Article

Cultural Capital and Its Effects on Education Outcomes

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Abstract

In this study we distinguished between two forms of cultural capital, one that is static, representing the highbrow activities and practices of parents, and one that is relational, representing cultural interactions and communication between children and their parents. We used data for 28 countries from the 2000 Programme for International Student Assessment to examine whether these two types of cultural capital were associated with students’ reading literacy, sense of belonging at school, and occupational aspirations, after controlling for traditional measures of socioeconomic status. We examined whether one type of cultural capital had stronger effects than the other and whether their effects differed across outcomes and across countries. The results provide compelling evidence that dynamic cultural capital has strong effects on students’ schooling outcomes, while static cultural capital has more modest effects.

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... Because the learning context is considered as a significant determinant of students' reading performance (e.g., Hu, 2014), a large number of contextual factors in the PIRLS framework (Mullis et al., 2017) are included in various contexts related to elementary students' reading at the student, family and school levels. Based on the PIRLS, some studies focus on different contextual factors that affect students' reading performance in the fourth grade (e.g., Cordero et al., 2017;Law, 2009;Mullis et al., 2004;Park, 2011), including the influence of students' attitude towards reading on their reading performance at the student level (e.g., Gnaldi et al., 2005); the influence of the socioeconomic background on students' reading achievement at the family level (e.g., Mullis et al., 2004); and the influence of school resources, composition and education policies on students' performances (e.g., Jing et al., 2015;Machin et al., 2013;Tramonte & Willms, 2010) at the school level. Bronfenbrenner's (1979) ecological system model is widely used to explore the influence of contextual factors on children (e.g., Eriksson et al., 2018;Leonard, 2011;Wiium & Wold, 2009). ...
... At the family level, the socioeconomic status (SES) of a family can greatly influence children's development, including their reading performance (e.g., Chen et al., 2019;Cheung et al., 2017;Tramonte & Willms, 2010). SES is an overall index for analyzing a family's status, and it can be represented by indicators such as family wealth, the home literacy environment (HLE) and parents' educational level and occupational status (Authors, 2019a;Creemers & Kyriakides, 2010). ...
... An excellent HLE has been identified as positively affecting students' reading performance (e.g., Caro et al., 2013). In general, parents' educational level and occupational status can reflect the HLE to some extent (e.g., Tramonte & Willms, 2010;Van Bergen et al., 2016) and thus affect students' reading performance. For example, compared with mothers with a low educational level, mothers with a higher educational level tend to ask more questions to encourage their children to think during the shared-reading process (Huebner & Meltzoff, 2005). ...
Article
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Contextual factors have been identified as greatly influencing students’ reading performance. However, the collaborative influence of key contextual factors on students’ reading performance is still elusive and warrants further exploration. Based on Walberg’s educational productivity theory and Bronfenbrenner’s ecological system theory, emphasizing that learning in humans can only be understood by considering the influence of multiple factors combined into a unit or system, the current study sought to identify the optimal factor set of key contextual factors that collaboratively influences fourth-grade students’ reading performance. In this study, data from 183,428 students from 61 countries/regions were extracted from the progress in international reading literacy study 2016 dataset. First, a support vector machine (SVM) was adopted to classify the contextual factors influencing high-performing (students whose reading score is above 550) and low-performing (students whose reading score is below 475) students. Second, SVM recursive feature elimination (SVM–RFE) was applied to identify the key contextual factors capable of differentiating the two student cohorts. The findings indicate that 20 key contextual factors selected from 106 contextual factors at the student, family and school levels collectively differentiate high- and low-performing students, providing implications for future teaching and learning on elementary school students’ reading performance.
... Although the concept of cultural capital is widely used in research, the operationalization of it is not without shortcomings. Many studies employ a strategy of partial operationalization, leading to the arbitrary selection and empirical testing of one or two states, but claiming to represent the concept in total [2,12,13]. In addition, even if there is a wider consensus in the operationalization of the institutionalized and the objectified states, the embodied state of cultural capital is empirically tested employing conceptually diverse indicators. ...
... Some focus on the highbrow cultural activities [2]. Others, inspired by Lareau's ideas [10], focus on parenting, patterns of parent-child relationships, communication practices [12], which reflect the broader family environment and internalized skills related to reasoning, language use, psychological dispositions such as autonomy, goal setting and parental support. ...
... The cultural logic of the concerted cultivation gives the children an advantage; it fosters their academic success and thus establishes inequalities already at the early stages of life. This is evidenced in many studies focusing on school-aged children in Western and Northern Europe and North America [6,[12][13][14]. However, the role of the parental cultural capital for the final educational attainment of the children is covered in the research to a lower extent [2,15]. ...
Article
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Post-communist transition in Eastern Europe has affected social stratification and mobility. There is an argument that transition undermined the role of parental cultural capital and increased the importance of parental economic capital in determining the educational mobility of children. In this paper, we examine whether the parental cultural capital has played a role in educational mobility of cohorts born in 1970–1984 and what has been the contribution of the different states of cultural capital. We also consider the gender heterogeneity in the transmission of educational advantage. The study focuses on one country of Eastern Europe—Lithuania, which underwent the transition to a radical neo-liberal form of capitalism. Using data from the Families and Inequalities Survey of 2019, we apply the descriptive and ordinal regression analysis. The results indicate intergenerational educational upward mobility for women. All states of parental cultural capital (objectified, embodied, institutionalized) are relevant for the educational attainment of the transitional cohort. The effects are more pronounced for women, at least in relation to some states of parental cultural capital. On a more general level, the findings imply that the intergenerational reproduction of educational attainment was not substantially altered by the transition, at least during its initial decades.
... As Stanton-Salazar & Urso Spina (2003) have documented, teachers as protective role models certainly possess the agency to inculcate cultural capital amongst their students. They may teach on a daily basis, as well as perform the function of what Tramonte & Willms (2010) defined as relational cultural capital to critically engage the dominant culture. ...
... Relational cultural capital is disseminated through parent-child day-to-day conversations regarding political, social, and cultural matters. Tramonte & Willms (2010) looked into how these two types of transmission affect students' "sense of belonging" (p. 207) and career aspirations. ...
... But when they are accompanied by the intentional teaching of dominant cultural and linguistic codes, the potential benefits increase. As Tramonte & Willms (2010) have argued about static and relational cultural capital, our study suggests that one is not more important than the other, or that one can be infused in the curriculum. Our study actually suggests that for cultural capital to grow, be transported, and exchanged, static and relational cultural capital must be intentionally taught. ...
Article
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This case study examines the role teachers can play as protective agents in the formation of cultural capital. The study followed classroom teachers and midlevel central office educators as they introduced static and relational cultural capital to minoritized and low-socioeconomic-background high school students. Findings show that in practice both forms of cultural capital function simultaneously. Also, this student population benefits from systemic, consistent, and intentional cultural capital formation, especially when this is nested in a set of structures of care.
... Cultural and social capital have sometimes overlapping conceptualizations. For example, interactions with parents and children have also been operationalized as cultural capital (Tramonte and Willms, 2010). Because of the interconnections between cultural and social capital, some researchers even have combined the two in the concept "cultural social capital" (Al-Fadhli and Kersen, 2010). ...
... In Model 2, we added the schools' SES composition. In the next two models, we added the control variables at student level: background characteristics (gender, immigration background, number of books at home, SES) and perceived academic ability (Model 3), as these factors are relevant for expectations (McDaniel, 2010;Salikutluk, 2016;Tramonte and Willms, 2010). In ...
... Perceived academic ability has indeed the strongest impact on the outcome variable, which is in accord with prior research (Buchmann and Dalton, 2002;McDaniel, 2010). With regard to other individual-level variables, our results confirm other research stating that students' expectations are higher among girls, immigrants, and students from families with higher SES and cultural capital (McDaniel, 2010;Salikutluk, 2016;Tramonte and Willms, 2010). The aforementioned results are in line with many previous studies (e.g., Rumberger, 2011;Lamb et al., 2011;Markussen et al., 2011) showing that the three groups of individual factors that affect expectationsbackground, abilities, and student engagementare also the three main groups of individual factors that influence the outcomes of upper secondary education, whether the outcome is grades, completion, or dropout. ...
