Article

Social anxiety and technology: Face-to-face communication versus technological communication among teens

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

This study examined teens’ use of socially interactive technologies (SITs), such as online social sites, cell phones/text messaging, and instant messaging (IM), and the role that social anxiety plays on how teens communicate with others (technologically or face-to-face). Participants included 280 high school students from a large western city. On average, 35–40% of teens reported using cell phones/text messaging and online social sites between 1 and 4 h daily, 24% reported using IMs 1–4 h daily and only 8% reported using email between 1 and 4 h daily. Females tended to use cell phones/text messaging and online social sites more so than did males. In assessing social anxiety, analyses revealed a positive relationship between social anxiety (not comfortable talking with others face-to-face) and (1) talking with others online and (2) talking with others via text messaging. In contrast, there was a positive relationship between the lack of social anxiety (feeling “comfortable” talking with others) and making friends online. Assessing gender differences and social anxiety also revealed significant differences. Results revealed females reported more social anxiety (not comfortable talking with others in person) than did males. In addition, females, more than males, reported feeling more comfortable using SITs (text messaging and online social sites only) rather than talking with others face-to-face.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... As with face-to-face communications, socially anxious people experience more negative emotions and fewer positive emotions across CMC mediums [28]. Research has been inconclusive on whether social anxiety is associated with higher use of CMC [28,87], but it does appear to be associated with a preference for CMC compared to face-to-face communications [29,87]. ...
... As with face-to-face communications, socially anxious people experience more negative emotions and fewer positive emotions across CMC mediums [28]. Research has been inconclusive on whether social anxiety is associated with higher use of CMC [28,87], but it does appear to be associated with a preference for CMC compared to face-to-face communications [29,87]. ...
... The possibility that the content-focused interface operates somewhat like a visually anonymous context may also explain why fewer efects of social anxiety (and no efects of feedback) were observed in Study Two. People higher in social anxiety often report CHI '21, May 08-13, 2021, Yokohama, Japan a preference for non-visual CMC compared to face-to-face interaction [29,87]. By deprioritizing the visual aspects of communication (both reducing the size of the remote person on the local screen and the size of the local on their partner's screen), the content-focused interface may therefore increase comfort and attenuate the infuence of social anxiety on important factors in communication, such as self-awareness and conversational behavior. ...
... Finally, it is worth emphasising that online communication can be a kind of asylum for users who do not feel comfortable in face-to-face communication, i.e. for shy people who display social anxiety (Pierce, 2009(Pierce, , pp. 1367(Pierce, -1372 or even social phobia, who have complexes related to their appearance (e.g. subjective unattractiveness, scars, tics, which may be even more intense in a stressful situation) or the way they express themselves (e.g. ...
... Undertaking such multifaceted analyses in the face of contemporary, constantly changing reality seems to be a necessity. Pierce, T. (2009 Nowe media w komunikacji -wyzwania i potrzeby ...
... Wreszcie warto podkreślić, że porozumiewanie się online może stanowić swego rodzaju wybawienie czy azyl dla użytkowników, którzy nie czują się komfortowo w komunikacji twarzą w twarz, a więc dla osób nieśmiałych, przejawiających lęk społeczny (Pierce, 2009(Pierce, , s. 1367(Pierce, -1372 czy wręcz fobię społeczną, mających głębokie kompleksy związane ze swoim wyglądem (np. subiektywną nieatrakcyjnością, bliznami, tikami, które w sytuacji stresogennej mogą być jeszcze bardziej intensywne) lub ze sposobem wypowiadania się (np. ...
Article
Full-text available
W artykule omówiono przemiany, jakie się dokonały poprzez użytkowanie nowych mediów, zwłaszcza internetu, uwzględniając kontekst powstania i rozwoju technologii informacyjno-komunikacyjnych, przedstawiono też różnice pomiędzy klasyczną komunikacją a kontaktami internetowymi. Scharakteryzowano najczęstsze rodzaje zagrożeń internetowych i omówiono niejednoznaczny wpływ kontaktów sieciowych na człowieka i jego życie społeczne, w tym przede wszystkim więzi z innymi. Podkreślono, że nowe media mają wiele zalet, mogą jednak być również źródłem wielu ryzykownych sytuacji, dlatego konieczna jest edukacja w tym zakresie, obejmująca zwłaszcza (choć nie tylko) młode pokolenia. Wskazane są też dalsze wieloaspektowe badania, które umożliwiałyby diagnozę zmieniającej się rzeczywistości i służyły opracowywaniu rozwiązań problemów związanych z ryzykiem, jakie towarzyszy użytkowaniu technologii informacyjno-komunikacyjnych.
... Therefore, these rapidly growing number of users indicate that today's interpersonal relationships among the individuals throughout the world are mostly characterized by computer mediated communication (Caplan, 2019). Scholars pointed out that such interactive computer mediated interaction can act as an expedient tool for the people with face-to-face (FtF) interaction anxiety to avoid discomfort feelings (Cheng et al., 2019;Pierce, 2009;Teppers et al., 2014;Zsido et al., 2020). The social skill model of Caplan (2005) argued that people with deficit self-presentation skills, such as loneliness, social anxiety, shyness were more likely to prefer online social interaction over FtF interaction because they discern online interaction as less intimidating and socially more effaceable. ...
... Because with the evolution of individuals' concern with online technology and their involvement with computer-mediated communication people have experience diverse psycho-social and health-related problems in their personal and professional life. Numerous studies have found empirical evidences on individuals who experienced problems in FtF interpersonal social interaction, such as loneliness (Caplan, 2007;Leung, 2011;McKenna et al., 2002;Ye & Lin, 2015), social anxiety (Caplan, 2007;Pierce, 2009), depression (Pantic et al., 2012), shyness (Saunders & Chester, 2008), lower self-esteem (Fioravanti et al., 2012;Lee & Cheung, 2014) and low self-presentation skills (Caplan, 2005;McKenna et al., 2002) predicted higher levels of POSI. ...
... Social interaction anxiety (SIA), commonly recognized as social anxiety (Çuhadar, 2012;Pierce, 2009) is related to one's lack of confidence in self-presentation skills (Weinstein et al., 2015), as socially anxious individuals negatively misperceived their self-presentation skills due to deficit in self-confidence (Caplan, 2005;Schlenker & Leary, 1985;Segrin & Kinney, 1995). The cognitive-behavioral models of social anxiety disorder (SAD) (Heimberg et al., 2010(Heimberg et al., , 2014 posit that pessimistic self-perceptions, exaggerated self-focus and skewed views play a notable role to create and sustain heightened social anxiety. ...
... Audio and text-only technologies, such as online social websites, cell phones, text/instant messaging (Pierce, 2009), audio telephonic calls, voice mail, electronic mail (Rice, 1993), and computer-mediated communications (CMC) (Thurlow et al., 2004) are available as alternatives to FtF interactions. Such alternative technologies for communication moderate the social anxiety of users (High and Caplan, 2009) and are preferred by individuals with social anxiety and CA (Pierce, 2009;Reinsch and Lewis, 1984). ...
... Audio and text-only technologies, such as online social websites, cell phones, text/instant messaging (Pierce, 2009), audio telephonic calls, voice mail, electronic mail (Rice, 1993), and computer-mediated communications (CMC) (Thurlow et al., 2004) are available as alternatives to FtF interactions. Such alternative technologies for communication moderate the social anxiety of users (High and Caplan, 2009) and are preferred by individuals with social anxiety and CA (Pierce, 2009;Reinsch and Lewis, 1984). However, such alternatives have removed the opportunities for eye contact, which has made communication non-vivid. ...
Article
Full-text available
Communication apprehension (CA), defined as anxiety in oral communication, and anxiety in eye contact (AEC), defined as the discomfort felt in communication while being stared at by others, limit communication effectiveness. In this study, we examined whether using a teleoperated robot avatar in a video teleconference provides communication support to people with CA and AEC. We propose a robotic telecommunication system in which a user has two options to produce utterance for own responses in online interaction with interviewer i.e., either by a robot avatar that faces the interviewer, or by self. Two imagination-based experiments were conducted, in which a total of 400 participants were asked to watch videos for interview scenes with or without the proposed system; 200 participants for each experiment. The participants then evaluated their impressions by imagining that they were the interviewee. In the first experiment, a video conference with the proposed system was compared with an ordinary video conference, where the interviewer and interviewee faced each other. In the second experiment, it was compared with an ordinary video conference where the interviewer’s attentional focus was directed away from the interviewee. A significant decrease in the expected CA and AEC of participants with the proposed system was observed in both experiments, whereas a significant increase in the expected sense of being attended (SoBA) was observed in the second experiment. This study contributes to the literature in terms of examining the expected impact of using a teleoperated robot avatar for better video conferences, especially for supporting individuals with CA and AEC.
... Prior work shows positive effects of guided as well as unguided digital interventions in lowering the experience of social anxiety [9,45,71]. These benefits are partially attributable to the findings that socially-anxious individuals prefer online communication tools, such as text messaging, over face-to-face communication [102]. Other research also suggests that social anxiety patients might prefer digitized treatment variants. ...
... These effects seem to be more prevalent in small channels and weaker in larger channels, because the connection between the audience and the streamer weakens with increasing numbers of viewers. Earlier work on the usage of online platforms in the context of social anxiety indicates that socially-anxious individuals prefer digital platforms with asynchronous communication, such as online chats [102] and social media platforms [1] over face-to-face communication with others. Similarly, work in the context of game preferences suggests that players are drawn to social interactions that are mediated by gaming technology. ...
