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Essential fatty acids of pitaya (dragon fruit) seed oil

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Abstract

Hylocereus undatus and Hylocereus polyrhizus are two varieties of the commonly called pitaya fruits. The seeds were separated and the oil was extracted and analysed. Essential fatty acids, namely, linoleic acid and linolenic acid form a significant percentage of the unsaturated fatty acids of the seed oil extract. Both pitaya varieties exhibit two oleic acid isomers. Essential fatty acids are important acids that are necessary substrates in animal metabolism and cannot be synthesised in vivo. Both pitaya varieties contain about 50% essential fatty acids (C18:2 (48%) and C18:3 (1.5%)). This paper details the process of recovering the pitaya seeds and determining the composition of the oil extracted from the seeds.

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... Thus, longan fruit by-products can be used as a readily accessible source of natural antioxidants and/or as possible supplements in the food or pharmaceutical industries. (Ariffin et al., 2009). Three species that have been commercialized are Hylocereus undatus (red pitaya), which has red-skin fruit with white flesh, Hylocereus polyrhizus, which has red-skin fruit with red flesh, and Hylocereus megalanthus (Yellow Pitaya), which has yellow-skinned fruit with white flesh (Figure 1.6). ...
... An overview of the nutritional composition of fruit pulp is shown in Table 1.3. Many researchers showed that the dragon fruit seeds contain a high amount of lipids with a potential source of essential fatty acids and tocopherols (Ariffin et al., 2009, Villalobos-Gutiérrez et al., 2012, Liaotrakoon et al., 2013. Dragon peel has recently drawn much attention from growers worldwide due to its red color and antioxidative activity from the betacyanin contents (Rebecca et al., 2010, Tenore et al., 2012. ...
... In fact, several studies focused on bioactive compounds e.g. the production of phenolic compounds as antioxidants by solid-state fermentation of pomegranate peel (Aguilar et al., 2008), violet pigments from liquid pineapple waste (Aruldass et al., 2015) or screening of antioxidant properties of mango, guava, pineapple, and passion fruit dietary fiber concentrate . Besides, fatty acid profiles in seed oil of dragon fruit seed (Ariffin et al., 2009) or amino acid profiles of mango seed kernel (Abdalla et al., 2007) have been studied. Although fruit by-products are interesting from a nutritional and economic point of view, only few of them have been completely valorized. ...
... Pitaya seeds correspond to approximately 5% of the total pulp mass of the fruit (Villalobos-Gutiérrez et al., 2012) and are promising sources of nutrients and phytochemicals. The lipids represent 30% of the chemical composition of the seeds, 75% of which are polyunsaturated fatty acids, making them comparable to flaxseed, rapeseed, sesame and grape seeds (Ariffin et al., 2009;Rui et al., 2009;Villalobos-Gutiérrez et al., 2012). They are rich in proteins (~20%), which similar content to those in leguminous. ...
... They are rich in proteins (~20%), which similar content to those in leguminous. Tocopherols, flavonoids and sterols are some of the phytochemicals identified in pitaya seed extracts, which have antioxidant activity associated with the presence of phenolic compounds (Ariffin et al., 2009;Chemah et al., 2010;Liaotrakoon et al., 2013;Lim et al., 2010). ...
... The challenge of separation the seeds from de pulp may be one of the reasons for this. The polysaccharides in the pulp and mucilage around the seeds make them adhered to each other, requiring specific procedures for separation (Ariffin et al., 2009;Ramírez-Truque et al., 2011). ...
Article
Organic pitaya seeds are rich in protein, lipids and bioactive compounds, but their separation from the pulp is a technological challenge. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the seed-pulp separation method on the seeds' drying process. Three separation methods were evaluated: acid (AS), thermal (ES) and enzymatic (TS). After separation, the seeds were dried at 45 °C, and the kinetic curves, the drying rates, and the effective diffusion coefficient were determined. All treatments promoted the separation of the pulp from the seed, however, ES treatment promoted the best separation, which significantly affected the drying process. The observed effects were the decreased of the initial moisture content, reduced the drying rate by 6 times, and the diffusivity by 1.7 times when compared to the seeds obtained by the AS treatment. The constant rate period seemed to control the drying kinetics, and Page's semi-empirical model best fitted the experimental data.
... The accessibility, storage capacity, feasibility, and cost factors are the important parameters that need to be considered before adopting the advanced storage systems by the growers. [19,20] Kruger and Lemmer [14] Effect of pre-treatment on shelf life ...
... Seeds are mainly utilized to extract the oil from it which contains about 50% essential fatty acids. [20] Also, the seeds have application as an ingredient in many food products such as syrup, ice cream, sherbet, candy, yogurt, and pastries. [3] The subsequent section contains a detailed description of the efforts made by several researchers about the processing aspects of dragon fruit: ...
... Generally, dragon fruit seeds remain closely embedded in pulp and different methods have been used for their separation (Fig. 6). Ariffin et al. [20] have performed an investigation by taking two dragon fruit varieties viz. Hylocereus polyrhizus and Hylocereus undatus. ...
Article
Dragon fruit is a nutritious and wonderful exotic fruit cultivated throughout the arid regions of the globe, particularly Asian countries. The fruit with an attractive shape and magnificent color are refreshing with mouthwatering taste. It is abundant in vital nutritional ingredients viz. carotene, calcium, fiber, vitamin B, vitamin C, and phosphorous. The fruit is processed into numerous value-added products; however, that has been limited to small-scale processing industries. In addition to pulp processing, the utilization of byproducts (peel, seed) will contribute to reducing waste disposal problems, imparts value to the product for food and other industrial applications. Further, extraction and application of bioactive compounds from fruit waste having the application for food fortification can enhance the overall efficacy of the process. This review highlights the technologies and processes adopted for the overall utilization of dragon fruit. Further to make rational usage of this valuable resource, systematic compilation and presentation of reported literature are required. Therefore, the present work was aimed towards the comprehensive utilization of this fruit through value addition approaches and by-product utilization.
... [3] The seeds of the fruits of Hylocereus fruits were also reported to be rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids and linoleic acid. [4] However, no detailed data made available on the volatile constituents of Hylocereus fruits flesh. Different parts of Hylocereus species were reported to be used for medicinal purposes. ...
... [8] Pitaya seeds were also reported to contain oil with high level of functional lipids in addition to their biological properties. [1,4,9] Phytochemical analysis of the peel of Hylocereus species indicated that the peel is rich of betalains which comprises the red-violet betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins. Betacyanins are known to possess some biological properties with potential application in pharmaceutical industry. ...
... Chemahet al. (2010) mengungkapkan total fenolik dan flavonoid biji buah naga merah kering per 100 g berat kering dikategorikan tinggi yaitu 43,9 mg GAE dan 50,8 mg CAE, aktivitas antioksidannya sangat kuat, mengandung asam lemak yaitu asam palmitat (C16:0), Stearat (C18:0), oleic (C18:1), Linoleat (C18:2), asam linoleat sebesar 480 g/kg. Arifin et al, (2009) dalam Nurul et al (2014 dalam hasil penelitiannya menjelaskan bahwa asam lemak esensial pada buah naga putih (Hylocereus undatus) dan buah naga merah (Hylocereus polyrhizus) sebesar 50% yang terdiri dari 48 % C18:2 dan 1,5% C18:3. ...
