Article

Expanding networks for the urban poor: Water and telecommunications services in Lima, Peru

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Abstract

In many cities of the developing world, poor residents occupy land and build their dwellings before infrastructure is provided. Expanding the infrastructure networks for the poor is a long, expensive and complicated affair. Before the 1990s, the public sector was generally in charge of the basic services; but these services have been liberalized and, in many cases, privatized since then. In this new context, a relevant question is: have these reforms contributed to urban integration? Or, on the contrary, have they contributed to deepen urban fragmentation? This study presents the case of water and telecommunications services in Lima, Peru, the most contested and politically sensitive urban sectors. The objective is to test Graham and Marvin’s claims about the splintering of networked infrastructures expressed in Splintering Urbanism.The findings show that the reforms have improved the situation at aggregate level, but there is still no sustainable solution for the crucial dilemma of cities with high poverty restrictions: self-financed network expansions versus service affordability. The diverging paths of the utilities reform in Lima illustrate that privatization is not the main issue in the discussion to expand the networks for the poor. The main conclusion is that sensible policies complemented with carefully targeted subsidies and continuous regulation can successfully provide water for all. Good governance practices at the urban level help to achieve this goal. Water and telecommunications in Lima also show that are no general solutions for the universalization of the services; each city is different and some sectors are much more complex and problematic than others. This demands careful and continuous technical and political consideration of the local circumstances to reform the utilities.

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... By the same token, the troublesome examples of water privatisation in other cities in Latin America reduced the private sector's interest in taking up this task (Ioris, 2016). This resulted in a lack of political will to pursue privatisation and the abandonment of the goal (Fernandez Maldonado, 2008;World Bank, 2016). ...
... Today, the City of Kings goes by the name of Lima and structurally faces water scarcity. With more than nine million people and 10 mm mean annual rainfall (Ioris, 2016), it is a constant challenge to guarantee the provision of water to all the inhabitants of the Lima Metropolitan area (Fernandez Maldonado, 2008;Miranda Sara et al., 2016). This is perhaps most clearly noted in the geographical and social inequalities in water consumption and water connections amongst residents and in water coverage over time (Fernandez Maldonado, 2008). ...
... With more than nine million people and 10 mm mean annual rainfall (Ioris, 2016), it is a constant challenge to guarantee the provision of water to all the inhabitants of the Lima Metropolitan area (Fernandez Maldonado, 2008;Miranda Sara et al., 2016). This is perhaps most clearly noted in the geographical and social inequalities in water consumption and water connections amongst residents and in water coverage over time (Fernandez Maldonado, 2008). ...
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Thesis
Innovation in digital water management, such as the use of sensors, supervisory control and data acquisition systems (SCADA), geographic information systems (GIS), and digitised water services, has become commonplace for cities to tackle challenges related to water governance and management. Also in Lima, Peru, datafication - the transformation of something, for instance, social activities, objects and their characteristics, or natural phenomena, into data through diverse actors, methods, and technologies for it to be recorded and analysed (Mayer-Schönberger & Cuckier, 2013) - is frequently attributed a key role in improving urban water governance. Nevertheless, these innovations play out in a context of severe discontent among the city’s residents due to the structural inequalities in Lima’s water distribution system. The main aim of this dissertation is, therefore, to understand how knowledge infrastructures can support just urban water governance within the context of hydrosocial inequality in Lima, Peru. In order to be able to answer this question, it was necessary to look beyond the digital infrastructure itself and consider it in relation to the broader knowledge systems, urban and regional geography, and societal structures of the city.
... Today, the City of Kings goes by the name of Lima and structurally faces water scarcity. With more than nine million people and 10 mm mean annual rainfall (Ioris, 2016), it is a constant challenge to guarantee the provision of water to all the inhabitants of the Lima Metropolitan area (Fernández-Maldonado, 2008;Miranda Sara et al., 2016). This is perhaps most clearly noted in the geographical and social inequalities in the water consumption and water connections amongst residents and the water coverage in time (Fernández-Maldonado, 2008). ...
... With more than nine million people and 10 mm mean annual rainfall (Ioris, 2016), it is a constant challenge to guarantee the provision of water to all the inhabitants of the Lima Metropolitan area (Fernández-Maldonado, 2008;Miranda Sara et al., 2016). This is perhaps most clearly noted in the geographical and social inequalities in the water consumption and water connections amongst residents and the water coverage in time (Fernández-Maldonado, 2008). ...
... The emphasis of these developments has been on creating a more efficient water infrastructure and should be seen in the light of the discussion revolving around the privatization of public services in Peru. During the neo-liberal Fujimori governments in the '90s, and driven by the International Monetary Fund (IMF) structural adjustment programs, many of Peru's public services were privatized (Fernández-Maldonado, 2008;Ioris, 2012). As part of this, SEDAPAL was stripped of many of its previous functions related to infrastructure implementation, maintenance, and repair. ...
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Article
Redevelopments of Lima’s water infrastructure aim to reduce inequalities in water consumption, connections, and coverage by implementing data technologies and claim to make urban water management more efficient. However, little research has been done on how the city’s hydrosocial geography is shaped by the increasing use of data for the supervision and control of its water infrastructure. This article analyzes the datafication of Lima’s water infrastructure as the interplay between different legibility-making practices to understand how the use of multiple, interoperable and real-time data sources, shapes the hydrosocial geography of the city as well as the relationship between Lima’s main provider of water and sewerage services (SEDAPAL) and urban water consumers across three scales: newly urbanized areas, water sectors, and households. We conclude that, in an already unequal urban landscape, the datafication strategically (re)structures the relationship between SEDAPAL, as a state organization managing the water infrastructure, and Lima’s residents.
... This research specifically focused on these three areas to compare the different roles of residents in the water infrastructure across urban classes and living conditions. Previous research has analyzed issues related to water infrastructure, water access, and water use amongst the urban poor in Lima and Latin America (Allen et al., 2017;Brown & Pena, 2016;Fernández-Maldonado, 2008). Yet, few studies have included the practices and perspectives of the urban middle class and elite in discussing the process of infrastructuring. ...
... Like other Latin American metropoles, Lima has grown mainly through the building of dwellings, neighborhoods, and infrastructure by its residents (Amin, 2014;Caldeira, 2017;Fernández-Maldonado, 2008;Holston, 2009). In this section, we analyze the script of the autoconstructed infrastructure and illustrate how, depending on their geographical location and socioeconomic context, residents have shaped the water distribution system to fit their needs and inscribed according to their own logic, with SEDAPAL often only having very little formal influence as the provider of water to the central dis-tribution point or vendor of water to the trucks that serve the area. ...
... It is estimated that about 60% of Lima's urban area is auto-constructed (Metzger, Gluski, Robert, & Sierra, 2015). Today, many of the districts that have been constructed by residents in the 20th century are fully consolidated and integrated into the urban fabric (Fernández-Maldonado, 2008). Many more recently inhabited areas are still in the midst of this process. ...
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Article
In Lima, residents are fundamental co-creators of the urban water infrastructure, taking up various roles in the operation, maintenance, and expansion of the water distribution system. As Lima's potable water company presses the transition from decentralized and auto-constructed to centralized and digital, this article explores how the implementation of digital infrastructure reconfigures the role of residents in the water distribution system. Our analysis draws on an ethnographic research approach, using formal and informal interviews, and focus groups in three areas representing Lima's diversity in settlement categories and types of water consumers. By analyzing the digitalization of Lima's water infrastructure through the perspective of its residents, this research contributes to understanding how top-down, digital governance practices mediate the agency and everyday experiences of people living in Southern cities. We observe that the digitalization of the water infrastructure marginalizes the participation of the 'expert-amateur,' a crucial role in the development of urban in the Global South, while providing more space for the 'smart citizen' to engage in infrastructuring. This article concludes that to overcome the perpetual creation of the center and the periphery through digitalization, urban infrastructure management should be sensitive to residents' diverse strategies in managing resources.
