Article

Chat-up lines as male sexual displays

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Abstract

Chat-up lines, and other openings used to initiate a relationship with a woman, can be viewed as male displays. How well does their effectiveness accord with predictions from evolutionary psychology? 205 undergraduates (142 female, 63 male) rated 40 vignettes; in each vignette, a man approached a woman and the raters judged whether she would continue the conversation. Openings involving jokes, empty compliments and sexual references received poor ratings. Those revealing, e.g., helpfulness, generosity, athleticism, ‘culture’ and wealth, were highly rated. Although the length of the vignette—confounded here with item content—affected the rating, differences remained after the effects of length were eliminated. The success of openings which demonstrated culture was predicted from Miller’s (2000) ‘mating mind’ hypothesis; the success of others could be predicted from patterns of parental investment.

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... Kleinke et al. suggested three reasons for this: fear of rejection, intermittent reinforcement, and lack of social skills. However, while these are strong explanations, it is worth examining the suggestion that the unattractive opening lines might identify women who are sociosexually unrestricted (Bale, Morrison, & Caryl, 2006). Sociosexuality is defined as individual differences in people's willingness to engage in uncommitted sexual relationships (Simpson & Gangestad, 1991). ...
... Thus, unrestricted sociosexuality refers to a high willingness to engage in uncommitted sex, while restricted sociosexuality refers to a low willingness to engage in uncommitted sex. As men's opening remarks may act as a sexual display (Bale et al., 2006;Wade etal., 2009), it is quite likely that unattractive opening lines might identify sociosexually unrestricted women. ...
... There is evidence to support this speculation. For example, Cooper et al. (2007) explored the effect of personality on responses to chat-up lines based on Bale et al. (2006). The results showed that female who preferred''bad mate,''which is one of the Dating Partner Preference factors (Tombs & Silverman, 2004), rated compliments and sex favorably. ...
Article
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The present study examined the relations between sociosexuality and the desirability and the use of innocuous, direct, and cute–flippant opening lines. A total of 216 women rated the desirability of each type of opening line and answered the revised Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI-R). A total of 198 men reported the use of types of opening lines and answered the SOI-R. The desirability of cute–flippant lines, which were the least preferred lines, was positively related to sociosexuality, while the use of cute lines was not associated with sociosexuality. In addition, the use of innocuous and direct lines was positively related to sociosexuality. It may be that unrestricted men use innocuous and direct lines as a strategy to start conversation before flirting.
... Some specific qualities of gambits also play a role in interpersonal perceptions. For example, participants reported the willingness of a female depicted in a vignette to continue a conversation after a male, who was described as wealthy or generous, used various opening gambits on her (Bale, Morrison, & Caryl, 2006). ...
... In contrast, when using direct gambits the initiator's intention is clear to the intended target and targets generally perceive direct opening gambits positively (Bale et al., 2006;Cunningham, 1989;Kleinke et al., 1986). Therefore, the target's regulatory capacity should influence receptivity less because the clear intent and positive perception of direct gambits makes deciphering the initiator's intent less cognitively demanding. ...
... Likewise, cute opening gambits are also very clear in intent. However, targets regard cute gambits negatively (Bale et al., 2006;Cunningham, 1989;Kleinke et al., 1986). As depletion lowers impulse control (Baumesiter et al., 1998;Vohs & Faber, 2007) and mood regulation (Vohs & Heatherton, 2000), we expect that depleted individuals will have a more negative reaction and an elevated impulse to shut the relationship initiator down, resulting in less receptivity to cute gambits. ...
Article
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The success of a relationship initiation strategy, such as a pick-up line or opening gambit, may depend on the target’s state receptivity. Self-control is a limited resource that, when depleted, can potentially influence interpersonal interactions. The present research examines whether ego depletion can influence receptivity to various types of opening gambits. To accomplish this, 99 currently single participants either wrote a story with several restrictions (ego-depletion group) or wrote without restrictions (non-depletion group), and then read direct, innocuous, or cute opening gambits. Following each type of gambit, participants rated their receptivity by indicating how likely they would be to continue to talk to the initiator, view the initiator positively, and give the initiator their phone number. As predicted, analyses revealed that those who participated in the ego-depletion task were significantly less receptive to cute opening gambits and there was a trend of being more receptive to innocuous opening gambits, relative to the non-depletion group. Ego depletion did not influence direct gambits.
... One of the ways it occurs is through the use of opening lines. Bale, Morrison, and Caryl (2006) report that men can take an active approach using opening or chat-up lines. They report that when a man approaches a woman he will be rated highest when he displays personal qual-ities and cultural accomplishments and that a man is rated lowest when he directly requests sex or uses sexual humor (Bale et al., 2006). ...
