Article

Predicting Habit: The case of physical exercise

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Abstract

ObjectivesHabit has been an undervalued concept in the behavioral sciences during the past few decades. One reason may be that habit has been equated with behavioral frequency. This leaves out an important characteristic of habits, i.e., the fact that repeated behavior may acquire a degree of automaticity. The present study aimed to demonstrate that exercising habit can be reliably measured, can empirically be distinguished from past frequency of exercising, and can thus be adopted as a meaningful criterion.Design and methodsA longitudinal study was conducted with two measurements one month apart among 111 students. Intentions to exercise, perceived behavioral control of exercising, past exercising frequency, and exercising habit were assessed at both measurements through an internet-based questionnaire. Exercising habit was assessed by the Self-Report Habit Index [Verplanken & Orbell (2003). Reflections on past behaviour: A self-report index of habit strength. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33, 1313–1330]), which breaks down the habit concept in the subjective experience of repetition and automaticity.ResultsThe results showed that exercising habit can be reliably measured, is stable over time, and can be distinguished from mere exercising frequency.ConclusionsIn addition to frequency of behavior, measuring habit provides information about the way behavior is executed. An important element of exercising behavior is the decision to go exercise. It is argued that the habit concept is therefore particularly relevant for the initiation of and adherence to exercising. Implications of distinguishing behavioral frequency and habit for interventions are discussed.

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... According to Verplanken and Melkevik (2008), to understand the habit of exercising, it is necessary to pay attention to the degree to which the decision to exercise has turned into a habit. Healthy behaviour models (e.g. ...
... A habit comes automatically, but repetition and frequency may affect future behaviour and fortify or create a strong habit (Eagly and Chaiken, 1993;Ji and Wood, 2007;van't Riet et al., 2011). As behaviour becomes habitual, it may be less guided by conscious attitudes and intentions (Ouellette and Wood, 1998;Verplanken et al., 1998;Ji and Wood, 2007;Verplanken and Melkevik, 2008). It becomes automatic. ...
... SRHI was developed on the basis of features of habit, that, according to Verplanken and Orbell (2003) are, a history of repetition, automaticity (lack of control and awareness, efficiency) and expression of identity. Specifically using the SRHI on physical exercise, Verplanken and Melkevik (2008) show that the habit of exercising can be reliably measured, is stable over time, and can be distinguished from mere exercise frequency. According to the authors, the impact of intention on behaviour has diminished and habit strength has increased. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the extent to which consumption values and physical activities influence consumers’ healthy eating choices. Design/methodology/approach A survey with 292 participants was analysed by means of bilateral factor analysis and structural equation modelling to study the consumers’ healthy eating choices based on consumption values and moderation effect of physical activities. Findings Consumers’ healthy eating choices are strongly linked to epistemic and emotional values. Physical activities act as a moderator of the emotional value and functional value price. Originality/value This paper adds to the literature on consumption values and raises new insights of value for the health and wellness food industry.
... Physical activities were measured by the Self-Reported Eating Habit Index (SRHI), following the Verplanken and Melkevik (2008) and Verplanken and Orbell (2003) Verplanken and Melkevik (2008). Habit strength was measured by a five-point Likert scale ranging from agree totally to disagree totally. ...
... Physical activities were measured by the Self-Reported Eating Habit Index (SRHI), following the Verplanken and Melkevik (2008) and Verplanken and Orbell (2003) Verplanken and Melkevik (2008). Habit strength was measured by a five-point Likert scale ranging from agree totally to disagree totally. ...
... .]". The alternatives were: last week, last month, last semester and last year, as described by Verplanken and Melkevik (2008). ...
Article
Purpose–This article aims to explore the influence of values concerning food consumption and the effect ofphysical activity habit moderation on these. Design/methodology/approach–The consumption value theory was used as a base, and a survey with 292participants was analysed by means of factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Findings–The findings are presented at three levels. The first is the clustering of food consumption habits indifferent dimensions: healthy, unhealthy and hybrid. The second is the relationship between values and foodconsumption. In detail: (1) emotional value is the only significant measurement for the consumption of the threefood dimensions; (2) social value is a significant measurement for healthy food consumption; (3) conditional value issignificant for the consumption of hybrid and unhealthy foods; (4) epistemic value has significance in theconsumption of hybrid foods; (5) functional value is denied for all dimensions. The third concerns the relationshipbetween value perceptions and food consumption moderated by physical activity in: (1) social value of healthyfoods; (2) functional value of hybrid foods; and (3) emotional and epistemic values of unhealthy foods. Originality/value–This paper adds to the literature on consumption values and raises new insights intovalue and habits regarding food consumption, such as physical activity involved in the consumption context
... So, although habit is an automatic process in that it is played out spontaneously, often without conscious intent (Gardner, 2012;Rebar, 2017;Verplanken, 2006), people may be able to identify (and therefore report) the presence, experience, and consequences of habit. Verplanken and Melkevik (2008) adapted a self-reported habit index specified for exercise behavior (SRHI; Verplanken & Orbell, 2003). The SRHI measures exercise habit strength by having people report the degree to which they agree with 12 items including, "Exercising is something…I do automatically / I have been doing for a long time / I have no need to think about doing." ...
... The SRHI measures exercise habit strength by having people report the degree to which they agree with 12 items including, "Exercising is something…I do automatically / I have been doing for a long time / I have no need to think about doing." This measure of exercise habit is reliable, stable over time and distinct from exercise behavior frequency and reflective regulatory processes of exercise (i.e., intentions and perceived behavioral control) (Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008). The SRHI (Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008) alongside abbreviated subscales (e.g., Gardner, Abraham, Lally, & de Bruijn, 2012) and other self-report habit measures, have been shown to be associated to physical activity and exercise behavior both in cross-sectional and prospective studies (Gardner, de Bruijn, & Lally, 2011;Rebar et al., 2016). ...
... This measure of exercise habit is reliable, stable over time and distinct from exercise behavior frequency and reflective regulatory processes of exercise (i.e., intentions and perceived behavioral control) (Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008). The SRHI (Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008) alongside abbreviated subscales (e.g., Gardner, Abraham, Lally, & de Bruijn, 2012) and other self-report habit measures, have been shown to be associated to physical activity and exercise behavior both in cross-sectional and prospective studies (Gardner, de Bruijn, & Lally, 2011;Rebar et al., 2016). Not surprisingly, people who self-report stronger physical activity habit tend to be active more frequently, with meta-analyses observing moderate-to-strong effect sizes of habit-behavior associations with activity and inactive behaviors (r = .43 ...
Article
This chapter presents the benefits of exercise benefits. Stronger exercise habit is beneficial because it should increase the likelihood of frequent exercise, as is supported by the commonly observed association between self‐reported habit and exercise frequency. Having strongly formed exercise habits makes it less likely that people will seek out or be tempted by opposing unhealthy alternative behavioral options. The formation of exercise habits also has the benefit that it is less cognitively demanding than non‐habitual exercise. The chapter explores how exercise habits are formed. Helping people to form exercise habits requires encouraging people to exercise regularly and in the same contexts, so that habit associations develop. Factors can impact habit formation in several ways: by increasing or maintaining the motivation to become physically active, by aiding the translation of motivation into repeated action, or by strengthening the reinforcing value of each repetition on the formation of cue‐behavior associations.
... Les habitudes d'épargne sont formées sur le long terme, selon des processus de socialisation cachés (Wood, Tam et Witt, 2005). Les habitudes d'épargne peuvent diminuer les rationalisations et les influences qui conduisent à ne pas agir (Verplanke et Melkevik, 2008). Elles peuvent être davantage influencées par des déterminants affectifs, émotionnels ou hédoniques. ...
... Les comportements habituels sont réputés émerger d'actions répétées dans des contextes stables (Wood, Quinn et Kashy, 2002: 1282. Les habitudes peuvent être caractérisées par 5 traits : la répétition, l'absence d'intention consciente, la difficulté à la contrôler, l'efficience mentale et une capacité de réflexion de l'individu sur ses comportements habituels (Verplanken et Melkevik, 2008). Or, la répétition dans une période raisonnable n'est pas certaine et ces comportements semblent être contrôlés alors que le contexte n'est pas toujours stable. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
L’épargne revêt des enjeux majeurs, individuels et collectifs, économiques et sociétaux. Elle supporte les investissements technologiques et économiques, les systèmes de retraite et de protection sociale. Depuis plusieurs décennies, les consommateurs épargnent moins ou insuffisamment. Malgré les recherches et les initiatives, les comportements des épargnants restent mal compris, les leviers et déterminants connus semblent insuffisants. C’est pourquoi, dans cette recherche, nous avons voulu évaluer l’impact de facteurs psychosociologiques sur la mise en œuvre des décisions d’épargne et des actes d’épargne. Nous essayons de renouveler l’analyse des comportements d’épargne, en envisageant une relecture de l’épargne en tant que comportement de consommation. En découpant plus finement le processus d’épargne, notre revue de littérature a tenté d’appréhender l’épargne dans l’ensemble de ses phases - et non exclusivement la décision - et de ses composantes - fonctionnelles comme symboliques ou hédoniques. Elle s’est appuyée sur plusieurs approches théoriques mobilisées dans la littérature marketing. Ces réflexions nous ont conduit à proposer un modèle conceptuel et à émettre des hypothèses.Nos résultats indiquent que les actes d’épargne sont influencés par l’implication, l’estime de soi, le bien être financier et l’appréciation des actes d’épargne passés, davantage que par les déterminants des décisions d’épargne : styles temporels, attitudes envers les risques, culture financière ou sentiment d’efficacité personnelle par exemple. Nous montrons que certaines étapes des comportements d’épargne sont peu étudiées et mal comprises. Cette recherche indique l’intérêt théorique et managérial de renouveler l’analyse de l’épargne en la centrant sur le consommateur. Elle souligne la fécondité d’un élargissement de la réflexion sur l’épargne : vers la préservation ou la consumation de l’épargne et en direction de l’épargne non-institutionnelle ou non monétaire.
... Similar to other fields, the definitions of IT habit have been quite diverse, ranging from a repeated activity to a conscious automatic disposition or routine. While there have been recent efforts in the IS and psychology disciplines to provide a richer conceptualization of the habit construct (Limayem et al., 2007;Ortiz de Guinea & Markus, 2009;Limayem & Cheung, 2008;Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008), variations in these conceptualizations and dissimilarities in studied contexts resulted in complexity in interpreting the results and integrating the findings. ...
... During the last two decades of research, scholars have examined different types of habits and automatic behaviors in various contexts and situations such as eating, watching TV, listening to music, making travel choices, physically exercising and using a system (e.g. Verplanken et al., 1998;Verplanken & Faes, 1999;Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008). Based on our literature review, we argue that the existing conceptualizations of habit can be summarized based on four main views (mechanistic, humanistic, driver and action); we discuss each in detail and review measures that were developed and used along with each view. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The broadness of research on habit, variations of the context, and dissimilarities in studied contexts has resulted in complexity in interpreting the results and integrating the findings. Due to the importance of habit and its impact on individuals' behaviors and organizational IT success, it is important to better conceptualize habits in IT research. In this paper, we review the extant IS and non-IS literature on habits to develop a framework that integrates different existing conceptualizations and measures of this phenomenon. We argue that four main approaches can be used: mechanistic, humanistic, action and driver. The mechanistic view discusses habit as a form of non-conscious solely-repetitive behavior. The humanistic view recognizes habit as the cognitive goal-targeted automaticity associated with a behavior. The action view looks at habit as the actual behavior that occurs automatically. Finally, the driver view considers habit as a forceful driver that controls the repeated behavior. We further discuss these views using two differentiators (chain of causality and cognitive processing) to explain how these approaches have been used in combination with each other. Our paper concludes with a discussion of implication, contributions, and potential research avenues.