Thesis
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A diploma in higher education has a significant impact on an individual’s life course. Higher educated individuals may have a higher income, a better job, and a lower risk of poverty than lower educated individuals. They also score higher on many non-economic outcomes, such as overall health. However, one of the most consistent findings in the sociology of education is social inequality in educational attainment. A student from an upper-class family, for example, has a remarkably higher likelihood to attend higher education than a student from a working-class family. Therefore, education plays a crucial role not only in social mobility, but also in the reproduction of social inequality. To understand the process of educational attainment, sociologists investigate the educational expectations that students express in secondary education. Students have certain expectations about what they will do after secondary education, such as attend university or enter the labor market. Students’ expectations are theoretically postulated and empirically confirmed as a central link between ascribed and achieved characteristics of the student on the one hand, and status attainment as an adult on the other hand. Expectations are believed to guide behavior. High educational expectations increase the odds to attend higher education, as these expectations as they positively influence motivation and efforts in secondary education. However, students’ expectations are influenced not only by family background and school performance, but also by both the school they attend and the broader education system. The plethora of research on educational expectations for higher education focuses solely on the individual level, such as looking at socialization processes within families. This focus on the individual level is attributable to “the Wisconsin Model” of the 1960s, which is still the (explicit or implicit) departure point for most current research. The model posits that students’ expectations are the result of socialization by significant others. The three most important groups of significant others are parents, peers, and teachers, although current research mainly focuses on parents. The Wisconsin Model attaches importance specifically to students’ perceptions of the significant others’ expectations. Although other research traditions, such as Sociological Rational Choice theory and theories on cultural and social capital, were advanced to explain the formation of expectations, they have all been preoccupied with mechanisms within the family. While this body of earlier research has enriched our understanding of individual-level processes, it individualizes and de-contextualizes the educational decision-making of students. However, as students form their expectations of postsecondary pathways while attending secondary education, it is important that the context of a students’ secondary school and the features of the education system are also considered. Educational expectations not only differ according to the social background of students, but also vary according to the characteristics of the school and of education systems. Although the secondary education system is central in the process of sorting and allocating students to positions in society, recent research pays little attention to how school and system characteristics influence students’ expectations. Nevertheless, school features matter for several student outcomes, as shown by the School Effects Research tradition. Moreover, in the sociology of education a substantial amount of research has identified what the consequences are for students’ outcomes of attending a particular organization within the secondary education system, particularly with regard to an organization with a rigid division of pupils into different types of curricula, which is called “tracking”. Hence, the main objective of this research is to gain a better understanding of the social inequality in expectations by transcending the existing (explanations for) individual effects and by considering the meso level – the school – as well as the macro level – the education system. To this end, the empirical part of this dissertation comprises four quantitative studies that fruitfully combine different research traditions, integrating School Effects Research and research on tracking into the Wisconsin Model. Our research uses primary data from the unique, longitudinal International Study of City Youth (ISCY), which follows 10th grade students from multiple cities around the world during their transition from secondary education to higher education or the labor market. One of the four studies is a cross-national study, comparing 10th grade students’ expectations in four European cities. This study contributes to the research field on expectations, as very few cross-national studies – almost none of which pay attention to the school level – still characterize the field. The other three studies, one of which is longitudinal, focus on the data of more than 2000 youngsters in the city of Ghent in Flanders (Belgium). The Flemish education system is an interesting case study to examine educational expectations, as it combines a highly tracked and segregated secondary education system with an open-access higher education system. These three studies demonstrate how the composition of the schools’ student body influences students’ expectations and students’ enrollment in higher education. A student attending a school whose students are predominantly from a high SES background will have more ambitious expectations and will be more likely to be enrolled in higher education than a student from a school with mainly low SES students. Moreover, by looking at explanatory school processes, this dissertation’s studies transcend other research that offers only a mechanical understanding of the association between school composition and expectations. The Wisconsin Model, which attributes a central role to the expectations of significant others such as peers and teachers, provides the inspiration for relevant school processes. This dissertation transcends this individual-level approach of teacher and peer effects by looking at the culture of teacher expectations in one study and the culture of peer expectations in another. In contrast to mainstream research, our measurement of significant others’ expectations are based on objective data retrieved from the teachers and peers themselves and not on subjective student perceptions of their teachers’ and peers’ expectations. The study on teachers’ culture surpasses the traditional conceptions of “the invisible teacher” or “the biased teacher” and shows how the shared expectations of teachers from the same school can compensate for the detrimental effects of low SES composition on expectations. Moreover, the longitudinal study confirms that students’ expectations play a role in eventual higher education attendance five years later. In addition to the expectations of the 10th graders, the shared expectations of their peers at school also matter. Students attending schools with high peer expectation cultures are more likely to attend higher education and to prefer university over institutes that are regarded as less prestigious compared to students in schools with low expectation cultures. However, ambitious peers also have negative effects on some groups of students because of comparative group processes. The cross-national study highlights the fact that the school SES composition effects is not found in all secondary education systems, only in highly differentiated systems. Consequently, this school composition effect is an additional source of inequality in education systems that are already unequal. We therefore question the assumption that tracked systems effectively divide students into homogeneous groups to prepare and allocate them to distinct postsecondary pathways. Generally, the assumption is that these homogeneous groups would benefit effective and efficient teaching. The question of whether students’ expectations align with the intended objectives of the system in these tracked systems needs to be addressed. This dissertation shows that in Flanders, which has a stringent tracked system, the vocational track has the lowest homogeneity of expectations, the intended efficiency is therefore questionable. This unmet goal of tracking can be attributed to the unequal selection of students to tracks and the cascade system, as well as to the information deficits about the importance of secondary education for postsecondary pathways. As national and supranational policymakers endeavor to increase higher education attendance to strengthen the knowledge society, one easy solution would seem to be to raise expectations. However, this strategy has been criticized as having no – and potentially detrimental – effect when students are not also offered the means to turn their expectations into reality. Moreover, the strategy individualizes and decontextualizes unequal access to higher education. Instead, based on results of the cross-national study, raising student engagement, which is constructed in the interaction between the student and the school context, has been proposed. This dissertation also strongly recommends acknowledging the positive role that teachers can play. The results show the overall, long-lasting effects of school cultures and suggests that schools could create school cultures to make the transition to higher education desirable and feasible (‘college going cultures’). Finally, a critical look at the supposed benefits of tracking at an early age is recommended, especially regarding the adverse effects for students and teachers in vocational education. In summary, this quantitative study examines the effects of school composition and explanatory school processes and considers the effect of tracking on the formation and realization of educational expectations. This dissertation emphasizes that students’ expectations are not formed in a vacuum; schools and education systems also play a substantial role in shaping them.
... As a general finding, cultural capital positively affects a student's academic achievement. Moreover, the cultural capital effect differs across schooling environments, i.e., it tends to be stronger in low-achieving (and high-variance) schooling environments than in high-achieving (and low-variance) ones (e.g., Andersen & Jaeger, 2015;Park, 2008;Tan, 2015;Tramonte & Willms, 2010). ...
... In examining the cultural capital effect on student's academic outcomes, Tramonte and Willms (2010) distinguished static and relational cultural capital in the home, also controlled for the variation in parental occupation status and education level in their study. Static cultural capital includes both the possession of high culture goods, such as artworks, musical instruments, and classical music; and highbrow activities, such as going to museums or the ballet or theater. ...
Chapter
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The chapter presents findings from a systematic review of articles that explore the effect of family socioeconomic and migration background on different educational outcomes in international assessment. Findings of conceptualization and operationalization of the concepts, common analytical methods, effect size, and units of analysis are summarized and discussed. Key findings include the persistent significant and positive relationship between family socioeconomic status and achievement. Negative associations between migratory status and student achievement are found in most countries, although these generally disappear when family socioeconomic status is controlled for. The effects of socioeconomic status and migration status on achievement differed across the level of analysis, the choice of indicators, and the grouping factors deployed within models. Additionally, findings from the reviewed studies indicate that organizational factors within educational systems can intensify or mitigate educational inequalities measured by the SES-achievement relationship.
... Attainment of education is often viewed as highly dependent on advantages and disadvantages passed on from earlier to later generations in terms of unequal resources and socialization patterns (Bukodi and Goldthorpe, 2013;Jaeger and Karlson, 2018;Tramonte and Willms, 2010). ...
... The cultural resource hypothesis argues that the effect of social background on educational attainment is also due to the higher level of cultural resources of privileged parents (Bourdieu, 1986;Bourdieu and Passeron, 1990). Parents' attitudes, values, goals, preferences, and cultural tastes are seen as important factors for children's educational opportunities because the home environment has an impact on the development of children's educational preferences and cognitive skills (see Jaeger and Breen, 2016;Jaeger, 2009;Tramonte and Willms, 2010). Cultural resources are also characterized as one aspect of social status besides social resources (Blossfeld, 2019;Bukodi et al., 2018;Bukodi and Goldthorpe, 2013). ...
Article
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This article explores how parental resources work together to secure higher education for their offspring. It does so by, first, mapping the linkages between cumulative advantages and disadvantages of respondents’ parental resources and educational attainment across countries and cohorts. Second, investigating under which institutional setup of education systems these linkages between parental background and educational attainment are the weakest. At both levels, the set-analytic approach is applied. We show that disadvantages tend to cumulate to a much greater extent than advantages and their role in hindering higher educational attainment is much stronger than advantages to enable it. The only configuration of educational system that is sufficient to mitigate linkages between cumulative background and educational attainment in both directions, that is, advantageous background to enable and disadvantageous background to hinder higher educational attainment, combines high levels of standardization and decommodification.
... In Model 2, we added the schools' SES composition. In the next two models, we added the control variables at student level: background characteristics (gender, immigration background, number of books at home, SES) and perceived academic ability (Model 3), as these factors are relevant for expectations (McDaniel, 2010;Salikutluk, 2016;Tramonte and Willms, 2010). In Model 4, we examine the role of the student engagement variables. ...
... With regard to other individual-level variables, our results confirm other research stating that students' expectations are higher among girls, immigrants, and students from families with higher SES and cultural capital (McDaniel, 2010;Salikutluk, 2016;Tramonte and Willms, 2010). The aforementioned results are in line with many previous studies (e.g. ...
Article
Social inequality in students’ educational expectations, a strong predictor of educational attainment, differs substantially between countries. Although education system characteristics are translated into school composition effects, the school level is often forgotten in comparative research. Moreover, to explain school effects, we introduce the concept of student engagement into sociological research on expectations. Results of multilevel analyses (R) on data from 7566 students in 126 high schools in four cities—Barcelona (Spain), Ghent (Belgium), Bergen (Norway), and Reykjavík (Iceland)—demonstrated positive effects of (1) SES composition, but mainly in systems with substantial school segregation, (2) behavioral and emotional engagement on expectations.
... As was true prior to COVID-19, parents vary in terms of their available resources. Extensive research has documented the relationship between parents' educational, social, financial, linguistic, and cultural capital and their ability to support the educational needs of their children (e.g., Alvez et al., 2017;Murray et al., 2020;Trainor, 2010;Tramonte & Willms, 2010). In the context of the pandemic, parents have needed to be able to make sense of educational materials; to navigate the social and cultural norms of schooling; to have available time, energy; and access to necessary resources like computers and high-speed internet in order for their children to participate in learning opportunities provided. ...
... As has been noted throughout COVID-19, the academic progress of children and youth has been greatly influenced by the availability and skills of parents, raising issues of equity (e.g., Bérubé et al., 2021;Mundy & Gallagher-Mackay, 2021). This is not surprising; extensive research pre-COVID-19 documented the relationship between parents' educational, social, financial, linguistic, and cultural capital and their ability to support the educational needs of their children (e.g., Murray et al., 2020;Trainor, 2010;Tramonte & Willms, 2010). We discuss our findings in light of the particular nature of our sample, who are those with sufficient resources and supports in place to allow for their participation in at-home learning and their participation in our study. ...