... Bale, Morrison, and Caryl (2006) report that men can take an active approach using opening or chat-up lines. They report that when a man approaches a woman he will be rated highest when he displays personal qual-ities and cultural accomplishments and that a man is rated lowest when he directly requests sex or uses sexual humor (Bale et al., 2006). However, Bale et al. (2006) did not directly examine whether or not these roles are ever reversed; i.e., would a woman approach a man directly to indicate that she is interested in dating or spending time with him? ...
... They report that when a man approaches a woman he will be rated highest when he displays personal qual-ities and cultural accomplishments and that a man is rated lowest when he directly requests sex or uses sexual humor (Bale et al., 2006). However, Bale et al. (2006) did not directly examine whether or not these roles are ever reversed; i.e., would a woman approach a man directly to indicate that she is interested in dating or spending time with him? Similarly, the question of what type of opening line a woman might use has not been directly addressed in prior research. ...
Article
The present research implemented three studies in order to ascertain whether or not women are likely to approach a man to initiate/signal romantic interest and to determine which opening lines used by women are perceived as most effective, and most direct by men and women. Based on societal changes in women’s roles and changes in women’s attitudes toward dating behavior women were expected to be likely to approach men. Additionally, based on prior research examining women’s role in flirting, a significant effect for type of opening line was hypothesized. Opening lines that directly indicate an interest in dating were expected to be perceived as most effective and most direct by both men and women. The results were consistent with the hypotheses. Women were indeed likely to approach men and opening lines that directly signal interest were perceived as most effective and most direct by both sexes. However, men rated receiving a phone number from a woman as more effective than women did. These findings are discussed in terms of prior research.
... Cunningham (1989) replicated this pattern in a tavern setting, where female patrons responded more positively when the male confederate used a direct or innocuous line instead of a flippant line. Similarly, in a pair of recent studies by Bale and colleagues, women read vignettes in which a male approached a woman with one of a variety of opening gambits (Bale, Morrison, & Caryl, 2006;Cooper, O'Donnell, Caryl, Morrison, & Bale, 2007). They rated the flirtatious flippant pick-up lines the least effective. ...
... The present research tests this possibility by using the vignette approach common in prior studies (e.g., Bale et al., 2006;Kleinke & Dean, 1990) and validated in a Cunningham's (1989) field study. It also examines several possible mediators for the anticipated effects of line type: specifically, perceptions of the man's trustworthiness, intelligence, sociability, humor and creativity. ...
... We therefore sought funnier flippant lines for the current study (cf. Bale et al., 2006). Second, in the previous research on pick-up lines, the innocuous lines and, to a lesser extent, the direct lines, were framed as polite questions, whereas the flippant lines were typically framed as statements, sometimes rude ones (Cunningham, 1989;Kleinke & Dean, 1990). ...
Article
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This experiment examined women's impressions of men using various "pick-up" lines. Seventy women imagined being approached by a man using a flippant and flirtatious "pick-up" line, a direct complimentary line, or an innocuous line that masks his interest. His attractiveness varied too. They then considered him for long-term or short-term relationships. Matching a "good dad" hypothesis, they favored him for a long-term relationship if he used a direct or innocuous line instead of the flippant line, because the latter conveyed lower trustworthiness and intelligence. Matching a "good genes" hypothesis, they favored him for a short-term relationship if he was attractive instead of unattractive, regardless of his pick-up line, presumably because attractiveness signals heritable fitness. Limitations and theoretical implications are discussed.
... However, men who used flippant lines were judged as funnier, more confident, and more sociable than men using direct or innocuous lines, but were also judged as being unintelligent and untrustworthy (Senko & Fyffe, 2010). Sexually based flippant pickup lines are consistently rated as unappealing (Bale, Morrison, & Caryl, 2006;Cooper et al., 2007;Cunningham, 1989;Kleinke et al., 1986). Wade, Butrie, and Hoffman (2009) research is noteworthy because they examined the perceived effectiveness of women using pick-up lines on men. ...
... Further, rating photographs and stated pick-up lines is far less realistic than being approached by women in real-life; prosodic (e.g., intonation) and kinesic (e.g., gestures) communication may make a difference in the way the lines are perceived. Support is provided by Bale et al. (2006) who suggest that results from experimental work may change if researchers perform their studies in real bars, with individuals being presented with the pick-up lines by potential mates. Although Senko and Fyffe (2010) found that their paper and pencil study was just as reliable as a field study, there is always the possibility that real life situations might cause different results. ...