... Hal tersebut sama diungkapkan oleh Chemah (2010) bahwa ekstrak biji buah naga merah mengandung asam lemak seperti linoleat, palmitat. Arifin et al. (2009) yaitu ekstrak biji buah naga merah memiliki senyawa asam linoleat dan asam linoleat. ...
... Moreover, Bunea et al. (2012) also reported ALA as the most abundant FA in bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus) and blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum). Instead, LA was described as the major FA in seeds of Ribes and Rubus species (Marić et al., 2020) as well as in pitaya seeds (Hylocereus undatus and Hylocereus polyrhizus) (Ariffin et al., 2009) and Lycium barbarum (Pires et al., 2021). ...
... Nervonic acid (24:1 n9), eicosanoic (C20:1 n9) and palmitoleic (C16:1 n7) where the other MUFAs found in Corema album samples, being the latest only detected in fruits and leaves, respectively. In agreement with our results, palmitic and oleic FA have been described as the most abundant SFA and MUFA, respectively, in fruits of several Rubus, Vaccinium and Hylocereus species (Marić et al., 2020;Ariffin et al., 2009) and in Lycium barbarum (Pires et al., 2021). ...
Article
Edible wild plants are part of the ethnobotanical and gastronomic heritage of different geographical areas. Corema album (L.) D. Don is an endemic species of the dune systems of the Atlantic coast of the Iberian Peninsula. The aerial parts of Corema album are a source of nutrients and antioxidants. The Corema album white berry (Portuguese crowberry) is rich in calcium, iron, and zinc. The plant also shows high phenolic content and antioxidant capacity associated with the leaves, fruit, and flowers. The presence of organic acids, namely phenolic acids, such as hydroxycinnamic acids, and long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) omega-3 and omega-6 has also been confirmed. Toxicity studies evaluated by cell viability tests with human intestinal epithelium model cells (Caco-2) have shown that, at low concentrations, plant extracts may present beneficial effects.
... Visual quality, storage life, and marketability also get affected due to rapid shrivelling nature of the fruit (Jiang et al., 2002) [15] . Efforts are to be made to retard the transpiration because as soon as the fruit is detached from the fruit the shelf life gets shortened due to weight loss and desiccation through transpiration (Ariffin et al., 2009) [4] . However, frits subjected to high relative humidity are potentially more susceptible to decay (Shin et al., 2007) [29] . ...
... Visual quality, storage life, and marketability also get affected due to rapid shrivelling nature of the fruit (Jiang et al., 2002) [15] . Efforts are to be made to retard the transpiration because as soon as the fruit is detached from the fruit the shelf life gets shortened due to weight loss and desiccation through transpiration (Ariffin et al., 2009) [4] . However, frits subjected to high relative humidity are potentially more susceptible to decay (Shin et al., 2007) [29] . ...
Article
Full-text available
Dragonfruit (Hylocereus sp.) is an exotic fruit belonging to the Cactaceae family. The fruit has been recently hit the Indian markets and successfully grabbed the attention of almost every individual. The fruit is potentially rich in antioxidants and possesses many health benefits. Presently the fruit is fetching a good price but due to low shelf life one cannot store it for long. Therefore, a technique has to be developed through which it can be stored for a considerable period of time to fetch desired returns. Under such circumstances, a review has been carried out to collect and gather information on advancement techniques to extend the shelf life of dragonfruit to pave the way for the researcher to conduct studies and develop an ideal method to prolong the shelf life of the fruits during storage.
... A pitaya é uma fruta atraente que tem recebido destaque nos últimos anos, não apenas por sua aparência, mas também por suas propriedades bioativas, valor nutricional e alto valor comercial [8,9]. Dentre as partes da pitaya descartadas durante o processamento industrial, encontram-se as sementes, cuja separação da polpa constitui um desafio devido à presença de polissacarídeos e mucilagem que se encontram aderidos às sementes, exigindo procedimentos específicos para sua separação [10,11]. ...
... No que se referem a sua composição, as sementes apresentam 30 % de ácidos graxos, sendo 75 % destes ácidos graxos poli-insaturados, com destaque para os ácidos oléico, linoléico e linolênico. São ricas em proteínas, com teor similar ao encontrado em leguminosas e seu extrato apresenta atividade antimicrobiana [11,13,14,15]. Além disso, estudos indicam as sementes de pitaya como uma potencial fonte natural de antioxidantes e reportam a presença de outros compostos bioativos como os ácidos fenólicos protocatecuico, p-cumárico, p-hidroxibenzóico, caféico (ou ácido fenólico), vanílico, siríngico e gálico, fitoesteróis como β-sitosterol, campesterol e estigmasterol, flavonóides e tocoferóis, sendo o α-tocoferol o de maior concentração [13,14,15,16]. ...
... Minimally processed pitahayas rapidly lose bright white color during storage and develop a brown surface that reduces their acceptability to consumers. Ariffin et al. (2009) reported that after cutting, shelf life of pitahayas gets rapidly reduced due to weight loss and desiccation. Matan et al. (2015) reported that application of green tea extract in combination with atmospheric RF plasma provided protection against the growth of pathogens and also improved the shelf life of fresh-cut dragon fruit. ...
... Belonging to the Hylocereus genus, pitaya or more commonly known as dragon fruit is a climbing vine cactus species that have successfully attained international recognition, both as an ornamental plant and as an economical fruit crop [1,2]. Regarded as an outstanding source of natural antioxidants and micronutrients [3][4][5][6][7][8], this superfruit is not only being consumed fresh but also being transformed into major ingredients for many innovative food products that correspond to consumers' quest [9]. In Malaysia, following the overwhelming demand from both local and international markets, the cultivation of red pitaya, Hylocereus polyrhizus (H. ...
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Currently, consumers’ demand for sunscreens derived from natural sources that provide photoprotection from ultraviolet (UV) radiation is pushing the cosmetic industry to develop breakthrough formulations of sun protection products by incorporating plant antioxidants as their active ingredients. In this context, the present study was initiated to evaluate the antioxidant and photoprotective properties of the underutilized Hylocereus polyrhizus peel extract (HPPE) using in vitro spectrophotometric techniques. The phytochemical screenings of HPPE conducted via high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF/MS) revealed the presence of phenolic acids and flavonoids as the major secondary metabolites in HPPE. The antioxidant potentials evaluated based on 2, 2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical and total antioxidant capacity assays were in the range of 22.16 ± 0.24%–84.67 ± 0.03% with 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) of 36.39 ± 0.04 μg/mL and 23.76 ± 0.14%–31.87 ± 0.26% (IC50 = 21.93 ± 0.07 μg/mL), respectively. For the photoprotective evaluation, the results showed that HPPE had significantly high absorbance values (3.1–3.6) at 290–320 nm with an exceptional sun protection factor (SPF) value of 35.02 ± 0.39 at 1.00 mg/mL. HPPE also possessed a broad-spectrum shielding power against both UVA and UVB radiations. Hence, in terms of practical implications, our findings would offer an exciting avenue to develop a photoprotective formulation incorporating the ethanolic extract of Hylocereus polyrhizus peels as a synergistic active ingredient for its excellent UV absorption properties and the strong antioxidant activities.
... When the % composition of fatty acids of H. polyrhizus, H. undatus and H. meglanthus are evaluated separately, it was reported as 23.5%, 21.0%, 18.8% for total SFA (saturated fatty acids) respectively and 26.3%, 23.9%, 14.3% for MUFA (monounsaturated fatty acids) respectively and 48.7%, 53.8%, 65.4% for PUFA (polyunsaturated fatty acids) respectively. The highest linoleic acid was reported in H. meglanthus with 65.4% and the highest oleic acid was reported in H. polyrhizus with 25.5% [3,15,16]. ...