... For investigating participants' habits, attitude, motivation, and behavior before, during, and after using Goalkeeper app, we employed a series of established measures and methods. One week before the exercise challenges commenced, we administered our first questionnaire comprised of items that target attitude (ATT) [2], exercise motivation (MOT) [44], exercise habits (HAB) [65], and value (VAL) about participants' relationship with money [35]. At the start of the 2nd and 3rd week for the 2-week and 6-week challenges, respectively, we administered the second questionnaire. ...
... At the start of the 2nd and 3rd week for the 2-week and 6-week challenges, respectively, we administered the second questionnaire. This questionnaire included the previously mentioned MOT and HAB items, as well as continuance intentions for system use (CIU) [6], network exposure (NET) [37], positive (POS) and negative (NEG) emotions [50], exercising with peers (EXE) [53], reciprocal benefits (REB) [22], recognition from peers (REC) [38], subjective norms (SUB) [64], word-of-mouth intentions (WOM) [30], behavioral intention (BEH) and perceived behavioral control (PEB) [65]. We administered the third questionnaire two weeks after a challenge had ended, and it encompassed only factual follow-up question items, such as inquiring whether the participants had exercised or not. ...
Chapter
Incentives and peer competition have so far been employed independently for increasing physical activity. In this paper, we introduce Goalkeeper, a mobile application that utilizes deposit contracts for motivating physical activity in group settings. Goalkeeper enables one to set up a physical exercise challenge with a group of peers that deposit a fixed amount of money for participating. If a peer fails to complete the challenge, Goalkeeper redistributes their deposit to those who managed to complete it (i.e., zero-sum game). We evaluated the potential of Goalkeeper in increasing physical activity with a total of 50 participants over the course of 2 months. Our findings suggest that deposit contracts induce a loss-aversion bias, that in combination with peer competition, is effective in increasing exercise motivation. Ultimately, we generate a set of design principles for exergames that utilize deposit contracts for increasing physical activity in group settings.
... A growing literature suggests that instigation habit, not execution habit, regulates behaviour frequency (Gardner et al, 2016;Hoo et al, 2017;Phillips & Gardner, 2016). People who are automatically triggered to 'go running' (i.e., instigation habit) will go running more consistently and frequently (Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008). The automaticity with which people progress through a 'go running' sequence, however, is unlikely to directly determine running frequency. ...
Chapter
Habitual actions are elicited automatically in associated settings, bypassing conscious motivation. This has prompted interest in habit formation as a mechanism for sustaining behaviour change when conscious motivation erodes. Promoting habit depends on understanding how habit develops. This chapter reviews theory and evidence around the habit formation process. First, we describe the few, recent studies that have explicitly sought to study habit development for meaningful activities in humans. Next, we outline a framework for understanding the habit formation process, and narratively review evidence regarding the factors that may directly facilitate or impede habit development, generating hypotheses for future studies. We offer practical suggestions for optimal modelling of habit formation and its determinants.
... The interview data indicated that this outcome is likely to be the consequence of a combination of habit and preference. Habit related to whether established patterns of planning and enacting physical activity had emerged across the lifespan, and it is consistent with the general finding that past behavior is the strongest predictor of future behavior (Ouellette & Wood, 1998), including in the context of physical activity (Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008). Preference related to whether physical activity was perceived as pleasant and satisfying or an unwelcome chore. ...
Article
Retirement has been identified as a life transition that is important in determining older adults’ physical activity levels. The present study examined the factors associated with retirement that affect physical activity participation among older adults. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 425 retired Australians aged 60 years and older. Physical activity was assessed objectively, using accelerometers. Two categories of factors affecting physical activity participation following retirement were identified: the various physical and psychological changes in later life that can encourage or discourage physical activity and the adaptation processes undertaken by older people in response to these changes. The adoption of either a gain or loss approach to retirement and aging appeared to be the most influential adaptation factor affecting physical activity participation. The results suggest that intervention approaches should aim to foster more positive attitudes to aging and retirement and promote physical activity at all stages in life.
... Another study showed that participants trained in responding to a visuomotor task were able to adapt their performance to a subsequent switch in task demands; yet, reducing available response time led to greater expression of the learned action, indicating that habit training had instilled an action selection tendency (Hardwick, Forrence, Krakauer, & Haith, 2019). The interaction hypothesis can be reformulated to overcome this problem, by refocusing on the instigation of action, as distinct from its execution (Gardner et al., 2016;Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008): in stable and familiar settings, and where habit is strong, behaviour is likely to be selected by the habit process, rather than intentions. ...
Article
Full-text available
Habitual behaviours are elicited when a familiar context activates cue-behaviour associations that have been learned through previous performance. A core hypothesis within habit theory is that, by virtue of its automaticity, habit weakens the impact of intention on action, such that in facilitating conditions, action will be guided more by habit than momentary intentions. This has led to recommendations that habit formation be harnessed as a mechanism for sustaining desirable behaviour over time, when people would otherwise relapse due to loss of motivation. This article reviews theory and evidence around the hypothesized interaction between habit and intention as determinants of behaviour. We first qualify the hypothesis by clarifying that it pertains only to determinants of the instigation of action, rather than execution. Next, drawing on a systematic review of 52 behaviour-prediction studies, we highlight mixed empirical support for the interaction. We argue that ostensibly inconsistent findings can be reconciled by recognizing the distinction between the direction and strength of intention, and identifying the "facilitating conditions" that may determine the relative influence of habit and intention on behaviour. Evidence demonstrates that when self-control is diminished, people act habitually regardless of intention direction or strength. When people possess self-control, habits can help people to act on favourable but weakened intentions, but intentions that oppose habitual tendencies can override habitual influence. This has important implications for behaviour change: even if habit has formed, a minimal level of favourable conscious motivation may be required to sustain behaviours over time. Social psychology might fruitfully move beyond asking whether habit moderates the intention-behaviour relationship, and instead probe how and in which conditions habits and intentions interact.
... During the baseline and Week 8 lab visits, participants described their motivation and reflective affective judgments about physical activity using seven questionnaires with established psychometric properties. A four-item scale from the Self-Report Habit Index was used to measure behavioral automaticity (Gardner, Abraham, Lally, & de Bruijn, 2012;Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008;Verplanken & Orbell, 2003). Items were rated from 1 (strongly disagree) to 7 (strongly agree) and responses were averaged to create a scale score. ...
Article
Objective: Most American adults fail to achieve recommended levels of physical activity and, as a result, are at elevated risk for many chronic diseases. Affective processes have been validated as targets for increasing physical activity but are rarely targeted directly by behavioral interventions. This article describes 2 early phase studies used to develop HeartPhone, a smartphone application for conditioning associations between physical activity and pleasure. HeartPhone exposes users to brief doses of evaluative conditioning stimuli via background images on a smartphone lock screen. Method: Study 1 evaluated the feasibility of delivering mobile evaluative conditioning and estimated doses received over 7-21 days in a small sample of users (n = 6). Study 2 used a single-group prepost design to evaluate user experience and determine whether any change in reflective motivation or physical activity was possible over 8 weeks of HeartPhone use (n = 19). Results: In Study 1, users accumulated almost 2 min/day of exposure to conditioning stimuli, indicating the feasibility of delivering microdoses of evaluative conditioning via smartphone lock screens. In Study 2, adults reported accepting the application and conditioning stimuli, improved affective judgments of physical activity (enjoyment, intrinsic motivation, integrated regulations), and increased physical activity. Conclusions: These results provide proof-of-concept for a low-friction approach for enhancing affective processing and increasing physical activity. Based on early phase success as a tool for engaging smartphone users in behavior change, the HeartPhone intervention is ready for a Phase IIb pilot and III efficacy trials. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... More recently, however, dual process models have been applied to physical activity motivation research and theory (Gardner, de Bruijn, & Lally, 2011;Hagger & Chatzisarantis, 2014;Rebar et al., 2016;Rebar, 2017;Rhodes, 2017;Rhodes & de Bruijn, 2013b;Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008). Rebar (2017) described a frame work of automatic motivation of sport and physical activity, defining automatic regulation (i.e., motiva tion) as the influence on thoughts and behaviors pro duced through activation of mental associations. ...
Article
This chapter highlights progressions in the theoretical approaches to motivational models in exercise science. It describes that the theoretical perspective driving most physical activity motivation research has been expectancy‐value models originating from social, sport, and education psychology. The chapter presents perspectives on how and why the field is being invigorated by “new” perspectives, which are really just a reinvigoration of old ideas that got lost in translation amongst exercise science across the years. The foundational elements of achievement‐based theories such as motives, perceived competence, and achievement goals still permeate most popular theories of physical activity motivation but originally were developed to describe achievement processes. Expectancy‐value models of physical activity motivation are inherently static in the sense that one construct (self‐efficacy/intention) is proposed to be the driver of action.
... 18 22 46 The condition of key interest (HABIT) is focused on the behaviour change technique of habit formation with the goal of impacting initiation of parental physical activity support and not the actual execution of child physical activity or execution of support behaviour, which may be quite mindful. 47 Contemporary research has shown that habits in the PA domain can be discerned into habitual instigation-whereby, in this instance, a parent non-consciously 'decides' to provide PA activity support-and habitual execution, whereby a parent nonconsciously performs the actions involved in providing PA support. 48 49 The HABIT condition is focused on encouraging the formation of instigation habits, such that parents are automatically 'reminded' to select PA support (from available alternatives). ...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: Regular physical activity (PA) participation has many important physical and psychological health benefits, managing and preventing over 25 chronic conditions. Being more physically active as a child is associated with being more active as an adult, but less than 10% of Canadian children are achieving the recommended PA guidelines of 60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous PA. Parental support is a predictor of child PA, but parent intention to support child PA does not always predict enacted support. Targeting factors that assist in the sustainability of parent support behaviour of child PA may have an impact on child PA. The purpose of this study is to evaluate an intervention designed to promote habit formation of parental support (HABIT, independent variable) on child PA (dependant variable) compared with a planning and education group (PLANNING) and an education only group (EDUCATION). Methods and analysis: The three conditions will be compared using a 6-month longitudinal randomised trial. Eligible families have at least one child aged 6-12 years who is not meeting the 2011 Canadian PA Guidelines. Intervention materials are delivered at baseline, with check-in sessions at 6 weeks and 3 months. Child's moderate-to-vigorous PA, measured by accelerometry, is assessed at baseline, 6 weeks, 3 months and 6 months as the primary outcome. At baseline and 6 months, children perform fitness testing. Parents and children complete questionnaires at all timepoints. So far, 123 families have been recruited from the Greater Victoria and surrounding area. Recruitment will be continuing through 2020 with a target of 240 families. Ethics and dissemination: This protocol has been approved by the University of Victoria Human Research Ethics Board (Victoria, Canada). Results will be shared at conferences as presentations and as published manuscripts. Study findings will be made available to interested participants. Trial registration number: NCT03145688; Pre-results.
... Von Thiele Schwarz, Lindfors, and Lundberg (2008) found similar effects of a physical exercise program during working hours. An explanation for the effectiveness of interventions that "only" provide the opportunity to engage in PA could be that by being actually physically active for a certain period of time, participants might develop PA as a health habit that can be more easily maintained after the end of the intervention (Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008). Thus, a PA intervention alone (without any psychological coaching) has strong potential to instigate behavior changes.As a result of the converging Physical Activity Status of the PA+C-and PA group in the long term, the difference in the proportion of participants who were physically active for at least 45 minutes per week was not significant at T4 and T5 ( Table 2), suggesting that there is a need for the implementation of further booster modules beyond T3 that maintain the achieved intervention effects of the PA+C group. ...
