[Granulocytic sarcoma of the femur in a patient with acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia].
Granulocytic sarcoma, chloroma or myeloblastoma are observed in 3% to 7% of acute myeloid leukaemia and represents localized tumour composed of collection of immature leukaemic cells. It appears most frequently in patients with M2, M4 and M5 subtypes of acute myeloid leukaemia
A 58-year-old female presented with pain and oedema of the right upper limb in November 2009. After two months the patinet had fracture dislocation and numerous osteolytic lesions of the right femur. Immunohistochemistry of tumour biopsy showed megakaryoblastic granulocytic sarcoma which was CD31++, F-XIII++, CD34-, FVIII+++, S100-, aktin-, EMA++, Bcl2++, CD43++, with positive proliferative marker measured with Ki-67 positivity in more of 50% of cells. Aspirate of bone marrow and immunophenotyping with flowcytometry revealed diagnosis of acute megakaryoblastic leukaemia. The course of the disease was rapid and the patient died before commencing chemotherapy, five months after first complaints.
Granulocytic sarcoma is extramedullary localization of collection of leukaemia cells which can proceed, to arise concomitantly with leukaemia, or may be the only manifestation of the disease. The diagnosis can be established only with immunohystochemistry.
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ABSTRACT: Acute megakaryocytic leukemia (AMegL) is a biologically heterogenous subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) that arises from megakaryocytes. Improvements in the accuracy of diagnosing AMegL as well as interest in the molecular analysis of leukemias have led to an increased amount of data available on this rare AML subtype. In this review, we will analyze the diverse molecular features unique to AMegL and how they have influenced the development of novel treatment strategies, including polyploidization. The review will also consider the data available on clinical outcomes in AMegL and how it is a poor individual prognostic factor for AML. Finally, the role of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant in AMegL will be explored.
Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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