Article
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Pitaya attracts attention due to its properties such as fruit color, minerals, antioxidant properties and rich nutrient content both in Turkey and in the world. Seed and cuttings are mostly used in the production of pitaya. One of the best methods for fast and disease-free production of pitaya is in vitro tissue culture. In this study, young shoots of different pitaya varieties were cultured in Murashige and Skoog (MS) basal medium supplemented with different plant growth regulators such as 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP), gibberellic acid (GA3), Indole-3-butyric (IBA). The highest value of the multiplication coefficient (5.41) was found in Halley's Comet variety cultivated in MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l BAP. The lowest value (1.84) was detected in Bloody Mary cultivar growing in MS medium supplemented with 2.0 mg/l BAP. According to the results of rooting studies, between 10-95% root formation was detected when the medium and pitaya varieties were compared. While the best medium for rooting, MS medium supplemented with 1 mg / l IBA is detected, It has been determined that MS medium without plant growth regulators (PGRs) can also be used for rooting. Based on our results, the healthy and large amount of pitaya seedlings could be obtained.
... Program Pascasarjana, 2009). The seeds resembling that of kiwi fruit are embedded in the pulp and are edible (Ariffin et al., 2009). The fruit can be eaten raw or is also used in drinks, candies, etc. (Dartsch et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Dragon fruit has caught the attention of many researchers in the last few years because of its vast therapeutic potential. The fruit is enriched with several phytochemical constituents having tremendous pharmacological properties. It is traditionally used as a coloring agent. Some newly explored therapeutic applications include its use as an antioxidant, antimicrobial, antidiabetic, anticancer, and nutraceutical. The phytoconstituents can be extracted from flesh, peel, and seeds of the fruit. The fruit is known to be a rich source of betacyanin, vitamin C, and lycopene. The current review is focused on phytochemical constituents of dragon fruit along with its pharmacological activities. It also sheds light on the safety aspects of the fruit. The review will pave a path for researchers to study this marvel fruit further for societal benefit. Advanced research on dragon fruit will unleash many more therapeutic benefits and can give mechanistic insight about its activities. Practical applications Phytoconstituents play a vital role in the treatment of various diseases and for the improvement of human health, in general. Dragon fruit is known to be having antioxidant, anti‐microbial, anti‐diabetic, anti‐cancer applications. The fruit can also be used as a nutraceutical (functional food). To grab all the benefits from this fruit, its phytoconstituents and pharmaco‐therapeutic aspect have to be thoroughly studied. This review can be very useful for researchers across different fields like botany, agriculture, pharmacy, etc., to bridge the gap for collaborative work on dragon fruit, which will help in finding solutions for many modern diseases.
... The extracts should be selectively toxic to the targeted organism or interfere directly with a specific reaction pathway, and this must be done without disturbing the host cell or the normal physiological pathway (Kuete et al., 2011). The principle of the MTT assay is based on the reduction of a soluble tetrazolium salt by mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity of viable cells into a soluble purple coloured formazan compound that is easily measured using a spectrophotometer after it has dissolved (Ariffin et al., 2009). The IC 50 is used as a parameter for cytotoxicity. ...
... 39,40 cis-Vaccenic acid is an omega-7 fatty acid commonly known for its antibacterial and hypolipidemic effects. 41 Tridecanoic acid and pentafluoropropionic acid, nonyl ester are also known to possess the antimicrobial activity. 42 Thus, the antimicrobial activity observed in this study was attributed to the presence of these compounds. ...
Article
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it is on the evaluation of the in vitro antibacterial and in silico toxicity properties of phytocompounds from Ricinus communis leaf extract
... Pitaya fruit is commonly known as dragon fruit and belongs to the genus Selenicereus in the family Cactaceae, and its cultivation has increased because of reports highlighting promising medicinal uses of these plants [1,2]. The edible seeds of pitaya fruit resemble seeds of kiwi fruit and are embedded in the pulp [3], accounting for 8% of the total weight of pitaya fruit [4]. Pitaya seed oil contains a high number of lipids and can be used as a source of essential oils, which contain fatty acids, sterol, phenols, and tocopherol [5]. ...
Article
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White-fleshed pitaya (Selenicereus undatus) and red-fleshed pitaya (Selenicereus costaricensis) are becoming increasingly popular because of their nutritional and medicinal benefits. However, in addition to their beneficial properties, allergy to pitaya fruits has occurred in daily life. In this study, we investigated the protein profile of pitaya fruit seeds and focused on the most reactive proteins against immunoglobulin E (IgE) in sera from allergic patients by immunoblotting. A protein band of approximately 20 kDa displayed a clear reaction with the serum IgE. The protein bands of interest were excised, in-gel digested, and analyzed using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS), followed by data searching against a restricted database (Caryophyllales in UniProtKB) for protein identification. Immunoinformatic tools were used to predict protein allergenicity. The potential allergens included cupin_1 and heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in white-fleshed pitaya seeds, and cupin_1, heat shock protein 70, and heat shock protein sti1-like in red-fleshed pitaya seeds are potential allergens. The expression of potential allergens was further verified at the transcriptional level in the species of S. undatus and S. costaricensis.
... The other fraction that can be used as a potential source of valuable compounds are the seeds. In general, studies have shown that pitaya oil contains high concentrations of polyunsaturated fatty acids like linoleic acid (46% to 48%), oleic acid (21.6% to 23.9%), and -linolenic acid (1.21%), while the saturated fatty acids were characterized by palmitic acid (17.9% to 18.2%) and small concentrations of other typical fatty acids like myristic and stearic acid, among others (Ariffin et al., 2009;Villalobos-Gutierrez, Schweiggert, Carle, & Esquivel, 2012). Traditional extraction was compared with microwave-assisted extraction, supercritical fluid extraction, aqueous enzymatic extraction, and a combination of microwave and aqueous enzymatic extraction. ...
Article
Tropical fruits represent one of the most important crops in the world. The continuously growing global market for the main tropical fruits is currently estimated at 84 million tons, of which approximately half is lost or wasted throughout the whole processing chain. Developing novel processes for the conversion of these by-products into value-added products could provide a viable way to manage this waste problem, aiming at the same time to create a sustainable economic growth within a bio-economy perspective. Given the ever-increasing concern about sustainability, complete valorization through a bio-refinery approach, i.e. zero waste concept, as well as the use of green techniques is therefore of utmost importance. This paper aims to report the status on the valorization of tropical fruit by-products within a bio-refinery frame, via the application of traditional methodologies, and with specific attention to the extraction of phenolics and carotenoids as bioactive compounds. The different types of by-products, and their content of bioactives is reviewed, with a special emphasis on the lesser-known tropical fruits. Moreover, the bioactivity of the different types of extracts and their possible application as a resource for different sectors (food, pharmaceutical and environmental sciences) is discussed. Consequently, this review presents the concepts of tropical fruit biorefineries, and the potential applications of the isolated fractions.
... The fruit peel has been found to contain betalain indole pigments, a complex consisting of red-purple betacyanins and yellow betaxanthins [10]. A fixed oil extracted from seeds has been found to consist mainly of linoleic, oleic, palmitic, stearic, cis-vaccenic, and linoleic acids, and to contain in addition tocopherols, and sterols [11]. ...