Article
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The role of parents in supporting at-home learning increased dramatically in the spring of 2020. Schools in most Canadian provinces closed physically due to COVID-19, and remote-learning options were quickly developed to ensure continued education for students. Many students with special educational needs, who typically benefit from a range of supports from school, became reliant on parents to provide means of access to and participation in remote learning. Using an online survey, we explored the perceptions of 263 Canadian parents of children with special education needs with regard to their self‑efficacy and supports from schools. We conducted multiple linear regression analyses for each of three dependent variables (academic supports, parent self‑efficacy, and social-emotional supports); independent variables included student grade level, education placement, and total school-provided supports prior to the pandemic. Findings indicated that most parents engaged in remote learning and lacked confidence in their ability to support the learning of their child. Parent self-efficacy was related to social-emotional supports from schools and not to academic supports. Parents of children in elementary grades, and of those who had received more supports from school prior to COVID‑19, reported feeling better supported in social-emotional areas by the school. Schools should explore ways of building strong collaborative relationships between educators and parents, as well as continuing to find ways of supporting families and students in both in- and out-of-school places. The pandemic, and school-building closures, have reminded us how partnerships between parents and schools are crucial for the well-being of all involved.
... The broad understanding emphasizes the transmission of symbolic mastery from parents to children, for instance in terms of language skills and the modes of self-presentation and interaction associated with the development of an academic habitus (see e.g. Barone, 2006;Lareau, 2011;Sullivan, 2001;Tramonte & Willms, 2010). The narrow understanding, on the other hand, emphasizes exposure to specific 'highbrow' cultural activities, such as visiting art galleries, museums and listening to classical music (see e.g. ...
... This point also applies to some adaptions of the broad understanding of cultural capital (see e.g. Barone, 2006;Sullivan, 2001;Tramonte & Willms, 2010). While these studies avoid the problems associated with reducing cultural capital to narrowly defined opera operata, they attempt to measure the 'net effect' of cultural capital (e.g. ...
Article
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In this article, we chart connections between class and educational performance in comparatively egalitarian Norway. While viewing various forms of capital as integral parts of class background, we assess how educational performance is differentiated across the class structure. We use survey and register data to assess differences in grades in three school subjects – mathematics and spoken and written Norwegian – at the individual and school level. We focus on the year of graduation of students at lower-secondary schools in Bergen, Norway’s second largest city by population. Lending credence to Bourdieu’s model of the social space, we find differences according to both capital volume and capital composition. Students from class backgrounds rich in overall capital perform comparatively better than those from humbler class backgrounds. There are also differences within the upper class: those from homes rich in cultural capital perform comparatively better than those from homes rich in economic capital. Although between-school differences are low within the ‘unified’ Norwegian school system, the analysis indicates that grades are associated with the class composition of schools: a high proportion of upper-class students positively correlates with higher grades. In addition, there is some evidence of a collective form of class bias: in one of the school subjects, spoken Norwegian, there is a connection between individual grades and teachers’ perceptions of the culture pervasive at the school in question; this connection is contingent upon a school’s class composition. The analysis thus draws attention to the way in which class bias in grading varies between school subjects.
... The independent variables associated with cultural capital were selected following Tramonte and Willms, who propose that there are two types of cultural capital, one static and the other relational [39]. The first is associated with possession of cultural goods and intellectual activities, and the second with discussions on cultural and political issues. ...
... As we can see in Table 3, the results of our estimations show that the student's cultural capital, proxied by the "number of books at home", is not only statistically significant but is also the major factor explaining students' scientific competences. Other authors obtain similar results for mathematics in Latin-American countries [20,53], and for reading competence in OECD countries [39]. ...
Article
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In 2015, the United Nations General Assembly adopted Agenda 2030 to guarantee sustainable, peaceful, prosperous, and just life, establishing 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). According to this declaration, pursuing the path of sustainable development requires a profound transformation in how we think and act. People must have scientific competences—not only knowledge of science, but also skills, values, and attitudes toward science that enable them to contribute to the goals proposed. This overall approach, known as Education for Sustainable Development (EDS), is crucial to achieving the SDGs. Scientific competences not only depend on what students learn in their countries’ formal education systems but also on other factors in the environment in which the students live. This study aims to identify the factors that determine scientific competence in students in developing countries, paying special attention to the social and cultural capital and the environmental conditions in the environment in which they live. To achieve this goal, we used data provided by PISA-D in the participating countries—Cambodia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Paraguay, and Senegal—and multilevel linear modelling. The results enable us to conclude that achieving scientific competence also depends on the social and cultural capital of the student’s family and on the cultural and social capital of the schools. The higher the score in these forms of capital, the greater the achievement in sciences. View Full-Text Keywords: scientific competence; SDG; PISA-D; multilevel
... Research has also demonstrated that academic achievement and occupational attainment are greatly influenced by people's family of origin and their parents' educational experiences (Tramonte & Willms, 2010). In relation to education, the authors state how students who possess a higher level of cultural capital better meet school standards; they are accepted into college and achieve a high level of education. ...
... Therefore, I have expanded my definition to match with the definition of relational cultural capital as described by Tramonte and Willms (2010) to analyse the themes that emerged in my journey as an EAL student. The authors define relational cultural capital as the cultural capital that is present in the interactions between the parents and children such as discussions between parents and children about social, cultural matters, and school activities. ...
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This paper focuses on my experience as an English as an Additional Language (EAL) student in the context of multiple emigrations and investigates the formation of my identity as an EAL science student, science Education researcher, and science teacher. The study was guided by both my innate curiosity and the research question that sought to explore which factors significantly affected my journey of developing my English language and science knowledge based on my experience as an EAL student. The second and third authors acted as critical friends to provide a layer of reliability to the study. Within the autoethnography methodology (Ellis et al., 2011), I used Bourdieu’s cultural capital to frame the thematic analysis (Bourdieu, 1986). In this paper, we show how the range of factors that affected my journey of developing my English language and science knowledge can be ascribed to Bourdieu’s cultural capital and we posit how support can be provided to future EAL students based on this.
... Medzi ukazovateľmi sa objavuje aj účasť detí na mimoškolských aktivitách, ako sú napríklad návšteva hudobných, výtvarných, tanečných či jazykových kurzov (Covay, Carbonaro, 2010;Dumais, 2008;Dumais, Ward, 2010;Jaeger, 2011;Kaufman, Gabler, 2004;Lareau, 2003;Cheadle, 2008;Wildhagen, 2009), komunikácia s rodičmi o kultúre, ktorá sa meria napríklad prostredníctvom frekvencie diskusií o televíznych programoch s rodičmi, a pod. (Georg, 2004;Lee, Bowen, 2006;Tramonte, Willms, 2010). ...
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Predkladaná publikácia sa snaží vyplniť niektoré medzery v teoretickom i empirickom sociologickom poznaní problematiky vzdelanostných nerovností. Je spoločným dielom tímu Katedry sociológie Filozofickej fakulty UK v Bratislave a českých sociologičiek a sociológov. Prináša rozšírenú a upravenú podobu príspevkov prezentovaných na seminári Teoreticko-metodologické východiská sociologického skúmania vzdelanostných nerovností; súčasné poznatky a zistenia, ktorý sa uskutočnil v roku 2021. Tento seminár bol jedným z výstupov projektu VEGA č. 1/0224/19 Vzdelanostné nerovnosti na Slovensku, v ktorom sa tím Katedry sociológie FiF UK zameral na empirické preskúmanie niektorých, doteraz neriešených otázok vzdelanostných nerovností. Hlavná pozornosť bola pritom venovaná úlohe rodiny, resp. rodinného zázemia a relevantného sociálneho prostredia na utváranie ašpirácií či zámerov jednotlivca v oblasti vzdelávania a získaného vzdelania.
... De esta forma, el capital cultural cumpliría tanto una función simbólica en el campo escolar como una función de generación de habilidades académicas (Mikus et al., 2020;Puzić et al., 2019). Asimismo, distintos trabajos empíricos han distinguido entre una dimensión material o estática del capital cultural basada en la posesión de bienes y recursos culturales, y otra dimensión relacional basada en los hábitos comunicativos en el hogar y la participación en actividades culturales (Barone, 2006;Puzić et al., 2016;Roksa & Robinson, 2017;Tramonte & Willms, 2010;Xie & Ma, 2019). No obstante, y a pesar de que muchas de las investigaciones citadas han trabajado conjuntamente con distintas definiciones de capital cultural, ningún trabajo previo ha estudiado simultáneamente la interacción de estas distintas formas de capital cultural con el origen social en la predicción del rendimiento académico. ...
Article
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La teoría de la reproducción cultural planteada por Bourdieu y Passeron establece que el sistema educativo contribuye a la reproducción de las estructuras sociales a través de su papel en la reproducción de la estructura de capital cultural. No obstante, no existe consenso sobre cómo se transforma el capital cultural en una ventaja educativa o sobre qué alumnos obtienen una mayor rentabilidad del capital cultural, si los de extracción social alta (modelo de reproducción cultural) o baja (modelo de movilidad cultural). En el presente trabajo se emplea información de PISA 2000 sobre el caso español para operacionalizar distintas dimensiones del capital cultural y poner a prueba su productividad para alumnos de diferente extracción social. Los resultados avalan el modelo de reproducción cultural para todos los indicadores de capital cultural, lo que significa que los alumnos de extracción social alta no solo disponen de más capital cultural, sino que obtienen una mayor rentabilidad de cada unidad de capital cultural.
... For instance, cultural capital has been noted to play a significant role in shaping the differential access to educational resources in the United States (DiMaggio 1982;Jaeger 2011;Gaddis 2013) and Brazil (Marteleto and Andrade 2014) but fails to be relevant in some European societies (De Graaf 1986;Katsillis and Rubinson 1990;Sullivan 2001). In Asia, cultural capital could even be detrimental to educational achievements, despite the contextual heterogeneities. 1 Research also shows that cultural capital's role in the intergenerational transmission of class advantages depend on a variety of sociocontextual factors, such as the type of welfare regime (Xu and Hampden-Thompson 2012) and the mode of social mobility, for example, contested mobility versus sponsored mobility (Tramonte and Willms 2010). ...
... (2) Cultural class process studies provide both in-depth and statistical accounts of the mechanisms underlying the above relationships. In this literature, cultural capital is discovered through qualitative investigations into the processes in which it exerts influence on educational outcomes (see Lareau 1987, Reay 1998, Lareau & Horvat 1999, Horvat, Weininger & Lareau 2003, Lareau 2003, Gillies 2005, hypotheses generated from which are then examined through quantitative methods (see Ream & Palardy 2008, Tramonte & Willms 2010, Bodovski & Farkas 2008). ...