Article
Full-text available
Background: This study investigates whether a worksite physical activity (PA) promotion program consisting of both a "practical" PA component and a "theoretical" (psychological) coaching component (PA+C) is more effective than the same "practical" PA component alone. Methods: N = 213 employees were assigned to two groups by cluster-randomisation: one group received the "MoVo-work" program including a PA component and a coaching component (PA+C group). The other group received only the PA component (PA group). Assessment of PA and health was conducted at five time points. Results: Six weeks after program completion the percentage of physically active participants was significantly higher in the PA+C group compared to the PA group (68% vs. 45%; p = .01). At 12-month follow-up, the PA+C group showed a higher percentage of physically active participants and a better health status than the PA group on the descriptive level, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. Conclusions: Results suggest that a PA promotion program including a psychological coaching component is more effective in evoking behavior change than a practical PA program alone. However, booster interventions are required to maintain the additional effects.
... Sedentary behavior habit strength was measured using the 4-item automaticity subscale of the Self-Reported Habit Index (Gardner, Abraham, Lally, & de Bruijn, 2012;Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008;Verplanken & Orbell, 2003). Participants rated items on a scale ranging from 0 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree). ...
Article
Objective: A 10-day ecological momentary assessment (EMA) study was conducted to test a dual-process model of older adults’ sedentary behavior. Design: Older adults (n = 104, 60–98 years) answered 6 EMA questionnaires/day to assess conscious processes (i.e. momentary intentions, self-efficacy to limit sedentary behavior over the next two hours) and wore an activPAL accelerometer to measure sedentary behavior. Habit strength for sedentary behavior, a non-conscious process, was self-reported at an introductory session. Main outcome measure: Time spent sitting in the two hours after the EMA prompt. Results: Older adults engaged in less sedentary behavior on occasions when their intentions (b = −1.63, p = 0.02) and self-efficacy (b = −2.01, p = 0.003) to limit sedentary behavior were stronger than one’s average level of intentions or self-efficacy, respectively; however, older adults’ average level of intentions (b = −5.30, p = 0.05) or self-efficacy (b = 2.77, p = 0.27) to limit sedentary behavior were not associated with sedentary behavior. Older adults with stronger sedentary behavior habits engaged in greater sedentary behavior in the two hours following the EMA prompt (b = 2.04, p = 0.006). Conclusion: Sedentary behavior is regulated by conscious and non-conscious processes. Interventions targeting older adults’ sedentary behavior should promote momentary intention formation and self-efficacy beliefs to limit sitting as well as content to disrupt habitual sedentary behavior.
... Another view argued that the simultaneous approach may overburden individuals, as it requires too much self-regulatory effort in the short-term [22]. Therefore, a sequential rather than simultaneous approach could be more suitable [23]. A recent review of six RCTs in adults compared the effectiveness of the two approaches in promoting diverse health behavior change (e.g., PA, dietary behavior, alcohol and smoking) and found both approaches may be equally efficacious, with no significant differences [24]. ...
Article
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Background: This study aimed to describe the design and present the baseline characteristics of a web-based lifestyle intervention program, which comprises of sequentially and simultaneously delivered intervention modules targeting physical activity (PA) and fruit and vegetable consumption (FVC) in Chinese college students. Methods: The study adopted a randomized placebo-controlled trial, using the Health Action Process Approach (HAPA) and the Compensatory Carry-Over Action Model (CCAM) as the theoretical backdrops. 556 Chinese college students participated in the 8-week web-based lifestyle intervention program. All eligible participants were randomly assigned to one of four groups: 1) the PA-first arm which received a 4-week intervention addressing PA followed by a 4-week intervention addressing FVC; 2) the FVC-first arm which received a 4-week intervention addressing FVC followed by a 4-week intervention addressing PA; 3) the PA + FVC simultaneous arm that received an 8-week intervention addressing both PA and FVC at the same time; and 4) the placebo-control arm that received 8 weeks of general health information, which is not relevant for changing actual PA and FVC behaviors. Data collection includes four time-points: at the beginning and end of the intervention, and a 3-month and 12-month follow-up after the intervention. Results: At baseline, 41.7% of participants were male and 58.3% were female. 41.0% of the participants did not meet the standard PA-recommendations, while 69.6% did not adhere to the standard FVC-recommendations. In total, only 19.6% of participants met both PA and FVC recommendations. Baseline characteristics across the four groups had no significant differences (all P = .17-.99), indicating successful randomization. Conclusions: The preliminary results indicate a high prevalence of unhealthy lifestyles in college students in China, which further supports the need for web-based health intervention programs. This is also the first study that examines the comparative effectiveness of simultaneously and sequentially delivered lifestyle interventions in the Chinese population. These findings may contribute to the creation of future web-based health behavior change interventions. Trial registration: ClinicalTrails.gov: NCT03627949 , 14 August, 2018.
... Consistent with SDT, the underlying mechanism behind their persistence may be because autonomously motivated individuals perceive the behavior as an opportunity to satisfy their psychological needs, and, therefore, are more likely to persistently seek need-satisfying behaviors. Habit was also found to be predicted by perceived behavioral control, which also builds on previous research and theory that suggests the development of habits tends to occur in those who view themselves as having high capacity to perform the behavior and perceive fewer barriers [27,52,53]. Finally, past behavior was found to simultaneously predict intentions and habit via the social cognition constructs, which is in accordance with the predictions of dual process theories [26,30], that is past behavior is a proxy for habits as it establishes familiarity, and past experience is used to estimate intention to perform future behavior [17,54]. ...
Article
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‘Shelter in place’ and ‘lockdown’ orders implemented to minimize the spread of COVID-19 have reduced opportunities to be physically active. For many, the home environment emerged as the only viable option to participate in physical activity. Previous research suggests that availability of exercise equipment functions as a determinant of home-based physical activity participation among the general adult population. The purpose of this study was to use a socioecological framework to investigate how the availability of exercise equipment at home predicts behavioral decisions, namely, intention, planning, and habits with respect to participation in physical activity. Participants (n = 429) were adults recruited in U.S. states subject to lockdown orders during the pandemic who completed measures online. A structural equation model indicated that availability of cardiovascular and strength training equipment predicted physical activity planning. Social cognition constructs mediated the relationship between each type of exercise equipment and intentions. Autonomous motivation and perceived behavioral control were found to mediate the relationship between each type of exercise equipment and habit. The availability of large cardiovascular and strength training equipment demonstrated significant predictive effects with intention, planning, habit, and autonomous motivation. Facilitating these constructs for home-based physical activity interventions could be efficacious for promoting physical activity.
... This strategy can help office workers overcome the barrier, such as a lack of time to take part in physical exercises (Dugdill et al., 2008). Subsequently, physical activity could be habituated as routine behaviors in the working context (Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008). In this Ph.D. project, we therefore develop our design and research based on the setup of such activity intervention. ...
Thesis
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The rapid penetration of labor-saving devices and task-oriented workplace norms have substantially reduced physical exercises while increasing sedentary behaviors in many office-based jobs. The prevalence of physical inactivity at work increases the risks of developing metabolic disorders, mental illnesses, and musculoskeletal injuries, threatening office workers’ physical and psychological well-being. To tackle such issue, many strategies have been proposed to facilitate workplace fitness initiatives, such as public policies, organizational wellness programs, promotional materials, and socioenvironmental changes, etc. However, it is challenging to reach the goals of these top-down strategies, once their applications fail to blend physical activity into everyday work and persuade individuals to keep up fitness levels in office settings. The emerging fitness-promoting technologies may be leveraged to support active lifestyles in the workday context. Through integrating ubiquitous sensing and human-computer interaction (HCI), interactive technologies can sense physical states of office workers and use that information to engage them in office exercises in the short-term as well as encourage their systemic behavior change in the long-term. This doctoral dissertation therefore explores this new perspective of office vitality: How to design interactive technology to facilitate workplace fitness promotion?
... In a later study of flossing and dietary consumption, factor analysis showed that an instigation SRHI variant ('deciding to floss…') loaded on the same underlying factor as did the original SRHI ('flossing…'), whereas an execution variant ('once I have decided to floss, the act of flossing…') loaded on a separate factor . These studies reveal that the habitual selection of action directly enhances performance frequency, but the automaticity with which it is performed does not (see too Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008). ...
Article
Hagger (2019) offers an insightful synthesis of recent theoretical and empirical developments in understanding of habit and its relevance to physical activity. This commentary extends coverage of one such advance, namely the distinction between two manifestations of habit in physical activity: habitually ‘deciding’ to engage in activity (i.e. habitual instigation), and habitually ‘doing’ the activity (habitual execution). We explore the rationale for this distinction and argue that most contemporary theory and evidence around habitual physical activity – and by extension, Hagger’s review – implicitly focuses on instigation and neglects execution. We offer hypotheses around the potential roles that habitual execution may play in physical activity. Broadening the scope of inquiry within the field to more fully encompass habitual performance would achieve a more comprehensive and informative account that incorporates concepts of skill acquisition and mastery.
... Adolescents who practiced team sports had higher tracking of physical activity than those who practiced individual modalities. It is possible that children practicing team sports in childhood are more likely to continue practicing sports in adolescence due to cooperative aspect and social relations provided by these kinds of sports (Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008). In addition, a larger variety of sports practiced during childhood and adolescence has been associated with higher levels of physical activity during leisure in adults (Kjønniksen et al., 2008). ...
Article
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Objective: To analyze the tracking of sports practice and its associations in adolescents. Methods: A randomized scholar sample of 870 adolescents between 10-17 years was assessed. Tracking of sports practice from childhood to adolescence was assessed by questionnaire, such as ethnicity, socioeconomic status and parental education level. Associations between variables were analyzed by chi-square test and its magnitude by binary logistic regression. Results: Tracking of sports practice was 48.8%. Boys were about twice likely to tracking sports practice than girls. Older adolescents were 33% less likely to tracking than younger. Black/ brown adolescents were respectively 67% and 33% less likely to tracking sports practice than white. Adolescents with low-middle socioeconomic levels and low education of mother were less likely to tracking sports practice than their counterparts. Soccer was most sport practiced in childhood (29.3%), and adolescents who practiced team sports were more likely to maintain the sports practice from childhood to adolescence than those who practiced individual sports. Conclusion: Tracking of sports practice was associated with sex, age, ethnicity, socioeconomic level, parental education, and sport modality.
... This has typically been based on observed relationships between physical activity frequency and activity habit, usually assessed using an adaptation of Verplanken and Orbell's (2003) Self-Report Habit Index (SRHI) (e.g., 'engaging in active sports and/or vigorous physical activities during my leisure time is something I do without having to consciously remember' [strongly disagree-strongly agree]; Chatzisarantis & Hagger, 2007, p667). Such findings are usually taken as evidence that habit directly triggers an episode of physical activity (Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008). Yet, habit can also influence physical activity indirectly. ...
