Obesity Is Not Associated With Increased Mortality and Morbidity in Critically Ill Children
Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, Wisconsin.Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.15). 03/2012; 37(1). DOI: 10.1177/0148607112441801
Aim: To evaluate the effect of obesity on mortality, length of mechanical ventilation, and length of stay (LOS) in critically ill children. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study in 2- to 18-year-olds, admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) at the Children's Hospital of Wisconsin from 2005-2009 who required invasive ventilation. Weight z score was used to categorize patients as normal (-1.89 to 1.04), overweight (1.05-1.65), obese (1.66-2.33), and severely obese (>2.33). Underweight patients were excluded. Age, gender, admission type, Pediatric Index of Mortality 2 score, operative status, trauma status, admission Pediatric Outcome Performance Category, and diagnosis categories were also collected. The outcomes were mortality, total ventilator days, and PICU LOS. Univariate analysis was used to compare the groups, and multivariate logistic regression was used to compare mortality. Total ventilation days and LOS were modeled with linear regression. RESULTS: In total, 1030 patients were included in the study, with 753 normal weight, 137 overweight, 76 obese, and 64 severely obese. The risk-adjusted mortality rates in overweight (odds ratio [OR], 1.06; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.62-1.82), obese (OR, 0.68; 95% CI, 0.31-1.48), and severely obese patients (OR, 1.02; 95% CI, 0.45-2.34) were not significantly different compared with the normal-weight group. Total ventilation days (P = .9628) and PICU LOS (P = .8431) were not significantly different between the groups after adjusting for risk factors. Conclusion: Critically ill overweight, obese, and severely obese children who require invasive mechanical ventilation have similar mortality, length of stay in the PICU, and ventilator days as compared with normal-weight children. (JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. XXXX;xx:xx-xx).
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ABSTRACT: Background: Underweight children admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) have a higher risk of mortality than normal-weight children. The authors hypothesized that subjective global nutrition assessment (SGNA) could identify malnutrition in the PICU and predict nutrition-associated morbidities. Methods: The authors prospectively evaluated the nutrition status of 150 children (aged 31 days to 5 years) admitted to the PICU with the use of SGNA and commonly used objective anthropometric and laboratory measurements. Each child was administered the SGNA by a dietitian while anthropometric measurements were performed by an independent assessor. To test interrater reproducibility, 76 children had SGNA performed by another dietitian. Occurrence of nutrition-associated complications was documented for 30 days after admission. Results: SGNA ratings of well nourished, moderately malnourished, or severely malnourished demonstrated moderate to strong correlation with several standard anthropometric measurements (P < .05). The laboratory markers did not demonstrate any correlation with SGNA. Interrater agreement showed moderate reliability (κ = 0.671). Length of stay, pediatric logistic organ dysfunction, and Pediatric Risk of Mortality III were not significantly different across the groups and did not correlate with SGNA.
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ABSTRACT: IMPORTANCE Obesity is prevalent among hospitalized children. Knowledge of the relationship between obesity and outcomes in hospitalized children will enhance nutrition assessment and provide opportunities for interventions. OBJECTIVE To systematically review the existing literature concerning the impact of obesity on clinical outcomes in hospitalized children. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION PubMed, Web of Science, and EMBASE databases were searched for studies of hospitalized children aged 2 to 18 years with identified obesity and at least 1 of the following clinical outcomes: all-cause mortality, incidence of infections, and length of hospital stay. Cohort and case-control studies were included. Cross-sectional studies, studies of healthy children, and those without defined criteria for classifying weight status were excluded. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess study quality. RESULTS Twenty-eight studies (26 retrospective; 24 cohort and 4 case-control) were included. Of the 21 studies that included mortality as an outcome, 10 reported a significant positive relationship between obesity and mortality. The incidence of infections was assessed in 8 of the 28 studies; 2 reported significantly more infections in obese compared with nonobese patients. Of the 11 studies that examined length of stay, 5 reported significantly longer lengths of hospital stay for obese children. Fifteen studies (53%) had a high quality score. Larger studies observed significant relationships between obesity and outcomes. Studies of critically ill, oncologic or stem cell transplant, and solid organ transplant patients showed a relationship between obesity and mortality. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE The available literature on the relationship between obesity and clinical outcomes is limited by subject heterogeneity, variations in criteria for defining obesity, and outcomes examined. Childhood obesity may be a risk factor for higher mortality in hospitalized children with critical illness, oncologic diagnoses, or transplants. Further examination of the relationship between obesity and clinical outcomes in this subgroup of hospitalized children is needed.
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ABSTRACT: Objective: The existence of an "obesity paradox" in asymptomatic patients with preclinical heart failure (HF) has not been investigated. The prognostic value of BMI in a cohort of hypertensive and diabetic patients with stage A/B HF enrolled in the PROBE-HF study was explored. Design and methods: BMI was measured in 1003 asymptomatic subjects (age 66.4 ± 7.8 years, 48% males) with hypertension and/or type 2 diabetes and no clinical evidence of HF. Predefined endpoints were all-cause mortality and a composite of death and hospitalization for cardiac causes. Results: During a follow-up of 38.5 ± 4.1 months, 33 deaths were observed. Mortality in the normal BMI group (1.6 deaths per 100 patient-years) did not differ to that in the overweight group (1.1 per 100 patient-years, p = 0.31), but was higher than that in the obese group (0.4 per 100 patient-years, p = 0.0089). In multivariable analysis, obesity (hazard ratio [HR] 0.27 [0.09-0.85], p = 0.025) but not overweight (HR 0.68 [0.32-1.45], p = 0.32) was associated with lower risk of death. Obesity was also independently associated with reduced risk of the composite endpoint (HR 0.54 [0.28-0.99], p = 0.047). Conclusion: In asymptomatic hypertensive and diabetic patients with preclinical HF, obesity is associated with better survival and reduced risk of events.
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