Article
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The consumption of exotic fruits is rapidly increasing in European countries. Some of these products have attracted much interest due to their alleged properties of preventing malnutrition, over-nutrition, and disease, maintaining a healthy body. Scientific studies on these fruits are multiplying, including chemical characterizations and biological investigations on in vitro and in vivo experimental models. This review concerns four edible fruits: Hylocereus undatus (dragon fruit), Annona cherimola (cherimoya), Citrus australasica (finger lime), and Averrhoa carambola (carambola or star fruit). By screening biomedical databases, viz. Scopus, WOS, and PubMed, a total of 131 papers have been selected. Data reveals a wide series of biological effects that confirm traditional medicinal uses or suggest new therapeutic applications. Most studies concern problems related to nutrition, such as body redox balance, metabolic syndrome, and hepatoprotective effects, but other properties have been highlighted, including anticancer, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and neuroprotective effects, as well as cardiovascular and skin protection. Pharmacological investigations have also been focused on specific compounds, assuming a potential role in drug discovery. In summary, food products, byproducts, and single compounds derived from these plants could be exploited in the prevention of disease or for specific treatments of health problems.
... Even tough pitaya is not a good source of fat as other cactus fruits, its fatty acid profile present is beneficial for health. Fatty acids Hylocereus seed oil: Linolenic (mean 49.5%), linoleic (mean 22.7%), palmitic (mean 17%%); must abundant PUFA (mean 51%), MUFA (mean 26.4%) and SFA ( mean 22.6%) (Ariffin et al., 2009;Choo, Koh, & Ling, 2016). (2016) Cañar, Caetano and Bonilla (2014) Khalili et al., ...
Chapter
Alimentation is fundamental for human subsistence to satisfy biological needs. Cactus plants have been an important solution for human alimentation in arid and semiarid zones of America. Utilization and consumption of the plants and their fruits date from prehispanic times. The most important cactus fruits by production volume are prickly pear (cactus pear), pitaya (dragon fruit), berrycacti (garambullo), and xoconoxtle. These fruits are flavorsome and present a variety of colors. They aport good quality nutrients for human subsistence, but additionally, they apport bioactive compounds such as polyphenols, betalains, flavonoids, among others, that serve for the prevention and treatment of diseases. Cactus fruits are consumed mostly fresh, but they are used to manufacture products such as processed foods, medicaments, and additives. The cultivation of these crops is emerging as new solutions for human alimentation since this adaptability to arid regions brings a solution to water shortage
... The dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus (Haw.)) is a nutrient-rich fruit that contains high levels of beta-carotene, lycopene, and vitamin E (Charoensiri et al. 2009). The unsaturated fatty acids in oil extracted from dragon fruit seeds is composed of about 50 % essential fatty acids (48 % linoleic acid (C18:2), and 1.5 % linolenic acid (C18:3)) (Ariffin et al. 2008). Glucose, fructose, and oligosaccharides are also present in dragon fruit (Wichienchot et al. 2010). ...
... g/ 100 g total fatty acids of α-linolenic acid ( Table 2). 50 Goldenberry (Physalis peruviana L.). Goldenberry seed oil has a large content of linoleic acid (76.1 g/100 g total fatty acids) followed by oleic (11.7 g/100 g total fatty acids), palmitic (7.3 g/100 g total fatty acids), and stearic (2.5 g/100 g total fatty acids) acids (Table 2). ...
Article
Fruits are important foods and may be processed into juice, jam and snack products. During the processing, fruit seeds are generated as byproducts and discarded at a cost and with potential environmental contamination. Fruit seeds contain high contents of lipids together with bioactive compounds such as phytosterols, tocopherols, phenolics including flavonoids, and carotenoids and, thus, can be used to produce functional food oils. In this review, the chemical profiles of fatty acids and bioactive compounds, as well as potential health beneficial properties of fruit seed oils, are introduced. The clarification of these pieces of information could stimulate further interest in research and commercialization of fruit seed oils and enhance the profitability of the fruit production and processing industries while reducing environmental hazards.
... Jerônimo et al. (2015) analysed the flesh of the species H. undatus and found that the most predominant fatty acids were linoleic, oleic and palmitic acid, accounting for 50.8%, 21.5% and 12.6% of the total fatty acid content, respectively (Table 2). Similarly, Ariffin et al. (2009) analysed the oil extracted from dragon fruit seeds of red and white pitaya and found a high content of essential fatty acids, namely linoleic (~50%) and linolenic (~1%) Domain: Eukaryota Kingdom: Plantae (Haeckel 1866) Subkingdom: Tracheobionta Superdivision: Spermatophyta (Seed plants) (Willkomm 1854) Division: Magnoliophyta (Flowering plants) (Cronquist et al. 1966) Class: Magnoliopsida (Dicotyledons) (Cronquist et al. 1966) Subclass: Caryophyllidae (Takhtajan 1966 (Beynen and Katan 1985;Jenkins et al. 2002). In addition, linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids are necessary to maintain cell membranes, brain function and the transmission of nerve impulses under normal conditions (Glick and Fischer et al. 2013;Jerônimo et al. 2015). ...
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Dragon fruit or pitaya is an exotic tropical plant that brings multiple benefits to human health thanks to its high nutritional value and bioactive compounds, including powerful natural antioxidants. Extracts from stems, flowers, peels, pulps of dragon fruit own a range of beneficial biological activities against pathogenic microbes including bacteria, fungi and viruses, and diseases like diabetes, obesity, hyperlipidaemia, and cancer. Moreover, dragon fruit extracts have cardiovascular- and hepato-protective properties, as well as prebiotic potential. Vietnam is a tropical country with favourable climate conditions for the development of pitaya plantations, which have great adaptability and tolerance to a wide range of environmental conditions (e.g. salinity adaptation, favour light intensity, drought resistance, etc.). The dragon fruit, thanks to its nutritional properties, biological activities, and commercial value has become a cost-effective good for the Vietnamese economy, particularly in the poorest areas of the Mekong delta region, and a driving force in the sustainable development of Vietnam under the challenges posed by the global climate change such as saline intrusion and drought.
... Due to its scale-like appearance on the outside, the fruit is known as dragon fruit (Al-Mekhlafi et al., 2021). Antioxidant-rich oil was produced from the dragon fruit's small black seeds, which are found throughout the fruit (Ariffin et al., 2009). Additionally, dragon fruit seeds are a good source of dietary fibre, vitamin C, minerals, carotenoids, phenolic acids, organic acids (including acetic and lactic), protein, flavonoid compounds, phosphorus, iron, and Phyto albumins (a kind of protein) In addition to aiding digestion, the peel and seeds of the dragon fruit reduce cholesterol levels and protect against diabetes and colon cancer by neutralising the harmful effects of heavy metals and other environmental toxins. ...