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This study provides a critical analysis of the influence of social class on life chances in post-reform Vietnam. As the country underwent a profound structural transition from a centrally planned to a market-oriented economy in the mid-1980s, social class gradually replaced political class as a major source of inequality. Knowledge about this phenomenon is rudimentary – not least because of the continuing power of state ideology in contemporary Vietnam. Throughout the investigation, Bourdieu’s framework of class reproduction guides both a quantitative analysis of the Survey Assessment of Vietnamese Youth 2010 and a qualitative research of 39 respondents in the Red River Delta region, including young people of the first post-reform generation – now in their 20s and 30s – and their parents. The study discusses the ways in which class determines the ability of parents to transmit different resources to their children, focusing on those that are usable and valued in the fields of education and labour. It finds that, across several areas of social life in contemporary Vietnam, implicit class-based discrimination is disguised and legitimised by explicit and seemingly universal ‘meritocratic’ principles. The study makes a number of original contributions to sociology, three of which are particularly important. (1) Empirically, it breaks new ground for a sociological understanding of both the constitution and the development of class inequalities in contemporary Vietnam. (2) Methodologically, it offers numerous useful examples of mixed-methods integration. (3) Theoretically, it proposes to think with, against and beyond some of the most relevant Bourdieusian research on this topic. The empirical application of Bourdieu’s framework in toto, as opposed to a more customary partial appropriation, facilitates comprehensive insights into: class-specified practices as governed and conditioned by internalised powers and structural resources; the multidimensionality of class-based advantages and disadvantages; and the causative transmission and activation of capital across and within generations.
... Participation in extracurricular activities has generally been shown to be beneficial for young people's educational outcomes (Farb & Matjasko, 2012;Snellman et al., 2015). Identified as a 'practical' aspect of cultural capital (Jaeger, 2011, p. 295), it is conducive to the acquisition of cognitive abilities, normative orientations, and cultural codes that are recognized and rewarded in formal education (Barone, 2006;Kaufman & Gabler, 2004;Tramonte & Willms, 2010). Researchers have consequently suggested that extracurricular participation contributes to the reproduction of social inequalities, since participation is more common among students from socioeconomically advantaged homes (Carolan & Wasserman, 2015;Cheadle, 2008). ...
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This article is based on a survey carried out among 2,428 ninth-graders from 64 high-performing schools in St. Petersburg, Russia. In the study, we examine the relationships between socioeconomic background, extracurricular participation, and educational outcomes. The findings demonstrate high levels of participation in out-of-school, compared to school-based, extracurricular activities. Extracurricular participation was also shown to be associated with better grades and, to some extent, with higher levels of university aspirations. The relatively small estimate sizes indicate, however, that extracurricular participation is not a major factor in differences in educational outcomes. Nevertheless, since participation was higher among socioeconomically more advantaged students, and grades and/or levels of university aspirations were higher among those who participated, we argue that extracurricular participation should be understood as part of social reproduction in Russia.
... PISA's economic, social, and cultural level index is internationally comparable. The ESCS index also enables the identification of students and schools with a high socioeconomic index and a low socioeconomic index, according to international standards [78,79]. Hence, this factor is viewed as a non-discretionary criterion 2 (being minimized) and it will be explicitly used since the performance of schools can be affected by the socioeconomic status of the intake of pupils [80]. ...
Article
This paper proposes a novel Value-Based Data Envelopment Analysis model which specifically tackles non-discretionary data to assess the performance of 159 secondary schools from Ecuador by employing data from the Programme for International Student Assessment for Development. When contrasted with traditional Data Envelopment Analysis models, the Value-Based Data Envelopment Analysis model has several innovative characteristics that can be particularly convenient not only for including the preferences (generally not incorporated) of the decision-makers, but because it easily handles negative or null data. In addition, this methodology also employs a procedure that allows performing the robustness assessment (rarely employed in similar studies) of the results obtained. The factors considered to perform the efficiency assessment of each school include indexes, which reflect the quality of both basic school infrastructures and instructional resources, the economic, social, and cultural level index of students, the student-teacher ratio, and test scores in maths, reading and science. Our findings suggest that the average efficient school has mean scores across all competencies below the average of Latin American and Caribbean countries. Besides, inefficient schools need to make a greater effort to improve results in maths when compared to reading and science competencies. Finally, it can be concluded that inefficient schools can improve students’ achievements by about 11% to 12%, with almost the same instructional resources and with a ratio of students per teacher 23% higher but requiring an enhancement of the basic school infrastructure by about 7%.
... In society, there are different social classes which result from differential socialization of individuals (Tramonte and Willms, 2010). This refers to the Bourdieu's concept of social reproduction. ...
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A rationalization of the Bayes Theorem and Heinrich Theory by the linear transformation. The result is an linear approximation to the random events etc.
... In the present study, we follow this multidimensional perspective and measure family cultural capital by using three dimensions: in-home cultural resources, cultural practices, and media-related parenting activities. Cultural resources refer to family's possession of cultural goods that contain cultural or educational meaning and benefit their children, such as books, artworks, and musical instruments, etc.; cultural practices represent participation in cultural activities, such as languages interaction, appreciation of literature, reading habits, and concert and museum visits (Claro et al., 2015;Tramonte and Willms, 2010). For the third dimension, we consider media-related parenting activities rather than the general parenting style, given that digital inequality is the focus of this study. ...
Article
Drawing on Pierre Bourdieu's framework of cultural capital, the study explored whether family cultural capital contributed to adolescents' digital inequality regarding both digital skills and usages of digital media and could further explain the relationship between social origins and youth's digital diversity. Cultural capital was operationalized as family cultural resources, cultural practices and media-related parenting activities (i.e., active and restrictive mediation). We tested the proposed hypotheses using data collected from 1119 middle school students in China. The results showed that cultural resources, cultural practices and active parental mediation were significant predictors of adolescents' general digital skill, creative skill and educational use of Internet, whereas leisure use of Internet was not explained by family cultural capital. The results also suggested a relatively complex pattern of relationships between restrictive parental mediation and different dimensions of digital inequality. The path analysis further revealed that cultural resources, cultural practices and active mediation were mechanisms underlying the effects of family SES on adolescents' digital practices. The role of family cultural capital in teenagers' digital practices was discussed in the context of media education.
... A principios de la década de los 80, DiMaggio (1982) inició una línea de trabajo empírico apoyada en la noción weberiana de cultura de estatus donde el capital cultural es identificado con las prácticas, gustos y estilos característicos en la alta cultura (highbrow culture) tales como la participación en actividades relacionadas con el arte, la música clásica, el teatro o la literatura. Dicha definición ha sido posteriormente ampliada para incluir estilos de crianza de los hijos, hábitos comunicativos o actividades extraescolares también expresivos de la participación en la alta cultura (Barone, 2006;Bodovski, 2010;Lareau, 2003;Tramonte & Willms, 2010). Este capital cultural actuaría como un marcador cultural que los docentes interpretan en las escuelas como excelencia académica, promoviendo así el rendimiento y la ambición formativa de aquellos estudiantes que exhiben las disposiciones culturales dominantes. ...
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La presente investigación analiza la evolución de las expectativas formativas entre los años 2003 y 2018 en España, y los mecanismos y estrategias que generan desigualdad por origen social en los planes formativos del alumnado español. Para ello, se emplea información del estudio PISA y se analiza la expectativa vertical de matriculación en la Educación Secundaria Superior, la expectativa horizontal de matriculación en el Bachillerato entre aquellos que esperan matricularse en la Educación Secundaria Superior, la expectativa vertical de matriculación en la Educación Terciaria y la expectativa horizontal de matriculación en la universidad entre aquellos que esperan matricularse en la Educación Terciaria.
... Two types of serious health concern are considered: disability/chronic illness, and mental illness/drug/alcohol use. Taking into account the mediating effects of parental responsibilisation and young people's own psychological distress and subjective wellbeing (Tramonte and Willms 2010;, and controlling for socio-economic status, we will test whether pathways from projects-of-family to projects-of-self differ significantly for male and female caregivers and non-caregivers. Figure 1 shows the model which will be used to analyse pathways from projects-offamily (family health concerns and caregiving) to projects-of-self (school satisfaction and teacher support). ...
Article
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Young people are encouraged to take responsibility for their educational outcomes by actively engaging in their education (their ‘project-of-self’), but many also take responsibility for the care of family members who have serious health concerns (their ‘project-of-family’). Drawing on the concepts of responsibilisation and neoliberal governance, and a feminist ethic of care, we aim to better understand how young people with care responsibilities navigate these dual projects. We use national survey data for young Australians aged 13–14 (N = 3,594) to compare boys’ and girls’ school engagement (projects-of-self) and caregiving for family members with serious health concerns (projects-of-family). Young people with family health concerns report low levels of school engagement. However, caregiving is associated with somewhat increased school engagement for girls, but not for boys. These findings suggest implicit gendered expectations of education systems which are more supportive of girls’ than of boys’ engagement in projects-of-family.
... For instance, cultural capital has been noted to play a significant role in shaping the differential access to educational resources in the United States (DiMaggio 1982;Jaeger 2011;Gaddis 2013) and Brazil (Marteleto and Andrade 2014) but fails to be relevant in some European societies (De Graaf 1986;Katsillis and Rubinson 1990;Sullivan 2001). In Asia, cultural capital could even be detrimental to educational achievements, despite the contextual heterogeneities. 1 Research also shows that cultural capital's role in the intergenerational transmission of class advantages depend on a variety of sociocontextual factors, such as the type of welfare regime (Xu and Hampden-Thompson 2012) and the mode of social mobility, for example, contested mobility versus sponsored mobility (Tramonte and Willms 2010). ...
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This article investigates the association between cultural capital and the likelihood of attending an elite university within the Chinese socio-educational context. Drawing on data from the Beijing College Students Panel Survey, we show that (1) objectified cultural capital is negatively correlated with the likelihood of attending an elite university whereas embodied cultural capital shows a positive effect; (2) both types of cultural capital enhance the proficiencies of extracurricular activities, which, however, are negatively associated with different quantiles of the National College Entrance Examination (NCEE) score; (3) learning capabilities can be strengthened by both types of cultural capital, but they cannot guarantee the attendance of an elite university since they only raise the middle and lower quantiles of the NCEE score; (4) only embodied cultural capital helps one attend an elite university by virtue of the channel of the NCEE exemption.