Article
Health psychology is witnessing a resurgence of interest in the concept of habit (Verplanken, 2018). Habit can be defined as a process whereby a cue automatically triggers an impulse to act, based on cue–action associations learned through repeated performance; habitual behaviour refers to action generated by this process (Gardner, 2015). Habit impulses typically translate into action efficiently, potentially without intention, awareness, or control (Bargh, 1994), and can dominate over conscious motivation in regulating behaviour (Gardner, de Bruijn, & Lally, 2011). Much interest in habit stems from its behaviour change implications. If habit can override intentions, then habit formation may sustain health‐promoting behaviours over time, even when people lose motivation (Rothman, Sheeran, & Wood, 2009). Conversely, disrupting an unhealthy habitual behaviour may require strategies that address cue dependency (Lally & Gardner, 2013). The concept of habit disruption taps into current interest in non‐conscious routes to behaviour change (Sheeran, Gollwitzer, & Bargh, 2013): recognizing the habitual nature of an unhealthy behaviour can inform the adoption of change strategies based on modifying environmental stimuli, which can be more feasible and effective than promoting consciously mediated change (Marteau, Hollands, & Fletcher, 2012). // Much research has explored the influence of habit on a multitude of health behaviours, including hand hygiene, medication adherence, dietary consumption, physical activity, and sun protection (for a review, see Gardner, 2015). Such studies have implicitly addressed similar underlying research questions, which can broadly be summarized as: ‘To what extent could Behaviour X be determined by habit?’ If a behaviour is shown to be, or have the potential to be, habitually enacted, this will have important implications for behaviour modification. Interventions that support adoption of that behaviour might fruitfully promote context‐consistent performance so that cue–response associations may develop (Lally, Van Jaarsveld, Potts, & Wardle, 2010), while interventions that aim to discontinue habitual behaviour might focus on dismantling such associations or blocking their enactment (Lally & Gardner, 2013). In this editorial, however, we argue that a more comprehensive understanding of habitual action requires moving beyond asking only to what extent a behaviour may be habitual, and towards exploring which aspects of a behaviour could be regulated by habit.
... The influence of habits on current behavior is a topic that has involved considerable attention in general (Lensink, Boissy, & Veissier, 2000). A number of studies have confirmed that habit contributes significantly to the prediction of future behavior over and above other constructs (De Vries, Eggers, Lechner, van Osch, & van Stralen, 2014;Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008). ...
Article
Farmers in developing countries use harmful pesticides while taking few or no protective measures. There is limited evidence on factors affecting their safety measures. The objective of this study was to identify the underlying factors influencing farmers' protective behaviors (PBs) and use of personal protective equipment (PPE) during the exposure to pesticides. From April to August 2017, a descriptive study was conducted in Twiserkan County in western Iran among 474 farmers from 104 villages. A questionnaire was developed to measure demographic characteristics and factors suggested in integrated agent-centered (IAC) framework. The questionnaire was validated in terms of content validity through expert reviews and tested for reliability in a group of farmers. Data were collected by face-to-face interviews with farmers. Physiological arousal (β = .154, p < .05), intention (β = .345, p < .05), habit (β = .188, p < .05), and contextual factors (β = .101, p < .05) had a significant and positive impact on farmers engaging in pesticide PBs. Among the assessed factors, only physiological arousal (β = .122, p < .05) and habit (β = .646, p < .05) were found to have a significant and positive effect on the use of PPE, but the intention (β = -.039, p > .05) and contextual factors (β = -.009, p > .05) had no significant relation with the use of PPE. The results of this study identified determinants of farmers' safety measures. Our results suggest that the IAC framework could serve as a guide to developing a more effective intervention for safety measures of Iranian farmers.
... The phrasing of the item is consistent with the concept of instigation (in contrast to execution) habits (Gardner, 2015). The decision to exercise is an important element of exercising behavior (Verplanken and Melkevik, 2008). ...
... Club members have both intrinsic and extrinsic motives to participate in sport and exercise (Pelletier et al., 1995). Motives to use and patronize a health and fitness club include staying healthy and in shape, maintaining strength, improving physical appearance, building muscle, and feeling better about oneself (Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008). Members patronize the fitness club to access fitness equipment and programs and to use ancillary services (Macintosh & Doherty, 2007;Woolf, 2008). ...
Article
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Emerging technologies not only pose challenges for how sport organizations are managed but also create opportunities for sport organizations to become more competitive by enhancing consumers’ service experience. The integration of wearable fitness technology (WFT) by health and fitness clubs provides an opportunity to examine the influence of WFT on the service experience. Although existing research on technology innovations typically examines either the individual or the organizational perspective in isolation, we use the sport experience design framework to comprehensively examine the influence of WFT on the management and perceptions of service experiences. Participants ( N = 37) who took part in the qualitative study included fitness club owners ( n = 13), fitness club instructors ( n = 7), and fitness club members ( n = 17). Findings indicate that integrating WFT enhances the service experience via increased social interaction, gamification, and accountability. However, findings also suggest that technology innovations must be integrated carefully to avoid misalignment between providers’ and users’ perceptions. Despite the potential for misalignment, emerging technologies can enhance and expand the service experience beyond the physical environment, presenting sport organizations with technology-mediated opportunities to engage consumers.
... In literature, multiple studies are found related to selfquantification, as discussed in Table 3, depending on different techniques. In self-reporting studies, surveys were conducted related to physical activities, leisure time sports, walking for commuting, and daily habits related to performing different tasks [20]- [23], [68]- [70]. The diet is a composite concept based on different micro-nutrients. ...
Article
Objective: Ubiquitous computing has supported personalized health through a vast variety of wellness and healthcare self-quantification applications over the last decade. These applications provide insights for daily life activities but unable to portray the comprehensive impact of personal habits on human health. Therefore, in order to facilitate the individuals, we have correlated the lifestyle habits in an appropriate proportion to determine the overall impact of influenced behavior on the well-being of humans. Materials and methods: To study the combined impact of personal behaviors, we have proposed a methodology to derive the comprehensive Healthy Behavior Index (HBI) consisting of two major processes: (1) Behaviors' Weight-age Identification (BWI), and (2) Healthy Behavior Quantification and Index (HBQI) modeling. The BWI process identifies the high ranked contributing behaviors through life-expectancy based weight-age, whereas HBQI derives a mathematical model based on quantification and indexing of behavior using wellness guidelines. Results: The contributing behaviors are identified through text mining technique and verified by seven experts with a Kappa agreement level of 0.379. A real-world user-centric statistical evaluation is applied through User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ) method to evaluate the impact of HBI service. This HBI service is developed for the Mining Minds, a wellness management application. This study involves 103 registered participants (curious about the chronic disease) for a Korean wellness management organization. They used the HBI service over 12 weeks, the results for which were evaluated through UEQ and user feedback. The service reliability for the Cronbach's alpha coefficient greater than 0.7 was achieved using HBI service whereas the stimulation coefficient of the value 0.86 revealed significant effect. We observed an overall novelty of the value 0.88 showing the potential interest of participants. Conclusions: The comprehensive HBI has demonstrated positive user experience concerning the stimulation for adapting the healthy behaviors. The HBI service is designed independently to work as a service, so any other wellness management service-enabled platform can consume it to evaluate the healthy behavior index of the person for recommendation generation, behavior indication, and behavior adaptation.
... 'habitually executed' PA; (Phillips & Gardner, 2016). Social cognition research demonstrating the contribution of habit to PA has tended to focus on habitual instigation only Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008). ...
Article
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Objective. Habits, defined as well-learned associations between cues and behaviours, are essential for health-related behaviours, including physical activity (PA). Despite the sensitivity of habits to context changes, little remains known about the influence of a context change on the interplay between PA habits and behaviours. We investigated the evolution of PA habits amidst the Spring COVID-19 lockdown, a major context change. Moreover, we examined the association of PA behaviours and autonomous motivation with this evolution. Design. Three-wave observational longitudinal design. Methods. PA habits, behaviours, and autonomous motivation were collected through online surveys in 283 French and Swiss participants. Variables were self-reported with reference to three time-points: before-, mid-, and end-lockdown. Results. Mixed effect modelling revealed a decrease in PA habits from before- to mid- lockdown, especially among individuals with strong before-lockdown habits. Path analysis showed that before-lockdown PA habits were not associated with mid-lockdown PA behaviours (B = -.02, p = .837), while mid-lockdown PA habits were positively related to end-lockdown PA behaviours (B= .23, p = .021). Autonomous motivation was directly associated with PA habits (ps. < .001), to before- and mid-lockdown PA behaviours (ps. < .001) (but not to end-lockdown PA behaviours) and did not moderate the relations between PA behaviours and habits (ps. > .072). Conclusion. PA habits were altered and their influence on PA behaviours was impeded during the COVID-19 lockdown. Engagement in PA behaviours and autonomous motivation helped in counteracting PA habits disruption.
... (P6) Goal Setting. Students must set academic and personal goals and choose suitable physical exercise, as habit formation requires regular repetition (Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008). Participants suggested that students should practice setting goals. ...
Article
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Insufficient physical activity increases several different health hazards around the world. College students are recorded as one of the most physically inactive individuals because they face challenges that hinder them from practicing physically active habits. This study investigates the challenges and coping strategies of Physical Education students in achieving physically active habits. This study followed a qualitative case study design to provide a detailed and comprehensive analysis of the bounded phenomenon provided by the physical education students. A semi-structured interview was employed to draw pertinent data relative to the study and was treated qualitatively using thematic analysis. The results of the study pointed out the emerging challenges faced by physical education students in achieving physically active habits. Consequently, lack of self- motivation, difficulty in time management, academic demands, and school responsibilities have been the core justification for their physical inactivity. Thus, the findings suggest that self-discipline, effective time management, and goal setting had been the coping strategies used by physical education students in achieving physically active habits. These results provide insights to students, teachers, parents, and future researchers as to how they can contribute to levering the healthy lifestyle of the students. This paper makes a unique contribution to the existing literature on the challenges encountered and coping strategies used by college students in achieving physically active habits.
... In literature, multiple studies are found related to selfquantification, as discussed in Table 3, depending on different techniques. In self-reporting studies, surveys were conducted related to physical activities, leisure time sports, walking for commuting, and daily habits related to performing different tasks [20]- [23], [68]- [70]. The diet is a composite concept based on different micro-nutrients. ...
Article
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In the era of digital well-being, smart gadgets are the unobtrusive sources of acquiring information. A variety of personalized wellness applications support self-quantification based recommendations to provide wellness status for achieving personalized targets. However, these applications are unable to promote the induction of new healthy habits and thus are not too much effective for long term as users tend to loose their interest. Thus, we have proposed a methodology for User-Centric Adaptive Intervention based on behavior change theory for maintaining end-users’ interest. The methodology consists of four steps: (1) quantification of behavior based on contributing factors governed by expert-driven rules; (2) behavior-context based mapping for the identification of behavior status of the user; (3) selection of appropriate way of intervention to get fruitful outcomes; and finally (4) feedback based evaluation on the basis of recorded activities and questionnaires for satisfaction. A comprehensive healthy behavior index-based quantification supports the machine learning-based prediction model for behavior-context mapping. Furthermore, the evaluation is performed through implicit and explicit feedback analysis along with the accuracy of the behavior-context prediction model through multiple scenarios to cover comprehensive situations. The ensemble classifier suggests the accuracy of 98.02% for the behavior-context prediction model, which is higher than the other classifiers. The gain in behavior change is drawn from implicit feedback, which depicts that behavior context-based methods have improved the adaptation in behavior at a steady pace for the long term. The explicit feedback from 99 end-users of wellness application based on the proposed methodology obtained Good and Desired status for widely used System Usability Score and AttrakDiff tools respectively.
... Interestingly, individuals are sometimes engaged in making a choice among different options simply out of fate (and not selection) (Pronello & Gaborieau, 2018). Studies have shown the role of habits in predicting behavior over and above other constructs (De Vries et al., 2014;Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008). Therefore, our finding can be justified in the light of general public belief that resources are not only endless but they are also renewable and thus everyone can deplete these resources as much as they can (Smith et al., 2017). ...