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Gold nanoparticles with tiny sizes and biostability are particularly essential and are employed in a variety of biomedical applications. Using a reducing agent and a stabilising agent to make gold nanoparticles has been reported in a number of studies. Gold nanoparticles with a particle size of 25.31 nm were synthesized in this study utilising Hylocereus polyrhizus (Red Pitaya) extract, which functions as a reducing and stabilising agent. The extract of Red Pitaya is said to be a powerful antioxidant and anti-cancer agent. Because of its substantial blood biocompatibility and physiological stability, green production of gold nanoparticles with H. polyrhizus fruit extract is an alternative to chemical synthesis and useful for biological and medical applications. The formation and size distribution of gold nanoparticles were confirmed by HPLC, UV–Vis spectrophotometer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Dynamic light scattering (DLS), Zeta potential, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The well-analysed NPs were used in various biological assays, including anti-diabetic, anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer, and antioxidant (DPPH), and cytotoxic investigations. The NPs also showed a dose-dependent cytotoxic activity against HCT-116, HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines, with IC50 of 100 µg/mL for HCT-116 cells, 155 µg/mL for HepG2, and for MCF-7 cells the value was 165 µg/mL respectively. Finally, the outstanding biocompatibility of Au-NPs has led to the conclusion that they are a promising choice for various biological applications.
... Pitaya or dragon fruit (Hylocererus undatus) is a nutrient-rich fruit containing high levels of beta-carotene, lycopene and vitamin E (Charoensiri, Kongkachuichai, Suknicom, & Sungpuag, 2009). Seeds of dragon fruit consist of essential fatty acids, linoleic acid (C18:2) and linolenic acid (C18:3) (Ariffin et al., 2008). Glucose, fructose and oligosaccharides are also found in dragon fruits (Wichienchot et al., 2010). ...
Article
The freshwater crustacean Daphnia is widely used as live food for ornamental fish. To increase production, food supplementations are required when culturing Daphnia. Here, we aimed to clarify the effects of plant oligosaccharides derived from dragon fruit (DFO) on growth rate, egg production, number of first clutch juveniles and survival of Daphnia supplemented with five different concentrations of DFO, that is 0, 1, 3, 9, 27 mg/L. The results showed the growth and reproduction of Daphnia were enhanced when supplemented with DFO. Growth rate of Daphnia supplemented with 9 mg/L DFO was the highest among all treatments. The time that Daphnia produced the first clutch eggs was shorter in high concentration of DFO (3, 9, 27 mg/L). The number of juveniles in the first clutch increased in treatments of higher concentration of DFO (3, 9, 27 mg/L). These results suggest that plant oligosaccharides derived from dragon fruit increase growth and fecundity of Daphnia. Survival rates of Daphnia were 100% except for the treatment supplemented with 27 mg/L of DFO in which the survival rate was reduced to 87%. To our knowledge, this is the first functional evidence demonstrating that oligosaccharides derived from dragon fruit enhance growth and fecundity of Daphnia.
... Compared to vanilla essential oil, almond oil had a higher content of oleic acid (48%) and linoleic acid (26%). Ariffin et al. [18] found that the fatty acid content of vanilla essential oil was similar to that of dragon fruit seed oil (23.59%), and similar contents of palmitic acid (17-18%) and stearic acid (approximately 5%). ...
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Applications for vanilla essential oil extracted from vanilla pods have been limited since the effective components of vanilla could be easily influenced by environmental factors, such as temperature, light, and oxygen, which hinder their effectiveness. In this study, vanilla essential oil was encapsulated in a Pickering emulsion with octenyl succinic acid starch (OSA—starch). The optimal process conditions for emulsion preparation were determined as 5% vanilla essential oil phase with 2.5% OSA—starch when they were ultrusonicated for 3 min at 470 W. Under these conditions, the minimum particle size was 0.456 μm, the oil droplets were completely encased by starch, and no new chemical bonds were formed. The smallest particle size was produced at a pH of 4 and 500 mM ion concentration. The antioxidant activity of the emulsion was greater than that of the pure vanilla oil at the same oil content. After 24 h storage, the antioxidant activity of the emulsion was enhanced, and the vanilla essential oil was slowly released in the emulsion. These results indicated that the vanilla essential oil encapsulated in a Pickering emulsion with octenyl succinic acid starch showed its tremendous potential for use in the food industry.
... Numerous studies have been conducted to evaluate the properties of these residues and their potential applications in various fields [8]. Pitaya seeds are known to have a high content of unsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid and linolenic acid, which are also found in grape seeds, flax seeds and other fruit seeds [9]. These acids which are important for human metabolism and hold potential value for application in food, healthcare, and pharmaceutical industries. ...
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A growing trend now involves the comprehensive use of by-products from fruit processing, especially of pitaya, whose production has increased worldwide in recent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal process for applying subcritical water extraction (SWE) to obtaining polyphenols from red pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus) seeds using response surface methodology (RSM). The antioxidant activities of polyphenol extracts obtained by SWE and three other conventional solvent extraction methods (CSE: water, ethanol and acetone extraction) were compared. The study was divided into two steps. In the first, the Box-Behnken design was used to determine the effects of extraction time, temperature, and solid-solvent ratio on antioxidant activity (ABTS, DPPH and FRAP) and the yield of total phenolic compounds (TPC). Protein and total sugar content of the crude polyphenol extract was significantly reduced after purification with NKA-9 type macroporous resin column. Optimal extraction conditions for subcritical water extraction of polyphenols from red pitaya seeds were 15 min reaction time at 220 °C with 2% solid-solvent ratio (TPC: 63.14 mg GAE/g). In the second step, purified SWE polyphenol extract revealed excellent scavenging efficiency in four antioxidant experiments compared with CSE extracts. And phenolic composition of extracts obtained by SWE revealed high amounts of catechins and E-p-Coumaric acid. Characteristic reactive groups in SWE extract were mainly hydroxyl, benzene group, methoxy group, and oxygen-containing heterocyclic ring. Therefore, SWE proved to be a useful extraction technique for the recovery of polyphenols from red pitaya seeds.
... In soils having a slow water drainage or subject to water stagnation, plants get sick of bacteriosis and other pathological forms caused by fungal parasites, which can lead, in most cases, to the death of plants because of collar rot. Loose and medium-textured soils are suitable, as long as they are well endowed with organic substance (2%) [1][2][3][4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18]. In clayey soils, on the contrary, it is necessary to assure a good drainage and, if necessary, to make some baulature. ...
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A pitaya or pitahaya is the fruit of several different cactus species indigenous to the Americas. Pitaya usually refers to fruit of the genus Stenocereus, while Pitahaya or dragon fruit refers to fruit of the genus Selenicereus (formerly Hylocereus), both in the family Cactaceae. Dragon fruit is cultivated in Mexico, Southeast Asia, India, the United States, the Caribbean, Australia, Mesoamerica and throughout tropical and subtropical world regions.These fruits are commonly known in English as "dragon fruit," a name used since about 1963, apparently derived from the leather-like skin and prominent scaly spikes on the outside of the fruit. The results of various researches show that dragon fruit has preventive activity for several diseases that affect humans, such as cancer, digestive problems, diabetes. Further studies however on dragon fruit are needed to confirm and expand the knowledge about the medicinal qualities of the plant and fruit for the prevention and alternative treatment of various diseases.
... There are few studies addressing volatile compounds analysis in Hylocereus ssp. stems [25], flowers [27], peels [19], fruits [23], and seeds [4]. According to a literature search, only a few studies investigating volatile constituents of the Hylocereus genus have been published so far. ...
