Article

Simulation of a 250 kW diesel fuel processor/PEM fuel cell system

Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston, Ontario, Canada
Journal of Power Sources (Impact Factor: 6.22). 03/1998; 71(1-2):179-184. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-7753(97)02752-3

ABSTRACT

Polymer-electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems offer a potential power source for utility and mobile applications. Practical fuel cell systems use fuel processors for the production of hydrogen-rich gas. Liquid fuels, such as diesel or other related fuels, are attractive options as feeds to a fuel processor. The generation of hydrogen gas for fuel cells, in most cases, becomes the crucial design issue with respect to weight and volume in these applications. Furthermore, these systems will require a gas clean-up system to insure that the fuel quality meets the demands of the cell anode. The endothermic nature of the reformer will have a significant affect on the overall system efficiency. The gas clean-up system may also significantly effect the overall heat balance. To optimize the performance of this integrated system, therefore, waste heat must be used effectively. Previously, we have concentrated on catalytic methanol-steam reforming. A model of a methanol steam reformer has been previously developed and has been used as the basis for a new, higher temperature model for liquid hydrocarbon fuels. Similarly, our fuel cell evaluation program previously led to the development of a steady-state electrochemical fuel cell model (SSEM). The hydrocarbon fuel processor model and the SSEM have now been incorporated in the development of a process simulation of a 250 kW diesel-fueled reformer/fuel cell system using a process simulator. The performance of this system has been investigated for a variety of operating conditions and a preliminary assessment of thermal integration issues has been carried out. This study demonstrates the application of a process simulation model as a design analysis tool for the development of a 250 kW fuel cell system.

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    • "The system will be operated at atmospheric pressure, and the flow resistance in the pipelines and system components is neglected. The diesel-fueled SOFC system consists of Table 3Some properties of logistic fuel NATO F-76[9]Density, at 15 C, kg/m 3 (max) 876 Distillation end point, C (max) 385 Flash point, C (min) 60 Viscosity, at 40 C (mm 2 /s) 1.7–4.3 Ash, wt. "
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    ABSTRACT: Diesel-fueled fuel cell systems can be more clean and efficient energy solutions than internal combustion engines for electric power generation on-board naval surface ships. NATO Navy steam and gas turbine and diesel ships are powered by a naval distillate fuel (NATO symbol F-76). In this study, a 120 kW F-76 diesel-fueled solid oxide fuel cell system (SOFC) as an auxiliary engine on-board a naval surface ship was designed and thermodynamically analyzed. A diesel-fueled SOFC system was compared to dieselelectric generator set in a case naval surface ship.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2013 · Journal of Fuel Cell Science and Technology
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    • "One of the most promising technologies for obtaining the desired result is represented by the fuel cell. Industrial solutions using this electrochemical device in the automotive industry are the proton-exchange membrane fuel cells, producing electrical energy at low working temperature with high efficiency [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. Furthermore, these systems offer the best solution for reducing pollution to zero in city centres. "

    Full-text · Article · Jan 2007
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    • "One of the most promising technologies for obtaining the desired result is represented by the fuel cell. Industrial solutions using this electrochemical device in the automotive industry are the proton-exchange membrane fuel cells, producing electrical energy at low working temperature with high efficiency [1] [2] [3] [4] [5]. Furthermore, these systems offer the best solution for reducing pollution to zero in city centres. "
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    ABSTRACT: The main objective of this study is to introduce the short cut design method for the conceptual design of a proton electrolyte of membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system. Initially, as a model development of the system, this paper tends to focus on the overall system design of the fuel cell. Basically, the system consist of five major units, namely; Auto-thermal reformer (ATR), water gas shift reactor (WGS), membrane, pressure swing adsorber (PSA) and fuel cell stack. The ATR and WGS are designed based on the rate of reaction and variations in volume. For membrane unit, the expression of the length and surface area are simplified in terms of NTU and HTU. The PSA process is quite complicated and there are many parameters to be decided; therefore, we simplify the design of the PSA by introducing Daud bed utilisation factor. For the stack design, the voltage for single cell, number of cells required, current density, power density and finally the current flow in the stack are determined in this study. The material and heat balance of the system are also presented here. Finally the overall fuel cell efficiency is also determined. System with power output as 5kW of PEMFC is taken as a case study. Methanol is taken as a primary fuel source to the ATR system, which is fed together with steam and oxygen. The conceptual design indicates that if the mole ratio of O2/MeOH is 0.20–0.25, then the hydrogen selectivity is around 2.5–2.6 for complete methanol conversion. With that the ratio of MeOH:H2O and MeOH:O2 are taken as 1:1.3 and 1:0.25, respectively. The conceptual design also proves that WGS reaction plays a very important role in the reduction of the CO produced in the ATR. In the conceptual design, the ATR product contains H2: 73%, CO: 2%, and CO2: 25%. The CO level is then further reduced to less than 2000ppm in the WGS reactor. Hydrogen-rich reformate, which is produced by reforming primary fuels in the fuel processor system contains significant amount of CO, is further reduced by tubular ceramic membrane (TCM) and a pressure swing adsorber (PSA) in series. From the overall material balance, it is observed that the final concentration of hydrogen is purified to 99.99% with the concentration of CO is reduced to less than 10ppm before entering the fuel cell stack. Finally this paper will calculate the overall heat balance of the system in order to calculate the power plant efficiency. The gross efficiency of the system is calculated as 49.3% while the net efficiency of the system after considering the parasitic load is estimated as 45.5%.
    Full-text · Article · Oct 2004 · The Chemical Engineering Journal
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