... ( Figure 1.2). [25] The lack of surface water in Lima is indicative of a more general imbalance between the distribution of water resources and population in Perú. While most of the country's surface water is contained east of the Continental Divide in the Atlantic [7], [23] The Chillón water production plant, operated for SEDAPAL by the Consorcio Agua Azul S.A., diverts roughly 2 m 3 /s of the Chillón River's flow for water production between December and April; between May and November when the flow of the Chillón can slow to a trickle, the Consorcio Agua Azul extracts up to 1 m 3 /s for water production from a system of groundwater wells located in the Chillón watershed. ...
... [23] SEDAPAL's piped water supply network services about 80% of Lima's population, most living in central neighborhoods, through connections inside or just outside the home (Figure 1.3). [42] Peripheral neighborhoods are serviced by water delivery trucks, less than half of which are operated by SEDAPAL [25]; the balance are privately owned and operated. [109] In recent years, the consequences of rapid, generally undirected population growth have put strain on local water resources and their distribution in Lima Metropolitana. ...
... The political strife and economical insecurities which Perú faced in the 1980s and early 1990s led to an increase in the influx of immigrants to Lima [80]; the already long-standing housing shortage forced their settlement in undeveloped areas further and further from the historical urban center. [25] Lima's most recent metropolitan development plan was Figure 1.3: Lima's piped potable water distribution network serves roughly 80% of the population with connections inside or outside the home [109]; shown here are Lima's two water production facilities (and a third which is under construction) with their average discharge rates, as well as the extent of the distribution network with corresponding pipe diameters. developed for the period from 1990-2010, and though it has been temporarily renewed each year since then, the city has no current legal instrument to discourage low-density growth. ...
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Article
Se presenta un estudio de patentes sobre la temática tratamiento de agua y agua residual. Se localizan y descargan más de 2.500 documentos de patentes relacionados con la temática. Estos se procesan en software al efecto y herramientas de procesamiento. Se extraen indicadores de patentes para esta tecnología con alto valor para actividades comerciales y de investigación, tales como tecnologías emergentes sobre tratamiento de agua, países, entidades e inventores líderes a nivel mundial según el resultado de la tecnología patentada. Se presenta la evolución de las tecnologías de tratamiento del agua y el agua residual en los últimos veinte años a nivel mundial según el registro de las patentes. La entrega de todo el material se realiza enuna herramienta de visualización que logra hacer más atractivo el servicio, tener un producto más amigable y cómodo para el uso, constituyendo una información de alto nivel de actualización y eficacia para la toma de decisiones de una empresa de proyectos e investigaciones hidráulicas.
... In Lima, Peru, water spatial patterns of access to water networks follow the city's patterns of spatial and socioeconomic segregation, also showing a core periphery dichotomy that favours households located in the centres or core areas. 432 There was a strong association found between expenditure on water and family income; while the richest families spend more on water than poorer families, the proportion of total family income that is spent on water consumption is much higher among poorer families. 426,431 When comparing groups with similar income levels, the proportion of dwellings with a household piped water supply is smaller in the wealthiest 10 per cent of the rural population than in the poorest brackets of the urban population. ...
... 426,431 Poorer populations have spent more of their proportional income on water than wealthier populations, yet poorer populations do not have the same access to improved water sources, which results in worse health outcomes. 426,431,432 Access to drinking water in rural areas is much more restricted than among urban populations, especially in households without a household connection, as the time needed to collect water imposes additional costs. 426,431 In Haiti, both urban and rural areas still face challenges accessing improved drinking water sources. ...
... The two private companies' tariffs are set by OSINERGMIN, an independent regulatory agency. The water sector was opened to private capital in 1994. 2 In Lima, however, sociopolitical resistance prevented privatization (Fernández-Maldonado 2008). Sedapal (Servicio de Agua Potable y Alcantarillado de Lima—the Peruvian stateowned water utility that provides water and sewerage services to Lima and neighboring Callao) thus remained a public company under the central Ministry for Housing and Sanitation's authority and controlled by the | 38 | regulator SUNASS. ...
... For the last few decades, Peru has adopted a series of experimental and innovative approaches in housing, and by extension in the urban sector (Fernández-Maldonado 2008). This pragmatic and operational approach relies on political will, with some international inspirations and support, | 51 | and pressure from a strong civil society (Matos Mar 2012). ...
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Chapter
This paper explores the sociological understanding of land ownership meaning and its consequences for incremental housing policies using Discourse Analysis as a method of investigation of local actors’ perceptions following the eviction of Thapathali slum area in May 2012. Establishing what is meant by forms of tenure arrangements – legal and customary, demonstrates the benefits of studying a situation in which incremental housing failed as an alternative to eviction, informs traditional planning approaches through innovative recommendations relating to legal instruments that create effective rights, and emphasizes the need to anchor housing policies and incremental housing approaches in the social and political context local authorities are dealing with.
... In the context of many cities in lower-income countries, for example, these conditions have often not been met. Hence, rather than the ''collapse" of the modern infrastructural ideal, several articles in this themed issue point to its absence (Kooy and Bakker, 2008) or to its failure (Botton and de Gouvello, 2008;Fernández-Maldonado, 2008;Zérah, 2008; see also Jaglin, 2005). As Kooy and Bakker (2008) suggest for Jakarta, many cities in lower-income countries are not splintering, they are and have long been splintered along ethnic or socio-economic lines (see also McFarlane and Rutherford, 2008b, p. 370) 5 . ...
... Rutherford (2008) discusses the policy instruments employed in Stockholm that have prevented -so far -the actualisation of the potential regressive effects of utility reforms. Even when public regulation is shaky, as in the case of water and telecommunications in Lima (Fernández-Maldonado, 2008), the outcome of reforms may not be altogether regressive. To a significant extent, the liberalisation of telecommunications in Peru has improved access to internet services in low-income Lima neighbourhoods (see also Fernández-Maldonado, 2005; and for a similar argument on the political nature of infrastructure reforms and the shaping of their ''effects", see Coing, 2005 on the case of Bogotá). ...
Article
This paper introduces a collection of case studies aimed at “Placing Splintering Urbanism”, in reference to the thesis developed by Graham and Marvin [Graham, S., Marvin, S., 2001. Splintering Urbanism. Networked Infractructures, Technoloical Moblilities and the Urban condition. Routledge, London]. Whilst acknowledging the value of the thesis as an analytical framework in opening the way to innovative understandings of contemporary urban dynamics, the paper argues that, taken together, the articles in this themed issue seriously challenge the “splintering urbanism” thesis theoretically, empirically and methodologically. They question in particular the postulated universality of the “modern infrastructural ideal” and of “unbundling” and “bypass” processes — all of which are key elements in Graham and Marvin’s argument — as well as the assertion that reforms in infrastructure sectors should generally result in more discriminatory, socially regressive patterns of provision of essential services and more splintered urban spaces. Based on these fundamental critiques, the paper concludes that one cannot speak of “splintering urbanism in general” — i.e., as a global trend — in any meaningful analytical way.
... Besides lack of basic services and public green spaces, households lack land tenure security or property rights, i.e., legal ownership of their house and land. Insecure tenure often leads to forced evictions, loss of housing, land, and livelihoods (Fernández-Maldonado, 2008;Sarmiento et al., 2020). Unsafe housing conditions add to disaster vulnerability (Reale and Handmer, 2011). ...