Article
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Studies on unsustainable behavior for the population that depends principally on natural resources are important in order to mitigate the negative impacts of unsustainable behavior and consequently adopt to pro-environmental measures. These measures aid farmers to reduce the destructive effects of their farming activity and thus facilitate sustainable agriculture. To fill this gap, integrative agent-centered (IAC) framework was used as a theoretical framework to identify the main determinants of farmers' unsustainable behavior. The study population consisted of all farmers in mid-size western province of Iran (N = 31,309). Using Cochran's formula for determining sample size, 386 farmers were selected through a multistage stratified random sampling method. The research instrument was validated by agricultural faculty in college of agriculture and its reliability was confirmed using Cronbach's alpha coefficients through a pilot study. Results revealed that contextual factors, physiological arousal, and habits directly influenced farmers' unsustainable behavior. Moreover, subjective culture, emotional sense, and expectations indirectly affected farmers’ tendencies towards unsustainable behavior. Results of this study have practical and theoretical implications for agricultural policymakers. For example, by operationalizing predictors of unsustainable behavior we pave the path towards sustainability among farmers.
... The phrasing of the item is consistent with the concept of instigation (in contrast to execution) habits (Gardner, 2015). The decision to exercise is an important element of exercising behavior (Verplanken and Melkevik, 2008). ...
Article
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Objectives: Habitually instigated exercise is thought to increase health behavior maintenance. Previous research has explored several aspects of habit formation. However, there is a lack of longitudinal research investigating affective determinants, especially post-exercise affective states. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate (a) if behavior frequency will enhance automaticity, (b) if positive affect will enhance automaticity, and (c) if positive affect will moderate the relationship between behavior frequency and automaticity. Methods: 226 participants (64% females, mean age 24 years) who attended weekly sports and gym classes at two universities were followed for 13 weeks. Class attendance was documented on a weekly basis (behavior frequency) during the semester. Before, during and immediately after each class, participants filled in the Feeling Scale (affective valence). Furthermore, at the beginning of each class, they answered a question about their automaticity in arriving at the decision to attend the class (instigation habit). We used a two-level modeling approach to predict subsequent automaticity by the different constructs at the previous attendance. Results: The cumulative frequency of prior class attendance did not significantly enhance the automaticity of the decision to re-attend the class. There were significant effects of valence on automaticity on the between-subject level, i.e., a one-point higher mean valence score was associated with a 0.62 point increase in automaticity (p = 0.001). No moderation effects of affect on the association between behavior frequency and automaticity were observed. Conclusion: Behavior repetition, albeit not significant, and positive affective states at the end of an exercise class may be beneficial in building exercise instigation habits. Practitioners and researchers alike may thus want to emphasize the importance of behavior repetition and affective response for health behavior maintenance.
... Well-practised behaviours recur because performance has become automated, thus saving the brain from using resources [127]. Habit strengths are higher if repeated, so that they do become involuntary [128], and then hard to change [129,130]. Adherence is a key hope for the application of all NCCIs: an immediate benefit from a short-lived activity can increase life satisfaction, but permanent changes to brain and body will only occur from repeated practice [131][132][133]. ...
Article
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A number of countries have begun to adopt prevention pays policies and practices to reduce pressure on health and social care systems. Most affluent countries have seen substantial increases in the incidence and costs of non-communicable diseases. The interest in social models for health has led to the growth in use of social prescribing and psychological therapies. At the same time, there has been growth in application of a variety of nature-based and mind–body interventions (NBIs and MBIs) aimed at improving health and longevity. We assess four NBI/MBI programmes (woodland therapy, therapeutic horticulture, ecotherapy/green care, and tai chi) on life satisfaction/happiness and costs of use of public services. These interventions produce rises in life satisfaction/happiness of 1.00 pts to 7.29 (n = 644; p < 0.001) (for courses or participation >50 h). These increases are greater than many positive life events (e.g., marriage or a new child); few countries or cities see +1 pt increases over a decade. The net present economic benefits per person from reduced public service use are £830–£31,520 (after 1 year) and £6450–£11,980 (after 10 years). We conclude that NBIs and MBIs can play a role in helping to reduce the costs on health systems, while increasing the well-being of participants.
... Recent studies in the sport and exercise context (e.g. Jekauc et al., 2015;Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008) have emphasised the importance of acknowledging participation frequency for better understanding of habitual behaviour and predicting future attendance. However, theories used to explain physical activity behaviour, namely theory of planned behaviour (Ajzen, 1991); social cognitive theory (Bandura, 2004); health action process approach (Schwarzer, 2001); and physical activity maintenance theory (Nigg et al., 2008), do not take into account the repetitive nature of behaviour associated with physical activity participation and in particular in general fitness exercises. ...
Article
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The study explores the perceptions of users towards service quality in public sports centres in England. As highly specialised fitness facilities gain popularity in the UK and multipurpose facilities with a broad range of services face new challenges in creating sustainable sports participation, the study focuses on the regular users of gyms in the sports centres. An adapted version of the Scale of Service Quality in Recreational Sport (SSQRS) was used to measure how service quality in gyms as a distinct sporting/physical activity context was perceived by regular fitness suite users. Data were collected via an online survey from a random sample of 349 customers who had visited fitness suites regularly in 1 of 12 public sports centres in England. A strong linear relationship between the importance attached by respondents to different elements of service quality and the perceived performance of those elements was found to exist. Physical environment, particularly "equipment", was perceived as the most important aspect of quality by regular gym users, while the performance of "equipment" and "ambience" exhibited the strongest relationship with overall perceived service quality. The findings from this study provide implications for facility managers who should closely monitor quality in the physical environment of fitness suites and implement remedial measures where required. The originality of this study is that it considers for the first time fitness suites (i.e. gyms) as a distinct sporting setting in public sports centres to investigate customers' perceptions of service quality.
... Left intentionally out of the above enumeration, regarding fields in which studies upon habit were conducted, the physical activities domain benefits from a generous approach in this regard [2], [7], [13], [31], [32], [33], [34], [35], [36], [37]. ...
Conference Paper
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Habits, whether they are healthy or toxic, are an undisputable component of modern’s human personality and from a socio-psychological perspective represent the appropriated repetitive response to a situation or stimuli of the environment in which we activate. We cannot overlook the importance of having healthy habits in our lives, philosophers resuming this in the simplest way possible by establishing an interdependency between thoughts, words, action, habits, character and destiny. Habits are preceded by intention and unfortunately, they can develop in a dichotomous manner, good or bad, both relying on the same blueprint, the impact that exposure for the first time to a situation has upon us. So, exposure to healthy habits can make us more prone to adopt one and alienation from the bad ones can help us avoid getting or lose them International organizations try to raise awareness, through releasing comprehensive reports, upon the importance of physical activity. Evolution brought changes to the way we live and if in hunting or agricultural societies a good physical condition was mandatory, in industrial and post-industrial ones it become optional. Trading physical activity to a stationary position in front of a machinery or PC came with its downsides and we are starting to experience its effects. Researchers concluded that timing in developing a habit regarding physical activity plays an important role. In childhood physical activity is done in a mindless manner, being part of our way of making new motor acquisitions and consolidating them. These type of activities also permit us to interact with peers, socialize, explore and much more. Studies point out that childhood habits regarding physical activity fail to be carried over to adulthood due to external influences, but also identify motivation, enjoyment, commitment and sustainment as concepts that have a great impact on child and adolescent habit formation. The dataset necessary for conducting this study came from a larger database, created during the period of evaluation and monitoring of physical activity for the physical education course of 155 students from the Faculty of Business of the Babes-Bolyai University from Cluj-Napoca, Romania. For data processing we have used SPSS statistics software and we have employed a hierarchical linear model, which permitted us to test how exactly each variable fitted our model. The results of the present study were contradictory to our previous findings. Although a high percentage of our respondents perceived that the method we have used for evaluation and monitoring of their activity for the physical education course helped them into developing a habit regarding physical exercises, the present data states otherwise. Our respondent’s habits, regarding physical exercises, registered an interesting dynamic, but the 66 days for developing a habit theory wasn’t valid in their case. This pandemic period meant a time of changes, in regards of physical exercises habit, for them, most of those who had a habit managed to keep it, but also a large percentage of them diminished or even lost it. Interestingly, most of those that didn’t had a habit managed to improve it, but only about half of them could be accounted for developing one
... [27][28][29][30][31] Often, PA participation is not only a planned behaviour with intention; it can become a routine incorporated into everyday life, performed with a degree of automaticity (ie, habit). 32 PA habits established in childhood are carried into adulthood through adolescence. 33 As expected, compared with an age-matched and sex-matched general population, current and elite cricketers reported higher PA levels. ...
Article
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Objective: Former sports participants do not necessarily maintain high levels of physical activity (PA) across their lifespan. Considering physical inactivity in former athletes is associated with an increased susceptibility to inactivity-related chronic diseases, research into PA behaviours in cricketers of all playing-standards is needed. The objective was to (1) describe PA and sedentary behaviour in current and former cricketers, and (2) determine the odds of current, former, recreational and elite cricketers meeting PA guidelines and health-enhancing PA (HEPA) compared with the general population. Study design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Questionnaire response, UK. Participants: 2267 current and former cricketers (age: 52±15 years, male: 97%, current: 59%, recreational: 45%) participated. Cricketers were recruited through the Cricket Health and Wellbeing Study and met eligibility requirements (aged ≥18 years; played ≥1 year of cricket). Primary and secondary outcomes: Age-matched and sex-matched data from Health Survey for England 2015 (n=3201) was used as the general population-based sample. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short-Form assessed PA. Logistic regression, adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, alcohol consumption, smoking, education and ethnicity were used to meet the second aim. Results: 90% of current and 82% of former cricketers met UK PA guidelines. Current (OR 1.26, 95% CI 1.06 to 1.49)) and elite (OR 1.35, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.78) cricketers had greater odds of meeting UK PA guidelines, and elite cricketers had greater odds of HEPA (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.42), compared with the general population. Former cricketers had reduced odds (OR 0.78, 95% CI 0.62 to 0.99) of meeting the UK PA guidelines compared with the general population. Conclusions: Elite cricketers had a greater odds of meeting the PA guidelines and HEPA, compared with the general population. Former cricketers demonstrated reduced odds of meeting the PA guidelines compared with the general population. Strategies are needed to transition cricketers to an active lifestyle after retirement, since former cricketers demonstrated reduced odds of meeting the PA guidelines compared with the general population.
... Arguably, the most effective weight loss interventions implement physical activity and dietary changes simultaneously. However, a sequential approach may be less overwhelming, place fewer demands on a person's ability to change their behavior, require less effort [7], and be better suited for developing stronger habits long term [8]. Streamlined interventions may be even more feasible for women of low socioeconomic status. ...
Article
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Background Up to 50 % of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) will receive a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) within a decade after pregnancy. While excess postpartum weight retention exacerbates T2DM risk, lifestyle changes and behavior modifications can promote healthy postpartum weight loss and contribute to T2DM prevention efforts. However, some women have difficulty prioritizing self-care during this life stage. Efficacious interventions that women can balance with motherhood to reduce T2DM risk remain a goal. The objective of the Moms in Motion study is to evaluate the efficacy of a simple, novel, activity-boosting intervention using ankle weights worn with daily activities during a 6-month postpartum intervention among women with GDM. We hypothesize that women randomized to the 6-month intensity-modifying intervention will (1) demonstrate greater weight loss and (2) greater improvement in body composition and biomarker profile versus controls. Methods This study will be a parallel two-arm randomized controlled trial (n = 160). Women will be allocated 1:1 to an ankle weight intervention group or a standard-of-care control group. The intervention uses ankle weights (1.1 kg) worn on each ankle during routine daily activities (e.g., cleaning, childcare). Primary outcomes include pre- and post-assessments of weight from Visit 2 to Visit 3. Secondary outcomes include body composition, glycemia (2-h, 75 g oral glucose tolerance test), and fasting insulin. Exploratory outcomes include energy expenditure, diet, and psychosocial well-being. Discussion Beyond the expected significance of this study in its direct health impacts from weight loss, it will contribute to exploring (1) the mechanism(s) by which the intervention is successful (mediating effects of energy expenditure and diet on weight loss) and (2) the effects of the intervention on body composition and biomarkers associated with insulin resistance and metabolic health. Additionally, we expect the findings to be meaningful regarding the intervention’s effectiveness on engaging women with GDM in the postpartum period to reduce T2DM risk. Trial registration The ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier, is NCT03664089. The trial registration date is September 10, 2018. The trial sponsor is Dr. Sarah A. Keim.