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The aim of our work was to analyse volatile compounds obtained from the fruits of three plant genera-Epiphyllum, Hylocereus and Opuntia-using HS-SPME GC-MS (headspace solid phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry) methods. In violet Epiphyllum fruits, 12 compounds were identified, the most abundant being 2,3-butane-diol and hexanoic acid. In pink Epiphyllum fruits, 13 compounds were identified, the most abundant being (E)-anethol and 1-nonadecene. In green Epiphyllum fruits, 10 compounds were identified, the most abundant being (E)-anethol and methyl eugenol. In white-fleshed Hylocereus fruits, 9 compounds were identified, the most abundant being 1-hexadecanol and nonadecane. In red-fleshed Hylocereus fruits, 11 compounds were identified, the most abundant being 1-hexadecanol and nonadecane. Analysis of violet Opuntia fruits yielded 12 compounds, the most abundant being nonanal and ethyl decanoate. Analysis of orange Opuntia fruits yielded 8 compounds, the most abundant being ethyl decanoate and (3E)-1,3-octadecadiene.
... 21.5% and 12.6% of the total fatty acid content, respectively. Similarly, Ariffin et al. [39] analyzed the oil extracted from red and white pitaya seeds and found a high content of essential fatty acids, namely linoleic (~50%) and linolenic (~1%) acid, and other fatty acids such as cis-vaccenic acid (~3.0%), palmitic acid (17.5%), and oleic acid (22.7%). The human health benefits of poly-and monounsaturated fatty acids have been documented and they help to reduce cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions [40,41]. ...
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Pitaya is one of the most preferred and produced tropical fruit species recently introduced to the Mediterrranean region in Turkey. Due to its nutritional fruits with high economic value, the popularity of pitaya increases steadily in Turkey as an alternative crop. No detailed nutritional analysis has been undertaken in Turkey so far on fruits of the pitaya species. In this study, we determined and compared some nutritional parameters in fruit flesh of two pitaya (dragon fruit) species (Hylocereus polyrhizus: Siyam and Hylocereus undatus: Vietnam Jaina) grown in the Adana province located in the eastern Mediterranean region in Turkey. The individual sugars, antioxidant activity, total phenolic content, phenolic compounds and volatiles were determined for the first time in Turkey on two pitaya species. The results showed that total phenol content and antioxidant capacity are notably higher in red-fleshed fruits than white-fleshed ones and the predominant phenolic compound in fruits of both species was quercetin. The total sugar content and most of the phenolic compounds in fruits of two pitaya species were similar. A total of 51 volatile compounds were detected by using two Solid Phase Micro Extraction (SPME) fibers, coupled with Gas Chromatography Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques, and more volatile compounds were presented in the white-fleshed species. Total phenolic content (TPC) of the red-fleshed and white-fleshed pitaya species were 16.66 and 17.11 mg GAE/100 g FW (fresh weight). This study provides a first look at the biochemical comparison of red-fleshed and white-fleshed pitaya species introduced and cultivated in Turkey. The results also showed, for the first time, the biochemical content and the potential health benefit of Hylocereus grown in different agroecological conditions, providing important information for pitaya researchers and application perspective.
... They are originated from Mexico and are now grown all over the world, including Vietnam, Taiwan, South China, Israel, Thailand, Australia, the United States, and Malaysia [1,2]. Red flesh dragon fruit is world famous for its outstanding red color and contains many healthy nutrients, such as vitamins A, B, B1, C, E, soluble fiber, and antioxidants [3]. Red flesh dragon fruit is widely grown and popular in Vietnam. ...
Article
Pectin is a type of structural fiber found in the primary cell wall and an intracellular layer of plant cells mainly in fruits. Red flesh dragon peel contains a high content of pectin, which is a potential source of substrates for pectin extraction. This study aimed to find the suitable parameters for pectin extraction from red flesh dragons to contribute to limiting agricultural waste while increasing economic profits for farmers. Pectin was extracted with a hydrochloric acid solvent and investigated under the following conditions: Concentration of HCl acid (0.1 M, 0.032 M, 0.01 M), material size (D ≤ 1 mm, 1 ≤ D ≤ 5 mm), material/solvent ratio (1/10, 1/20, 1/30 (g/mL)), microwave capacity (100 W, 300 W) and heating time (5 min, 10 min, 15 min). The obtained pectin content is the highest when extracting under the following conditions: HCl acid concentration 0.032 M, material size D ≤ 1 mm, material/solvent ratio is 1/20 (g/mL), microwave power 100 W, and heating time is 15 min. Under these conditions, the pectin yield reached 17.61%, the degree of esterification index = 51.41%.
... Wybraniec et al fully characterized 3 major betalains along with 7 minor betalains present in the pulp and peel of H. polyrhizus [1,6]. Also, high levels of the essential fatty acids linoleic acid and linolenic acid have been identified in the seeds [7]. The steroids b-amyrin and g-sitosterol were identified in the peel with gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and were quantified to have a value of 15.87% and 9.35%, respectively [8]. ...
Article
BACKGROUND Dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) is one of the most common fruits in tropical countries, including Indonesia. The unique deep purple-colored pulp of the fruit is eaten whole and consumed as juice. However, the inedible thick peel is wasted, causing environmental issues. In this study, the toxic, cytotoxic, and antiplasmodium activity from various extract of H. polyrhizus peels were examined. MATERIAL AND METHODS We evaluated the cytotoxicity and antiplasmodial properties of the various peel extracts by using different organic solvents.The extraction of the peels was conducted using maceration to obtain pigment, n-hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts. The toxicity of the extract was assessed using the brine shrimp lethality test, followed by WST assay to test in vitro cytotoxic properties and in vitro antiplasmodial properties in 2 Plasmodium falciparum strains (3D7 and W2). RESULTS The n-hexane, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts depicted various levels of activity, whereas the pigment extract did not show any activities. However, dichloromethane demonstrated a high toxicity level with LC₅₀ of 10.32±0.13 μg/mL and a weak cytotoxic level against SK-OV-3 cell lines (IC₅₀ of 560.86±0.63 μg/mL). Moreover, the dichloromethane and n-hexane extracts showed high and promising antiplasmodial activity with IC₅₀ 2.13±0.42 and 6.51±0.49 μg/mL, respectively. CONCLUSIONS The dichloromethane extract demonstrated high antiplasmodial activity. Our observations have elucidated the cytotoxic and antiplasmodial activity of the peel of dragon fruits and can be used as a foundation for further research into the isolation and bioactivity of secondary metabolites.
... Similarily, it provides Essential fatty acid. It was found that seeds of dragon fruit are best for providing omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acid [9] that reduces cardiac stress [10]. Not only in human health, it is widely used in restaurant as fruit salads [11], best eaten chilled or blended into refreshing drinks also. ...
... De acordo com Liaotrakoon et al. (2013) as sementes, que medem cerca de 2-3 mm de diâmetro e correspondem a aproximadamente 8% do peso do fruto, contém conteúdo de óleo variando entre 32 e 34%, sendo considerado como uma fonte potencial de ácidos graxos essenciais e tocoferóis, com uma boa resistência à oxidação. Ariffin et al. (2009) ainda destacaram que o óleo das sementes de pitaya contém cerca de 51% de ácidos graxos essenciais, sendo 50% de ácido linoleico e 1% de ácido linolênico, podendo ser utilizado como uma nova fonte de óleo essencial devido ao elevado nível de lipídeos funcionais. ...