Article
Ecosystem-based disaster risk reduction (Eco-DRR) measures are gaining attention as creative solutions to reduce community vulnerability against risks while providing multiple co-benefits. We evaluate an Eco-DRR, an afforestation effort, Boca de Sapo (hereafter, BdS), in a marginalized community in peri-urban Lima where we perform household surveys and key informant interviews. To estimate the economic viability, we design a benefit-cost analysis (BCA) and include probabilistically estimated DRR benefits and place-based economic and non-market co-benefits representing stakeholder values. Accounting for income differences, we incorporate equity weights to estimate social welfare benefits. We then evaluate BdS impacts based on BCA results and stakeholder responses along broader sustainability dimensions, and benchmark the project's contribution to urban sustainability using two international frameworks. Household surveys revealed high concern for rockfall risk, and a double-bounded contingent valuation indicated an average household willingness to pay (WTP) of $3.44 ± 0.49/month for BdS maintenance. The equity-weighted risk-based BCA using Monte Carlo simulations indicated BdS was unviable considering DRR benefits with a Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) of 0.06 ± 0.08. BCR estimates increased to 1.18 ± 0.42 with incremental integration of tangible property rights co-benefits, and to 1.70 ± 0.59 with addition of WTP representing non-market co-benefits. Our findings demonstrate that inclusion of the multiple Eco-DRR place-based, socio-cultural, and ecological co-benefits with primary DRR benefits is critical as they generate substantial wellbeing impacts for communities. Adapting a sustainability lens revealed holistic Eco-DRR outcomes including access to public green spaces, social inclusion, stronger resource governance, and health and wellbeing benefits, highlighting areas for improvement and pathways for adaptive governance.
... However, what can be observed is that income and environment inequalities augment as one moves out of Central Lima towards the peripheries (Fernández de Córdova et al., 2016). The lack of land for urbanization has led people to construct their homes in floodplains and in other high-risk areas (Calderón Cockburn 2017), while public services have failed to keep up with the pace of expansion (Fernández-Maldonado 2008;Ioris 2016;Matos Mar 2012). To this day, 10% of the population is still unserved by the public water network. ...
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Article
This study examines the adaptive capacity of urban dwellers in the face of a changing climate dealing with water insecurity. It builds on the case of Lima residents’ responses to the extreme events brought by the 2017 El Niño Costero, used here as a temporal analogue. Our novel, process-oriented approach to framing adaptive capacity integrates elements from both environmental behavior and new institutionalism literatures. Based on interviews with Lima residents, policymakers, and stakeholders as well as on a qualitative document analysis of national and city policies we identify and characterize the socio-psychological processes that are critical to understanding why individuals adopt (or not) different adaptive strategies. We show how governance and social institutions (from municipal regulations to gender roles) influenced residents’ perceived vulnerability and how this, in turn, structured their coping actions during the El Niño Costero episode. We further demonstrate that ways in which individuals deploy coping mechanisms structure their future adapting paths through practices that privilege the status quo while deferring risks in time and space. In this context, the interrelation of residents’ cognitive processes with evolving social norms lead to five strategies for dealing with climate change. The discussion reflects on the need to address institutionalized social inequalities that permeate Lima’s daily urban life in order to enhance the adaptive capacity of the most vulnerable, and on the relationship between residents and authorities on the pathway to urban resilience.
... Chapters 2-5 examine an African city in the digital age as a site of technological innovation and appropriation (as opposed to a diffusion of technologies from elsewhere). They provide vivid examples of a shift beyond determinist views of urban development, towards one where infrastructures are investigated and theorised from the viewpoint of the different actors, including the experts, utility companies and engineers, and "those at the 'receiving' end" (Edwards et al., 2009: 371) that are more often "excluded or by-passed" by the utility companies and governments and exposed to cities' segregated territoriality (Fernández-Maldonado, 2008). These chapters demonstrate that even when technologies are introduced, the different actors within the city may slightly modify them, drastically transform them or combine them with existing technologies and processes; moreover, they may even sometimes resist them or at least create new meanings and uses for them (see e.g. . ...
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Book
Rethinking Smart Urbanism is an empirical exploration of the multiple ways in which cities and infrastructures are constructed and reconstructed through ICT innovation and appropriation. Drawing on the case of Kenya’s capital, Nairobi, the study explains existing infrastructure constellations through countervailing processes and rationalities in the context of splintered urbanism. In doing so, the study examines the relationship between urban plans and digital infrastructure development, place-based contexts that shape digital infrastructures, and the extent to which these infrastructures facilitate utility companies’ ambitions of extending centralized networks to new territories. It draws on the theoretical and empirical base of urban and infrastructure studies, particularly in the fields of smart urbanism, postcolonial urbanism, and Science and Technology Studies. Methodologically, the study adopts a qualitative research design and presents in-depth case studies that combine ethnographic methods with a thorough investigation of written sources. Ultimately, it is hoped to enhance our understanding of urban and digital possibilities, and add new insights to debates on technology and urbanity in Africa and beyond.
... If the monopolistic ideal to which Graham and Marvin (2001) referred was never achieved or even pursued in many of the cities of the colonial and postcolonial worlds, then the fall of that ideal has a very different effect in those cities than in the North Atlantic. Often, rather than privatizing existing, centralized networks, the introduction of neoliberalism and market mechanisms has brought the expansion of those networks to areas that were not served before (Fernández-Maldonado 2008). This has the potential to bring services to populations that were not previously taken into account, but under widely different assumptions and conditions than that of the modernist ideal. ...
Thesis
Since 2009 the Metropolitan Municipality of Lima has partnered with private corporations to deliver three highway projects worth US$1.5bn. This process follows a state-building strategy developed since the 1990s to allow different levels of government to deliver infrastructure projects with private finance. In Lima, the model has almost exclusively produced highways through a specific scheme that allows firms to submit unsolicited proposals. In this dissertation, I investigate how the availability of private finance transforms the political process and local planning outcomes. I argue that rather than being simply a solution for cash-strapped governments looking to invest in specific pieces of infrastructure, the introduction of private finance shapes what projects get built. Private finance not only transforms the implementation part of a two-step process: it has a deep impact on the planning phase itself by setting constraints on what can be done and to what ends. I call the specific mechanism by which private finance influences planning ‘unplanning.’ Here, the state is not simply retreating to let the private sector determine priorities. In other words, it is not abandoning planning, or simply not planning. Rather, it is being transformed in order to follow a proactive role in attracting investment, and to adapt planning to the needs of private capital. The dissertation goes beyond understandings of infrastructures as neutral conduits and into their techno-political nature in order to reveal how they reflect, reproduce and become both the conduit and the site of political conflicts between private capital, the state, and urban dwellers.
... This is not the case in developing cities of the Global South, 2 however, as recent applications of socio-technical transition frameworks have demonstrated (Ramos-Mejía et al., 2018). In such contexts, conventional interpretations of socio-technical re- gimes are too simplistic given the complexity of basic service sectors and the highly uneven distribution of infrastructure in these cities (Fernández-Maldonado, 2008). For example, in urban East Africa multiple arrangements of actors, artefacts, and spaces coexist to meet the sanitation needs of residents ( Letema et al., 2014). ...