Article
Full-text available
Social anxiety is a prevalent problem that affects many people with varying severity; digital exposure therapy-which involves controlled exposure to simulations of feared social situations alongside cognitive restructuring-can help treat patients with anxieties. However, the need to personalize exposure scenarios and simulate audiences are barriers to treating social anxieties through digital exposure. In this paper, we propose game streaming as an exposure therapy paradigm for social anxiety, supporting it with data from two studies. We first propose a framework describing requirements for exposure therapy and how game streaming can fulfill them. We select demand and performance visibility from these characteristics to showcase how to manipulate them for experiences of gradual exposure. With Study 1, we provide evidence for these characteristics and support for the framework by showing that a game's demand affected expected fear of streaming games. In Study 2, we show that the prospect of streaming led to elevated fear, a necessary property for effective exposure therapy. Further, we show that the effect of streaming on expected fear was similar for participants who can be considered socially anxious. These findings provide evidence for the essential effect of exposure therapy, which serves as a first step towards the validation of streaming as a social anxiety treatment. Our paper provides an initial, important step towards a novel, broadly applicable, and widely accessible digital approach for the treatment of social anxiety.
... Brojne studije su pokazale da su visoko socijalno anksiozni pojedinci česti korisnici društvenih mreža i da preferiraju tehnologijom posredovanu komunikaciju (90)(91)(92). Dempsey i sur. (93) proveli su istraživanje na američkom uzorku od 296 studenata koje je pokazalo kako su "strah od propuštanja" (FOMO) i ruminacija značajni medijatori odnosa između socijalne anksioznosti i problematičnog korištenja Facebook-a. ...
... Numerous studies have shown that highly social anxious individuals are often users of social networks and that they prefer technology-mediated communication (90)(91)(92). Dempsey et al. (93) conducted a study on an American sample of 296 students, which found that FOMO and brooding were significant mediators in the relationship between social anxiety and problematic Facebook use. ...
Article
Social networks are virtual spaces currently connecting over 3.8 billion users worldwide. The number of users and the number of different social networks is constantly growing, which indicates that technology-mediated daily life has become an integral part of life in the 21st century. It is indubitable that there are many advantages to technological progress, but the question remains whether the use of social networks necessarily contributes to the wellbeing and quality of life of every individual. Over the last decade, a growing number of studies have attempted to clarify the connection between the use of social networks and mental health. In the context of social networks, the most-studied factor is the subjective assessment of time spent on social networks and the type of social network use in those periods (active/passive use). In the context of mental health, the anxiety and depression have been most extensively studied, while self-esteem, fear of missing out, social comparison, and loneliness have shown themselves to be mediators/moderators in the association between social networks and mental health. However, it is extremely important to place existing research in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. This review article presents the main findings in this field with the clear conclusion that further longitudinal and experimental studies are required to clarify the causal direction of this relationship and the potential protective and risk factors, especially in the context of the alterations in the importance of social networks in maintaining social contacts during the pandemic.
... Studies in the literature reflect different and interesting findings in this area. People who experience severe social anxiety in daily life often have a preference for online interaction over face-to-face interaction (Pierce, 2009), since they have more opportunity to hide any symptoms of their anxiety (Young & Lo, 2012). On the other hand, scholars report that despite living in the digital age, students still have high levels of social anxiety symptoms regarding the use of computers (Eryılmaz & Çiğdemoğlu, 2019) and other interactive features, for example using Facebook in an educational environment (McCord et al., 2014). ...
... Unfortunately, social anxiety can also result in bouts of depression, avoidance behavior (Pierce, 2009), and also significant distress (Asher et al., 2017) when people are required to interact or communicate in social situations. This issue is associated with somatic symptoms, which also suggests a negative impact on engagement. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study explored the association between flipped learning readiness (FLR), engagement, social anxiety, and achievement in online flipped classrooms among 200 freshman university students enrolled to an information technology course. The relational screening model was applied in order to reveal associations between variables. The study was conducted in two Turkish state universities. The students were sampled using the convenience sampling method. The data collection tools employed were a demographic data form, the Online Student Engagement Scale, the Online Learners’ Interactions and Social Anxiety Scale, the FLR scale, and also achievement tests. Structural equational modeling was employed in the testing of the hypothesized model. Results from the structural equation modeling revealed that engagement and FLR were positively associated with student achievement, whilst there was a negative association revealed between social anxiety and achievement in the online flipped classroom. The study also revealed engagement as the most significant predictor of achievement in the online flipped classroom.
... However, it may cause an increase in social isolation and social avoidance in the long term. Previous studies have revealed that individuals with psychopathological symptoms (Baddeley et al., 2012;Billieux, 2012;Douglas et al., 2008;Firat et al., 2018;King et al., 2014;King et al., 2013;Kupferberg et al., 2016;Pierce, 2009) and nomophobia (Khan et al., 2021;King et al., 2013;Panova & Lleras, 2016) experience difficulties in face-to-face interaction due to impaired cognitive and social functioning. On the one hand, the MP enables them to have social relationships (Aker et al., 2017;Boumosleh & Jaalouk, 2017;Cheever et al., 2014;Demirci et al., 2015;Elhai et al., 2016;Harwood et al., 2014;Hawi & Samaha, 2017;Kim et al., 2019;Lee et al., 2018;Turgeman et al., 2020;Yang et al., 2019) and satisfy their social needs in the virtual world, where a person can interact with others remotely (Griffiths & Meredith, 2009). ...
... Therefore, online reassurance and the desire to avoid negative evaluations may further increase the need for the MP (Ha et al., 2008;Ko et al., 2014;Mitchell & Hussain, 2018). Since individuals who score high in the depression, anxiety, and negative self-concept dimensions often need approval in their relationships (Billieux, 2012), this opportunity makes asynchronous communication more charming for such individuals (Baddeley et al., 2012;Gonzales & Hancock, 2010;King et al., 2014;King et al., 2013;Nezlek et al., 2000;Pierce, 2009). Therefore, as also found in this study, high scores on these dimensions may intensify nomophobic behaviors and keep the person dependent on the MP (Cronkite et al., 1998;Rachman et al., 2008). ...
Book
Full-text available
In the modern world, the mobile phone has become an indispensable part of modern life. On the one hand, the mobile phone allows maintaining interpersonal contacts and fulfilling work or school duties regardless of time and location. It enables individuals to plan their daily routines and their free times. On the other hand, a mobile phone is a tool that can cause several psychological and physical problems. Nomophobia, which is considered the phobia of the modern era, is only one of these problems. In the simplest terms, nomophobia is the fear of being without a mobile phone and the intense anxiety and distress experienced in the absence of a mobile phone. Although technological addictions such as smartphone addiction and internet addiction have been studied extensively in the psychology literature, it is striking that nomophobia is a neglected psychological problem. However, nomophobia is emerging as a common phenomenon among young adults, as most young adults use the mobile phone for about 5 hours a day. Some users define the mobile phone as a friend and the meaning of life. More importantly, prevalence studies have revealed that about half of young adults suffer from nomophobia. Since nomophobia causes many serious consequences such as physical pain, social problems and a decrease in academic achievement, nomophobia studies are important and beneficial especially for the younger generation. This book has been written to emphasize the importance of nomophobia and to provide detailed information about the diagnosis, treatment, prevalence, predictors and symptoms of nomophobia. In addition, this book aimed to conceptualize nomophobia theoretically. Also, based on the theoretical conceptualization, psychological structures that can cause nomophobia have been identified. The theoretical conceptualization has been tested and validated using scientific methods. This book, which contains a comprehensive literature review and scientific research, can shed light on researchers for future nomophobia studies. I also believe that this book will make valuable contributions to the clinical field by providing a better understanding of the factors that should be considered in prevention programs and treatment interventions developed for nomophobia. I hope that scholars, clinicians, and students from a variety of disciplines will find my efforts helpful.
... Research consistently indicates that female students send more texts and spend more time texting and on social media (Kimbrough et al., 2013;Pierce, 2009;Twenge & Martin, 2020). Twenge and Martin (2020) reported that girls' use of digital media was more closely tied to psychological well-being and suicidal ideation than boys' use. ...
... While the current study did not investigate specific Internet activities, other research identified that Internet activities common to teens include social media, e-mail, and watching videos (Gross, 2004;Lauricella et al., 2014). Generally, women and girls spend more time on social media and communication than men and boys (Leatherdale, 2010;Pierce, 2009;Su et al., 2020;Thomas et al., 2020). Researchers postulate that women use technology as a way with connect to others, and men tend to use technology for agentic means (Kimbrough et al., 2013), which may account for the sex differences found in the present study. ...
Article
Introduction: This study investigates the stability of loneliness in adolescents over a 1-year period. Also, we examine how the use of screen time media (watching television, playing video games, surfing the Internet, and texting) predicts loneliness over a year and how loneliness predicts screen time media usage. Methods: The study uses survey data from the Cannabis, Obesity, Mental health, Physical activity, Alcohol, Smoking, and Sedentary behavior Study. A large (N = 20,903; 54% female) sample of Canadian students in grades 9-11 (Time 1) and grades 10-12 (Time 2) were assessed at two-time points, 1 year apart. Results: Loneliness scores were found to be stable over the 1-year period, with a slight increase. Additionally, while loneliness was associated with some screen time within the same year, the effects from loneliness or screen time variables at time one predicting the other at time two were negligible. The study also provides evidence that the various screen time media did not fit a single dimension. Finally, there were sex differences in loneliness and some of the media variables. Conclusions: Loneliness appears to increase slightly over the course of a year in high school students. Results indicated that Internet use and loneliness are related; however screen time use in one year does not have a substantial impact on loneliness a year later or vice versa. Lastly, the data suggested that researchers examine screen time behaviors individually in their investigations.