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A pitaya vem despertando a atenção dos consumidores e fruticultores em diversas regiões do Brasil, especialmente devido à sua caraterística exótica. Após exploração da polpa do fruto é gerada grande quantidade de sementes que podem ser utilizadas para extração de óleo após secagem prévia. Assim, objetivou-se secar sementes de pitaya vermelha (Hylocereus polyrhizus) em secador convectivo nas temperaturas de 50, 60 e 70 °C e velocidades do ar de desidratação de 0,55 e 0,75 m s-1, e ajustar diferentes modelos matemáticos aos dados experimentais. Observou-se que o aumento da temperatura e velocidade do ar de secagem promoveu redução nos tempos de desidratação, sendo que o processo ocorreu em período de taxa de redução de água decrescente, em todas as condições avaliadas. Dentre os modelos ajustados aos dados das cinéticas de secagem, o de Page foi selecionado como o mais adequado para representar o fenômeno investigado, apresentando coeficientes de determinação (R2) superiores a 0,99, desvios quadráticos médios (DMQ) inferiores a 0,030 e distribuição aleatória dos resíduos.
... The pulp is effective in controlling oxidative damage, decreases aortic stiffness and serves as dietary fiber for diabetic patients (Mahattanatawee et al., 2006;Swarup et al., 2010;Kumar et al., 2018). The seed of dragon fruit is rich in essential fatty acids namely, linoleic acid and linolenic acida necessary substrate in human metabolism and cannot be synthesized in vivo (Ariffin et al., 2009). Dragon fruit flesh is a natural probiotic, rich in polysaccharides (Xu et al., 2016) and mixed oligosaccharides (Wichienchot et al., 2010). ...
... It is also widely grown in Asian countries such as Malaysia, Vietnam, Thailand, the Philippines and Taiwan (Mizrahi et al., 1997;Nerd, Sitrit, Kaushik, & Mizrahi, 2002;Wu et al., 2006). Different varieties of dragon fruits have been developed as fruit crops such as Hylocereus undatus (red epicarp, white pulp), Hylocereus megalanthus (yellow epicarp, white pulp), Hylocereus polyrhizus (red epicarp, red-purple pulp) and Hylocereus costaricensis (red epicarp, red pulp) (Ariffin et al., 2009;Esquivel, Stintzing, & Carle, 2007;Nerd et al., 2002). ...
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Pectin from different fractions of dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peel was extracted using 1% citric acid and the physico-chemical characteristics of the pectin were studied. The highest pectin yield (26.38% on dry weight basis) was obtained from fresh inner layer of the peel when extraction was carried out at temperature: 73 C, time: 67 min, pH: 2.03, and sample to citric acid ratio: 1:4 (w/v). The pectin also demonstrated the highest degree of esterification (63.74%) when compared with pectin from other fractions of the dragon fruit peel investigated in this study. The calculated degree of esterification confirmed that the extracted pectin is a high methoxyl pectin. The molecular weight of the pectin determined using size exclusion chromatography was 0.88 Â 10 5 Da. Monosaccharide composition determined using high performance liquid chromatography revealed that the pectin was predominantly constituted of galacturonic acid (39.11%), followed by moderate concentrations of mannose, rhamnose, galactose, glucose and minor amounts of xylose and arabinose. The pectin exhibited Newtonian behaviour at concentrations of 0.5% and 1.0%, and pseudoplastic behaviour at concentrations of 2.0% and 3.0%. Although the viscosity of the dragon fruit peel pectin was lower than that of commercial apple and citrus pectins, it can be used as a functional and health ingredient in low viscous foods and beverages.
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This article reviews selected edible fruit, spice, and herb seed oils for their fatty acid compositions and other physicochemical properties. The seed oils were grouped according to their predominant or distinguishing fatty acid. These groups mainly included oils rich in α‐linolenic (18:3n−3), γ‐linolenic (18:3n−6), linoleic (18:2n−6), oleic (18:1n−9), or petroselinic (18:1n−12) acids. A total of 65 seed oils were included.
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The Pitahaya, commonly known as "dragon fruit", is a fruit originating in Central America and the Peruvian jungle whose fruit can be of different colors such as yellow, purple, red and white. This fruit has a high nutritional value, highlighting the content of ascorbic acid that is between 4-25 mg / 100g depending on its species, with the highest value being the red species. Pitahaya is a fruit with a high antioxidant capacity, even superior to that of other cacti, such as prickly pear. It presents bioactive compounds such as betalains; that favor stress-related disorders and have anti-inflammatory effects, it also has betanins and betacyanins; they are a source of natural dye. This review work aimed to collect information on the studies carried out on the Pitahaya related to its cultivation, physicochemical characteristics, nutritional composition, and bioactive compounds, for their health benefits, such as; avoid premature aging, reduce blood pressure levels and alleviate stomach and intestinal problems, and the consumption of pitahaya is recommended to counteract diseases such as diabetes and colon cancer.
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This study aimed to investigate the effect of various levels of dragon fruit peel powder (DFPP) on the physical, chemical and sensory properties of emulsion sausage. DFPP was prepared from drying with a tray dryer at 55 °C for 6 h and ground into powder. DFPP had contents of moisture, protein, fat, ash, crude fiber and carbohydrate as following order respectively: 15.52, 1.79, 0.48, 13.28, 7.88, and 61.05. Water holding capacity, oil holding capacity, and swelling capacity of DFPP were 13.71 g water/g sample, 2.67 g oil/g sample, and 15.94 ml/g, respectively. Emulsion sausages were produced by replacement of pork fat with five different levels of DFPP (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5%). It was found that moisture, ash and crude fiber contents of sausage increased when the amount of DFPP increased. Sausages made of the addition of 2.0 and 2.5% DFPP had the lowest crude fat content. Adding DFPP resulted in expressible moisture and lower L* (lightness) than the control without DFPP. However, the result of this adding caused higher a* (redness), b* (yellowness), and cooking yield. High DFPP content increased hardness, springiness, gumminess, and chewiness but it decreased cohesiveness. Sausage with 2.0% DFPP had no significant difference of sensory score in appearance, flavor, texture, and overall acceptability. Therefore, the addition of DFPP is useful in improving the qualities, nutritional values, and sensory acceptability of sausage.
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Dragon fruit oligosaccharide (DFO) is an indigestible prebiotic. In this study, we aimed to investigate the effects of DFO on gut microbiota, oxidative stress and immune-related gene expression in Daphnia magna. The 10-day-old D. magna were treated with 0, 9, and 27 mg l⁻¹ DFO for 85 h. The gut bacterial communities, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lipid peroxidation and the expressions of genes in Toll signaling pathway were observed. The results showed that D. magna treated with 9 and 27 mg l⁻¹ DFO altered gut microbiota composition by increasing Limnohabitans and Lactobacillus, and significantly increased SOD activity and reduced lipid peroxidation. Moreover, the expressions of Toll2, Toll3, Toll5, Toll7 and Pelle genes were significantly increased in D. magna treated with 9 and 27 mg l⁻¹ DFO. Our results suggested that DFO changed the composition of the gut microbiota of D. magna by increasing the beneficial bacteria. DFO also has the ability to stimulate innate immunity in D. magna by increasing SOD activity, reducing lipid peroxidation, and increasing the expression of immune-related genes.