Article
Today's rapid global urbanization highlights the need for long-term transformations of basic service sectors in developing cities in order to improve the livelihoods of the urban poor. Sustainability transitions frameworks have proven fruitful for addressing these sort of challenges. However, they have been at pains so far in accounting for the heterogeneity and complexities that typically characterize informal settlements in the Global South. We therefore propose a conceptual framework that extends the conventional analysis of socio-technical regimes by distinguishing the two levels of sectoral regime and service regime. Challenges for sustainability transitions may then be identified by missing alignments within and among the two regime levels. The framework is applied to the sanitation sector of Nairobi, Kenya, a city experiencing rapid population growth and a highly uneven provision of basic services. Drawing on a set of 152 in-depth interviews, observations, and five focus group discussions, the paper reconstructs the prevailing service regimes and shows how they suffer from misalignments and dysfunctionalities creating all sorts of problems at a sectoral level. We conclude that Nairobi's sanitation sector can best be characterized as representing a splintered regime. The paper concludes with a discussion of how the new conceptualization of socio-technical regimes suggests some new sustainable transition pathways and how this framework might also be instructive for transition challenges in cities of the Global North.
... Metropolitan Lima suffers from a water shortage for different reasons: low annual precipitation (< 15 mm), seasonal rivers with water stress (0-10 m 3 sec -1 from May to December), polluted waters (Fernández-Maldonado 2008), and unsustainable and inefficient water management. The fast population growth in previous decades, the lack of implementation and modernisation of urban and regional planning instruments, the economic crisis, and other factors have led to a vast expansion of informal settlements, especially in peri-urban areas. ...
... Th e neoliberalisation of water in Lima has entailed a fl uid combination of technical, economic and political interventions that are strategically coordinated to create a more favourable business atmosphere (Ioris, 2012). Notwithstanding the advance of water neoliberalism, urban planners point out that the water reforms have improved the situation at aggregate level, but there is no defi nitive solution for the dilemma of sustaining network expansion at an aff ordable cost to the population (Fernández-Maldonado, 2008). Th e unfair state of aff airs has been also criticised by union leaders and NGO activists for the lack of transparency and the repeated evidences of corruption. ...
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Chapter
The introductory chapter situates the debate on the Latin American city in the wider historical and geographical perspective of colonisation, nation building, economic development and neoliberal reforms. Because Latin America is a diversified and dynamic region, a critical assessment of large-scale urbanisation offers a helpful entry point into its socioeconomic and environmental complexity. Particularly the achievements and failures of public water services reveal a great deal about the organisation, functioning and politicisation of metropolitan areas, as well as about the commitments and limitations of the state. The chapter finally explains the structure and innovation of the book, especially regarding the nexus between Latin American megacities and the evolving apparatus of the state using the dilemmas of the water sector as a critical category of analysis.
... Th e neoliberalisation of water in Lima has entailed a fl uid combination of technical, economic and political interventions that are strategically coordinated to create a more favourable business atmosphere (Ioris, 2012). Notwithstanding the advance of water neoliberalism, urban planners point out that the water reforms have improved the situation at aggregate level, but there is no defi nitive solution for the dilemma of sustaining network expansion at an aff ordable cost to the population (Fernández-Maldonado, 2008). Th e unfair state of aff airs has been also criticised by union leaders and NGO activists for the lack of transparency and the repeated evidences of corruption. ...
Full-text available
Chapter
Lima is an emerging Latin American megacity and the most critical case of a large metropolis located in a coastal desert. Urban development, in particular since the middle of the last century, consolidated a dualist city in which the large majority of the population has to live in marginalised, precarious settlements. Macroeconomic and political reforms adopted since 1990 have tried to enhance and regulate the housing market and, crucially, incorporate water infrastructure projects as a key element of business-friendly programmes. The Water for All initiative, closely examined in the chapter, constitutes one of the most emblematic examples of the ongoing process of water commodification, of the political appropriation of the metropolitan water utility (SEDAPAL) and of the mounting manifestations of corruption.
... Th e neoliberalisation of water in Lima has entailed a fl uid combination of technical, economic and political interventions that are strategically coordinated to create a more favourable business atmosphere (Ioris, 2012). Notwithstanding the advance of water neoliberalism, urban planners point out that the water reforms have improved the situation at aggregate level, but there is no defi nitive solution for the dilemma of sustaining network expansion at an aff ordable cost to the population (Fernández-Maldonado, 2008). Th e unfair state of aff airs has been also criticised by union leaders and NGO activists for the lack of transparency and the repeated evidences of corruption. ...
Full-text available
Chapter
Urban dilemmas represent today some of the most challenging questions for Latin American governments and society. The region is one of the most urbanised in the world and has a significant proportion of its population living in large, chaotic metropolitan areas, including a growing number of megacities. A proper examination of large-scale urbanisation requires a coherent framework of analysis, as discussed in the chapter, able to address metropolitan changes, sociospatial inequalities and multiple forms of interaction and reaction. The key player behind urban transformations has been the state apparatus, which must be understood as a constantly evolving entity, fraught with contradictions and conflicting interests. Water policy-making demonstrates the territorialisation of sociospatial disputes, the diversity of interventions and multiscale agency and identity.
... Th e neoliberalisation of water in Lima has entailed a fl uid combination of technical, economic and political interventions that are strategically coordinated to create a more favourable business atmosphere (Ioris, 2012). Notwithstanding the advance of water neoliberalism, urban planners point out that the water reforms have improved the situation at aggregate level, but there is no defi nitive solution for the dilemma of sustaining network expansion at an aff ordable cost to the population (Fernández-Maldonado, 2008). Th e unfair state of aff airs has been also criticised by union leaders and NGO activists for the lack of transparency and the repeated evidences of corruption. ...
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Chapter
The Mexican state apparatus has been the object of sustained, often violent, disputes between different elite groups and the wider national society. With the political settlement achieved in the early 20th century, the state was able to promote a reasonably successful agenda of national development, which nonetheless increasingly exhausted its results and was partially replaced by controversial liberalising reforms since the 1980s. The national capital city encapsulates, in dramatic ways, the process of national building, economic growth and political clashes. It is now one of the largest megacities in the planet, spreading to many states and municipalities, but has to rely on distant water reserves and large engineering infrastructure, which has caused renewed forms of controversy, antagonism and uncertainty.
... The neoliberalisation of water in Lima has entailed a fluid combination of technical, economic and political interventions that are strategically coordinated to create a more favourable business atmosphere (Ioris, 2012). Notwithstanding the advance of water neoliberalism, urban planners point out that the water reforms have improved the situation at aggregate level, but there is no definitive solution for the dilemma of sustaining network expansion at an affordable cost to the population (Fernández-Maldonado, 2008). The unfair state of affairs has been also criticised by union leaders and NGO activists for the lack of transparency and the repeated evidences of corruption. ...
Chapter
The final chapter summarises the main findings, in particular the conclusion that water dilemmas represent the common moment of truth of all Latin American metropolitan areas. The analysis of urban water issues also serves to emphasise the politicised and constantly evolving organisation and functioning of the state apparatus. Recent policies and investment programmes have tried to conceal the ideological and class-based goals of politico-economic reforms. Consequently, meaningful alternatives to urban inequalities require not only a critical understanding of the connections between past and present, but also between personal and interpersonal attitudes with national and international scales of interaction. This requires the recognition of the politicised basis of sociospatial changes, assessing complex cross-scale phenomena in a way that helps to remove pre-established conceptions about the origin of problems and possible solutions.
... Limited access to networks of connectivity can curtail full participation in society (Burchardt, 1999, Witter, 2010. Graham and Marvin's thesis highlights the weakness of regulation and policies of privatisation and provision of infrastructure services that may lead to an increase in inequalities and the exclusion of specific socio-demographic groups (Fernández-Maldonado, 2008). ...