... For instance, cultural capital has been noted to play a significant role in shaping the differential access to educational resources in the United States (DiMaggio 1982;Jaeger 2011;Gaddis 2013) and Brazil (Marteleto and Andrade 2014) but fails to be relevant in some European societies (De Graaf 1986;Katsillis and Rubinson 1990;Sullivan 2001). In Asia, cultural capital could even be detrimental to educational achievements, despite the contextual heterogeneities. 1 Research also shows that cultural capital's role in the intergenerational transmission of class advantages depend on a variety of sociocontextual factors, such as the type of welfare regime (Xu and Hampden-Thompson 2012) and the mode of social mobility, for example, contested mobility versus sponsored mobility (Tramonte and Willms 2010). ...
Article
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This study examines the trajectories of hedonic and eudaimonic forms of happiness across college life. Analyzing the Beijing College Student Panel Survey, we find that: (1) Academic performance, extraversion, internship, and health status all have a significant and positive correlation with both types of happiness, while one fatalistic orientation reveals a negative effect; (2) Eudaimonic happiness can be specifically dampened by romantic relationship, and hedonic happiness is specifically weakened by student association participation. Students majoring in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM), males, and ethnic minorities have advantages of hedonic happiness. (3) With regard to changes across college life, the strength of correlations between eudaimonic happiness and the variables of health status and academic performance longitudinally decline, but one’s fatalistic orientation and sense of mastery become increasingly relevant. For hedonic happiness, the advantage of the STEM students over the non-STEM ones is gradually narrowed; what are also counteracted are the detrimental effects of the fatalistic orientation and student association participation. The positive role of academic performance for hedonic happiness is longitudinally strengthened, but the disadvantage of female students deteriorates.
... Indeed cultural capital can be conceived at a macro-system level (Ford and Lerner 1992), in terms of the possibility offered to the population to participate and being involved in the society and in cultural activities (DiMaggio and Mohr 1985). Bourdieu primarily described cultural capital at an individual or familiar level, as a factor contributing to the social reproduction at a macro-level, in terms, for instance, of intraclass difference; this has been operationalized also in the recent literature on educational outcomes (Tramonte and Willms 2010). There is justification in the sociological literature to embrace a larger view of cultural capital from a multilevel perspective (Reay 2004). ...
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Using data from 103 Italian provinces, we investigated the relationship between local/regional development, and NEET. We constructed an indicator of cultural capital and another of economic capital and we studied their relation with the NEET rate. Covariance Structure Analysis with Generalized Least Squares estimation was employed, considering a three time-points retrospective model. Results indicate a consistent protective effect of the economic capital on the NEET rate, both in the short run (2 years) and in the medium run (10 years). However, this effect has been obtained in the Central provinces (at 2 and 10 years) and Southern provinces (at 10 years), but not in the Northern provinces. A mediation analysis indicated that, historically, the cultural capital may partly mediate the effect of the economic capital. We did not detect a significant direct effect of the cultural capital on the NEET rate, which is strongly mediated by the action of the economic capital. Together, these results denote that the economic capital is a strong predictor of NEET, but not in very competitive economic areas.
... Within the PISA questionnaire for students, there are also data about the cultural and socio-economic resources available within the family of students. In that way, the secondary analysis of the PISA study enables the measurement of the cultural capital in all its forms, on a large and representative sample of respondents (Andersen & Jaeger, 2015;Barone, 2006;Chiu & Chow, 2010;Tramonte & Willms, 2010). The theory of cultural capital, although criticized for various interpretations and conceptual ambiguities (Goldthorpe, 2007;Kingston, 2001;Sullivan, 2002) has had a prominent place in the research of educational inequalities for a number of years. ...
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This paper aimed to examine the relationship between cultural capital in its three forms (objectified, embodied and institutionalized), the perceptions of students’ self-efficacy and their achievements on the PISA test. The sample consisted of 4843 high school students enrolled in the PISA study in 2009. The results confirmed the existence of the proposed relationships. Self-efficacy and cultural capital significantly contribute to the prediction of student achievements, whereby the embodied cultural capital significantly contributes to the prediction of the perception of self-efficacy. Since the obtained relationships are not of high intensity, it can be concluded that other factors play a significant role in the development of students’ self-efficacy and achievement. Practical implications would relate to activities of encouraging reading habits among students in order to increase the cultural capital and self-efficacy, which will have an effect on their achievement.
... Historically, direct instruction using print media and oral language-the primary teaching tools in 20th century classrooms (Cuban 1986;Tyack and Tobin 1994)-spawned sizeable socioeconomic, gender, and racial gaps in student engagement. Research has long shown that literacy skills are nurtured not only through classroom instruction, but also through home resources such as having literate and active parents and access to books and other print media libraries, and that those resources are strongly correlated with family socioeconomic status (SES) (Cheung and Andersen 2003;Evans et al. 2010Evans et al. , 2014Kraaykamp 2003;Lund-Chaix and Gelles 2014;Roose 2015;Tramnote and Willms 2010). Sociological research has consistently found that varying metrics of exposure to print media in the home, such as number of books and magazines, along with years of parents' education and time parents spend reading to their children, are strong predictors of student achievement (DiMaggio 1982;Evans et al. 2010;Kingston 2001;Sirin 2005); Studies of school readiness detect socioeconomic gaps in early literacy and numeracy among preschool children (Duncan et al. 2007;Hart and Risley 1995;Magnuson et al. 2004). ...
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This study examined impacts of digital technology on a key component of the socioeconomic gap in education—gaps in student classroom engagement. Whereas print literacy has long been a source of such gaps, newer “digital divide” theories claim classrooms that use digital technology are perpetuating them further. However, these claims are not grounded in close empirical observation and may now already be dated. We aimed to advance understandings of the impact of digital technology on student engagement by examining robotics, tablets, and smart board usage across a range of classrooms, using a conceptual framework that blends theories of interaction ritual chains (IRC) and cultural capital (CC). Data came from observations and interviews with teachers and students in K-8 classrooms across 10 Ontario school boards. We report three major findings. First, almost all students across socioeconomic strata engaged easily and enthusiastically with digital technology. Second, technology spawned new classroom rituals and cultural valuations. Third, digital technology provided connections between school dictates and students’ peer-based and home lives. We argue that digital technology has the potential to narrow classroom engagement gaps that are generated by conventional print media. We end by discussing avenues for future research.
... Authors highlight book-oriented socialization of children, indicated by home library size (Evans, Kelley, and Sikora 2014;Sikora, Evans, and Kelley 2019). Home library shows routine social practices where books coexist with specific mental activities and motivational states stimulating children's cognitive skills and facilitating their academic achievement (Jaeger 2009;Tramonte and Willms 2010;Jaeger and Breen 2016). So, home libraries should enhance children's educational attainment. ...
Article
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The paper concentrates on the ways the interplay of parental economic , educational, and cultural resources in the intergenerational transmission of educational attainment has changed due to the marketization of post-socialist societies and educational systems. We combine two different approaches: a variable-based regression analysis and a case-based qualitative comparative analysis (QCA). The analysis is based on the European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions (EU-SILC) 2011 and concentrates on Estonia. The results indicate that parental educational and cultural resources, manifested in a large home library, enhance children's attainment of higher education. It does so not only in post-socialist Estonia but also during the socialist period despite the Soviet educational system being designed explicitly to eliminate social privilege. Comparison of cohorts who attained higher education during the mid-socialist, late-socialist, and post-socialist periods shows that for all of them common combination with high level of all considered parental resources is highly effective in securing attainment of higher education. In addition to that common effective combination of parental resources , each cohort has its own particular combination of parental resources that effectively enabled attainment of higher education. The influence of the resources that the family deploys tends to accumulate instead of being a compensation channel that conveys parental influence on education. Regression analysis and QCA are complementary: The former allows assessment of the net impact of each individual parental resource on attainment of higher education. The latter reveals the differential impact of individual resources depending of their configurations. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Parent Social Capital is a count variable totaling the number of "yes" responses to the following questions: "Went to science or engineering museum with 9th grader in last year," "Worked or played on computer with 9th grader in last year," "Built or fixed something with 9th grader in last year," "Attended a school science fair with 9th grader in last year," "Helped 9th grader with a school science fair project in last year," and "Visited a library with 9th grader in last year." Particularly with respect to issues related to race and socioeconomic status, social capital affects the educational attainment (Prieur & Savage, 2013;Tramonte & Willms, 2010). ...
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Employing data from the National Center of Educational Statistics' High School Longitudinal Study and utilizing critical race theory and intersectionality as theoretical frameworks, this article interrogates the relationship between mathematics identity and math success for a nationwide sample of Black secondary school students. More specifically, hierarchical regression modeling is employed to examine the relative impact of math identity, demographic variables, and school/parent social capital variables on the math grade point averages of this sample. The article ends with a discussion of specific steps for teaching mathematics that put the identity of those from traditionally marginalized communities at the center of mathematics instruction. Thus making experiences, histories, culture, and abilities essential elements of students' learning, that are to be supported and built upon.
... Students may also lack adequate knowledge of the college planning and the admissions process, access to information about college and financial aid, as well as the encouragement to translate aspiration into college enrollment (Bowen et al. 2009;Roderick et al. 2011). The literature on cultural capital suggests that it relates positively to students' academic success (Lareau 1987(Lareau , 2000(Lareau , 2011Lareau and Weininger 2003;Tramonte and Willms 2010). However, scholars cannot agree on whether the ways in which cultural capital is acquired reproduces inequality or can, in some instances, promotes mobility (Deutschlander 2017). ...