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Thousands of tons of fruit seeds are discarded every year worldwide as agro-industrial byproducts. Fruit seeds have a high oil content, are rich in monounsaturated fatty acids (FA) and in n-6 and n-3 polyunsaturated essential FA. Sterols, phospholipids, glycolipids, carotenoids, tocopherols and polyphenols are other seed phytochemicals that make them interesting from a commercial viewpoint. Fruit seeds have high potential as raw material for several industries, but their lipid profile remains poorly studied. Current analytical approaches for the analysis of lipids that are based on high-performance liquid chromatography and high-resolution mass spectrometry allow the separation and analysis of compounds with the accurate identification and structural characterization of molecular species in very small quantities. Even though lipidomic analysis of fruit seeds' lipids is still in its infancy, it will bring a new look over these value-added byproducts. This review covers the following topics: (a) the lipid content of various fruit seed oils; (b) their lipid composition (FA, triacylglycerol, sterol, phospholipid and glycolipid profiles), (c) current and future analytical meth-odologies for the analysis of lipids in fruit seeds; (d) biological activities of fruit seeds' extracts; and (e) potential biotechnological applications of fruit seed oils for their commercial valorization based on lipids.
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Bacterial biofilm formation causes serious problems in various fields of medical, clinical, and industrial settings. Antibiotics and biocide treatments are typical methods used to remove bacterial biofilms, but biofilms are difficult to remove effectively from surfaces due to their increased resistance. An alternative approach to treatment with antimicrobial agents is using biofilm inhibitors that regulate biofilm development without inhibiting bacterial growth. In the present study, we found that linoleic acid, a plant unsaturated fatty acid, inhibits biofilm formation under static and continuous conditions without inhibiting the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Linoleic acid also influenced the bacterial motility, extracellular polymeric substance production, and biofilm dispersion by decreasing the intracellular cyclic diguanylate concentration through increased phosphodiesterase activity. Furthermore, quantitative gene expression analysis demonstrated that linoleic acid induced the expression of genes associated with diffusible signaling factor‐mediated quorum sensing that can inhibit or induce the dispersion of P. aeruginosa biofilms. These results suggest that linoleic acid is functionally and structurally similar to a P. aeruginosa diffusible signaling factor (cis‐2‐decenoic acid) and, in turn, act as an agonist molecule in biofilm dispersion. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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The control over the amount of psychoactive THC (Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol) in commercial cannabidiol (CBD) products has to be strict. A fast and simple semiquantitative Ag(I)-impregnated paper spray mass spectrometric method for differentiating between THC and CBD, which show no difference in standard single-stage or tandem MS, was established. Because of a different binding affinity to Ag(I) ions, quasi-molecular Ag(I) adducts [THC + Ag]⁺ and [CBD + Ag]⁺ at m/z 421 and 423 give different fragmentation patterns. The product ions at m/z 313 for THC and m/z 353 and 355 for CBD can be used to distinguish THC and CBD and to determine their ratio. Quantification of THC/CBD ratios in commercial CBD oils was accomplished with a low matrix effect (−2.2 ± 0.4% for THC and −2.0 ± 0.3% for CBD). After simple methanol extraction (recovery of 87.3 ± 1.2% for THC and 92.3 ± 1.4% for CBD), Ag(I)-impregnated paper spray analysis was employed to determine this ratio. A single run can be completed in a few minutes. This method was benchmarked against the UHPLC-UV method. Ag(I)-impregnated paper spray MS had the same working range (THC/CBD = 0.001–1) as UHPLC-UV analysis (R² = 0.9896 and R² = 0.9998, respectively), as well as comparable accuracy (−2.7 to 14%) and precision (RSD 1.7–11%). The method was further validated by the analysis of 10 commercial oils by Ag(I)-impregnated paper spray MS and UHPLC-UV analysis. Based on the determined relative concentration ratios of THC/CBD and the declared CBD concentration, 6 out of 10 CBD oils appear to contain more THC than the Dutch legal limit of 0.05%.
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Dyslipidemias are disorders in the serum lipid profile whose numbers of cases have been increasing annually, however, pharmacological therapy is expensive and may cause side effects, such as myalgia and liver disease. In this sense, the natural products, which are rich in antioxidant and therapeutic components, have been proposed as an alternative therapy. An example of this is pitaya (Hylocereus polyrhizus), that is a cactaceous fruit rich in phytochemicals, and could be exhibit beneficial effects on lipid metabolism. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the activity of the edible portion of pitaya (pulp and seed) on dyslipidemic mice's metabolism. Firstly, the composition of pitaya was assessed by UPLC-QTOF-MSE and oligosaccharides, quercetin, and betanine, among other phytochemicals, were putatively identified. In the in vivo assays, the mice were divided into 6 groups (n = 8) which were called according to treatment received: Standard Diet (SD), Hypercholesterolemic Diet (HD), Simvastatin (SIMV), Pitaya 100 mg/kg (P100), Pitaya 200 mg/kg (P200) and Pitaya 400 mg/kg (P400). For dyslipidemia induction, the daily administration of pitaya in C57BL/6 mice with dyslipidemia (HD, SIMV, P100, P200 and P400). The pitaya treatment resulted in an increase HDL-cholesterol, and a decrease in total and LDL-cholesterol, triacylglycerols, glycemia, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. The red pitaya showed therapeutic potential in dyslipidemia disorders and had a hypoglycemic effect, contributing to reducing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
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Over the past few decades, massive quantities of solid wastes are being produced from the red pitaya fruits by the food and beverage industries and their disposal leads to severe environmental issues. Despite being waste materials, the red pitaya's by-products such as peels, seeds, and pulps are rich in beneficial active ingredients with diverse functionalities. Besides, the sophisticated technological advancements available today contribute greatly to the development of a variety of processes to convert these waste materials into high-value bio-products of excellent qualities. This review will be focusing on the potentialities and the current use of extracts and chemical constituents of the red pitaya and its by-products in the cosmetic field as antioxidants, natural coloring, moisturizing, anti-aging, and anti-inflammatory agents. These types of plant-derived actives are efficacious, economical and bio-sustainable, and therefore are theoretically suitable to substitute artificial and synthetic active ingredients, more customarily incorporated in cosmetic formulations.
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The aim of this research is to define promising green techniques and natural deep eutectic solvents (NADESs) for pectin extraction from dragon fruit (Hylocereus polyrhizus) peels with the aid of the Box‐Behnken design. Among all possible methods and solvents in this study, the highest pectin yield was recorded for microwave‐ultrasound assisted extraction (MUAE) using the solvent system of choline chloride–glucose–water (5:2:5). Under the optimized condition including liquid/solid ratio of 35.25 mL/g, water/NADES ratio of 3.37 mL/mL, microwave irradiation of 14.26 min at 240 W followed by sonication of 46.07 min, the pectin yield was 19.39%. The obtained product could be verified as high methoxyl pectin with the degree esterification of 50.77% and as a pseudoplastic substance with the flow behavior index of 0.14. As a result, a combination of MUAE and NADES on pectin extraction from dragon fruit peels can favor a higher yield with a desirable quality.
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The need for fresh fruit and vegetables in the community is increasing, this is due to research which states that the consumption of fresh fruit and vegetables can reduce the likelihood of disease. Hylocereus spp or dragon fruit is a medicine plant belonging to the Cactaceae family. The distinctive morphology found in dragon fruit is the shape of the skin which corresponds to the oval body shape. Dragon fruit can grow well in dry areas. Phytochemicals in dragon fruit or pitaya include carbohydrates, protein, saponin phenolic compounds, terpenoids, oils, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, coumarin, and steroids. Meanwhile, nutritional analysis shows that the fruit contains complete nutrition, including vitamins, fat, crude fiber, and minerals. Based on previous research, dragon fruit has been proven to be used as an alternative ingredient for antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antoxidant, antulcer, antipertility, antidiabetic, hepatoprotective, hypopolidemic, neuroprotective, cardioprotective, and anti-platelet
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