... Second, although prior studies have examined social anxiety and its influence on users' behaviours on SNSs (Caplan, 2007;Chen et al., 2020;Pierce, 2009), this research may serve as a pioneering study in investigating the relationships between social anxiety and social commerce intention. In general, higher social anxiety strengthens the relationships between online social interaction and online social support and between online social support and social commerce intention based on the social compensation hypothesis (Desjarlais & Willoughby, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
A higher number of socially anxious users were found as more users joined social network sites. Since social commerce has become an important issue, this study investigated the effect of social anxiety on online users’ social commerce intention. Online social interactions are hypothesized to influence social commerce intention directly or indirectly through online social support. 427 effective samples were collected from Facebook users, and the results confirmed most of the causal effects. The study also tested the moderating effect of social anxiety on the causal effects. Of the eight relationships, social anxiety significantly moderates six of them. The relationships between online social interaction and emotional support and between online social interaction and social commerce intention are stronger for users with higher social anxiety. For users with lower social anxiety, the relationship between social support and the receiving of social commerce intention is stronger. The research findings lead to significant theoretical contributions and managerial implications.
... As extant literature had reported relationships between gender and learning contextual variables in the adoption of communication tools (Pierce, 2009). However, in our study, most of participants were females and we couldn't draw any significant relationships with gender. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Background: Mobile applications are now widely used for communication. WhatsApp is at top of these applications. Since the traditional teaching is not possible due to the current situation, many educational institutions shifted toward online teaching. Students use many tools for communication with their professors. This study aimed to assess WhatsApp application communication channel between students and professors. Method: This is a cross-sectional descriptive correlation study. The study was conducted among students of Foreign Languages Department at Taif University. The data was collected using an online form. The online form contained sociodemographic data and perceived usefulness of WhatsApp scale. The data were analyzed using SPSS program. Results: The study included 200 participants, most of them were females (n= 195). The mean age of study participants was 21.78 + 4.46. The study included both bachelor and master degree students from all academic years. Students used mainly WhatsApp for communication and there were 7% used email and black board messaging system. Students strongly agreed that WhatsApp is very useful application for communication. The mean to their answers to the scale items was 4.47. Participants characteristics were statistically significant related to scale items at a level less than 0.05. Conclusion: There are no doubts that technology helped a lot in education. The previous results show that students rely mainly on WhatsApp for communication with their professors. They also recommended it for educational purposes. Keywords: WhatsApp, communication, education, covid-19, tools.
... Existing studies of media abstinence have explored a variety of perspectives: psychological (e.g. Pierce, 2009), sociological (Kline, 2003;Ribak & Rosenthal, 2015), religious (Neriya-Ben Shahar, 2017;Rosenberg et al., 2019), educational (Buckingham, 2000), and familial (Silverstone, 2006). These studies and others have also focused on various communication technologies, such as television (Krcmar, 2009;Mittell, 2000), landline telephone (Zimmerman-Umble, 1996;Ribak & Rosenthal, 2006), new media and ICT in general (Selwyn, 2003;Woodstock, 2014), Internet (Wyatt et al., 2002;Wyatt, 2003) and social networks (Portwood-Stacer, 2013;Schoenebeck, 2014;Neves et al., 2015;Brubaker et al., 2016;), as well as specific content abstention practices, like news (Woodstock, 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
Technological resistance practices hold significant insights regarding the media’s role as much as its adoption and usage practices. However, studies examining media non-use have generally overlooked mobile phone resisters—individuals voluntarily deciding not to own mobile phones. Based on 25 in-depth interviews with mobile phone refusers, this study presents two refuser types differing in refusal dynamics. The first are ideologists, whose rejection stems from a formulated, critical worldview towards the mobile phone, in particular, and communication technologies, in general. The second are realizers, whose “post-factum resistance” resulted from a forced but positive experience of a temporary break in use (e.g., when their device was broken or stolen), motivating them to disconnect in an attempt to preserve the new, liberated space they experienced. Additional findings reveal the non-ownership practices adopted by the mobile phone refusers; the novel psychological and sociological motives underlying mobile phone refusal concerning the home space and digital well-being; refuser resistance discourse, which focuses solely on the medium’s nature and not its content; and how refusers negotiate the social status and stigma that accompanies their mobile phone refusal. Our study illustrates how mobile phone refusal stands apart from other media resistance, providing a deeper perspective on the price of connectivity, and thus underscoring the importance of studying these refusers. The uniqueness of mobile phone refusal is further expressed in its complexity, extremity, perceived authenticity, and visibility.
... Kardefelt-Winther's (2014) compensatory Internet use theory, an extension of older mood management theories, suggests that individuals with psychosocial problems, such as anxiety, are likely to use digital media as a coping mechanism to alleviate accompanying negative symptoms and feelings. Several studies have documented that those with anxiety are more likely to engage in problematic media use, often manifesting as increased time spent online (Pierce, 2009), as they rely on technology to manage their symptoms (Kardefelt-Winther, 2014;Meeus et al., 2019). Considering that YouTube is the most highly used site by children aged 10 to 12, it may also serve as a coping mechanism for individuals with anxiety. ...
... Other adverse effects resulting from mobile phone misuse during class included the following: reduced concentration on lessons and tasks, as well as decreased ability to grasp information during lectures (Ehrenberg et al., 2008). Apart from that, addiction to mobile phones has been found to negatively impact student social skills such as faceto-face communication (Pierce, 2009) and interpersonal relationships. It might lead to mental and physical disorders (Thomee et al., 2011) and could also affect their academic behaviour. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose – Smartphones have become part and parcel of life in the 21st century. Since there has been limited research exploring the relationship between mobile addiction, interpersonal relationship, and academic behaviour among young adults in tertiary institutions, the present study has embarked on an exploration of the relationship between these three variables in the Malaysian higher education context. Methodology – A descriptive correlational research design was employed to collect and analyse the data, which came from a total of 150 young adults who responded to an online Google form distributed through a WhatsApp link. The items in the questionnaire were adapted from various doctorate studies. The data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics such as the mean and standard deviation, correlation, and multiple regression. Findings – The study found that young adults in tertiary institutions in Malaysia experienced a case of moderate mobile addiction. The results also established that the three variables, namely mobile addiction, interpersonal relationship, and academic behaviour, were interrelated. The findings revealed that interpersonal relationship has positively contributed to the variance of academic behaviour, while mobile addiction has negatively impacted young adults’ academic behaviour in tertiary institutions. Significance – The findings have provided valuable insights into how to help facilitate the monitoring of disruptive mobile usage among young adults in tertiary institutions.
... The widespread use of smartphones has become a worldwide phenomenon (He et al., 2012), and while social networking, shopping, entertainment, and gaming have benefited people, they have also caused damage (Billieux, 2012;Gosling and Mason, 2015). Specifically, inappropriate use of smartphones can reduce individuals' attention and cognition (Campbell, 2006;Lepp et al., 2014), hinder face-to-face communication (Pierce, 2009), and even lead to mental or physical problems (Beranuy et al., 2009;Thomee et al., 2011). Among all these negative outcomes, smartphone addiction is probably one of the most direct negative outcomes of smartphone use (Takao et al., 2009;Choliz, 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
Adolescent smartphone addiction has increasingly attracted the attention of scholars because of the widespread use of internet technology in educational environments. In addition, previous studies have found that there is a complex relationship between smartphone addiction and self-consistency congruence, and subjective well-being. This research was conducted to examine whether subjective well-being would mediate the relation between self-consistency congruence and adolescent smartphone addiction, and whether gender would moderate the mediating process. A total of 1,011 Chinese adolescents completed self-report questionnaires measuring self-consistency congruence, subjective well-being, and smartphone addiction. Self-consistency congruence was shown to be a significant predictor of smartphone addiction. Furthermore, subjective well-being partially mediated the association between self-consistency congruence and adolescent smartphone addiction. Gender could moderate the mediating process; as compared with boys, girls’ self-consistency congruence and subjective well-being are more easily mediated. We envision the findings as being helpful in guiding scholars who are developing interventions to minimize smartphone addiction and its disrupting effects in adolescents.
... AYAs are now able to remain as constant observers of social interactions without necessarily participating and therefore such technologies may indeed support avoiding social situations. 23,24 Given the scarcity of literature on social anxiety symptoms in the context of childhood and AYA cancer treatment and survivorship, we conducted an exploratory study on (1) the proportion of Australian AYA-aged survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer who experience symptoms of SAD; (2) how symptoms of SAD are described by survivors as affecting their daily social functioning. ...
Article
Purpose: Adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survivors may be at risk of developing symptoms of social anxiety disorder (SAD) due to disruptions in social participation and functioning following a cancer diagnosis. This study aimed to explore (1) the proportion of Australian AYA-aged survivors of childhood and adolescent cancer who experience symptoms of SAD, (2) how symptoms of SAD are described by survivors as affecting their daily social functioning. Methods: A mixed-methods cross-sectional design was employed, inviting survivors, aged 13-25 years, who had completed treatment between one and ten years ago. Survivors completed a paper-based questionnaire, containing validated measures of SAD, and an optional semistructured interview assessing current social functioning and social anxiety. Results: Twenty-seven survivors aged 13-25 years participated (M = 19.15, 51.9% male, and 7 years post-treatment). Nine (33%) participants reported clinically significant symptoms of SAD. In interviews, survivors reported worries about how others perceived them and fears around meeting new people. Survivors described that this impacted their daily social functioning, leading them to avoid, or endure with distress, feared social situations. Conclusion: This study shows that clinically significant social anxiety may be a concern for a subset of survivors of childhood/adolescent cancer. Identifying which young people are at risk of SAD after cancer and how best to support this vulnerable cohort is critical.