Article
For-profit colleges now enroll about one in ten US college students. Their rapid expansion in the last two decades raises several questions about the role that they play in educational inequality. Broadly, this dissertation asks whether for-profit colleges help or hinder the students that they serve. I evaluate the relationship between for-profit colleges and social mobility at three critical junctures along the pathway through college and into young adulthood. First, why do students, in particular those with high levels of prior academic achievement, choose to enroll in for-profit colleges? Next, what impact do for-profit colleges have on the routes that students take to their bachelor's degree? What impact do these schools have on the transfer pathway–the link between two-year colleges and four-year bachelor's degree-granting schools? Lastly, how do graduates with for-profit bachelor's degrees fare when entering the labor market? I answer these questions using three nationally representative data sources: one which follows high school students as they progress through college (ELS 2002), another that tracks beginning college students as they move through school and transition to the workforce (BPS 2004–2008), and a third which surveys new bachelor’s degree graduates as they transition into their early careers (B&B 2008–2012). I find that all students frequently cite programmatic reasons to justify choosing for-profit colleges, but for high achieving students, a lack of individual and familial social capital may help explain why they choose for-profit education. I also find that two-year college students who begin college at for-profit schools are less likely to transfer to four-year colleges, for-profit or otherwise. Even among students who expect to transfer to a four-year college, those who start college at for-profit schools are less likely to make this transfer. Lastly, I find that Black and Asian-American for-profit bachelor’s degree holders earn significantly less than their same-race peers with non-profit degrees. The data suggest that for-profit colleges, narrowly defined, have had a largely negative effect on social mobility, particularly for disadvantaged groups.
... I developed the indicators of cultural capital to capture cultural consumption in a Danish setting. The indicators are categorized into three dimensions, which encompass the child's active engagement in cultural communication (Williams 2012;Tramonte and Willms 2010), their reading habits (Graaf 1986), and their cultural outings (DiMaggio 1982) (see Table 1). ...
Article
This study draws on the concept of cultural capital to determine whether the cultural capital of students is related to their perceptions of classroom interactions, specifically teacher–student feedback practices. The analysis of new data in ‘Feedback and Cultural Capital,’ a Danish survey of feedback practices among 14-year-old and 15-year-old students (N = 1101), showed a positive and practically linear relationship between the cultural capital of the students and the amount of feedback they perceived in lower secondary mathematics classrooms. Drawing on Bourdieu’s theory of cultural reproduction in education, I argue that this inequality stems from either or both of two mechanisms: differences in treatment by teachers and/or differences in the perceptions of students. I link both mechanisms to the cultural capital of the students. Furthermore, the results indicate that the relationship was stronger for boys than for girls. The implications of the findings for practice and policy are discussed.
... They imply that higher-SES pupils are granted more opportunities to exercise their autonomy, and these opportunities, in turn, widen educational gaps. Inequalities in education carry significant social and academic ramifications (Bodovski, 2010;Jennings and DiPrete, Forthocmoing in the British Journal of Educational Studies 10 2010; Tramonte and Willms, 2010), and they impact children's life chances (Hoskins and Barker, 2016;Putnam, 2015;Sabates et al., 2011). ...
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This study examines whether and how teachers who work in low-and high-SES primary schools name and mobilise their pupils' online rights. As children's out-of-school behaviour lays at the margins of teachers' professional responsibilities, this context enables a robust inquiry into teachers' commitment to pupils' rights. The research design is based on in-depth semi-structured interviews with 20 teachers from low-and high-SES schools. The findings showed that whereas most teachers indicated their concern about online injury suffered or caused by their pupils, they did not name these injuries in terms of pupils' rights. As teachers progressed through the legal mobilisation process, the analysis revealed SES differences. Whereas teachers working in the low-SES schools tended to minimise their professional responsibilities regarding online injury, teachers working in the high-SES schools held a broader perception of themselves as professionals who actively promote their pupils' rights and empower them to participate in regulating their online worlds. These perceptions were manifested in different approaches towards the adequate strategies to address pupils' online behaviour, and particularly, towards pupils' autonomy. The conclusions highlight that the ways teachers mobilise their pupil's online rights are intertwined with their contextual perceptions of their professional role.
... In society, there are different social classes which result from differential socialization of individuals (Tramonte & Willms, 2010). This refers to the Bourdieu's concept of social reproduction. ...
Article
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It is a common phenomenon for students to use information and communication for studying or entertainment. However, there is a great difference between these two tools. This can be referred to as "digital capital for education" because there is a clear gap that separates communication and education. To overcome this, parents should be educated with school-family partnerships and mediation philosophies so that they can adopt an affirmative culture and attitude towards properly handling their children's ICT usage at home. Hence, positive and high-quality ICT usage among students should be encouraged in order to prevent negative academic consequences.
Chapter
Family cultural capital can be defined as a series of family cultural elements that are mainly held and transmitted by parents, that can contribute to children development. Many studies reveal that the family cultural capital of the migrant works is insufficient, which exerts negative effects on the development of their children. The study focuses on exploring the relationship between parental involvement and family cultural capital. The authors selected Taoyuan migrant as a case which has conducted home-school collaboration reform for more than three years, using the methods of interview, questionnaire, and observation to get two mains findings: (1) The model of parental involvement experienced a change process from self-elimination to active-participation, in which the school played a major role. (2) When parents adopt the model of active-participation, family cultural capital changes in three main forms of activation, increasing and transformation.
Article
The effects of reading habits on academic performances have been carefully investigated, but little is known about the effects of academic achievements on students’ leisure reading. This paper investigates this issue by estimating the effects of academic achievements, proxied by the number of exams passed, on leisure reading, measured by the number of leisure books read in a year. Using an online survey submitted to the students at the University of Bologna, Italy, we adopt a two‐step control‐function technique to control for endogeneity. The empirical evidence suggests the existence of a negative relationship between students’ academic achievements and the time devoted to leisure reading. This result holds for students of different fields of study and is stronger for male students. The Blinder–Oaxaca decomposition supports the existence of a gender‐specific idiosyncratic effect.
Article
Using data from the National Center of Educational Statistics’ (NCES) 2009 High School Longitudinal Study, this article studies the relationship between mathematics identity and mathematics success for LatinX students by relying on critical race theory and intersectionality as theoretical frameworks. The quantitative analysis relies on hierarchical regression modeling to examine the relative impact of demographic variables, school characteristics, parents social capital, and parental involvement on the mathematics grade point averages at the conclusion of 11th grade of a national sample of LatinX students. The article concludes with a discussion of the ways in which we as educators, policy makers, and researchers can work toward supporting positive mathematics identity development and, by extension, mathematical attainment and success for LatinX students. Specifically, the article discusses ways in which the experiences, cultures and abilities of these students can be acknowledged, celebrated, and built upon.
Book
This book provides a systematic exploration of family literacy, including its historic origins, theoretical expansion, practical applications within the field, and focused topics within family literacy. Grounded in sociocultural approaches to learning and literacy, the book covers research on how families use literacy in their daily lives as well as different models of family literacy programs and interventions that provide opportunities for parent-child literacy interactions and that support the needs of children and parents as adult learners. Chapters discuss key topics, including the roles of race, ethnicity, culture, and social class in family literacy; digital family literacies; family-school relationships and parental engagement in schools; fathers’ involvement in family literacy; accountability and employment; and more. Throughout the book, Lynch and Prins share evidence-based literacy practices and highlight examples of successful family literacy programs. Acknowledging lingering concerns, challenges, and critiques of family literacy, the book also offers recommendations for research, policy, and practice. Accessible and thorough, this book comprehensively addresses family literacies and is relevant for researchers, scholars, graduate students, and instructors and practitioners in language and literacy programs.
Article
This paper offers an empathetic perspective of the cultural dynamic of migrant students' first experiences of university, told through the student voice. It focuses on the transition of students into higher education (HE); not always considered as part of the formal curriculum, providing a deeper understanding of students' transition via the cultural context of their HE experience. While this research took place prior to the COVID pandemic, it is clear that the pandemic has led to an increased use of virtual learning platforms across the sector, and this is set to continue as institutions emerge from the pandemic, suggesting that transition will not necessarily take place within university buildings. If belonging was a challenge for some students prior to the pandemic, how will institutions support transition for the new pedagogy? The cultural experiences of first‐, second‐ and third‐generation migrant students have been scantily written about in this context. This paper contributes to current understanding by providing insights gleaned through the narrative accounts of students. Development of agency, belonging and community is framed through an approach that empowers and offers a co‐learner frame, achieved through the students' voices, offering narratives of the cultural experience of university.
Thesis
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This thesis focuses on policy and practice around professional development of Further Education (FE)lecturers. It situates the lived experience of recently qualified Early Career Lecturers (ECLs), employed across a range of institutions within North-West England, in the 2010-2018 FE policy environment. Mismatches between Government policy priorities are shown to shape elements of ECL development and practice, presenting barriers to acquisition of secure professional identities. Longstanding, deep-seated, systemic and structural factors are also argued to contribute to these barriers. Policy and practice around professional development are viewed through a Bourdieusian theoretical framework. A Critical Discourse Analysis(CDA)of the Education and Training Foundation(ETF)Professional Standards and Guidance documents(as disseminated policy) is compared with CDA of ECL interview discourse. This discourse, observed practice, and material artefact data are analysed within themes of professional development, pedagogic practices, social practices, and identity formation. Elements of Vygotsky’s Social Activity Theory, and Material Cultural Studies/Theory(MCS/T)(from the field of Archaeology)are used as part of an explanatory framework, with insights from Le Grand’s metaphorical knights, pawns, and knaves illuminating ECL development. The thesis argues that failure to acquire a secure professional identity makes pre-existing identities, habitus, and capital important to ECLs’ ability to exercise agency in the field. However, neither precarious new identities, nor pre-existing attributes, protect from performative and managerialist pressures or conflicting policy priorities. Despite some subject areas being afforded higher cultural capital, through training bursaries and favourable terms of employment, retention of ECLs is fragile. This is particularly relevant to retaining Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths (STEM)specialists with authentic industry experience required by the current policy intentions for new T-levels qualifications. A homogeneity in pedagogic practice with creativity thwarted by bureaucratic pressures and an embattled fledgling professional identity is shown to be the current paradigm for ECLs.
Article
This article documents the patterns of White-Black and White-Hispanic enrollment gaps in Advanced Placement (AP) and Dual Enrollment (DE) programs across thousands of school districts in the United States by merging several data sources. We show that the vast majority of districts have racial enrollment gaps in both programs, with wider gaps in AP than DE. Results from fractional regression models indicate that geographic variations in these gaps can be explained by both local and state factors. We also find that district-level resources and state policies that provide greater access to AP and DE are also associated with wider racial enrollment gaps, implying that greater resources may engender racial disparity without adequate efforts to provide equitable access and support for minority students.
