Article

Effect of Exogenous Salicylic Acid under Changing Environment: A Review

Plant Physiology Section, Department of Botany, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, U.P., India
Environmental and Experimental Botany (Impact Factor: 3.36). 03/2010; 68(1):14-25. DOI: 10.1016/j.envexpbot.2009.08.005

ABSTRACT

Salicylic acid (SA), an endogenous plant growth regulator has been found to generate a wide range of metabolic and physiological responses in plants thereby affecting their growth and development. In the present review, we have focused on various intrinsic biosynthetic pathways, interplay of SA and MeSA, its long distance transport and signaling. The effect of exogenous application of SA on bio-productivity, growth, photosynthesis, plant water relations, various enzyme activities and its effect on the plants exposed to various biotic and abiotic stresses has also been discussed.

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Available from: Shamsul Hayat
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    • "Salicylic acid protects cell membranes and their binding transporter proteins which maintain their structure and function against the toxic and destructive effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS) released during heat stress (Hayat et al. 2009;Hayat et al. 2010;Kumar et al. 2013;Bons et al. 2015). Foliar spray of lower concentrations of salicylic acid conferred heat tolerance in plants due to enhanced H 2 O 2 level and reduced the catalase (CAT) activity, thereby increasing the potential of plants to withstand the heat stress (Hayat et al. 2010). The exogenous application of salicylic acid has been reported to increase seed and stover yield through reducing adverse effects of heat stress on biochemical changes in many field crops (Wahid et al. 2007;Kumar et al. 2013;Bons et al. 2015). "

    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015
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    • "Indeed, research on the molecular mechanisms underlying hormonal regulation in response to drought has uncovered a complex and dynamic regulatory network in which JA and ABA participate (Harb et al., 2010; Brossa et al., 2011; Savchenko et al., 2014). It is well-known that SA is involved in a broad range of physiological and metabolic responses in plants (Hayat et al., 2010). This phenolic compound can be synthesized from the primary metabolite chorismate via two distinct enzymatic pathways, one involving phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) and the other isochorismate synthase (ICS; reviewed in Chen et al., 2009). "
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    ABSTRACT: To investigate the putative crosstalk between JA and ABA in Solanum lycopersicum plants in response to drought, suppressor of prosystemin-mediated responses2 (spr2, JA-deficient) and flacca (flc, ABA-deficient) mutants together with the naphthalene/salicylate hydroxylase (NahG) transgenic (SA-deficient) line were used. Hormone profiling and gene expression of key enzymes in ABA, JA and SA biosynthesis were analyzed during early stages of drought. ABA accumulation was comparable in spr2 and wild type (WT) plants whereas expression of 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase 1 (NCED1) and NCED2 was different, implying a compensation mechanism between NCED genes and an organ-specific regulation of NCED1 expression. JA levels and 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid reductase 3 (OPR3) expression in flc plants suggest that ABA regulates the induction of the OPR3 gene in roots. By contrast, ABA treatment to flc plants leads to a reduction of JA and SA contents. Furthermore, different pattern of SA accumulation (and expression of isochorismate synthase and phenylalanine ammonia lyase 1) was observed between WT seedlings and mutants, suggesting that SA plays an important role on the early response of tomato plants to drought and also that JA and ABA modulate its biosynthesis. Finally, hormone profiling in spr2 and NahG plants indicate a crosstalk between JA and SA that could enhance tolerance of tomato to water stress.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Frontiers in Plant Science
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    • "Phenolic compounds are able to scavenge ROS, form complexes with metals and raise the activity of oxidative enzymes (Amarowicz et al., 2004; Negro et al., 2003; Caillet et al., 2006; Amarowicz and Weidner, 2009; Elavarthi and Martin, 2010). An increased activity of antioxidant enzymes improves the resistance of plants to stressors (Hayat et al., 2010). Phenols constitute a large group of compounds that may be divided into five subgroups: coumarins, lignins, flavonoids, phenolic acids and tannins (Gumul et al., 2007). "
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    ABSTRACT: According to some estimates, a 70% increase in crop yield could be achieved if the environmental conditions were close to the optimum ones for a given plant, which is why the identification and control of adverse environmental effects is a top priority in many countries worldwide. This paper contains a discussion of the changes in selected elements of the secondary metabolism in the leaves of two grapevine varieties (Vitis vinifera L.) with a different degree of tolerance to cold stress during prolonged and constant low temperature stress. The analyses have shown that the more-tolerant variety was characterized by a higher content of phenolic compounds, better radical-scavenging capacity and stronger reducing power. However, the cold stress caused a decrease in the concentration of the phenolics and decreased the scavenging capacity in the leaves of both varieties. Four phenolic acids have been identified in the extracts from the leaves of both grapevines: caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid and a caffeic acid derivative. Caffeic acid appeared in the highest concentrations in all the leaf extracts. Additionally, it has been noted that in the leaves of the varieties susceptible and tolerant to cold stress, the prolonged exposure to low temperature caused a considerable reduction of the content of all identified phenolic acids. The results of the analyses have demonstrated large differences in the functioning of the secondary metabolism in response to the same stressor.
    Full-text · Article · Nov 2015 · Journal of plant physiology
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