... Balta et al. 2020;Guazzini et al. 2019). This could be explained that people having social anxiety prefer online social interactions to face-to-face communication because they feel uncomfortable talking with others in person while technologies help them to avoid such unpleasant situations (Caplan 2007;Pierce 2009). In this regard, socially anxious people might choose to use their smartphones instead of feeling negative emotions by engaging in face-to-face interactions. ...
Article
Phubbing is the act of snubbing someone during face-to-face interactions by using smartphones instead of paying attention to them. Although studies have examined phubbing in many different relationships, little is known about friend phubbing (Fphubbing). The present study examines which individual factors including indicators of mental health (i.e. depression and social anxiety) and personality traits (agreeableness and neuroticism) are significantly associated with Fphubbing, and how such behaviour is relevant to relational satisfaction with friends. Also, this study investigates the mediating role of Fphubbing between the proposed predictors and friendship satisfaction. Results showed that those with higher levels of depression, social anxiety, and neuroticism were significantly related to greater friend phubbing while agreeableness was negatively related to friend phubbing. In addition, greater Fphubbing led to lower levels of friendship satisfaction. Interestingly, Fphubbing mediated the relationships between each predictor of friend phubbing and friendship satisfaction. This study provides a theoretical framework to understand Fphubbing and contributes to filling a knowledge gap of phubbing in different relationship types.
... Depending on the individual's personality [14], the cognitive bias caused by social anxiety may lead to behavioural characteristics, such as avoidance and safety behaviours. But social anxiety also may afect preferences and behaviour in digital worlds, such as in online chats [110] and in immersive applications, such as digital games [81,107]. These safety behaviours involve strategies that individuals with social anxiety use to avoid the risk of being negatively evaluated by others [71]. ...
... 9 Moreover, some people generally prefer online interactions rather than face-to-face interactions. 11 Accessibility is a key advantage of SM networks over conventional IBD care. However, while obtaining information from SM is easily accessible, it not risk-free. ...
Article
Goal: The aim was to assess topics of interest and concerns among patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) who are active online. Background: Social media (SM) networks are a major communication tool for patients with IBD and health care professionals. Patients and methods: We performed an anonymized investigation of SM networks for IBD patients; I-a thematic analysis of patients' posts, II-an online survey advertised through Facebook and other popular SM networks throughout November 2019. Results: Analyzing 2133 posts (2014 to 2019) revealed 18 topics of interest. The online survey was completed by 534 respondents [63%-Crohn's disease, 56%-female, median age-38 years (interquartile range: 28.7 to 51.0)]. Most respondents (70%) were followed in referral centers, and 45% were receiving biological therapy. Respondents reported high satisfaction with IBD care and health care provider professionalism. The top 5 topics of interest were diet, lifestyle, complementary and alternative medicine, diagnostic test interpretation, and specialist referrals and reviews. Cluster analysis demonstrated that gender, income, and education level were associated with specific interest and concerns. Conclusion: Patients' activity on SM is independent of their satisfaction with formal IBD care and rather reflects an ongoing need for information and support. These needs may be addressed both in clinical settings and through online tools.
... Neo and Skoric (2009) identified links between individuals who had communication apprehension and a preference for using computer-based instant messaging (somewhat of a precursor to text messaging). Socially anxious individuals are more likely to feel comfortable using technology for communication (e. g. texting, social media websites; Elhai et al., 2017;Pierce, 2009). While the research is consistent that individuals with social and communication-related anxiety prefer online communication, objective smartphone use patterns are less clear. ...
Article
Communication and relationships have been dramatically altered among emerging adults thanks to the rapid adoption of the smartphone in just over a decade. Studying the effects of evolving personal technology helps researchers understand both the detriments of widespread adoption and the benefits that accompany the technology. One such area of concern is the relationship of technology with loneliness. Emerging adulthood is described as the period of transition from adolescence to adulthood, taking place from age 18–25. This period is characterized by change, exploration, but also a vulnerability to psychological distress. Young adults are not only at greater risk of loneliness compared to other developmental stages, but report greater distress about being lonely (Rokach, 2000). Previous research has found support for the hypothesis that use of social communication on the Internet has a bidirectional relationship with loneliness (Nowland et al., 2018); use of the Internet can support relationships and decrease loneliness, but if used as a compensation for social skill deficits, the Internet can also displace quality time spent in relationships, and thereby increase loneliness. This study examines loneliness and its relationship with smartphone use, while also accounting for individual differences in facets of neuroticism, communication apprehension, emotional support, and nomophobia for emerging adults. Participants (N = 302; MAGE = 18.85) completed self-report measures of loneliness and the individual differences variables. They also reported average daily smartphone data of screen time, pickups, and application (app) use, which was measured by their personal devices. Correlations indicated loneliness was positively associated with screen time, social media app use, neuroticism, social recognition, communication anxiety, and nomophobia. Loneliness was negatively associated with smartphone pickups, communication application use, need for affiliation, and emotional support. A regression analysis revealed that neuroticism, need for affiliation, social recognition, emotional support, and smartphone pickups were significant predictors of loneliness, when taking into account all the individual difference and smartphone use variables. Neuroticism and loneliness have a strong relationship, but a hierarchical regression showed that over and above neuroticism and its facets, smartphone screen time and pickups predict loneliness. Overall, the results for this sample of emerging adults supported the hypotheses by Nowland et al. (2018) about social use of the Internet, but applied to smartphone use. More time spent on one's smartphone and on social media apps is related to increased loneliness, and is discussed in context of identity development. More frequent use (pickups) and use of communication apps is related to decreased loneliness and is discussed with respect to development of relationship intimacy. These results suggest that loneliness in young adults is related to different types of smartphone use, even when accounting for stable characteristics such as personality. Finally, neuroticism remains a significant variable in understanding loneliness, and further examination of lower-order facets help define a more nuanced profile in individual differences.
... As a stronger test of the Social Compensation Hypothesis, active video conferences behavior should be compared to offline behavior. Such a preference for online over offline communication with increasing shyness has been demonstrated in other contexts (Pierce, 2009) Taking self-initiative to talk to others in video conferences might still feel awkward for socially anxious people but since there are also other communicating opportunities like using the chat function or contacting attendees online after the video conference, we predict: ...
Article
Since the outbreak of the Covid-19 pandemic, the use of video conferences in professional settings increased rapidly. Here, we examine how individual and situational characteristics jointly predict active behavior in video conferences (i.e., activating one’s webcam, small talk, contacting other attendees) between strangers. We focus on external networking as well as proactive and reactive online networking and social anxiety as individual characteristics and investigate how these interact with social norms (operationalized as proportion of other attendees using the webcam), in predicting our outcome variable active video conference behavior. An online vignette experiment with three conditions (social norms: 25 vs. 75% of other attendees using the webcam vs. offline) was conducted to analyze the self-reported likelihood of active video conference versus active offline behavior. Regression analysis was used to test the hypotheses. Results indicate that external networking is a positive and social anxiety a negative predictor of self-reported active video conference behavior. Furthermore, the likelihood of engaging in active (video conference) behavior differed between the three scenarios, with highest values in the offline scenario and lowest in the online scenario with only 25% of other attendees using the webcam. However, no interaction effects of social norms with social anxiety were found. Overall, the findings suggest that individual differences in networking tendencies and social anxiety and social norms influence active behavior in video conferences independently.
... For instance, Desjarlais and Joseph (2017) demonstrated that use of interactive social technologies (e.g., instant messaging services) was associated with greater close friendship quality via both online and offline self-disclosure. Interestingly, some studies also suggest that particular individuals may prefer online versus offline social interaction (for example, socially anxious youth; Caplan, 2007;Pierce, 2009), benefit from opportunities to seek social and emotional support online (Quinn, 2019), and find online social interaction easier, safer, or more comfortable than face-to-face communication (Nesi et al., 2018). Such findings suggest that online contexts and interactions may provide an important or meaningful extension to offline friendships (Yau & Reich, 2020). ...
Article
Despite recognition that the internet is a critical context for friendships among youth, little is known about whether young adults perceive differences in their interactions with close friends across online and offline (i.e., face-to-face) settings. The current study sought to address this gap by qualitatively investigating young adults’ perceptions of how their social interactions with friends differ across online and offline contexts. A large sample of Australian young adults (N = 687; 59.8% female; Mage = 19.45 years, SD = 2.07) were recruited for the study. The overall corpus of data analyzed included 672 responses to the open-ended question: “How do you think your interactions with your close friends online differ compared to interactions with them offline (i.e., face-to-face)?” Analyses identified 567 participants who perceived a difference between online and offline contexts and these responses were subject to thematic analyses. Two themes were identified: the Features and Affordances of Online Contexts (including control, non-verbal cues, and accessibility), and the Nature of Interactions across contexts (including the depth, intimacy, and perceived value of interactions). The current findings highlight the potential for individual characteristics to shape online experiences and are discussed in light of implications for friendship closeness in the digital era.
