention: the role of information and structure
  • K Heal
Heal, K., 1992. Changing perspectives on crime prevention: the role of information and structure. In: Evans, D.J., Fyfe, N.R., Herbert, D.T. (Eds.), Crime, Policing and Place. Routledge, London.
The Second Islington Crime Survey
  • A Crawford
  • T Jones
  • T Woodhouse
  • J Young
Crawford, A., Jones, T., Woodhouse, T., Young, J., 1990. The Second Islington Crime Survey. Centre for Criminology, Middlesex Poly-technic.
The e€ect of better street lighting on crime and fear: a review Crime Prevention Unit Paper no. 29. Home Oce Feminist geographies of environment, nature and landscape Editorial (special issue)
  • M Ramsey
  • R Newton
  • London
  • G Rose
  • V Kinnaird
  • M Morris
  • C Nash
Ramsey, M., Newton, R., 1991. The e€ect of better street lighting on crime and fear: a review. Crime Prevention Unit Paper no. 29. Home Oce, London. Rose, G., Kinnaird, V., Morris, M., Nash, C., 1997. Feminist geographies of environment, nature and landscape. In: Women and Geography Study Group (Eds.), Feminist Geographies: Explorations in Diversity and Di€erence. Longman, Harlow. Rowe, J., 1996. Editorial (special issue). Landscape and Urban Planning 35 (2/3) 75±201.