... But, either way, the efficient formation of sensorimotor habits remains a central concern for trainees and trainers. Such a process is crucial for improving performance on a number of levels, for instance, maintaining motivation and, more pertinently, furthering skills through deliberate practice and continuous exercise (Verplanken and Melkevik 2008). ...
Chapter
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While there is some truth to the intellectualist view on habits, habitual action in sport is too intricate a phenomenon to be accounted for by dichotomies that oppose controlled skillful sport performance (intelligent, deliberate, and controlled actions) and automatized mechanisms (unintelligent, inflexible, motor habits). We present a philosophical alternative that shows how flexibility, control, and intelligence can arise from automatized expert behavior. Paradigmatically, we advance that swimming is not a matter of staying afloat or sinking. Rather, it involves actively refining aquatic capacities, that is, knowing how to implement intentional, goal-oriented action all the way up and down skilled performance. The next section offers an account of the role of sensorimotor habits in sports. This leads to a discussion of mainstream intellectualism about habits and an elucidation of its inherent tensions. The influence of the intellectualism reception of William James’ account of habits on philosophical psychology is considered in the third section. The fourth section follows with the mounting empirical evidence against such a mechanistic and atomistic view. Merleau-Ponty’s alternative view on habitual action, where motor intentionality looms large, is laid out in the fifth section. In the sixth section, the hermeneutics and epistemology of habits come forth, shoring up our enactive alternative. In the seventh section swimming helps build a concrete case for our stance. Finally, the eighth section summarizes our main claims.
... situation-specific habits) (Gardner, 2009) since a modification of this context would make them reflect again (Lally et al., 2010). These results showed that the facets of automaticity are strengthened when active commuting becomes a routine and is incorporated as a repeated activity in daily life (Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008). Also, the lack-of-controllability facet is experienced as an aversive affective experience of not adhering to a set routine. ...
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Background: The time adults spend sitting in front of screens is a health risk factor. In contrast, walking and cycling to and from work, also known as active commuting, could promote physical activity and improve population health. Objective: This study investigated automatic properties role in explaining active commuting and screen-based sedentary behaviours. The stable, daily conditions for carrying out active commuting and screen-based sedentary behaviour are most likely to develop automatic properties. These characteristics mean performing behaviours via external cues (i.e. lack of intentionality), with an unpleasant emotional experience of not carrying out a set routine (i.e. lack of controllability), and without paying much attention (i.e. efficiency). Method: This article describes findings of a prospective and correlational study in which 128 people participated. First, participants responded to questions assessed using the Generic Multifaceted Automaticity Scale (GMAS), which measured the automatic properties of screen-based sedentary behaviour and active commuting. The following week, both behaviours were assessed by daily logs to document active commuting and screen-based sedentary behaviour events, and by an accelerometer, worn for seven days, as an objective criterion. Confirmatory factor analyses, bivariate correlations, and multiple linear regressions were computed for the associations between the GMAS scores and objective criterion measures of screen-based sedentary behaviours and active commuting. Results: Automaticity facets displayed different relationships with screen-based sedentary behaviours and active commuting – people with higher lack of intentionality and lack of controllability for active commuting present higher levels of moderate physical activity. In contrast, the lack of controllability of screen-based sedentary behaviours was a significant predictor of sedentary screen time. Conclusions: The multidimensional approach to automaticity could be useful in determining more precisely the features that need to be addressed to promote the adoption of active commuting and limit the time spent sitting in front of screens.
... Intention is theorized to be a function of three belief-based constricts: attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioural control (Ajzen, 1991). Theory and research have also found attitudes and perceived behavioural control to predict habit (Kaushal & Rhodes, 2015;Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008;Wood & R€ unger, 2015). Intention and habit are proposed to be predicted by autonomous motivation, which represents individuals' self-endorsed reasons for acting consistent with their basic psychological needs. ...
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... For usage regularity (i.e. usage habit), when users ride e-scooters regularly, these scooters become part of their routine (Verplanken & Melkevik, 2008), possibly lowering their privacy concerns regarding location information. Similarly, when a person has a smoking habit, s/ he tends to care less about the negative health effect of smoking (Bancroft et al., 2003). ...
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Habits are invisible and difficult to measure. Yet, they are pervasive in everyday life. In this chapter we describe what habits are and what they do, such as effects on information processing, the relationship with intentions, and the “stickiness” of habits. We review methods to measure habit strength and present the Self-Report Habit Index. Finally, we discuss perspectives on changing habits and focus in particular on the use of implementation intentions and habit discontinuities.
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The A Habit of Service project was launched on 22nd November 2017 at the Tower of London by Dame Julia Cleverdon, Co-founder of Step up to Serve and Michael Lynas, CEO of National Citizen Service. The project is the largest known study of its kind and reports on evidence gathered from over 4,500 16-20 year olds about the factors that are associated with young people who have made a habit of service. This report contributes to the Jubilee Centre’s wider investigation into how schools, youth social action providers, and other organisations build character virtues in order to transform lives and contribute to a flourishing society.
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en The objective of the present paper is to identify and develop a framework of IS habits that individuals tend to develop in organizational contexts. Based on Duhigg's (2012) framework of habit, the paper develops a new conceptualization of IS habit as a cue–routine–reward loop. The key difference between the proposed conceptualization and those that have been used in past research is its consideration of rewards as an essential element of habit. Based on the results of an exploratory study, the proposed framework of habits incorporates several categories of IS routines, cues, and rewards, as well as five propositions that explain how individual usage behaviours develop into IS habits. The paper's findings are also likely to help improve employee task performances. Résumé fr Le présent article vise à identifier et à développer un cadre d'habitudes des SI dans des contextes organisationnels. Sur la base du cadre d'habitude de Duhigg (2012), une nouvelle conceptualisation est suggérée qui considère l'habitude des SI comme une boucle de déclenchement–routine–récompense. La principale différence entre la conceptualisation proposée et celles qui ont été utilisées dans des recherches antérieures est sa prise en compte des récompenses comme l'élément essentiel de l'habitude. Sur la base des résultats d'une étude exploratoire, l'article suggère un cadre d'habitudes qui intègre plusieurs catégories de routines, de déclencheurs et de récompenses de SI, ainsi que cinq propositions qui expliquent comment les comportements d'utilisation individuels se développent en habitudes de SI.
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Voting in one election makes a person more likely to vote in future elections. Researchers often interpret the over-time turnout persistence as evidence of psychological habit formation. But there are few theoretically motivated or empirically validated measures of voter turnout habit. This study contributes by clarifying the concept of turnout habit and developing and validating a seven-item measure of the concept. The paper describes turnout habit as a durable disposition to vote determined by an ability to automatically initiate voting and self-identify as a frequent voter. The new measure is validated using U.S. and UK survey data. Turnout data are from both voter files and self-reports. Varied methodological approaches, including a confirmatory factor analysis and receiver operator characteristic curve analysis, provide evidence of the measure's validity. Habit predicts future turnout independent of election-specific considerations, self-predictions, and age. The habit measure discriminates between eventual voters and abstainers as well as respondents' own self-predictions. Self-report voting habit measures appear valuable for answering theoretical questions about why people vote and practical questions about how best to identify likely voters in survey data.
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On computing critical factors based healthy behavior index for behavior assessment, (2020), doi: https://doi.org/ This is a PDF file of an article that has undergone enhancements after acceptance, such as the addition of a cover page and metadata, and formatting for readability, but it is not yet the definitive version of record. Abstract Objective:. Ubiquitous computing has supported personalized health through a vast variety of wellness and healthcare self-quantification applications over the last decade. These applications provide insights for daily life activities but unable to portray the comprehensive impact of personal habits on human health. Therefore, in order to facilitate the individuals, we have correlated the lifestyle habits in an appropriate proportion to determine the overall impact of influenced behavior on the well-being of humans. Materials and Methods:. To study the combined impact of personal behaviors, we have proposed a methodology to derive the comprehensive Healthy Behavior Index (HBI) consisting of two major processes:(1) Behaviors' Weight-age Identification (BWI), and (2) Healthy Behavior Quantification and Index (HBQI) modeling. The BWI process identifies the high ranked contributing behaviors through life-expectancy based weight-age, whereas HBQI derives a mathematical model based on quantification and indexing of behavior using wellness guidelines. J o u r n a l P r e-p r o o f Results:. The contributing behaviors are identified through text mining technique and verified by seven experts with a Kappa agreement level of 0.379. A real-world user-centric statistical evaluation is applied through User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ) method to evaluate the impact of HBI service. This HBI service is developed for the Mining Minds, a wellness management application. This study involves 103 registered participants (curious about the chronic disease) for a Korean wellness management organization. They used the HBI service over 12 weeks, the results for which were evaluated through UEQ and user feedback. The service reliability for the Cronbach's alpha coefficient greater than 0.7 was achieved using HBI service whereas the stimulation coefficient of the value 0.86 revealed significant effect. We observed an overall novelty of the value 0.88 showing the potential interest of participants. Conclusions:. The comprehensive HBI has demonstrated positive user experience concerning the stimulation for adapting the healthy behaviors. The HBI service is designed independently to work as a service, so any other wellness management service-enabled platform can consume it to evaluate the healthy behavior index of the person for recommendation generation, behavior indication , and behavior adaptation.
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The paper argues that it is a mistake to define habit as behaviour or action; as a regular conjunction of actions; as a stock; as a form of automaticity (although habit is acquired and activated automatically); as a tendency, propensity or disposition (even though habit acts tendentially); as a mechanism; and as a process (even though habit is acquired and activated via several processes). A taxonomic definition is provided wherein habit is a cognitive representation of a cue-action response.
Conference Paper
in this present work, we emphasize the main question about success: why do some people seem to be successful while the great majority of the rest of us seem not to be? To be more specific, the challenge of this work is to propose a novel system to assist people in developing good habits using deep learning techniques. To achieve this goal, we propose the use of Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) and Convolutional Neural Networks (CNN). The two best-known supervised learning method. The first step consists of using a deep RNN neural network to perform the captioning of the user’s activities. Then use another deep CNN to do the classification of the activity based on the result of the first network and then decide whether what the user is doing is a good habit or not. To our knowledge, there is no previous work dealing with this topic through a computer science lens, and this will be of greater value to most of the people who are interested in developing new good habits. This system will also suggest new directions for basic and applied research on success in general and good habits in particular.