... This situation may cause individuals to be more controlled in online synchronous communication environments and increase the possibility of anxiety (Amichai-Hamburger & Furnham, 2007). Studies conducted in online learning environments also support this theory (Coryell & Clark, 2009;Pierce, 2009). ...
... However, it has also been observed that instead of paying attention to the teacher's lectures, college students remain busy with texting, and are unable to recall what the teachers said [30]. Furthermore, smartphone addiction blocks face-to-face communication, which is vital for university students while communicating with their teachers and peers [31]. It also reduces their level of concentration during a typical class, and even leads to various physical and mental problems [32]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Smartphone use can lead to smartphone addiction, which is a growing concern worldwide. However, there are limited studies about smartphone addiction and its impacts on university students in Saudi Arabia. This study aims to fill this gap. This is a quantitative study conducted among undergraduate students in Umm Al-Qura University (UQU), Saudi Arabia from May 2019 and February 2021. Study data were collected using both online and hard copy administered surveys. A self-administered questionnaire, Grade point average, Smartphone Addiction Short Version, and Kessler Psychological Distress scales were used to assess the outcomes. A total of 545 undergraduate students, mostly females, aged ≤ 21 years old and lived with large family sizes. More than half owned a smartphone for 5-8 years and the majority used their smartphone on average 6-11 h per day for social networking (82.6%), entertainment (66.2%) and web surfing (59.6%). Most of the participants were smartphone-addicted (67.0%). Logistic regression analysis showed that age ≤ 21, not gainfully employed, small family size and high family income were the main significant socio-demographic predictors of smartphone addiction. Smartphone-addicted participants were more likely to: have lower academic performance (GPA); be physically inactive; have poor sleep; be overweight/obese; have pain in their shoulder (39.2%), eyes (62.2%) and neck (67.7%) and have a serious mental illness (30.7%). This finding has significant implications for decision makers and suggests that smartphone education focusing on the physical and mental health consequences of smartphone addiction among university students can be beneficial.
Article
In this study, 15-year-old Turkish students’ profiles of using ICT at home and at school were identified, and the extent to which these profiles were associated with their academic achievement was determined. Moreover, the study investigated the effects of the students’ age of first usage of digital device and internet, their gender and their parents’ education level on the students’ ICT usage profiles. In the study, by using Latent Class Analysis, Program for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2018 Turkey data were analyzed ( n = 6890). According to the findings obtained in the study, it was revealed that the students who used ICT resources at high level at home and at school constituted the smallest class (8% of the sample). The students whose mothers’ levels of education were high and those who were male had a higher probability of being a member of the high-level ICT user class. In addition, the students who started using their first digital devices and the Internet at later ages were less likely to be a member of the class using high-level ICT. Finally, the students in the high-level ICT user class had low mathematics, reading, and science achievement scores.
Chapter
This chapter will detail how the advent of the internet and smartphones has fundamentally transformed the nature of social support and its effects on quality of life and health. Technological change has altered: (1) The ways in which we assess social support, (2) The perception and effects of social support. First, we will examine how recent technological innovations have allowed for more detailed, objective, and accurate assessments of social support. Digital technology has enabled us to go beyond simple self-report measures to assess social support and quality of life in unprecedented ways. By leveraging big data across several accessible technological platforms, researchers can begin to understand how social support processes unfold in real time and the myriad ways technology can be used to measure meaningful aspects of social support. In the second section, we will discuss how the concept of social support has changed in the age of digital communication. We will focus on how the presence and use of technological devices influences face-to-face interactions, online groups, and family dynamics. Taken together, this chapter will recognize the changes in social assessment afforded by technology and consider several important areas in which technological tools have transformed social support.
Article
Some studies (Grgurović, 2011; Banados, 2006; Chenoweth et al., 2006) have showed that blended instruction would enhance language learning. Similarly, some researchers (Picciano, 2009; Goertler, 2012; Neumeier, 2005) have defined blended instruction and recommended that educators try the best blend for their classes. Motivated by the findings of the relevant literature on blended instruction, the current study aims to find whether blended learning would make a difference in the writing scores of students compared to traditional face-to-face education and to establish the students’ perspective on the usage of technology at writing courses with quantitative and qualitative research methods. For the purpose of the study, one experimental and control groups were chosen from the School of Foreign Languages, Gaziantep University. The 13 students in the experimental groups are taught writing with blended learning, while 13 students are taught writing with traditional face-to-face education for one month. The students in both groups have the same schedule, age, English level, and classroom facilities. The results of the analysis done by SPSS show that the experimental group's writing scores are higher than the control group's writing scores. To learn the students’ perspectives in the experimental group, semi-structured interviews have been done after the experience. The results show that the students are not satisfied with the usage of current technology at writing courses. On the other hand, they reported they were satisfied with blended learning. The students also gave some suggestions about the implications of technology in and outside of the classes.
Article
Full-text available
Online social networking sites are being used all around the world. However, only recently researchers have started to investigate their relationship with mental health. Evidence coming from literature suggests that they have both advantages and disadvantages for individuals. The current study seeks to examine the relationship between extent of social media usage and levels of social anxiety. The hypothesis states that there is no relationship between social media usage and social anxiety. The tools used to examine the same were the Social Networking Time Use Scale (SONTUS) and Kutcher Generalized Social Anxiety Disorder Scale for Adolescents (K-GSADS-A). The sample included 60 adolescents, consisting of 30 males and 30 females. The descriptive analysis indicated a mean score of 56.75 for K-GSADS-A, indicating above average levels of social anxiety and a mean score of 18.73 for SONTUS, indicating high social media usage. The correlation coefficient after conducting statistical analysis using SPSS-23 is -0.08. The findings showed that there is no significant correlation between social media usage and levels of social anxiety among adolescents.
Article
Purpose This study aims to apply the information system success model (ISSM) to examine the relationships among actual use, use continuance intention, user satisfaction and net benefits in the context of quick-service restaurant (QSR) patrons using two contactless technologies (CT): self-service kiosks (SSK) and mobile applications (MA) for food ordering. The study also investigates the moderating roles of social interaction anxiety (SIA) and language proficiency (LP) in the abovementioned relationships. Design/methodology/approach Survey data from 421 QSR patrons with experience using McDonald's SSK and MA were collected and analyzed through a seemingly unrelated regressions (SUR) technique. Findings Research findings reveal positive associations among actual use, use continuance intention and satisfaction with CT (i.e. SSK and MA). The actual use and satisfaction with CT are positively associated with individual benefits, leading to improved patron satisfaction with QSR. Findings also reveal that, in the case of MA, SIA positively moderates relationships between actual use/satisfaction and individual benefits and between satisfaction and organizational benefit, while LP shows negative moderating effects on those relationships. Originality/value This study is one of the first attempts to present empirical evidence of constructs in the ISSM (actual use, use continuance intention, satisfaction and individual/organizational benefits) in the context of QSR patrons using SSK and MA. It also shows that using MA can address some patrons' psychological problems interacting with others in their food-ordering processes.
Article
Objective The objective of the Entourage project was to develop an innovative digital mental health intervention addressing key barriers experienced by young people in accessing evidence‐based therapy for social anxiety. In particular, Entourage takes a specific focus on reaching young men, given their lower rates of service engagement. Method This article discusses the theoretical underpinnings, therapeutic mechanisms, persuasive technology elements, and development process of a novel approach incorporating graphic medicine, clinical and peer support, and social networking. Results Based on an integrated cognitive model of social anxiety disorder and consistent with the principles of cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT), a novel digital intervention for social anxiety was developed (Entourage). Using the moderated online social therapy (MOST) model, Entourage provides young people with a digital strengths‐based platform to overcome social anxiety symptoms. Designed in close partnership with young people with a lived experience of mental ill‐health, and overseen by a steering group of young men, Entourage applies graphic medicine through bespoke therapy comics to help users understand and overcome symptoms. Program e‐mentors (expert clinicians and trained peer workers) work in tandem to maintain engagement, support participant skill acquisition, and promote opportunities for social connectedness. Behavioural experiments and in‐vivo exposure activities facilitate restructuring of maladaptive social anxiety‐focussed cognitions. Conclusions Entourage represents an innovative approach to managing social anxiety in young people. Intervention elements seek to ensure longer‐term engagement of users, in particular young men, who have unmet service needs. Results of a single‐group clinical trial of Entourage are forthcoming.
Article
“Nomophobia” is the fear of not being able to use your smartphone and has been noted to be associated with excessive levels of smartphone dependency. For many, these devices have become an extension of ourselves, which raises hesitation on whether or not society has become addicted to smartphones. Specific diagnostic criteria for smartphone addiction have yet to be settled, and even use of the word “addiction” when describing excessive usage of smartphones is controversial. We therefore utilize current measures to explore the symptoms of smartphone dependency and their hierarchy, as well as comorbidities including social anxiety, self-esteem, and distracted driving. A total of 159 adults from a research-intensive university in the Midwestern United States completed an anonymous online survey. Through factor analytic and Rasch modeling methods, it was found that based on a single measure for one's level of nomophobia, the degree to which smartphone use interferes with daily life can be qualified. The relationship between nomophobia and social anxiety supports the hypothesis that smartphone addiction can be magnified by personality traits and other psychiatric comorbidities. Both multiple linear regression and binary logistic regression analyses found that phone usage while driving and being female were found to be significant positive predictors of smartphone dependency. It is apparent that technology addiction and smartphone addiction need to be studied among a greater population, especially among women and those who use their smartphones while driving.