... The institutional framework for urban development in Lima thus depends more on national policies and laws than on municipal guidance and control. The election of A. Fujimori as president in 1990 marked the beginning of neo-liberal reforms in Peru (Fernández-Maldonado 2008). After decades of tolerance and progressive consolidation of informal urbanisation through invasion, the need for services as well as the economic difficulties encouraged a change in the policies directed at spontaneous settlements. ...
Book
Proceeding : Cities to be tamed ? Standards and alternatives in the transformation of the urban South - Milan : Italie (2012) Disponible en ligne : http://www.planum.net/download/ctbt2012-criqui-section-1
... interview with SUNASS manager, March 2009). Higher user charges may be necessary to sustain the operation of the water services of Lima (Fernández-Maldonado, 2008), but the rationality of the recent rise of tariffs is to support the investment programme and guarantee the profitability of private construction companies and private water supplies. The regulator SUNASS has systematically endorsed increases in the level of charges for residential and non-residential customers, although in some cases tariff readjustment has stirred serious controversy (for example, in 2005 when SEDAPAL submitted an Optimised Master Plan to SUNASS, which requested an increase of 136.9% in one single year, as vividly described in Bonifaz and Malásquez, 2008). ...
Article
Water scarcity is a widespread phenomenon that still affects many cities and settlements around the world. Situations of scarce water resources are not external to society, but are directly and indirectly caused by deliberate attitudes towards nature and society. Conditions of water scarcity go beyond the physical insufficiency of resources to vividly contain the long-term inadequacy of social institutions. In the case of Lima, the capital of Peru, the material and discursive elements of scarcity have been exacerbated by political and ideological affirmation of market-based institutions and private property relations. Rather than being an extreme hydrological event, water scarcity is part of the urbanisation and modernisation of Lima under the sphere of influence of neoliberal policies. Scarcity has been constantly recreated and, in the end, has served as a legitimating tool to maintain social and spatial inequalities. The evolution of water infrastructure and the formulation of public policies have consolidated the patterns of discrimination, fragmentation and risks that characterise everyday life in the Peruvian capital. Understanding water problems ultimate requires a class-based approach that connects the local, national and global scales of interaction, which should be articulated together with considerations of culture and the micro-dynamic of power. Only through a political ecology approach it is possible to explain the synergistic ontology of water scarcity and the persistent obstacles to democratising water and the waterscape.
... Like many other cities in the global South (Kooy and Bakker, 2008;Fernández-Maldonado, 2008), Manila's infrastructure had long been ''splintered,'' providing adequate service to core areas while circumventing peripheral ones. During the global wave of water privatization that gained traction in the 1990s, Manila emerged as an attractive candidate, gaining support from both domestic government officials and international financial institutions. ...
Article
The privatization of basic needs provision has seen a related and increasing reliance on corporate–community partnerships in serving the “last mile.” These relationships often seem promising because they suggest mutual benefit—corporations expand their customer base, while communities gain access to improved services. Indeed, the success of Manila’s water privatization project hinges in large part on the two utilities’ partnerships with community-based organizations to extend services to low-income areas. Despite the promise of mutuality, Manila has seen localized contestations over this setup, as some communities sense disparities between their terms of access and those of households that are directly served by the utilities. However, rather than being targeted at the utilities, those challenges largely focus on the small providers—paradoxically, it is the community-based cooperatives and entrepreneurs that are accused of capitalistic exploitation. By distancing themselves from low-income communities, the utilities become relatively intangible, state-like entities, their financial motivations obscured from ordinary citizens. In contrast, community-based organizations are at the frontline—collecting payments, monitoring for theft, and seemingly earning profits at the expense of their neighbors. Corporate–community partnerships thus create an uneven terrain of empowerment, cooptation, and politicization, refocusing debates at a local level. In so doing, they alter the ways in which citizens view public, private, and community entities, complicating the public/private binaries that often dominate debates on privatization.
... The struggle to provide water for more than nine million people has attracted growing attention from academics (e.g. Chevallier et al., 2011;Fernández-Maldonado, 2008), multilateral agencies (e.g. UNDP, 2006;UNESCO, 2006) and international initiatives (e.g. ...
Article
The paper discusses the contradictory evolution of water services and the politicised nature of water scarcity in Lima, the capital of Peru. It initially claims that water scarcity cannot be understood as an isolated phenomenon, but it is inserted in a wider multiplicity of scarcities that characterise contemporary urban development. The naturalisation of scarcity in the official policy discourse is then criticised for its tendency to overlook interconnected mechanisms of political differentiation and socioeconomic exploitation that influence the allocation and use of water. Against such reductionist readings, the analysis employs a non-essentialist interpretation of multiple scarcities related to water and emphasises the need to address the totality of the experience of scarcity. Based on qualitative fieldwork, which explored recent institutional reforms and the daily struggle for water in the periphery of Lima, three fundamental reasons were identified for the persistence of water scarcity: first, the expansion of water problems as a result of the poor quality of housing and the discriminatory practices against low-income residents; second, the modest improvements in water services provided by public investment programmes, which have primarily aimed to answer political and electoral demands of the ruling party; and third, the technocratic basis of new management approaches and the systematic exclusion of grassroots communities from the decision-making process. Genuine responses to the mounting water problems of Lima require a more critical appreciation of the production of circumstantial abundances and totalising scarcities in the city.
Thesis
L’accès à l’électricité est un enjeu crucial dans les villes du Sud. Alors que la demande augmente, les réseaux conventionnels sont défaillants, insuffisants et parfois absents, en particulier en Afrique subsaharienne. Pour satisfaire leurs différents besoins, les citadins se tournent alors vers d’autres solutions, donnant lieu à divers assemblages sociotechniques qui varient selon la ville, le quartier, le ménage en fonction des conditions de (dys)fonctionnement du service en réseau et des modalités d’appropriation des technologies disponibles localement. À l’échelle de chaque ville, il en résulte une configuration électrique urbaine perpétuellement remodelée par les interactions de ses parties constituantes et ce, en symbiose avec l’environnement urbain. Empruntant ses cadres théoriques aux études des sciences et technologies et aux sciences sociales, la recherche vise à comprendre la stabilité dynamique des configurations et les implications de leur transition incrémentale sur le fonctionnement urbain, notamment en termes d’inégalités socio-spatiales. Dans une démarche comparative multiscalaire, un travail empirique étendu a été réalisé en 2017 et 2018 auprès de 160 ménages sur une sélection de quartiers reflétant la diversité urbaine à Ibadan au Nigéria et Cotonou au Bénin. La cartographie, au cœur de l’analyse, révèle la distribution et la diversité des accommodements entre assemblages sociotechniques, inégalités d’accès et intégration urbaine différenciée. La recherche démontre que les pratiques citadines, à la fois ouvertes à toutes nouvelles opportunités de bricolage, contraintes par les mécanismes d’accès mobilisables individuellement et modelées par des rapports de pouvoir, stabilisent des régimes d’accès à l’électricité et alimentent des processus de transition par hybridation extrêmement sensibles aux dynamiques politico-institutionnelles multiniveaux, aux différentes filières de la mondialisation marchande et aux réseaux d’entraide et d’influence locaux. Les régularités observées permettent de définir trois régimes sur ces terrains : la combinaison d’intermittences, le bricolage de fortune et la satisfaction par accumulation. Il ressort de leur analyse que l’amélioration de la qualité et de la continuité du service dépend de logiques marchandes et sociales ambivalentes qui ne permettent pas de sortir les citadins les plus vulnérables des trappes de la pauvreté et que, faute d’une régulation d’ensemble à l’échelle de la configuration, les interdépendances fonctionnelles entre différents modes d’accès à l’électricité génèrent des externalités négatives incontrôlées limitant les bénéfices attendus d’une généralisation du réseau conventionnel. Finalement, ce travail démontre que la transition électrique urbaine nécessite d’aller au-delà du référentiel du réseau conventionnel unique et uniforme, pour penser les contours d’un service urbain socio-techniquement hétérogène, articulé à la diversité des conditions de vie urbaine
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This book represents a powerful analysis of the challenges of metropolitan governance in all its messiness and complexity. It examines Latin American metropolitan governance by focusing on the issue of public service provision and comparatively examining five of the largest and most complex urban agglomerations in the region: Buenos Aires, Bogota, Lima, Mexico City and Santiago. The volume identifies and discusses the most pressing challenges associated with metropolitan coordination and the coverage, quality and financial sustainability of service delivery. It also reveals a number of spatial inequalities associated with inadequate provision, which may perpetuate poverty and other inequalities.