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Objective: The COVID-19 pandemic saw promotion of novel virus transmission-reduction behaviours, and discouragement of familiar transmission-conducive behaviours. Understanding changes in the automatic nature of such behaviours is important, because habitual behaviours may be more easily reactivated in future outbreaks and disrupting old habits may discontinue unwanted behaviours. Design: A repeated-measures, multi-national design tracked virus-transmission habits and behaviour fortnightly over six months (Apr-Sept 2020) among 517 participants (age M = 42 ± 16y, 79% female). Main outcome measures: Within-participant habit trajectories across all timepoints, and engagement in transmission-reduction behaviours (handwashing when entering home; handwashing with soap for 20 seconds; physical distancing) and transmission-conducive behaviours (coughing/sneezing into hands; making physical contact) summed over the final two timepoints. Results: Three habit trajectory types were observed. Habits that remained strong ('stable strong habit') and habits that strengthened ('habit formation') were most common for transmission-reduction behaviours. Erosion of initially strong habits ('habit degradation') was most common for transmission-conducive behaviours. Regression analyses showed 'habit formation' and 'stable strong habit' trajectories were associated with greater behavioural engagement at later timepoints. Conclusion: Participants typically maintained or formed transmission-reduction habits, which encouraged later performance, and degraded transmission-conducive habits, which decreased performance. Findings suggest COVID-19-preventive habits may be recoverable in future virus outbreaks.
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To illustrate the differing thoughts and emotion's involved in guiding habitual and nonhabitual behavior, 2,. diary studies were conducted in which participants provided hourly reports of their ongoing experiences. When participants were engaged in habitual behavior, defined as behavior that had been performed almost daily in stable contexts, they were likely to think about issues unrelated to their behavior, presumably because they did not have to consciously guide their actions. When engaged in nonhabitual behavior,or actions performed less often or :in shifting contexts; participants' thoughts tended to correspond to their behavior, suggesting that thought was necessary to guide action. Furthermore, the self-regulatory, benefits of habits were apparent in the lesser feelings of stress associated with habitual,. than nonhabitual behavior.
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The aim of the present study was to examine relations between behavior, intentions, attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, and past behavior across studies using the Theories of Reasoned Action (TRA) and Planned Behavior (TPB) in a physical activity context. Meta-ana-lytic techniques were used to correct the correlations between the TRA/TPB constructs for statistical artifacts across 72 studies, and path analyses were conducted to examine the pattern of relationships among the variables. Results demonstrated that the TRA and TPB both exhibited good fit with the corrected correlation matrices, but the TPB accounted for more variance in physical activity intentions and behavior. In addition, self-efficacy explained unique variance in intention, and the inclusion of past behavior in the model resulted in the attenuation of the intention-behavior, attitude-intention, self-efficacy-intention, and self-efficacy-behavior relationships. There was some evidence that the study relationships were moderated by attitude-intention strength and age, but there was a lack of homogeneity in the moderator groups. It was concluded that the major relationships of the TRA/TPB were supported in this quantitative integration of the physical activity literature, and the inclusion of self-efficacy and past behavior are important additions to the model.
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Interventions to change everyday behaviors often attempt to change people’s beliefs and intentions. As the authors explain, these interventions are unlikely to be an effective means to change behaviors that people have repeated into habits. Successful habit change interventions involve disrupting the environmental factors that automatically cue habit performance. The authors propose two potential habit change interventions. “Downstream-plus” interventions provide informational input at points when habits are vulnerable to change, such as when people are undergoing naturally occurring changes in performance environments for many everyday actions (e.g., moving households, changing jobs). “Upstream” interventions occur before habit performance and disrupt old environmental cues and establish new ones. Policy interventions can be oriented not only to the change of established habits but also to the acquisition and maintenance of new behaviors through the formation of new habits.
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The frequency with which a behavior has been performed in the past is found to account for variance in later behavior independent of intentions. This is often taken as evidence for habituation of behavior and as complementing the reasoned mode of operation assumed by such models as the theory of planned behavior. In this article, I question the idea that the residual effect of past on later behavior can be attributed to habituation. The habituation perspective cannot account for residual effects in the prediction of low-opportunity behaviors performed in unstable contexts, no accepted independent measure of habit is available, and empirical tests of the habituation hypothesis have so far met with little success. A review of existing evidence suggests that the residual impact of past behavior is attenuated when measures of intention and behavior are compatible and vanishes when intentions are strong and well formed, expectations are realistic, and specific plans for intention implementation have been developed.
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Two persuasive communications were developed to assess the utility of an intervention based on the Theory of Planned Behavior in promoting physical activity attitudes, intentions, and behavior. One persuasive communication targeted modal salient behavioral beliefs (salient belief condition) while the other persuasive communication targeted nonsalient behavioral beliefs (nonsalient belief condition). Results of an intervention study conducted on young people (N = 83, mean age 14.60 yrs, SD = .47) indicated that participants who were presented with the persuasive message targeting modal salient behavioral beliefs reported more positive attitudes (p < .05) and stronger intentions (p = .059) than those presented with the message targeting nonsalient behavioral beliefs. However, neither communication influenced physical activity participation (p > .05). Path analysis also indicated that the effects of the persuasive communication on intentions were mediated by attitudes and not by perceived behavioral control or subjective norms.
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Past behavior guides future responses through 2 processes. Well-practiced behaviors in constant contexts recur because the processing that initiates and controls their performance becomes automatic. Frequency of past behavior then reflects habit strength and has a direct effect on future performance. Alternately, when behaviors are not well learned or when they are performed in unstable or difficult contexts, conscious decision making is likely to be necessary to initiate and carry out the behavior. Under these conditions, past behavior (along with attitudes and subjective norms) may contribute to intentions, and behavior is guided by intentions. These relations between past behavior and future behavior are substantiated in a meta-analytic synthesis of prior research on behavior prediction and in a primary research investigation.
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Health psychologists have given surprisingly little attention to consumer behavior. This study focuses on the relationship between an impulsive consumer style and unhealthy eating. In a survey, moderate to strong correlations were found between low self-esteem, dispositional negative affect, impulse buying tendency, snacking habit, and eating disturbance propensity. Structural equation modeling was used to test a model of relations between these variables. Impulse buying tendency was strongly associated with snacking habit, which in turn was related to eating disturbance propensity. Impulse buying, though in itself a pleasurable activity, seemed driven by feelings of low self-esteem and dispositional negative affect. Low self-esteem had a direct link to eating disturbance propensity. The data fit a self-regulation explanation. The study demonstrates the relevance of consumer style for health-related behaviors.
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There appears to be general agreement among social psychologists that most human behavior is goal-directed (e. g., Heider, 1958 ; Lewin, 1951). Being neither capricious nor frivolous, human social behavior can best be described as following along lines of more or less well-formulated plans. Before attending a concert, for example, a person may extend an invitation to a date, purchase tickets, change into proper attire, call a cab, collect the date, and proceed to the concert hall. Most, if not all, of these activities will have been designed in advance; their execution occurs as the plan unfolds. To be sure, a certain sequence of actions can become so habitual or routine that it is performed almost automatically, as in the case of driving from home to work or playing the piano. Highly developed skills of this kind typically no longer require conscious formulation of a behavioral plan. Nevertheless, at least in general outline, we are normally well aware of the actions required to attain a certain goal. Consider such a relatively routine behavior as typing a letter. When setting this activity as a goal, we anticipate the need to locate a typewriter, insert a sheet of paper, adjust the margins, formulate words and sentences, strike the appropriate keys, and so forth. Some parts of the plan are more routine, and require less conscious thought than others, but without an explicit or implicit plan to guide the required sequence of acts, no letter would get typed.
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Habit is often treated as a construct of marginal interest in the literature on attitude–behaviour relations. We argue that this is undeserved, particularly given the current interest in principles of automaticity in social psychology. Basic features of habits, such as goal-directed automaticity, their dependency on situational constancy, and functionality, as well as the measurement of habit strength, are discussed. Research is reviewed that contrasted habit with deliberate action, as approached from the theory of planned behaviour, spontaneous vs. deliberate attitude–behaviour processes, implementation intention theory, and decision-making models. Habits thus appear as boundary conditions of the validity of models of planned behaviour and rational decision-making. A habit seems to be accompanied by an enduring cognitive orientation, which we refer to as “habitual mind-set”, that makes an individual less attentive to new information and courses of action, and thus contributes to the maintenance of habitual behaviour. Focusing on habitual mind-sets and automatic cue-response links, rather than on statistical associations between past and future behaviour, makes habit an interesting construct for future research.
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We describe social psychology's major research findings on metacognition. Although metacognitive ideas have been applied to various topics in social judgment, we focus on some of the most heavily researched areas of social psychology in which the role of metacognition has been examined. These are memory and cognitive fluency, attitudes and persuasion, the self and individual differences, and bias correction. Consistent with most prior literature, we defined metacognition as second-order thoughts, or thoughts about our primary thoughts or thought processes. That indeed constitutes a basic principle in human cognition: Principle 1--There is primary and secondary cognition. Primary thoughts are those that occur at the direct level of cognition, involving initial associations. Following a primary thought, people can also generate other thoughts that occur at a second level which involve reflections on the first-level thoughts or the process that generated these thoughts. Principle 2--Second-order cognition can magnify, attenuate, or even reverse first-order cognition. Principle 3--Second-order thoughts can be coded into the same categories that have already proven effective for classifying primary thoughts, such as target, evaluation, number, and confidence. Principle 4--The content and process bases of metacognitive judgments are likely to be as consequential as are the bases of primary cognition. Principle 5--Although explicit metacognitive activity is generally more likely to take place when people have the motivation and ability to attend to and interpret their own cognitive experiences, metacognition might also operate outside awareness with important consequences for social judgment and behavior. Issues for future research are addressed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The understanding and promotion of health-related exercise and physical activity needs to be based on appropriate theory. After a brief summary of atheoretical approaches, such as motives and barriers, the authors review theories of exercise behavior using four categories. These are belief-attitude theories, competence-based theories, control-based theories, and decision-making theories. Individual theoretical approaches reviewed are the Health Belief Model, Protection Motivation Theory, Theories of Reasoned Action and Planned Behavior (TPB), Self-Efficacy Theory (SET), Locus of Control, Self-Determination Theory (SDT), and the Transtheoretical Model of behavior change (TTM). The authors conclude that the most supported theories in the exercise domain are the TPB, SET and the TTM, with SDT starting to receive attention and support. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Used meta-analysis to examine the utility of the theory of reasoned action (TRA) and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) for the explanation and prediction of exercise behavior. Data were obtained from on-line database, manual, and journal searches. Results showed that the effect size for the relationships (1) between intention and exercise behavior, attitude and intention, attitude and exercise behavior, perceived behavioral control and intention, and perceived behavioral control and exercise behavior was large; (2) between subjective norm and intention was moderate; and (3) between subjective norm and exercise behavior was zero-order. Results suggest that (1) TPB is superior to TRA in accounting for exercise behavior, (2) there are no differences in the ability to predict exercise behavior from proximal and distal measures of intention, and (3) expectation is a better predictor of exercise behavior than intention. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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We argue that habit is a psychological construct, rather than simply past behavioral frequency. In 4 studies, a 12-item index of habit strength (the Self-Report Habit Index, SRHI) was developed on the basis of features of habit; that is, a history of repetition, automaticity (lack of control and awareness, efficiency), and expressing identity. High internal and test-retest reliabilities were found. The SRHI correlated strongly with past behavioral frequency and the response frequency measure of habit (Verplanken, Aarts, van Knippenberg, & van Knippenberg, 1994). The index discriminated between behaviors varying in frequency, and also between daily vs. weekly habits. The SRHI may be useful as a dependent variable, or to determine or monitor habit strength without measuring behavioral frequency.
