A model of Cdc25 phosphatase catalytic domain and Cdk-interaction surface based on the presence of a rhodanese homology domain
Bioinformatics Group Swiss Institute for Experimental Cancer Research Chemin des Boveresses 155 CH-1066, Epalinges Switzerland Journal of Molecular Biology
(Impact Factor: 4.33).
10/1998; 282(1):195-208. DOI: 10.1006/jmbi.1998.1998
Mammalian Cdc25 phosphatase is responsible for the dephosphorylation of Cdc2 and other cyclin-dependent kinases at Thr14 and Tyr15, thus activating the kinase and allowing cell cycle progression. The catalytic domain of this dual-specificity phosphatase has recently been mapped to the 180 most C-terminal amino acids. Apart from a CX3R motif, which is present at the active site of all known tyrosine phosphatases, Cdc25 does not share any obvious sequence similarity with any of those enzymes. Until very recently, the Cdc25 family was the only subfamily of tyrosine phosphates for which no three-dimensional structural data were available. Using the generalized profile technique, a sensitive method for sequence database searches, we found an extended and highly significant sequence similarity between the Cdc25 catalytic domain and similarly sized regions in other proteins: the non-catalytic domain of two distinct families of MAP-kinase phosphates, the non-catalytic domain of several ubiquitin protein hydrolases, the N and C-terminal domain of rhodanese, and a large and heterogeneous groups of stress-response proteins from all phyla. The relationship of Cdc25 to the structurally well-characterized rhodanese spans the entire catalytic domain and served as template for a structural model for human Cdc25a, which is fundamentally different from previously suggested models for Cdc25 catalytic domain organization. The surface positioning of subfamily-specific conserved residues allows us to predict the sites of interaction with Cdk2, a physiological target of Cdc25a. Based on the results of this analysis, we also predict that the budding yeast arsenate resistance protein Acr2 and the ORF Ygr203w encode protein phosphatases with catalytic properties similar to that of the Cdc25 family. Recent determination of the crystal structure of the Cdc25a catalytic domain supports the validity of the model and demonstrates the power of the generalized sequence profile technique in homology-based modeling of the three-dimensional structure of a protein having a weak but significant sequence similarity with a structurally characterized protein.
Available from: Thomas Girke
- "UBA2 and UBA3 serve as activators for SUMO and NEDD8 respectively . The E1 for URM1 is UBA4 . ATG7, the E1 associated to ATG8, is recognized by an N-terminal motif . "
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ABSTRACT: Protein regulation by ubiquitin has been extensively described in model organisms. However, characterization of the ubiquitin machinery in disease vectors remains mostly unknown. This fundamental gap in knowledge presents a concern because new therapeutics are needed to control vector-borne diseases, and targeting the ubiquitin machinery as a means for disease intervention has been already adopted in the clinic. In this study, we employed a bioinformatics approach to uncover the ubiquitin-mediated pathway in the genomes of Anopheles gambiae, Aedes aegypti, Culex quinquefasciatus, Ixodes scapularis, Pediculus humanus and Rhodnius prolixus. We observed that (1) disease vectors encode a lower percentage of ubiquitin-related genes when compared to Drosophila melanogaster, Mus musculus and Homo sapiens but not Saccharomyces cerevisiae; (2) overall, there are more proteins categorized as E3 ubiquitin ligases when compared to E2-conjugating or E1-activating enzymes; (3) the ubiquitin machinery within the three mosquito genomes is highly similar; (4) ubiquitin genes are more than doubled in the Chagas disease vector (R. prolixus) when compared to other arthropod vectors; (5) the deer tick I. scapularis and the body louse (P. humanus) genomes carry low numbers of E1-activating enzymes and HECT-type E3 ubiquitin ligases; (6) R. prolixus have low numbers of RING-type E3 ubiquitin ligases; and (7) C. quinquefasciatus present elevated numbers of predicted F-box E3 ubiquitin ligases, JAB and UCH deubiquitinases. Taken together, these findings provide novel opportunities to study the interaction between a pathogen and an arthropod vector.
Available from: plosone.org
- "RHOD domain is found in rhodanese and rhodanese domain-containing proteins including the Cdc25 class of protein phosphatases , . Rhodanese that catalyzes the transfer of a sulfane sulfur atom from thiosulfate to cyanide is important for cyanide detoxification . "
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ABSTRACT: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a central regulator for both cell proliferation and cell growth; however, little is known about the regulation of mTOR expression at the transcriptional level. Here, we provide evidences that a conserved human protein TBCK (TBC1 domain containing kinase) is involved in the regulation of mTOR signaling pathway. Depletion of TBCK significantly inhibits cell proliferation, reduces cell size, and disrupts the organization of actin, but not microtubule. Knockdown of TBCK induces a significant decrease in the protein levels of components of mTOR complex (mTORC), and suppresses the activity of mTOR signaling, but not MAPK or PDK1/Akt pathway. Further results show that TBCK influences the expression of mTORC components at the transcriptional level. Thus, these data suggest that TBCK may play an important role in cell proliferation, cell growth and actin organization possibly by modulating mTOR pathway.
Available from: Narayanaswamy Srinivasan
- "A human PKLNK (gi|18676872) has TBC domain and Rhodanese domain in the C-terminal. TBC domain is involved in GTPase signaling, and Rhodanese domain which shares evolutionary relationship with large family of protein is involved in cyanide detoxification . Another human PKLNK (gi|17368698) has TUDOR domain N-terminal to the PKLNK domain which indicates its role in RNA binding  which has so far not seen tethered with protein kinase (Figure 2(c)). "
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ABSTRACT: Protein Kinase-Like Non-kinases (PKLNKs), which are closely related to protein kinases, lack the crucial catalytic aspartate in the catalytic loop, and hence cannot function as protein kinase, have been analysed. Using various sensitive sequence analysis methods, we have recognized 82 PKLNKs from four higher eukaryotic organisms, namely,
. On the basis of their domain combination and function, PKLNKs have been classified mainly into four categories: (1) Ligand binding PKLNKs, (2) PKLNKs with extracellular protein-protein interaction domain, (3) PKLNKs involved in dimerization, and (4) PKLNKs with cytoplasmic protein-protein interaction module. While members of the first two classes of PKLNKs have transmembrane domain tethered to the PKLNK domain, members of the other two classes of PKLNKs are cytoplasmic in nature. The current classification scheme hopes to provide a convenient framework to classify the PKLNKs from other eukaryotes which would be helpful in deciphering their roles in cellular processes.
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