Book
Full-text available
Describes technological methods and tools for objective and quantitative assessment of quality of life (QoL) Appraises technology-enabled methods for incorporating QoL measurements in medicine Highlights the success factors for adoption and scaling of technology-enabled methods
Article
Financial transactions play a critical role in people’s interpersonal relationships since money is a sensitive and complex component of everyday life. In particular, emerging digital peer-to-peer (P2P) payment applications further complicate how people deal with each other regarding money. Yet, there is a lack of empirical evidence on how and why such technology may lead to new and more complex influences on people’s offline interpersonal relationships. Using 23 in-depth interviews, this paper explores the influences of using digital P2P payments on people’s experiences of interpersonal financial exchanges and their offline interpersonal relationships. Our findings show that using digital P2P payments helps reduce awkwardness and ensure a stronger sense of fairness in financial exchanges. In addition, though digital P2P payments can relieve tension and reduce distrust in users’ interpersonal relationships, they also result in loss of emotion and increase peer pressure. We extend existing studies on computer-mediated interpersonal relationships by highlighting the important role of the complicated technology-mediated financial exchanges in perceiving, shaping, and approaching today’s offline interpersonal relationships. We also propose potential design implications for designers and developers to take such an interplay of financial exchanges and interpersonal relationships into consideration to design more supportive and socially satisfactory digital P2P payment platforms in the future.
Article
Full-text available
The present study examined the 2015 Trends in international mathematics and science study “Advanced” data to examine how both the type of homework assigned and how that homework was used were related to advanced mathematics achievement and attitudes toward advanced mathematics among 12th grade students in the USA. Additionally, students’ use of the internet was examined as a predictor of these outcomes. Results showed that the use of homework assignments that required students to find one or more applications of the content covered in class was a statistically significant positive predictor of both Students like learning advanced mathematics and students value advanced mathematics, while discussing homework in class was a significant, negative predictor of Students like learning advanced mathematics. Additionally, using the internet to discuss math topics with other students and to find information was significantly, positively associated with both attitudinal outcomes. Using the internet to communicate with the teacher was positively associated with Students like learning advanced mathematics scores.
Article
Full-text available
The aim of this paper was to explore and present a specific point of view of university teacher parents about communication with their children, using focus group interviews. The focus group was conducted with tenured teachers (N = 12) from a Life Science university from western Romania. The parents’ ages varied from 34 to 48 years old (M age = 39.83 years) and relating to gender, there were 7 females and 5 males. Data collected from the interviews were analyzed using thematic analyses methods. Most of the parents have considered that parent-child communication represents an essential element in child development and in a positive family environment. Time, stress and overuse of technology are considered, by questioned parents, to be the main barriers to positive and efficient communication with their children. School is not perceived as a catalyst in developing a positive parent-child communication. Even if the parents are tenured university teachers, with knowledge in effective communication, and high expectations from society to be especially good at parent-child communication, they face the same difficulties as any other parents. This aspect could lead to a conclusion that the problems of parent-child communication could be a general one. The implications for families with school-age children are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Smartphone overuse and addiction is a growing concern worldwide. However, there are limited studies about smartphone addiction and its impacts on university students in Saudi Arabia. This qualitative study aimed to elicit students’ and university staff’s perspectives and experiences about smartphone overuse/addiction in Umm Al-Qura University (UQU), Saudi Arabia. Fifteen undergraduate students and 18 university staff (13 lecturers and five professionals) were recruited for the purpose of this study. The study data were collected using semi-structured interviews and analysed using thematic analysis. The qualitative data comprising 33 participants (students and staff) identified four major themes including the perception of smartphone use; causes of smartphone overuse; negative impacts of smartphone overuse; and strategies to reduce the overuse of smartphone. The overall findings confirmed that students and staff alike held both positive and negative perceptions about using a smartphone. Potential factors leading to smartphone overuse included personal factors (extended free time and low self-confidence, irresponsibility/escaping certain social gatherings/passing the time); smartphone factors (reasonable price, attractive advertisements (ads), and engaging smartphone Apps); and social factors (social pressure and fear of losing a connection). The main negative impacts of smartphone overuse were found to be related to low academic productivity, poor physical health (body pain, lack of sleep, and low exercise), compromised mental well-being (stress and negative emotions), and decreased socialisation (social isolation and a reduction in face-to-face communication). Our findings suggested that awareness campaigns about smartphone overuse, promoting family and social events, encouraging physical activities, and limiting internet use can reduce smartphone usage among university students. This finding has significant implications for decision-makers.
Article
Phubbing is the act of ignoring the people and surrounding in order to check your phone. Phubbing has been associated with various forms of addictions, personality traits and psychological well-being. This study aims to understand the relationship between social anxiety, coping and phubbing. Data was collected from a sample of 100 college students, a group which could be high on phubbing, using reliable and valid scales of phubbing, social anxiety and coping skills. The results indicate that phubbing, is positively related to social anxiety. Phubbing is also negatively related to coping skills. Coping skills were negatively related to social anxiety. The study concludes that the higher the coping skills, the lesser the social anxiety and the lesser the phubbing.
Article
The prevalence of nomophobia is growing among adolescents. This study aimed to disentangle the relationship between nomophobia, the fear of missing out, time spent on the phone, sex, and social alienation. Participants, who were 595 students (313 females and 282 males) attending high school during the 2019–2020 academic year, filled out personal information forms and a series of scales involving nomophobia, the fear of missing out, and social alienation. Then, data were analyzed through a moderated mediation analysis. The results showed that the bivariate correlation was significant but not the direct effect of gender on nomophobia; still, other direct effects were significant. The partial indirect effect of the fear of missing out on nomophobia was only significant for females when social alienation was controlled for. In the model where nomophobia was the outcome model, the power values for the time spent on the phone and its interaction with sex were low but high for other factors. Furthermore, the effect size was small for the model where the mediator was the outcome and high for the model that had nomophobia as the outcome. Thus, it is crucial to consider that the motives underlying the fear of missing out and nomophobia differ between the sexes in planning interventions.
Article
Full-text available
For the full publication, see: Liuski, Tiia (2022). Arvot ja eettisyyssuomalaisten sotilaspappien työssä. In Spiritualiteetti 2020-luvun Suomessa. Veli-Matti Salminen & Niko Huttunen (toim.). Suomen ev.-lut. kirkon tutkimusjulkaisuja 137. Kirkon tutkimus ja koulutus: Helsinki 2022. 349-388. Electronic link to publication: https://julkaisut.evl.fi/catalog/Tutkimukset%20ja%20julkaisut/r/4292/viewmode=previewview
Article
This article attempts to identify the impact of social media and new messaging processes on the well-being of Malaysian workers (specifically middle managers). It explores Malaysian workplace use of electronic communication methods and how managers view the impact of tablets, social networking apps and similar technologies on their social and emotional well-being, including their capacity to relate to and interact with other employees. In the Malaysian capital Kuala Lumpur, 27 middle managers were interviewed in five focus groups, with the middle managers representing various public and private sector organizations. The findings reveal that social media and e-mail dominate workplace communication among these Kuala Lumpur–based managers; emotional and mental health concerns (like pressure to be constantly available) for themselves and the people they managed motivated some middle managers to preference face-to-face interaction. This was particularly true of certain contexts, like when providing one-on-one feedback on performance. The past decade has seen the widespread and rapid adoption of social media, messaging and other communication technologies in the workplace. It is hoped that this study contributes to an understanding of the impact of this change on employee well-being in Malaysia.
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel betrachten wir die besondere Beschaffenheit der Interaktionen mit Gleichaltrigen und ihre Auswirkungen auf die soziale Entwicklung von Kindern. Zuerst besprechen wir theoretische Perspektiven zur besonderen Rolle der Interaktionen mit Gleichaltrigen. Nachfolgend betrachten wir Freundschaften, die engste Form solcher Beziehungen. Danach betrachten wir die Interaktionen von Kindern innerhalb der größeren Gruppe von Peers. Diese Beziehungen werden nicht zusammen mit Freundschaften behandelt, weil sie für die Entwicklung von Kindern eine etwas andere Rolle zu spielen scheinen, besonders was das Ausmaß an Vertrautheit untereinander betrifft. Zuletzt geht es um den Einfluss der Eltern in Bezug auf die Peer-Beziehungen von Kindern.
Article
Social anxiety is related to a host of negative student outcomes in the educational context, including physical symptoms of anxiety, reduced cognitive functioning, and poor academic performance. Despite the prevalence of social anxiety, little is known about mechanisms that may underlie associations between social anxiety and outcomes in the context of higher education. Therefore, the goal of this study was to evaluate a conceptual model linking social anxiety, communication with peers and instructors, students’ experiences (i.e., engagement, connectedness, and satisfaction), and indices of socio-emotional functioning at university. Participants were N = 1,073 undergraduate students ( M age = 20.3 years, SD = 3.49) who completed a series of self-report measures. Among the results, social anxiety was negatively related to communication with instructors, socio-emotional functioning, and student experiences, and academic communication accounted for significant variance in the links between social anxiety and student experiences. In addition, there was at least some evidence that student experiences partially mediated the association between social anxiety and socio-emotional functioning. Gender effects suggest that social anxiety is related to less communication with instructors, lower engagement and satisfaction, and poorer socio-emotional functioning among females compared with males. Results are situated within current literature examining social anxiety in education. The discussion provides concrete suggestions for educational practitioners to increase support for students who experience social anxiety.