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This paper examines the persistent, growing popularity of Canadian French immersion (FI) programmes. Critics charge that FI programmes are elitist, diverting already limited resources from other areas of the education system. We begin with a brief overview of the benefits of FI in Canada and enrolment trends. Next, sources of FI-related inequality – lack of access, transportation costs, funding issues and types of learners most likely to enrol in FI – are scrutinised. Then, available evidence is weighed for and against the charges of FI elitism. Lastly, demand for FI is viewed through a Bourdieusian social reproduction lens to understand the persistence of socio-economic status (SES) inequalities. The paper concludes that higher SES parents are more likely to have the inclination (parentocratic habitus) and resources (economic, social, and cultural capital) to enrol their children in, and benefit from, FI. The paradox of publicly funded FI education in Canada is that as long as demand outstrips supply the benefits will continue to be unequally distributed. The result is a stalemate between proponents and critics, with each camp’s solution – whether it be making FI universally available or removing it completely from the public purse – bound to meet with stiff opposition.
Article
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There is abundant evidence that children in low income households do less well than their peers on a range of developmental outcomes. However, there is continuing uncertainty about how far money itself matters, and how far associations simply reflect other, unobserved, differences between richer and poorer families. The authors conducted a systematic review of studies using methods that lend themselves to causal interpretation. To be included, studies had to use Randomised Controlled Trials, quasi-experiments or fixed effect-style techniques on longitudinal data. The results lend strong support to the hypothesis that household income has a positive causal effect on children’s outcomes, including their cognitive and social-behavioural development and their health, particularly in households with low income to begin with. There is also clear evidence of a positive causal effect of income on ‘intermediate outcomes’ that are important for children’s development, including maternal mental health, parenting and the home environment. The review also makes a methodological contribution, identifying that effects tend to be larger in experimental and quasi-experimental studies than in fixed effect approaches. This finding has implications for our ability to generalise from observational studies.
Article
This study investigates native–migrant differences in engagement in post-school education. Using a longitudinal survey of youth in Australia, we find that immigrants originating from non-English-speaking countries are significantly more likely to continue with further study between the ages of 18 and 23 years. On the other hand, there are no significant differences between immigrants from English-speaking countries and native youth. We find several important factors influencing study decisions, including parents and family background, academic ability, aspirations and age at migration; however, accounting for these factors does not fully explain the higher probability of pursuing higher education for immigrants from non-English-speaking countries. Exploring the country of origin effect, we find that immigrants from countries with low tertiary education levels are more likely to study in Australia, while differences in parental attitudes in their origin countries do not have a significant effect. The results show the importance of country of origin on the study decisions of youth, underlining the impact of migration settings on education of next generation.
Chapter
The relationship between mothers and daughters is critical in this study. The women spoke a lot about their mothers and the close bond they shared with them. Values, identities, belonging and the desire for upward mobility are established in the home and particularly influenced by the mother. It is this unconditional love and support that the women receive from their mothers that instils them with confidence and the drive to face challenges and to prove they are successful migrants worthy of respect and status. The women were indebted to their mothers for their support and encouragement, which helped them to excel in their education and career.
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An attempt is made to explore the production set for educational achievement for both “efficient” and “inefficient” schools. The inefficient or average production relationship is obtained by estimating a reduced-form equation for all schools among a sample drawn from a large Eastern city. The efficient set is derived by using a linear programming approach to yield coefficients for those schools that show the largest student achievement output relative to their resource inputs. A comparison of the two sets of technical coefficients suggests that the relative marginal products are probably different. Because of such differences, the optimal combination of inputs for producing educational achievement relative to a given budget constraint will probably vary between achievement-efficient and inefficient schools, and may even vary from school to school. The result is that the use of such production-function estimates for attempting to improve the efficiency of the educational sector may have far less utility than its advocates imply.
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The concept of cultural capital has been increasingly used in American sociology to study the impact of cultural reproduction on social reproduction. However, much confusion surrounds this concept. In this essay, we disentangle Bourdieu and Passeron's original work on cultural capital, specifying the theoretical roles cultural capital plays in their model, and the various types of high status signals they are concerned with. We expand on their work by proposing a new definition of cultural capital which focuses on cultural and social exclusion. We note a number of theoretical ambiguities and gaps in the original model, as well as specific methodological problems. In the second section, we shift our attention to the American literature on cultural capital. We discuss its assumptions and compare it with the original work. We also propose a research agenda which focuses on social and cultural selection and decouples cultural capital from the French context in which it was originally conceived to take into consideration the distinctive features of American culture. This agenda consists in 1) assessing the relevance of the concept of legitimate culture in the U.S.; 2) documenting the distinctive American repertoire of high status cultural signals; and 3) analyzing how cultural capital is turned into profits in America.
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The study describes perceptions of the transition to ninth grade for low-income, urban, minority adolescents. Students who had a grade point average (GPA) of 3.0 or higher in middle school were interviewed about their school transition. Results focus on perceptions of the transition, major challenges, sources of support, and coping strategies. Students who continued to perform well in ninth grade were differentiated from those who had academic difficulties. Students described the transition to high school as including new academic challenges, a more complex environment, new social demands, and new interactions with teachers. High performers mentioned fewer challenges than low performers. High performers received more support from their immediate family, and many had friends who supported their academic goals. Students described three kinds of coping strategies: individual (be dedicated, stay focused), academic (study, keep up with homework), and social (hang with the right people). Implications focus on supporting academic success for urban youth.
Article
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The indicators of parental involvement in children's education vary considerably across studies, most of which treat parental involvement as a unidimensional construct. This study identified four dimensions of parental involvement and assessed the relationship of each dimension with parental background and academic achievement for a large representative sample of U.S. middle school students. The findings provide little support for the conjecture that parents with low socioeco- nomic status are less involved in their children's schooling than are parents with higher socioeconomic status. Furthermore, although schools varied somewhat in parental involvement associated with volunteering and attendance at meetings of parent-teache r organizations, they did not va'y substantially in levels of involvement associated with home supervision, discussion of school-related activities, or parent-teache r communication. Yet the discussion of school-related activities at home had the strongest relationship with academic achievement. Parents' participation at school had a moderate effect on reading achievement, but a negligible effect on mathematics achievement.
Article
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Current concern with improving student academic progress within American education underscores the need to understand those manipulable influences that can affect academic learning. Parental involvement is considered an important influence on academic progress. Time spent on homework and in leisure TV viewing has an important effect on academic learning. Such time is potentially manipulable through parental effort. Using the massive High School and Beyond data set, the present study examines the direct effects of perceived parental involvement on grades. It also examines the indirect effect of such involvement on grades through TV time and time spent on homework. Parental involvement has an important direct, positive effect on grades. Additionally, parental involvement also leads to increased time spent on homework, which in turn has a positive effect on grades. The effect of parental involvement on grades through TV time appears negligible. In the current push for means to improve student academic progress, the potential effect of parental involvement in students’ academic and social lives should be considered.
Article
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This meta-analysis reviewed the literature on socioeconomic status (SES) and academic achievement in journal articles published between 1990 and 2000. The sample included 101,157 students, 6,871 schools, and 128 school districts gathered from 74 independent samples. The results showed a medium to strong SES–achievement relation. This relation, however, is moderated by the unit, the source, the range of SES variable, and the type of SES–achievement measure. The relation is also contingent upon school level, minority status, and school location. The author conducted a replica of White’s (1982) meta-analysis to see whether the SES–achievement correlation had changed since White’s initial review was published. The results showed a slight decrease in the average correlation. Practical implications for future research and policy are discussed.
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Outlines the available literature to assist school districts in dealing with the at-risk student. The typical classroom and social characteristics of the at-risk student are described. A model plan is presented to help educators remediate academic and social deficits and prevent at-risk children from dropping out of school. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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According to Bourdieu's theory of cultural reproduction, children from middle-class families are advantaged in gaining educational credentials due to their possession of cultural capital. In order to assess this theory, I have developed a broad operationalisation of the concept of cultural capital, and have surveyed pupils on both their own and their parents' cultural capital. I will conclude that cultural capital is transmitted within the home and does have a significant effect on performance in the GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education) examinations. However, a large, direct effect of social class on attainment remains when cultural capital has been controlled for. Therefore, ‘cultural reproduction’ can provide only a partial explanation of social class differences in educational attainment.
Article
Current concern with improving student academic progress within American education underscores the need to understand those manipulable influences that can affect academic learning. Parental involvement is considered an important influence on academic progress. Time spent on homework and in leisure TV viewing has an important effect on academic learning. Such time is potentially manipulable through parental effort. Using the massive High School and Beyond data set, the present study examines the direct effects of perceived parental involvement on grades. It also examines the indirect effect of such involvement on grades through TV time and time spent on homework. Parental involvement has an important direct, positive effect on grades. Additionally, parental involvement also leads to increased time spent on homework, which in turn has a positive effect on grades. The effect of parental involvement on grades through TV time appears negligible. In the current push for means to improve student academic progress, the potential effect of parental involvement in students’ academic and social lives should be considered.
Article
This article provides the definition(s) of cultural capital and its theoretical context, with a particular focus on the relationship between cultural capital, schooling, and educational outcomes. An overview of Bourdieu's theory of social and cultural reproduction is given, focusing on the role of cultural capital. Empirical research on various operationalizations of cultural capital, both quantitative and qualitative, and various educational outcomes, are reviewed; research from multiple nations is represented. Past and current controversies regarding the cultural capital concept in educational research are discussed, as they are important directions for future research.
Article
A sample of 1,803 minority students from low-income homes was classified into 3 groups on the basis of grades, test scores, and persistence from Grade 8 through Grade 12; the classifications were academically successful school completers (''resilient'' students), school completers with poorer academic performance (nonresilient completers), and noncompleters (dropouts). Groups were compared in terms of psychological characteristics and measures of ''school engagement.'' Large, significant differences were found among groups on engagement behaviors, even after background and psychological characteristics were controlled statistically The findings support the hypothesis that student engagement is an important component of academic resilience. Furthermore, they provide information for designing interventions to improve the educational prognoses of students at risk.
Article
Findings from several international studies have shown that there is a significant relationship between literacy skills and socioeconomic status (SES). Research has also shown that schools differ considerably in their student outcomes, even after taking account of students’ ability and family background. The context or learning environment of a school or classroom is an important determinant of the rate at which children learn. The literature has traditionally used school composition, particularly the mean SES of the school, as a proxy for context.