Chapter
This chapter presents a literature review of key concepts and connections that serve as a framework for understanding the conditions of access inequalities of socially disadvantaged residents of cities of Latin America: accessibility, social and spatual inequality, and transport-related social exclusion. The review seeks to identify conditions that underpin the ability of low-income, peripheral and other marginal population groups to access essential services and opportunities for their well-being. Building on such a review, the paper proposes a framework that identifies relevant connections between transport and urban configurations and inequalities that may affect socially vulnerable groups such as low-income groups, people with disabilities, elderly, women, and ethnic minorities. This review proposes a integrated framework linking splintering urbanism and social exclusion, placing accessibility—or the lack thereof—as a core issue bringing the two concepts together while considering their translation into the context of urban transport inequalities and inequities in cities in Latin America. The review contends that fragmentations stemming from splintered urbanism lead to inaccessibility that leads to exclusion in mutually reinforcing processes. Such processes reflect the limitations of mainstream approaches to urban and transport planning to address the needs of socially disadvantaged populations in Latin America.
Article
Urban cartography enables us to trace the historical and spatial evolution of human settlements, but it also furnishes us with the opportunity to obtain and analyse urban data from the perspective of the present day. Urban plans drafted for the reform and expansion of a city can provide us with valuable urban information about the planned use of new public space. In Western Europe, the historical cartography of Barcelona (Spain) maps the city’s mid-nineteenth century urban expansion project designed to fulfil egalitarian, social and hygienist goals. Here, using geographic information system tools, we digitize Barcelona’s cartography so as to create an urban dataset based on the city’s urban plans – the Cerdà Plans (1859 and 1863) – and to estimate its public space typology. Social centres, hospitals, green spaces, residential areas and communication infrastructures are identified and metrised, and urban public open spaces are analysed using various urban indicators. The urban data thus obtained represent a notable advance on attempts to quantify Cerdà’s original project. The importance attached to public space (>75%) and to both communication infrastructure and urban public open spaces is indicative of the desire to create a new city and to break with the values of old Barcelona. In short, the data obtained serve to undertake a detailed comparison with the present-day reality of Barcelona.
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Pdf: https://journals.openedition.org/developpementdurable/15444 En 2013, le gouvernement péruvien annonce le premier projet d’usine de désalinisation dans le secteur public de l’eau à Lima (Pérou). L’article a pour objet l’analyse du processus d’adoption de ce projet présenté comme une innovation. Il met en évidence la convergence d’intérêts aux niveaux local et national qui contribue à amorcer une transition socio-technique dans le secteur de l’eau dans un contexte de remise en cause des grandes infrastructures hydrauliques dans les Andes. Cette analyse permet de souligner la relation dialectique, c’est-à-dire l’impact mutuel, entre les solutions de production et gestion de l’eau et le développement urbain en analysant deux dimensions centrales : la dimension territoriale ainsi que la configuration d’acteurs et leurs intérêts.
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Article
Co-production of water and sanitation services has become a widely discussed option for equitable and efficient service delivery, especially for cities of the Global South. Theoretical conceptualizations of service co-production mainly refer to the public management and governance dimension, while the techno-environmental and spatial dimensions are often disregarded in the literature. This article proposes a comprehensive framework for analyzing water and sanitation co-production based on cross-cutting literature, from public service management/governance to urban, socio-ecological and socio-technical fields. The proposed framework highlights the categories and factors to be considered when analyzing the background conditions and outcomes of unorthodox service delivery.
Article
Dar es Salaam, Tanzania’s water landscape is unjust, inequitable, and uneven. Water rationing and electricity outages affect water availability alongside an overall shortfall in water supply. Using household surveys and interviews, this paper shows that a majority of respondents lack a consistently reliable source of water. To cope with poor access, households alter their daily routines, consume less water, and identify and use back-up sources of water. It is crucial to understand the problems of water availability in the city in order to make more informed policy decisions and more justly provide water access.
Article
The electrification of irregular settlements in Lima: catching up on steep slopes Since the privatisation of the Peruvian electricity sector in 1994, Lima’s electricity distribution companies have not only managed to catch up with urban growth, but also reached an almost complete coverage and optimal service quality. This performance is considered to be one of the benefits from transferring to the private sector. Studying the electrification phases conducted by Lima’s utilities in irregular settlements uncovers two other factors that have contributed to these dynamics: a political framework supportive of the improvement of access to urban services and technical innovations in network engineering. The reintroduction of urban policies and the spatial context of utilities into analysis sheds light on the importance of adaptive institutional and technical capacity for servicing irregular settlements, irrespective of the public or private status of the actors.
Article
Latin America's large metropolitan areas are socially segregated, showing urban contrasts between 'islands of wealth' and 'seas of poverty'. Socio-spatial inequality in smaller cities is usually more scattered and less visibly marked out, hence less politically urgent. Because poverty is experienced as less problematic in smaller cities, residents of informal settlements are usually left to their own devices in their attempts to move out of poverty. This article addresses the use of so-called 'mobility resources' by the less-visible urban poor. It explores the connections between physical and social mobility in an informal settlement in Cuenca, Ecuador, using the scenarios of moving and improving as analytical tools. By analysing how residents use transnational migration and global flows of money, goods and ideas to improve their housing situation, and how the added-up results of home improvement transform the neighbourhood, the study aims to contribute to the body of knowledge on neighbourhood consolidation.
Article
The extension of electricity, water and sanitation networks in developing cities seems to be a priori complicated by the deficiencies of urban planning. Nevertheless, on a daily basis, utility firms do install pipes and poles in unplanned settlements. The mechanisms they resort to in Delhi and Lima are here analysed as catalysts and revelators of an actually existing urbanism. Social, commercial and technical innovations help extend the coverage; institutional creativity and bricolage compensate for the inadequacy of the planning framework. The lack of planning of the built-up environment is actually not an obstacle to service extension; nonetheless, this process is suboptimal due to coordination deficits within the larger urban fabric. Two tools hence appear as key for servicing unplanned settlements: map generation and road preservation to spatially and institutionally articulate the actors' interventions. These instruments are promising to develop and consolidate unplanned urbanisation, and to pilot future growth. Therefore, they offer new perspectives for public action and urban planning in developing cities that deserve to be considered both scientifically and politically as a fruitful infrastructure urbanism.
Article
Rapid urbanization in many African cities has had a significant impact on the basic water services in peri-urban areas, where providing services can be complex. In the city of Maputo, Mozambique, the initial uptake of new household connections following network construction in peri-urban areas was slow. Focus group discussions with residents and interviews with key actors revealed the importance of offering flexible payment options to the urban poor in order to increase the affordability of connection charges. Although the high connection fee was a constraint, residents were willing to pay if the charges were spread across several monthly installments. These findings suggest that flexible payment arrangements for customers can both bring utility services within reach of low income households and expand the customer base for utility service providers.