Article
Extensive brain and behavioral research indicates that humans are motivated to interact socially. Most research on social reward, however, employs decontextualized social stimuli (e.g., photographs of faces), leaving open questions about which components of interaction are most rewarding and whether their relative value differs across people. We designed a novel text-based chat paradigm to quantify preferences to self-disclose versus learn about a social partner. Crucially, although participants believed they were interacting with a real person, the chat partner was simulated, allowing for rigorous experimental control. Across a series of trials, participants chose between sharing about themselves, learning about their partner, or learning a non-social trivia fact. Each choice was paired with a monetary value to precisely titrate the subjective reward of each option. At the group level, participants preferred learning about their partner. Additionally, participants who showed the greatest motivation for social learning had higher perspective taking and social cognitive skills, lower levels of narcissism, and lower levels of social media dependence. Overall, results suggest that individual differences in the reward value of particular components of social interaction may correlate with real-world traits and behaviors, with implications for measuring and understanding variability in human social experience.
Article
Full-text available
This survey among 194 Dutch children ages 8 to 13 who had home access to the Internet was designed to explore (a) children's motives for using the Internet, (b) their positive experiences with the Internet, and (c) their negative experiences with the Internet. Results showed that the most important motive for using the Internet was affinity with computers, followed by information and entertainment. Online social interaction and off-line social interaction were the least important motives. Children's spontaneous descriptions of their positive experiences with the Internet most frequently included playing or downloading computer games (17%), watching video clips and songs (13%), visiting kids entertainment sites (12%), and seeking information about animals (7%). As a negative experience, children most frequently reported a virus or computer crash (10%), violence (4%), and pornography (4%). The authors found several significant age and / or gender differences in children's motives for using the Internet and in their experiences with the Internet.
Article
Full-text available
This study explores the design and practice of the Blacksburg Electronic Village (BEV), a mature networked community. We describe findings from longitudinal survey data on the use and social impact of community computer networking. The survey data show that increased involvement with people, issues and community since going online is explained by education, extroversion and age. Using path models, we show that a person's sense of belonging and collective efficacy, group memberships, activism and social use of the Internet act as mediating variables. These findings extend evidence in support of the argument that Internet use can strengthen social contact, community engagement and attachment. Conversely, it underlines concern about the impact of computer networking on people with lower levels of education, extroversion, efficacy, and community belonging. We suggest design strategies and innovative tools for non-experts that might increase social interaction and improve usability for disadvantaged and underrepresented individuals and groups.
Article
Full-text available
the Internet a superhighway to information or a high-tech extension of the home tele- phone? We address this question by operationalizing information acquisition and enter- tainment as the use of the World Wide Web and interpersonal communication as the use of electronic mail (e-mail), and examine how 229 members of 110 households used these services during their first year on the Internet. The results show that e-mail drives people's use of the Internet. Participants used e-mail in more Internet sessions and more consistently than they used the World Wide Web, and they used e-mail first in sessions where they used both. Participants used the Internet more after they had used e-mail heavily, but they used the Internet less after they had used the Web heavily. While participants' use of both e-mail and the Web declined with time, the decline in Web use was steeper. Those who used e-mail more than they used the Web were also more likely to continue using the Internet over the course of a year. Our findings have implications for engineering and policies for the Internet and, more generally, for studies of the social impact of new technology.
Article
Full-text available
The Internet could change the lives of average citizens as much as did the telephone in the early part of the 20th century and television in the 1950s and 1960s. Researchers and social critics are debating whether the Internet is improving or harming participation in community life and social relationships. This research examined the social and psychological impact of the Internet on 169 people in 73 households during their first 1 to 2 years on-line. We used longitudinal data to examine the effects of the Internet on social involvement and psychological well-being. In this sample, the Internet was used extensively for communication. Nonetheless, greater use of the Internet was associated with declines in participants' communication with family members in the household, declines in the size of their social circle, and increases in their depression and loneliness. These findings have implications for research, for public policy and for the design of technology.
Article
Full-text available
Replicates and extends prior work with the Social Anxiety Scale for Adolescents (SAS-A) by providing psychometric data, further evidence of construct validity, and large-sample based normative data. Participants were 2,937 students (1,431 boys and 1,506 girls) in Grades 6, 7, 8, 9, and 11. Students completed the SAS-A, the Revised Children's Manifest Anxiety Scale (RCMAS), and the Children's Depression Inventory (CDI). Results replicated a three-factor structure for the SAS-A, with good internal consistencies for its subscales. Normative data were subdivided by sex and grade group. Construct validity included replication of prior relations with general anxiety (RCMAS) and depressive symptomatology (CDI). Implications of these results for further use and norming of the SAS-A are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Although the Internet has spawned significant changes in communication and interpersonal behavior, the data concerning the social and psychological effects of its use are equivocal. Drawing on the uses and gratifications model of communications media, it was hypothesized that the social and psychological effects of Internet use depend primarily on the user's reasons and goals for using the technology. That is, the Internet's social and psychological effects depend upon the functions it serves for users. A theoretical model involving the functions of Internet use, dimensions of social integration, and dimensions of psychological well-being was examined. In study 1, participants indicated the primary reasons for which they use the Internet. Principle components analyses indicated that these reasons fell under two empirically robust dimensions accounting for about half of the total variance in Internet use. These dimensions, or functions, were labeled Socio-Affective Regulation (SAR) and Goods-and-Information Acquisition (GIA); SAR may be conceptualized as a social or an affiliative orientation toward Internet use, whereas GIA may be conceptualized as a utilitarian or practical orientation toward Internet use. In study 2, structural equation modeling revealed that Internet use driven by SAR negatively influences psychological well-being by first reducing social integration. However, Internet use motivated principally by GIA appears to have a favorable effect on psychological well-being by first increasing social integration. Implications of these results and directions for future research are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
This paper reports some research that was undertaken to determine why young people choose to use certain communication media, especially the Internet and mobile phones for social purposes. Focus group methodology was employed in achieving this aim. Specifically, two focus groups containing young people aged 18-20 years were asked to discuss the question "why do you use different communication media, such as the Internet and mobile phones, in your social lives?" Discussions from the sessions were recorded on audiotapes, and then transcribed, and analyzed according to the principles of Grounded Theory. A number of categories emerged from the data. The most significant category indicated that young people often liked to use communication media such as the Internet and mobile phones to communicate because these afforded them control over their interactions. In particular, the data seemed to suggest that participants felt that because some communication media such as email, text messaging and instant messaging can be used asynchronously as well as synchronously, they allow one time to stop and think before giving a response if this is desired, or, alternatively, allowed one to retain the conversational nature of interactions if this is preferred. This gave participants greater control over interactions than they would have if, say, communicating via voice calls using the telephone or face-to-face, which are necessarily synchronous.
Article
Full-text available
The 1st goal of this study was to investigate how online communication is related to the closeness of existing friendships. Drawing from a sample of 794 preadolescents and adolescents, the authors found that online communication was positively related to the closeness of friendships. However, this effect held only for respondents who primarily communicated online with existing friends and not for those who mainly talked with strangers. The 2nd goal was to refine 2 opposing hypotheses, the rich-get-richer and the social compensation hypotheses. Consistent with the rich-get-richer hypothesis, socially anxious respondents communicated online less often than did nonsocially anxious respondents. However, socially anxious respondents perceived the Internet as more valuable for intimate self-disclosure than did nonsocially anxious respondents, and this perception in turn led to more online communication. This result is consistent with the social compensation hypothesis. Online communication and closeness to friends increased with age. There was a curvilinear relationship between age and perceived value of the Internet for intimate self-disclosure, such that 15-year-olds were at the epitome of online self-disclosure. Girls were closer to friends and more socially anxious than were boys.
Article
Increasingly, people are connecting to the Internet from their homes in order to interact with others. This article discusses research on Internet social interaction in terms of the following questions: What predicts who will look for and form social relationships on the Internet and who won't? How do people present themselves to others over the Internet? How is social interaction on the Internet similar and different from the more traditional forms of interaction? And what are the consequences of participating in Internet groups and interacting with others one-on-one for the individual's self concept and social relationships? The conceptual framework offered here organizes research on the social psychology of the Internet into three time phases (before, during, and after extensive social interactions and group participation) and two distinct types of motivations that drive Internet social behavior (self-related and socially related). After a review of the research on these issues so far, we conclude that there is an abundance of interacting going on out there in cyberspace, and it is having surprisingly strong effects on people's "real life.".
Article
The mass media use and social life of heavy, light, and nonusers of the Internet and personal computers are compared based on a fall 1998 survey of 3,993 nationally representative respondents age 18 and older. As in previous surveys, no significant or consistent evidence of time displacement of such media or social activities was found. Indeed, Internet users showed signs of more active social lives than non- users. These results reinforce the conclusion that personal computer/Internet use may have more in common with time-enhancing home appliances such as the telephone than they do with the time- displacing technology of television.
Article
The Internet could change the lives of average citizens as much as did the telephone in the early part of the 20th century and television in the 1950s and 1960s. Re- searchers and social critics are debating whether the Internet is improving or harming participation in com- munity life and social relationships. This research exam- ined the social and psychological impact of the lnternet on 169 people in 73 households during their first i to 2 years on-line. We used longitudinal data to examine the effects of the Internet on social involvement and psycho- logical well-being. In this sample, the Internet was used extensively for communication. Nonetheless, greater use of the Internet was associated with declines in partici- pants'communication with family members in the house- hold, declines in the size of their social circle, and in- creases in their depression and loneliness. These findings have implications for research, for public policy, and for the design of technology.
