A -Tocopherol-Rich Mixture of Tocopherols Maintains Nrf2 Expression in Prostate Tumors of TRAMP Mice via Epigenetic Inhibition of CpG Methylation

Department of Pharmaceutics, Center for Cancer Prevention Research, Earnest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, Piscataway, NJ, USA.
Journal of Nutrition (Impact Factor: 3.88). 03/2012; 142(5):818-23. DOI: 10.3945/jn.111.153114
Source: PubMed


Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a pivotal role in maintaining cellular redox homeostasis and eliminating reactive toxic species. Nrf2 is epigenetically suppressed due to CpG hypermethylation in prostate tumors from the transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model. We previously showed that dietary feeding of a γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT) suppressed prostate tumorigenesis in TRAMP mice associated with higher Nrf2 protein expression. We hypothesized that γ-TmT may maintain Nrf2 through epigenetic inhibition of promoter CpG methylation. In this study, 8-wk-old male TRAMP mice were fed 0.1% γ-TmT or a control diet for 16 wk. The methylation in the Nrf2 promoter was inhibited in the prostate of the γ-TmT group compared with the control group. Protein expressions of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT), including DNMT1, DNMT3A, and DNMT3B, were lower in the prostate of the γ-TmT group than in the controls. TRAMP-C1 cells were treated with 30 μmol/L of γ-TmT or blank medium for 5 d. The methylation in the Nrf2 promoter was inhibited in the γ-TmT-treated cells compared with the untreated cells at d 5, and mRNA and protein expressions of Nrf2 and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 were higher. Interestingly, only DNMT3B was inhibited in the γ-TmT-treated cells compared with the untreated cells. In the aggregate, our findings demonstrate that γ-TmT could inhibit CpG methylation in the Nrf2 promoter in the prostate of TRAMP mice and in TRAMP-C1 cells, which might lead to higher Nrf2 expression and potentially contribute to the prevention of prostate tumorigenesis in this TRAMP model.

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    • "Selenium compounds have been shown to increase Nrf2 in PCa cells [37]. Further, Huang et al. have shown that Nrf2 is epigenetically suppressed due to CpG hypermethylation in TRAMP mouse prostate tumors [25]. Studies have shown that dietary feeding of a γ-tocopherol-rich mixture of tocopherols suppressed prostate tumorigenesis in TRAMP mice, and that this was associated with higher Nrf2 levels [17, 25]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Studies have shown that vitamin E and selenium possess antiproliferative effects against prostate cancer (PCa). However, results from the Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) suggest that vitamin E (α-tocopheryl acetate; 400 mg) and/or selenium (L-selenomethionine; 200 μg) were ineffective against PCa in humans. It is arguable that the selected dose/formulation of vitamin E/selenium were not optimal in SELECT. Thus, additional studies are needed to define the appropriate formulations/dose regimens of these agents. Here, we investigated the effect of methaneseleninic acid (MSA; 41 µg/kg) and/or γ-tocopherol (γT; 20.8 mg/kg or 41.7 mg/kg) in Nu/J mice implanted with 22Rν1 tumors. MSA (41 µg/kg) and γT (20.8 mg/kg) combination was most consistent in imparting anti-proliferative response; resulting in a significant decrease in i) tumor volume/weight, ii) serum PSA, and iii) Ki-67 immunostaining. Further, we observed i) an upregulation of pro-apoptosis Bax and a down-regulation of the pro-survival Bcl2, and ii) an increase in pro-apoptosis Bad. Furthermore, the combination resulted in a modulation of apolipoprotein E, selenoprotein P and Nrf2 in a fashion that favors antiproliferative responses. Overall, our study suggested that a combination of MSA and γT, at lower dose regimen, could be useful in PCa management.
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    • "DNA methylation results in the recruitment of histone deacetylases (HDACs) to promoter regions, thereby repressing expression of genes. For instance in transgenic adenocarcinoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model, the suppressed expression of Nrf2 gene in TRAMP tumors was because the specific CpG sites of Nrf2 gene promoter region were hypermethylated [21-23]. Therefore, anything that can inhibit DNA methyltransferases activity has potential to demethylate the CpG sites of Nrf2 gene promoter region, leading to repression of Nrf2 gene [22,23]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Oxidative stress plays an important role in diabetes-induced vascular inflammation and pathogenesis. Nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2) is a transcription factor orchestrating antioxidant and cyto-protective responses to oxidative stress. In the present study, we tested whether sulforaphane (SFN) can protect the aorta from diabetes and, if so, whether the aortic protection is associated with up-regulation of Nrf2 and its down-stream antioxidants. Methods Type 1 diabetes was induced in FVB mice by multiple low-dose streptozotocin. Diabetic and age-matched control mice were treated with or without SFN at 0.5 mg/kg daily in five days of each week for three months. At the end of 3 months treatment of SFN one set of mice were sacrificed to perform the experimental measurements. The second set of both diabetic and control mice were aged for additional 3 months without further SFN treatment and then sacrificed to perform the experimental measurements. Aortas from these mice were assessed for fibrosis, inflammation, oxidative damage, and Nrf2 expression and transcription by immunohistochemical staining and real-time PCR method, respectively. Results Diabetes induced significant increases in oxidative stress and inflammation in the aorta at both 3 and 6 months, and fibrotic response at 6 months. SFN completely prevented these diabetic pathogenic changes and also significantly up-regulated the expression of Nrf2 and its down-stream antioxidants. Conclusions These results suggest that diabetes-induced aortic fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative damage can be prevented by SFN. The aortic protection from diabetes by SFN was associated with the up-regulation of Nrf2 and its downstream antioxidants.
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    ABSTRACT: Growing evidence suggests epigenetic alteration is involved during the development and progression of prostate cancer. Previously, we found Nrf2, a key regulator of cellular antioxidant defense systems, was silenced through epigenetic mechanism during tumorigenesis in vivo TRAMP mice and in vitro TRAMP C1 cells. Sulforaphane (SFN) in cruciferous vegetable has been demonstrated to be a potent cancer prevention agent for years. The aim of this study is to investigate the potential of SFN to restore Nrf2 expression in TRAMP C1 cells through epigenetic modifications. Bisulfite genomic sequencing results indicated that SFN treatment led to demethylation of the first 5 CpGs in the promoter region of the Nrf2 gene in TRAMP C1 cells. Using methylation DNA immunoprecipitation (MeDIP) assay, SFN significantly reduced the ratio of anti-mecyt antibody binding to the Nrf2 promoter containing the first 5 CpGs. SFN increased mRNA and protein expressions of Nrf2 and Nrf2 downstream target gene NQO-1. In addition, SFN decreased the protein levels of DNMT1 and DNMT3a. SFN treatment also attenuated the protein expression levels of HDACs 1, 4, 5, and 7 while increased the level of active chromatin marker acetyl-Histone 3 (Ac-H3). SFN treatments also increased chromatin-immunoprecipitated DNA of Nrf2 gene promoter using anti-Ac-H3 antibody. Taken together, our current study shows that SFN regulates Nrf2's CpGs demethylation and reactivation in TRAMP C1 cells, suggesting SFN may exert its chemopreventive effect in part via epigenetic modifications of Nrf2 gene with subsequent induction of its downstream anti-oxidative stress pathway.
    No preview · Article · Feb 2013 · Biochemical pharmacology
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