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This paper provides a survey review of the literature on regulation of utilities with a focus on network industries (telecommunications, electricity, transport infrastructure, water and sanitation). It is limited to the publications realized from 2004 onwards which, somehow, refer to the Peruvian experience. The survey provides detailed evidence on the significant bibliographic production on this topic, underscoring the quantity and quality of various studies on regulation, mainly on energy and telecommunications. Also it includes some contributions published abroad, which refer to the progress that has been achieved in identifying the best practices of regulation as well as the principles that have shaped the institutional designs in some countries, providing new benchmarks for evaluation in developing nations. Likewise, the assessment reveals some substantial changes in the relative importance of specific issues. Privatization no longer occupies a central role in the public policy agenda, and has also lost attraction within the research communities. In contrast, network expansion and access to network services as well as the design of public-private partnerships and financial mechanisms for infrastructure development, have turned into the key issues of the agendas for research and public policy, respectively.
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Article
Water is critical to improving the health and welfare of the expanding urban populations of the South. Unfortunately, few cities in poor countries have managed to develop institutions able to supply the poor with water, let alone take away the waste. One city that has managed to do so is Bogota, Colombia. The results of this public company are impressive and have been achieved by adopting some elements of neo-liberal economic thought and by maintaining independence from political pressure. Recently, however, the water company's operations, and particularly its efficiency and pricing policy, have come under attack from a new left-of-centre mayor. The paper explores the legitimacy of some of the attacks and examines whether they constitute fair political debate or a means of undermining what, by the standards of the South, is an effective company.
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Article
Specifically, this paper analyzes how, in addition to the improvement in the performance of the firm and the quality of service, the privatization of the telecommunications industry in Peru led to price changes that had an impact on consumer welfare and that may be correlated with the negative public opinion of the privatization process.
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Article
The main reason Lima failed to implement a concession was geographical: the scarcity of water sources meant high marginal costs, partly for pumping water from deep wells and building adequate storage for dry periods. High extraction costs were compounded by years of neglect; much of the system needed to be replaced. Attracting private investors meant setting prices high enough to recover these high costs and provide a reasonable return on capital. But the government had subsidized costs for years, so a concession would have required a sharp and sudden price increase to cover marginal costs. Moreover, any forward-looking investor would want to slow the pace of future investment by curbing demand through more effective (meter-based) bill collection. And cross-subsidies, which reduce the incentive to conserve water, would also have to be reduced. The ultimate cause of the concession's failure was geographical but the proximate cause was political. Privatizing a utility is politically tricky if it involves higher prices and the controversial ceding of monopoly powers to private parties, especially foreigners. Private participation in water is further hampered by the social importance of water and by the lack of international experience and the technical difficulties in designing privatization reform in the sector. At the same time, water offers fewer benefits than other utlities--few revenues to reward supporters or compensate losers-- and the price increases likely in Peru would especially hurt the urban poor, who were important to the president's support base. After a favorable start, the political equation shifted against privatization. The concession's failure was costly, in access goals not fully met, in adverse effects on health, and in the failure to curb consumption through metering--and hence in continued depletion of the aquifer and its increasing contamination by ocean salt. Peru's institutional weaknesses, especially its lack of an autonomous judiciary, might have limited how much could have been achieved. But considering the net gains from private operation in the much weaker nstitutional settings in Africa, Lima would probably have been better off with a concession.
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This article focuses on the economically disorganizing and politically reorganizing role of globalization for the urban populations of Latin America. The 1990s witnessed a rapid., but dependent, incorporation of Latin American countries into the global economy and in ways that had considerable impact on their urban economies. Though the modern service sector increased in this period, the large Latin American metropolises show little sign of acquiring world city functions. Rather, the major impact of globalization on Latin American cities has been the strengthening of income inequality and an increasing vulnerability of their populations to poverty. The informal economy continues to thrive, but as a low-wage sector, and data from four cities show worsening job conditions and income polarization in the formal sector. The spatial segregation of the cities becomes more complex as the market liberalizations accompanying globalization stimulate investment in business and residential enclaves located in or close to poor areas of the city. Large-scale spatial segregation increases mainly through the peripheral location of poor populations, while transport deficiencies and land limitations inhibit the suburbanization of the high-income populations. The other side of globalization is the political decentralization fostered by international agencies and national governments, which gives new political and social welfare significance to urban neighborhoods. The intervention of external actors, local, national and international, has sharply increased in neighborhood affairs. There is a globalization from below in the ways that urban inhabitants use links with community., state and NGOs to further their rights and link with others in like circumstances.
Article
Presents evidence to suggest that the picture of the urban poor as conservative and concerned primarily with individual advancement should be adjusted rather than discarded. Extensive research in a poor community in the northern part of Lima during the mid-1980s revealed a complex and politically divided population in which patterns of conservatism and clientelism persisted while new currents of popular radicalism and class-based activism appeared. The article begins by presenting evidence, drawn from interviews with two dozen shantytown leaders and community activists, of a complex and mixed popular political culture in contemporary Lima. It then places current patterns in the context of recent Peruvian political history and suggests ways in which macro-level changes during the period of military rule (1968-1980) and since the transition back to civilian rule have influenced popular political culture. The article ends by highlighting the implications of the Peruvian case of heightened social mobilization and class consciousness for a more theoretical and regional understanding of the political character of the urban poor. -from Author
Book
Groundwater is the mainstay of the rural water economy of Ghana. The resource has been tapped at various levels in the hydrogeological basins to supply potable water resources to communities. Also discussed are the water resources development and sustainable management in the Republic of Sudan. This book reviews the structural issues that have confronted the reform of the potable water supply and wastewater industries, and examines them in light of the forces that are expected to impact on this issue across the globe.
Article
Squatter settlements (barriadas) are a very significant element in the urban growth of Lima, Peru. Barriadas are residential communities formed by low-income families in which the houses are constructed in large measure by the residents themselves, and which are frequently formed illegally. Many areas originally formed as barriadas have become integrated into the city as working-class suburbs. Various estimates suggest that over 40% of the city started as barriadas. Originally they were the product of migration from the Andes and coast of Peru as a result of the continued primacy of Lima with its attractions and the poverty of the rest of the country. This poverty is a result of physical geography and political elements such as land tenure, terms of trade, guerrilla movements and the coca trade. Fundamental to understanding barriadas is the invasion of land and the consolidation and progressive development of communities over long periods. Barriadas are believed by some to be the only way in which, with government acquiescence, Peru has been able to cope with the demands of millions of people for housing and social mobility. Others see barriadas more negatively as slums and problems. This is not the view of the author who has studied the phenomenon over 40 years. Recent developments suggest that far from being peripheral and a drain on the society and economy of Lima, the informal economies of barriadas may be a catalyst for growth and a fundamental restructuring and reorganisation of the whole city. Geography
Article
Stephen Graham and Simon Marvin. London and New York: Routledge, 2001. ISBN 0-415-18964-0 (cloth); 0-415-18965-9 (paper).
Book
Part 1 Telecommunications and the City: parallel transformations telecommunications and urban transformations the urban "impacts" of telecommunications the neglect of telecommunications in urban studies the need for more sophisticated approaches to city-telecommunications relations the transformation of telecommunications - from the "plain old telephone service" ("POTS") to telematics the transformation of cities - towards planetary urban networks the structure of the book. Part 2 Telecommunications as a paradigm challenge for urban studies and policy: telecommmunications as a paradigm challenge ways forward - post-modernism, electronic spaces and the tele-mediated city towards new conceptions of the city.