Article
The indicators of parental involvement in children’s education vary considerably across studies, most of which treat parental involvement as a unidimensional construct. This study identified four dimensions of parental involvement and assessed the relationship of each dimension with parental background and academic achievement for a large representative sample of U.S. middle school students. The findings provide little support for the conjecture that parents with low socioeco-nomic status are less involved in their children’s schooling than are parents with higher socioeconomic status. Furthermore, although schools varied somewhat in parental involvement associated with volunteering and attendance at meetings of parent-teacher organizations, they did not substantially in levels of involvement associated with home supervision, discussion of school-related activities, or parent-teacher communication. Yet the discussion of school-related activities at home had the strongest relationship with academic achievement. Parents’ participation at school had a moderate effect on reading achievement, but a negligible effect on mathematics achievement.
Article
This study is concerned with determining the significance of achievement and ascriptive factors in the career mobility of graduate engineers. Difficulties regarding the measurement of relative "openness" of a social structure are pointed out; an attempt is made to overcome some of these difficulties by operationalizing Turner's ideal type notions of "sponsored" and "contest" mobility in the form of multivariate mobility channels. The findings offer support for both models, revealing the increasing effects of achievement variables such as grades, school selectivity, and recruitment emphasis on college achievement while at the same time showing the continuing effects of social origins and college prestige on such "contest" mobility. Examination of the most recent graduates points to the continuing influence of ascriptive criteria and to the declining effect of school-organizational variables. It is suggested that such findings may support the notion of a developing "credential" or "status" opportunity structure.
Article
IN RECENT years there has been considerable research concerning social factors influencing levels of occupational and educational achievement. Generally these studies assume (1) that occupational and educational achievement are influenced strongly by the person's level of occupational and educational aspiration, and (2) that these levels of aspiration are determined largely by the interpersonal situation within which the individual was socialized.
Article
I review studies of the roles played by cognitive skills and noncognitive traits and behaviors in stratification processes. Bowles & Gintis (1976) were among the first to argue that noncognitive traits and behaviors are more important than cognitive skills in determining schooling and employment outcomes. Now, 25 years later, these authors (Bowles & Gintis 2002) claim that the ensuing literature vindicates their position. There is much evidence for this claim, although it remains unresolved. I locate their discussion within the larger literature that has appeared during this time period. This literature provides an emerging interdisciplinary paradigm for the study of socioeconomic attainment, including differentials by social class, race, and ethnic background.
Article
This study seeks to reorient our understanding of the early educational determinants of social stratification outcomes. It focuses on the process and consequences of unequal cognitive skill attainment for ethnic and poverty groups within our nation's cities. It draws, theoretically, on the notion that experiences at home and school create a feedback loop by which the "cultural capital" of the students (their toolkit of skills, habits, and styles with which they construct strategies of action) evolves over time and largely determines differential success in mastering the teacher-assigned homework.
Article
Duncan's model of status attainment in the U.S. is used as a point of comparison for analyzing the process of educational attainment, using several American and English data sets. The overall amount of father-to-son mobility is very similar in the two countries, and so are the relative contributions of social origin and ability to the son's attainment. Although the two educational systems differ greatly, their division of pupils into academic and non-academic segments reflects almost identically the effects of social origin and ability. These findings are interpreted in relation to Lipset's analysis of the two countries' value systems and Turner's contrast between "sponsored" and "contest" mobility patterns. To a great degree, the two countries appear to use quite different mechanisms to bring about the same outcomes.
Article
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Article
Culture influences action not by providing the ultimate values toward which action is oriented, but by shaping a repertoire or "tool kit" of habits, skills, and styles from which people construct "strategies of action." Two models of cultural influence are developed, for settled and unsettled cultural periods. In settled periods, culture independently influences action, but only by providing resources from which people can construct diverse lines of action. In unsettled cultural periods, explicit ideologies directly govern action, but structural opportunities for action determine which among competing ideologies survive in the long run. This alternative view of culture offers new opportunities for systematic, differentiated arguments about culture's causal role in shaping action.
Article
Two theories are considered in accounting for the increased schooling required for employment in advanced industrial society: (a) a technical-function theory, stating that educational requirements reflect the demands for greater skills on the job due to technological change; and (b) a conflict theory, stating that employment requirements reflect the efforts of competing status groups to monopolize or dominate jobs by imposing their cultural standards on the selection process. A review of the evidence indicates that the conflict theory is more strongly supported. The main dynamic of rising educational requirements in the United States has been primarily the expansion of mobility opportunities through the school system, rather than autonomous changes in the structure of employment. It is argued that the effort to build a comprehensive theory of stratification is best advanced by viewing those effects of technological change on educational requirements that are substantiated within the basic context of a conflict theory of stratification.
Article
The economic analysis of wages took a variety of new turns during the 1980s, but none more important than the reinterpretation of wage gaps that were once viewed as discriminatory. At the beginning of the ’80s, wage gaps between minority groups and whites that could not be explained by differences in observable characteristics—such as years of schooling or experience in the labor market—were widely attributed to discrimination. By the end of the decade these unexplained wage gaps were being viewed as a reflection of underlying unobservable differences in human capital or “culture”.
Article
Integrating ideas from child development with sociological models of educational attainment, we examine the relationship between family structure--whether both parents are present in the household--and children's achievement in high school. Using data from the High School and Beyond study, sophomore cohort, 1986, we ask whether differences in achievement are accounted for by differences in parents' educational aspirations and parenting styles. Children who live with single parents or stepparents during adolescence receive less encouragement and less help with school work than children who live with both natural parents, and parental involvement has positive effects on children's school achievement. Differences in parental behavior, however, account for little of the difference in educational attainment between children from intact and nonintact families.
Article
This paper summarizes a qualitative study of family-school relationships in white working-class and middle-class communities. The results indicate that schools have standardized views of the proper role of parents in schooling. Moreover, social class provides parents with unequal resources to comply with teachers' requests for parental participation. Characteristics of family life (e.g., social networks) also intervene and mediate family-school relationships. The social and cultural elements of family life that facilitate compliance with teachers' requests can be viewed as a form of cultural capital. The study suggests that the concept of cultural capital can be used fruitfully to understand social class differences in children's school experiences.
Article
An intervention designed to increase the reading skills, habits, and styles of low-performing elementary school students was implemented in the Dallas Independent School District (Texas). The issues surrounding implementation illustrate many of the problems of inner-city schooling and disadvantaged students and offer some solutions. The Reading One-One tutoring program was developed with the Reading Recovery and Success for All programs successfully used in other districts as models. The discussion attempts to integrate paradigms of human capital and human culture to create a new paradigm that defines culture as skills, habits, and styles and posits a view in which parental skills, habits, and styles determine the cognitive skills of their children. The first two chapters examine human capital and human culture and cognitive skills. Chapter 3 demonstrates the important role of family linguistic culture in a child's cognitive skill development, and Chapter 4 shows how cognitive skills determine future earnings. Chapters 5 through 9 use data from the Dallas schools to analyze the ways in which cognitive skills, habits, and styles determine coursework mastery and grades. Part III focuses on intervention, reporting on the development and implementation of Reading One-One. An appendix discusses the methodology of constructing a table of reading comprehension scores for intervention students. (Contains 4 figures, 45 tables, and 187 references.) (SLD)
Article
An analysis of the achievements of a large sample (4,388) of Wisconsin men during the 10 years following their 1957 high school graduation focuses upon their educational attainments, occupational achievements, and in particular, earnings, in terms of their social origins. Analysis uses a recursive structural education model of achievement. Seven chapters include: The Socioeconomic Achievement Process, providing background information; The Longitudinal Study: Data Sources and Quality, discussing methodological problems and procedures; Socioeconomic Background, Ability, and Achievement, applying a modified model in analyzing socioeconomic influences on the achievements of the sample group; Social Psychological Factors in Achievement, examining their role as variables; Colleges and Achievement, interpreting the effects of colleges on occupation and earnings; Post-High School Earnings: When and for Whom Does "Ability" seem to Matter?, discussing particular circumstances; and, Summary and Conclusions, discussing findings and future research plans. The 1957 questionnaire, the 10-year follow-up questionnaire, characteristics of the social security earnings data, and coverage of male Wisconsin youth in the 1957 survey are appended. Tables supplement the discussion, and the document is indexed. It is stated that the pattern of the achievement process elaborated on by the analysis can be generalized to other areas, and the nation as a whole. (LH)
Article
This study investigated whether the impact of 3 types of family decision making on the adjustment of 14–16-year-old youth was moderated by ethnicity, community context, or both. For joint and unilateral youth decision making, community context interacted with ethnicity in 3 patterns of influence: for Hispanic-American youth, variations in decision making had a stronger impact in ethnically mixed than in predominantly white communities; for African-American youth, the negative impact of unilateral youth decision making was stronger in predominantly white communities; and for Asian- and European-American youth, community context did not make a difference. For unilateral parental decision making, the popular hypothesis that apparent ethnic differences in the influence of parental strictness on adolescent adjustment are primarily due to differences in community context was not supported. Rather, the positive impact of unilateral parental decision making was similar among African-American youth living in predominantly white, and more affluent, communities or in more disadvantaged, ethnically mixed neighborhoods. The negative impact of authoritarian parenting was similar among European-American youth living in less advantaged communities as well as more affluent ones. There was no relation between unilateral parental control and adolescent adjustment of Asian- or Hispanic-American youth in either type of community.
Article
This article examines the impact of authoritative parenting, parental involvement in schooling, and parental encouragement to succeed on adolescent school achievement in an ethnically and socio-economically heterogeneous sample of approximately 6,400 American 14–18-year-olds. Adolescents reported in 1987 on their parents' general child-rearing practices and on their parents' achievement-specific socialization behaviors. In 1987, and again in 1988, data were collected on several aspects of the adolescents' school performance and school engagement. Authoritative parenting (high acceptance, supervision, and psychological autonomy granting) leads to better adolescent school performance and stronger school engagement. The positive impact of authoritative parenting on adolescent achievement, however, is mediated by the positive effect of authoritativeness on parental involvement in schooling. In addition, nonauthoritativeness attenuates the beneficial impact of parental involvement in schooling on adolescent achievement. Parental involvement is much more likely to promote adolescent school success when it occurs in the context of an authoritative home environment.