Chapter
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Chapter
The changing presence of the Internet from a medium for elites to one in common use in our everyday lives raises important questions about its impact on access to resources, social interaction, and commitment to local community. This book brings together studies that cover the impact of "the Internet" in everyday life in the United States, Canada, Britain, Germany, India, Japan and globally. These studies show the Internet as a complex landscape of applications, purposes and users. This introduction begins by summarizing results from studies in this book and other recent research to provide an overview of the Internet population and its activities - statistics that help define and articulate the nature of the digital divide. We move from there to consideration of the social consequences of adding Internet activity to our daily lives, exploring how use of the Internet affects traditional social and communal behaviors such as communication with local family and commitment to geographical communities. We conclude with a look at how these studies also reveal the integration of the Internet in our everyday lives.
Article
Individual's attitude towards computers is a key component to understanding user's acceptance and satisfaction with computer-based information systems. As such, individuals' attitudes towards computers have been of interest to researchers in a variety of settings for sometime. Therefore, numerous instruments have been developed to assess this construct. We describe these instruments and discuss issues for researchers to consider when selecting an instrument with which to assess attitude towards computers. We find few instruments that are suitable for a general setting or have had their reliability thoroughly assessed. We, therefore, present a reliability assessment of the Attitude Towards Computers Instrument (ATCI), which was designed to be applicable in a wide variety of settings. The reliability assessment includes latent structure (confirmatory factor) analysis, internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha) analysis and stability (test–retest) analysis. We find that the reliability of the ATCI compares favorably with existing instruments, making it a better choice for many research settings. Reliability analysis such as presented in this paper helps move the information systems field forward by providing researchers with a reliable instrument with which to assess attitude towards computers.
Article
The present study involves the development of a new self-report scale for the use of Internet services, and examines its relationship to extraversion and neuroticism. Forty-five males and 27 females, differing in extraversion and neuroticism, rated the frequency with which they use each of 12 main Internet services. An exploratory factor analysis revealed three factors of Internet services: social services; information services; and leisure services. Extraversion and neuroticism showed different patterns of relationships with the factors of the Internet-Services Scale, with different patterns of association for men and women. For men, extraversion was positively related to the use of leisure services and neuroticism was negatively related to information services, whereas for women, extraversion was negatively related and neuroticism positively related to the use of social services. Implications for the study of the psychological influences of the Internet are discussed.
Article
As adolescent Internet use grew exponentially in the last decade, with it emerged a number of correspondent expectations. Among them were the following: (1) that gender predicts usage, i.e., that boys spend more time online, surfing the web and playing violent games, while girls chat or shop online; (2) that Internet use causes social isolation and depression, especially for teens; and (3) that adolescents use the Internet for anonymous identity experimentation. These expectations were based on research with earlier technologies when the Internet was less diffused in the adolescent population. By means of highly detailed daily reports of adolescents' home Internet usage and peer-related adjustment, the present research sought to compare these expectations with the actual experiences of early and mid-adolescents in 2000 and 2001. Participants were 261 7th and 10th graders from suburban California public schools who completed four consecutive end-of-day reports on their school-based adjustment and Internet activity (including detailed logs of instant messages). Results challenge prevailing expectations regarding gender, well-being, and identity play. For the most part, adolescent boys' and girls' online activities have become more similar than different. On average, boys and girls alike described their online social interaction as (1) occurring in private settings such as e-mail and instant messages, (2) with friends who are also part of their daily, offline lives, and (3) devoted to fairly ordinary yet intimate topics (e.g., friends, gossip). No associations were found between Internet usage and well-being. Online pretending was reported to be motivated by a desire to play a joke on friends more often than to explore a desired or future identity, but participants reported a range of pretending content, contexts, and motives.
Article
This study was carried out on 331 Italian secondary school students (64 females and 267 males; their mean age was 17.25, S.D.=0.87). The first aim of this study was to explore the relationships among type of class (computer science or not), gender and socio-economic status and frequency and modality of using the computer, Internet and the mobile phone. The second aim was to explore the relationship between the use of Internet and feelings of loneliness. Two instruments were administered: a questionnaire to explore some of the social habits of adolescents and their use of the three technologies considered, and the UCLA Loneliness Scale. The results confirmed that those with a higher socio-economic status use Internet more; the computer is used more by those who frequent a computer science section and by those with a higher socio-economic status. Loneliness emerged in relation to gender (higher in females), but not in relation to socio-economic status. Moreover it emerged at both the univariate and multivariate level in relation to the use of Internet and in negative relation to frequenting an informal peer group. A positive relationship between feelings of loneliness and number of friends who go on-line emerged only at the univariate level. The use of the mobile phone was almost completely independent of the variables examined here.
Article
Research on the impact of Internet use on social ties has generated conflicting results. Based on data from the 2000 General Social Survey, this study finds that different types of Internet usage are differentially related to social connectivity. While nonsocial users of the Internet do not differ significantly from nonusers in network size, social users of the Internet have more social ties than nonusers do. Among social users, heavy email users have more social ties than do light email users. There is indication that, while email users communicate online with people whom they also contact offline, chat users maintain some of their social ties exclusively online. These findings call for differentiated analyses of Internet uses and their effects on interpersonal connectivity.
Article
The self-report measures of social anxiety that are commonly used in social psychological and personality research confound the measurement of social anxiousness with the measurement of specific behaviors that often, but not always, accompany social anxiety. Theoretical and methodological issues regarding this problem are discussed, and two new scales are presented that measure interaction and audience anxiousness independent of specific social behaviors. Psychometric data show the scales to possess high internal consistency and test-retest reliability, as well as strong evidence of construct and criterion validity.
Article
Born between 1977 and 1997, Net-generation is the first generation to grow up surrounded by home computers, video games, and the Internet. As children of the Baby Boomers, the Internet is the medium of choice for the Net-geners. Based on the assumption that Net-generation has unique characteristics, this study examined (1) how Net-geners addicted to the Internet differ from the non-addicted and (2) how these attributes, together with the seductive properties of the Internet, are related to Internet addiction. Data were gathered from a probability sample of 699 Net-geners between the ages of 16 and 24. Results show that Net-geners addicted to the Internet tend to be young female students. Being emotionally open on the Net and a heavy user of ICQ were most influential in predicting Net-geners' problematic use of the Internet. Addicted Net-geners are also strongly linked to the pleasure of being able to control the simulated world in online games. The finding reinforces previous research that "dependents" of the Internet spend most of their time in the synchronous communication environment engaging in interactive online games, chat rooms, and ICQ for pleasure-seeking or escape, while "non-dependents" use information-gathering functions available on the Internet. Furthermore, Internet addicts tend to watch television significantly less, indicating a displacement effect on traditional media use for the Net-generation.
Article
The current study sought to understand better the psychological characteristics of socially anxious individuals who seek information on the internet about social anxiety disorder and its treatment. Participants were 434 individuals who responded to an internet-based survey linked to the website of an anxiety specialty clinic. Using established cut-off scores, 92% of the sample met criteria for social anxiety disorder. Internet survey respondents who met these criteria reported greater severity of and impairment due to social anxiety than a treatment-seeking sample of persons with social anxiety disorder. Nevertheless, only about one-third of these internet respondents reported having received psychotherapy, and a similar percentage reported having received pharmacotherapy. Those with the most severe social interaction anxiety and who spent the most time interacting on the internet endorsed positive effects of internet use. However, a significant number of negative effects also were endorsed.
Virtual addiction Adolescent Internet use: What we expect, what teens report
  • D N Greenfield
Greenfield, D. N. (1999). Virtual addiction. Oakland, CA: New Harbinger Publications, Inc. Gross, E. G. (2004). Adolescent Internet use: What we expect, what teens report. Applied Developmental Psychology, 25, 633–649.
Recent statistics on Internet dangers
  • D R Hughes
Hughes, D. R. (2006). Recent statistics on Internet dangers. Retrieved on May 28, 2006. Available from: http://www.protectkids.com/dangers/stats.htm. Inderbitzen-Nolan, H. M., & Walters, K. S. (2000). Social anxiety scale for adolescents: Normative data and further evidence of construct validity. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 29, 360–371.
Protecting teens online. Pew Internet and American Life Project
  • A Lenhart
Lenhart, A. (2005). Protecting teens online. Pew Internet and American Life Project. Retrieved on April 24, 2006. Available from: http://www.pewinternet.org/.
The self The handbook of social psychology
  • R F Baumeister
  • M R Leary
Baumeister, R. F., & Leary, M. R. (1995). The self. In D. T. Gilbert, S. T. Fiske, & G. Lindzey (Eds.), The handbook of social psychology (pp. 680–740). New York: McGraw-Hill.
Parenting the millennium generation: Guiding our children born between 1982 and
  • D Verhaagen
Verhaagen, D. (2005). Parenting the millennium generation: Guiding our children born between 1982 and 2000. Westport, CT: Praeger Publishers.
Internet and society: A preliminary report Available from Cell phone marketers calling all preteens
  • N H Nie
  • L Erbring
Nie, N. H. & Erbring, L. (2000). Internet and society: A preliminary report. Stanford Institute for the Quantitative Study of Society. Retrieved May 1, 2007. Available from: http://www.stanford.edu/group/siqss/Press_Release/ Prelimminary_Report.pdf. Petrecca, L. (2005). Cell phone marketers calling all preteens. USA Today. Retrieved on April 23, 2007. Available from: http://www.usatoday.com/tech/products/ gear/2005-09-05-preteen-cell-phones-x.htm.
Children’s positive and negative experiences with the Internet
  • Valkenburg
Cell phone marketers calling all preteens. USA Today. Retrieved on April 23
  • L Petrecca