Article
Despite the lack of a vision, policies, programs, subsidies or support from the government or private firms to promote and facilitate the development of ICTs in Peru, it constitutes a good practice example in terms of access to the new technologies. This is thanks to the widespread availability of cabinas públicas de Internet in the main cities, where most Internet users access the Web. This paper documents the diffusion and use of ICTs in the different socio-economic sectors in Lima, with a special attention to the lower-income groups, using successive (quantitative) surveys on ICT use in households, cabinas users, and Internet users in Metropolitan Lima, and recent observations and interviews to people working in the field. The results of this study show that the cabinas are effectively improving the daily life of a great part of the residents of Lima, and especially the youth, offering different types of urban services, which have been absent in poor neighborhoods (libraries, post offices, recreation facilities, study places, youth centers, training centers, etc.). But access is not all. This auspicious first step should be supported to produce more sophisticated applications and local content, with the purpose to promote local development.
Article
This article proposes a framework for the analysis of social classes in Latin America and presents evidence on the composition of the class structure in the region and its evolution during the last two decades, corresponding to the years of implementation of a new economic model in most countries. The paper is an update of an earlier article on the same topic published in this journal at the end of the period of import substitution industrialization. Relative to that earlier period, the present era registers a visible increase in income inequality, a persistent concentration of wealth in the top decile of the population, a rapid expansion of the class of micro-entrepreneurs, and a stagnation or increase of the informal proletariat. The contraction of public sector employment and the stagnation of formal sector labor demand in most countries have led to a series of adaptive solutions by the middle and lower classes. The rise of informal self-employment and micro-entrepreneurialism throughout the region can be interpreted as a direct result of the new adjustment policies. We explore other, less orthodox adaptive strategies, including the rise of violent crime in the cities and migration abroad by an increasingly diversified cross-section of the population. The impact that changes in the class structure have had on party politics and other forms of popular political mobilization in Latin American countries is discussed.
Book
The following text is taken from the publisher's website: "Splintering Urbanism offers a path-breaking analysis of the nature of the urban condition at the start of the new millennium. Adopting a global and interdisciplinary perspective, it reveals how new technologies and increasingly privatised systems of infrastructure provision - telecommunications, highways, urban streets, energy, and water - are supporting the splintering of metropolitan areas across the world. The result is a new 'socio-technical' way of understanding contemporary urban change, which brings together discussions about: * globalisation and the city * the urban and social effects of new technology * urban, architectural and social theory * social polarisation, marginalisation and democratisation * infrastructure, architecture and the built environment * developed, developing and post-communist cities."
Article
Decentralized governance of water resources is a centerpiece of Mexico’s neoliberal reform strategy. We analyze decentralization based on urban/rural case studies in distinct geographical regions to ascertain whether it is linked to more efficient water management or sustainable use of water resources, and to examine its development implications. We assess whether or not private sector management is related to a more efficient, sustainable, and accountable management of water variety of municipal and private management arrangement in four urban areas. We find that it has not resulted in efficiency or sustainability gains. For agricultural water management, irrigation districts in two case studies benefited from the more democratic participatory management by water users under Mexico’s “transference” strategy, but did not result in greater equity, efficiency or sustainability of water use. We argue that decentralization in the Mexican water sector is context specific, and marked by limited benefits. Privatization is less an instrument aimed at improving efficiency than a channel for preferred treatment for capital accumulation by private entities as well as a legitimized way for the state to transfer the burden of water management to non-state institutions. The creation of new forms of water institutions requires not the retrenchment of the state but rather its involvement to ensure accountability, transparency, equity, and sustainability.
Article
This article focuses on the arguments used to support private sector participation (PSP) in the provision of water and sanitation services (WSS) since the 1980s. It addresses the following questions: what was the historical evidence informing the claim that promoting PSP would be the best instrument for reducing water poverty? What are the principles that provided the foundation for this claim? And, what has been the empirical record of the resulting WSS policies? It argues that early neoliberal WSS policies since the 1980s were not intended to expand services to the poor. A pro-poor rhetoric was added to these policies since the 1990s, probably as a result of increasing citizen unrest in developing countries and the failure of privatized WSS projects in the Americas and Europe. However, the claim that PSP can provide the solution to public sector failure in extending coverage of essential WSS to the poor has little ground both in the theoretical literature and in the historical record. As could have been expected from the accumulated knowledge about the relationship between market-driven WSS and the poor, the recent experience with PSP projects has been disappointing. In practice these policies not only have failed to extend these essential services to the poor but have also contributed to deepening existing inequalities of power resulting in the weakening of state, local government, and civil society capacities to exercise democratic control over private water monopolies in most developing countries. Reversing this imbalance is one of the crucial challenges ahead in order to achieve the Millennium Development Goals. However, the article argues that the inertial forces set in motion by the neoliberal model of water policy based on market-centred governance of water and WSS remains the crucial obstacle for the achievement of the goals.
Article
The electronic version of this book has been prepared by scanning TIFF 600 dpi bitonal images of the pages of the text. Original source: Urban poverty, political participation, and the state : Lima, 1970-1990 / Henry Dietz.; Dietz, Henry A.; x, 307 p. : ill. ; 25 cm.; Pittsburgh :; This electronic text file was created by Optical Character Recognition (OCR). No corrections have been made to the OCR-ed text and no editing has been done to the content of the original document. Encoding has been done through an automated process using the recommendations for Level 2 of the TEI in Libraries Guidelines. Digital page images are linked to the text file.
Article
El estudio muestra los resultados obtenidos en la implementación del proyecto Alimentación de Agua Potable para los Pueblos Jóvenes de la Ciudad de Lima (APPJ), que se desarrollo entre los años 1993 - 2001 con el apoyo de la Unión Europea y benefició a más de 300 000 habitantes de las zonas periféricas de Lima. Describe los aspectos técnicos, operativos y de gestión, señala la importancia de la participación comunitaria, la capacitación y el seguimiento que se deben tener en cuenta para la implementación de la estrategia. Banco Mundial Programa de las Naciones Unidas para el Desarrollo
Producir la ciudad (popular) de los 90: entre el mercado y el Estado
  • G Riofrío
Riofrío, G., 1991. Producir la ciudad (popular) de los 90: entre el mercado y el Estado, Lima, DESCO.
Censos Nacionales 2005 X de Población y V de Vivienda
  • L Guerra
Guerra, L., 2006. Tarifas de agua no subirán en 136%. In: La Republica. Lima, 11 de enero de 2006. INEI, 1993. Censos Nacionales 1993 IX de Población y IV de Vivienda. Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas e Informática, Lima. INEI, 2005a. Censos Nacionales 2005 X de Población y V de Vivienda. Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas e Informática, Lima. INEI, 2005b. Tecnologías de Información y Comunicaciones en los Hogares. Dirección Técnica de Demografía e Indicadores Sociales, Lima, Agosto 2005. INEI, 2007. Tecnologías de Información y Comunicaciones en los Hogares. Enero-Marzo 2007. Informe Técnico No. 2, Lima, Junio 2007. ITU, 2002. World Telecommunications Development Report 2002. Reinventing Telecoms. International Telecommunications Union. Geneva, March 2002.
Las tarifas de agua potable y alcantarillado en América Latina. ADERASA, Grupo de Tarifas y Subsidios
  • References Aderasa
References ADERASA, 2005. Las tarifas de agua potable y alcantarillado en América Latina. ADERASA, Grupo de Tarifas y Subsidios. http://www.aderasa.org/es/ documentos3.htm?x=654 (January 2007).
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