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The aim of the present studies was to verify the basic assumptions underlying the theory of planned behavior for the prediction of exercising intentions and behavior among adults of the general population (study 1) and a group of pregnant women (study 2). In both studies, baseline data were collected at home with trained interviewers and with the use of paper-and-pencil questionnaires. The self-report on behavior was obtained 6 months (study 1) and between 8 and 9 months (study 2) after baseline data collection. In study 1, perceived behavioral control influenced behavior only through intention. In study 2, none of the Ajzen model variables was associated to exercising behavior. Nonetheless, intention was influenced by attitude, habit, and perceived behavioral control. The results of the present studies suggest that perceived behavioral control contributes to the understanding of intentions to exercise but not to the prediction of exercising behavior.
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The reliability and concurrent validity of a simple questionnaire to assess leisure time physical activity has been investigated on 306 self-selected healthy adults of both sexes (163 M; 143 F). Values of body fat (BF) and maximum oxygen intake (VO2 max) expressed as percentiles of appropriate age and sex categories were used as criteria of validity for the questionnaire. BF and VO2 max were predicted from the Durnin and Womersley skinfold equations, and the laboratory version of the Canadian Home Fitness Test respectively. The strongest correlation was between VO2 max (percentile) and reported strenuous exercise (r = 0.35). The optimum discriminant function for VO2 max was based on a combination of reported strenuous and light activity. This yielded a correct 2-way classification of 69% of the subjects. A combination of sweat-inducing and moderate exercise yielded a correct 2-way classification of BF for 66% of subjects. The reliability coefficients for the optimum discriminant functions classifying VO2 max and BF were 0.83 and 0.85 respectively. We conclude that this simple instrument has potential value for the assessment of leisure time exercise behavior, offering the possibility of examining changes in behavior following the implementation of health and physical fitness promotion programmes in the community.
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This study tested the idea of habits as a form of goal-directed automatic behavior. Expanding on the idea that habits are mentally represented as associations between goals and actions, it was proposed that goals are capable of activating the habitual action. More specific, when habits are established (e.g., frequent cycling to the university), the very activation of the goal to act (e.g., having to attend lectures at the university) automatically evokes the habitual response (e.g., bicycle). Indeed, it was tested and confirmed that, when behavior is habitual, behavioral responses are activated automatically. In addition, the results of 3 experiments indicated that (a) the automaticity in habits is conditional on the presence of an active goal (cf. goal-dependent automaticity; J. A. Bargh, 1989), supporting the idea that habits are mentally represented as goal-action links, and (b) the formation of implementation intentions (i.e., the creation of a strong mental link between a goal and action) may simulate goal-directed automaticity in habits.
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The theory of planned behavior (TPB) and R. A. Karasek's (1979) job strain model were used to investigate the predictors of exercise in a group of employees. A total of 241 employees completed an initial questionnaire; 1 week later 213 employees responded to a questionnaire measuring behavior. Employees in high-strain jobs did significantly less exercise than those in low-strain jobs, although they did not intend to do less, suggesting that work may impede the intention implementation. Intenders who failed to exercise had significantly higher work demands and lower exercise self-efficacy than intenders who succeeded in exercising. Work also affected exercise indirectly through self-efficacy. Thus, work may be a target for behavior change intervention because of its impact at 2 stages of the TPB.
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To illustrate the differing thoughts and emotions involved in guiding habitual and nonhabitual behavior, 2 diary studies were conducted in which participants provided hourly reports of their ongoing experiences. When participants were engaged in habitual behavior, defined as behavior that had been performed almost daily in stable contexts, they were likely to think about issues unrelated to their behavior, presumably because they did not have to consciously guide their actions. When engaged in nonhabitual behavior, or actions performed less often or in shifting contexts, participants' thoughts tended to correspond to their behavior, suggesting that thought was necessary to guide action. Furthermore, the self-regulatory benefits of habits were apparent in the lesser feelings of stress associated with habitual than nonhabitual behavior.
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This prospective study explored whether extending the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) with additional variables (descriptive norm, moral norm, anticipated affective reaction, self-identity and past behaviour) would account for additional variance in physical activity intentions and behaviour. Four interactions with past behaviour were also investigated. UK college employees participated in this study (n = 200, Time 1; n = 146, Time 2). Moral norm, self-identity and past behaviour each explained additional variance in intentions, over and above the TPB variables. Past behaviour moderated the impact of descriptive norm on intentions. Intentions, self-identity and past behaviour were significant predictors of behaviour, as measured by a self-report physical activity questionnaire. To increase physical activity, interventions might target moral norm and self-identity for physical activity. Focusing on positive descriptive norms might benefit sedentary individuals. The significant role of past behaviour is less useful in directing interventions.
Article
This study rested the idea of habits as a form of goal-directed automatic behavior. Expanding on the idea that habits are mentally represented as associations between goals and actions, it was proposed that goals are capable of activating the habitual action. More specific, when habits are established (e.g., frequent cycling to the university), the very activation of the goal to act (e.g., having to attend lectures at the university) automatically evokes the habitual response (e.g., bicycle). Indeed, it was tested and confirmed that, when behavior is habitual, behavioral responses are activated automatically. in addition, the results of 3 experiments indicated that (a) the automaticity in habits is conditional on the presence of an active goal (cf. goal-dependent automaticity; J. A. Bargh, 1989), supporting the idea that habits are mentally represented as goal-action links, and (b) the formation of implementation intentions (i.e., the creation of a strong mental link between a goal and action) may simulate goal-directed automaticity in habits.
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This study examined the ability of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to predict training adherence in a sample of adolescent competitive swimmers. Participants (N= 116, mean age = 14.8 years), who were drawn from 19 competitive swimming clubs from across Canada, completed measures relating to TPB before a major training cycle in their swim season. Results showed that training intention was significantly related to training behavior and that the direct measures of TPB (attitude, subjective norm, and perceived behavioral control) predicted a significant portion of the variance in the measure of training intention. Subsequently splitting the attitude measure into affective and instrumental components revealed that the instrumental portion of the attitudinal measure contributed significantly to predicting training intention, whereas the affective portion did not. These findings suggest that TPB offers insight into training behavior and that the two measures of evaluative attitude contribute differently to predicting training intention.
Article
This study examined whether specific participant characteristics (age, sex, BMI, exercise history, and self-efficacy) differentially predicted adherence to exercise programs of moderate vs. higher levels of intensity and frequency. Sedentary adults (N = 379) were randomly assigned in a 2 × 2 design to walk 30 min/day at a frequency of either 3 to 4 days/week or 5 to 7 days/week, at an intensity of either 45-55% or 65-75% of maximum heart rate reserve. Exercise adherence was assessed via daily exercise logs completed during Months 2-6 of the exercise program. The major finding of this study was that participants with higher levels of past exercise showed better adherence to higher intensity exercise but tended to have poorer adherence to moderate intensity exercise. Our results suggest that a person's previous experience with exercise should be considered when prescribing higher intensity exercise, and that individuals with an extensive exercise history can be prescribed higher intensity exercise.
Article
Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to examine a model of exercise behavior change that integrated the theory of planned behavior (TPB; Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behaviour. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 50, 179–211) with the processes and stages of change from the transtheoretical model (Prochaska, J. O. & Velicer, W. F. (1997). The transtheoretical model of health behavior change. American Journal of Health Promotion, 12(1), 38–48). The general hypothesis was that the relationships between the processes of change and the stages of change would be mediated by the social cognitive constructs contained within the TPB (i.e. attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, and intention).Design: Cross-sectional survey.Methods: Participants were 427 undergraduate students who completed a self-administered questionnaire in groups of 20 to 50. Mean age of the sample was 19.7 years (SD =4.0) and 73% were female.Results: Stepwise hierarchical regression analyses indicated that the TPB mediated eight of the 10 relationships between processes of change and stages of change. Moreover, perceived behavioral control was predicted exclusively by behavioral processes of change whereas attitude was predicted by both cognitive and behavioral processes. Finally, exploratory multivariate analysis revealed that each pair of adjacent stages was discriminated by different social cognitive constructs and different processes of change.Conclusions: It is concluded that the proposed integrated model produced important theoretical insights into how and why people successfully change their exercise behavior but that longitudinal and experimental studies are needed before any definitive conclusions can be drawn.
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automated social cognitive processes categorize, evaluate, and impute the meanings of behavior and other social information, and this input is then ready for use by conscious and controlled judgment and decision processes / review . . . the literature on automaticity in social cognition] / discuss the research in terms of its relevance for the] issues of awareness, intentionality, efficiency, and control (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)(chapter)
Article
Changing health-related behaviors requires two separate processes that involve motivation and volition, respectively. First, an intention to change is developed, in part on the basis of self-beliefs. Second, the change must be planned, initiated, and maintained, and relapses must be managed; self-regulation plays a critical role in these processes. Social-cognition models of health behavior change address these two processes. One such model, the health action process approach, is explicitly based on the assumption that two distinct phases need to be studied longitudinally, one phase that leads to a behavioral intention and another that leads to the actual behavior. Particular social-cognitive variables may play different roles in the two stages; perceived self-efficacy is the only predictor that seems to be equally important in the two phases.
Article
This article reviews the major social cognitive models of adherence or compliance in health and exercise behavior and attempts to show that these models are more similar to each other than different from each other. Self-efficacy theory and the theory of reasoned action/planned behavior have guided most of the theory-based research on exercise behavior. Two other models, protection motivation theory and the health belief model, have guided much research on the role of social cognitive factors in other health behaviors. These models are comprised largely of the same basic set of social cognitive variables: self-efficacy expectancy, outcome expectancy, outcome value, and intention. Two other factors, situational cues and habits, although not common to all the models, round out the theoretical picture by explaining how the relationship between the major social cognitive variables and behavior may change with repeated performance of a behavior over time.An integration of these models is offered using the theory of planned behavior as a foundation. It is suggested that research on health and exercise behavior that pits one model against another to determine which one is the better predictor of behavior is likely to be unproductive due to the striking similarities of the models. It is suggested instead that theorists and researchers focus their efforts on integration of the major social cognitive models and on determining the relative predictive utility of the various social cognitive factors with various health behaviors and in various contexts.
Chapter
What constitutes a good life? Few questions are of more fundamental importance to a positive psychology. Flow research has yielded one answer, providing an understanding of experiences during which individuals are fully involved in the present moment. Viewed through the experiential lens of flow, a good life is one that is characterized by complete absorption in what one does. In this chapter, we describe the flow model of optimal experience and optimal development, explain how flow and related constructs have been measured, discuss recent work in this area, and identify some promising directions for future research. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. All rights reserved.
Article
We review theories of preferential decision making and apply them to explain and predict the choices made by experienced individuals. Specifically, we focus on decision problems for which the actor already has a potential solution or routine available. We start with a brief overview of research evidencing the manifold ways in which such routines can influ- ence the decision-making process. We then develop a classification of decision theories and examine their explanatory power, that is, the extent to which they can give post hoc explanations for routine effects. Finally, we narrow the analysis down to those theories that explicitly address routin- ized decision making and examine to what extent they are able to make a-priori predictions of routinized decision making. The review reveals that the arsenal of theories as a whole possesses a high potential to derive post- hoc explanations of routine effects with the help of some auxiliary assumptions. However, there are only a few decision theories that explic- itly incorporate the influence of routines on choice. Examination of their predictive power reveals that we currently are not able to precisely predict information search, evaluation and context influences on choice in routin- ized decision making.
Article
Objective: To test the relative utility of social support and subjective norm for predicting exercise intention and stage within the theory of planned behavior. Methods: A population-based community sample of 1557 adults completed a telephone interview that assessed social support, subjective norm, attitude, perceived behavioral control, intention, and stage. Results: Social support was superior to subjective norm in predicting exercise intention and stage after controlling for the theory of planned behavior and demographic variables. Conclusion: If findings are replicated, the theory of planned behavior should consider replacing subjective norm