Article
We examined which pickup lines that women may use on men, in the context of dating, are the most effective. Effectiveness was defined as success in securing a phone number or agreeing to meet again. We tested to determine which type of line (direct, innocuous, or flippant) was rated as most effective when attractiveness and perceived promiscuity of the women were manipulated. We predicted that direct pickup lines would be the most effective when trying to pickup men for the purpose of dating. We also predicted that men would rate the pickup lines used by women rated high on attractiveness and promiscuity as being more effective than the pickup lines used by those rated low on both characteristics. Results indicate that direct pickup lines are preferred over flippant or innocuous pickup lines, with the innocuous being the least preferred. Further, regardless of the line that is used, once a woman has been viewed as attractive by men, she is rated positively. This study provides insight into the effectiveness of women's tactics for soliciting dating attention.
... It is well known that compliments play a vital role in development and maintenance of interpersonal relationships, especially in romantic ones. For example, compliment frequency is positively correlated with relationship satisfaction 21 , and complimentary gambits are often used by men to attract the attention of a potential mate 22,23 , particularly those targeting their physical appearance 24 . Thus in a courtship context, compliments targeting personal appearance might express a stronger sexual interest than those towards some non-personal attribute such as a person's possessions. ...
... This is the first study to directly examine a potential evolutionary bias for the usage of different types of linguistic forms. In our experiment a typical mate selection scenario was created for female participants using male faces of average attractiveness 22,23,40,41,43 which were additionally paired with verbal compliments varying in terms of figurativeness and topic. Using this approach differences in attractiveness rating scores should be primarily driven by linguistic variance and topic rather than by the faces per se. ...
Article
Full-text available
Language plays an important role in romantic attachment. However, it is unclear whether the structure and topic of language use might influence potential mate choice. We investigated 124 female students' preference for compliments paid by males incorporating either literal or metaphoric (conventional/novel) language and targeting their appearance or possessions (house) throughout their menstrual cycle. Male faces paired with novel metaphorical compliments were rated as more attractive by women than those paired with literal ones. Compliments targeting appearance increased male attractiveness more than possessions. Interestingly, compliments on appearance using novel metaphors were preferred by women in a relationship during the fertile phase but by single women during the luteal phase. A similar pattern of altered face attraction ratings was subsequently shown by subjects in the absence of the verbal compliments and even though they were unable to recognize the faces. Thus the maintained attraction bias for faces previously associated with figurative language compliments appears to be unconscious. Overall this study provides the first evidence that women find men who typically use novel metaphorical language to compliment appearance more attractive than those using prosaic language or complimenting possessions. The evolutionary significance for such a language use bias in mate selection is discussed.
... While prior research compares humorous with non-humorous ads, the present study, based on an online experiment, examines how gender moderates the effectiveness of ads containing spontaneous humor versus canned humor. Spontaneous humor is defined as "jokes that fit the context exactly", and canned humor involves "pre-planned jokes" (Bale et al. 2006). ...
... In that manner, a female could discriminate between suitors that honestly signal good genes and suitors that do not possess the preferred traits. Hence, one could differentiate between humor of spontaneous type and humor of canned type (Bale et al. 2006). Spontaneous humor fulfils the criteria for a good genes indicator, in that it requires a great amount of cognitive energy by employing "language skills, theory-of-mind, symbolism, abstract thinking, and social perception", and is considered "humankind's most complex cognitive attribute" (Polimeni and Reiss 2006, p. 348). ...
Conference Paper
By relying on evolutionary psychology, we examine how the use of spontaneous versus canned humor affects attitude toward the ad among female and male consumers. The results indicate that attitude toward the ad varies as a function of the employed humor type and the gender of the message recipient. Further, the interactive effect is mediated by perceived humorousness of the ad, and message recipient`s interest in pursuing romantic activities provides a boundary condition for the effect on perceived humorousness. These results contribute to advertising research by providing a new explanation for gender-specific responses to humorous advertising.
... Past research demonstrates that flirting tactics are positive or negative or effective or ineffective based upon the quality of the tactic, not on the quality of the source (Bale et al., 2006;Cooper et al., 2007;Cunningham, 1989;Kleinke et al., 1986). Our results suggest that both the source and the strategy matter. ...
... Second, the present research extends past research on pick-up lines (Bale et al., 2006;Cooper et al., 2007;Cunningham, 1989;Kleinke et al., 1986) by taking into account source characteristics and relational outcomes. More importantly, the present research supports the conclusion of Mongeau et al. (2006) in their review of sex differences in romantic relationships: ...
... Miller (2000) suggested that a good sense of humour is so desirable because the difficulty associated with producing humour, which requires abstract thinking, theory of mind, and highly advanced language skills (Polemini & Reiss, 2006), as well as being creative and intelligent (Miller, 2000), means that humour appears to bear the hallmarks of a costly signal. In other words, the difficulty associated with producing humour enables the humour producer to demonstrate their high genetic quality (Polemini & Reiss, 2006) although this may be influenced by the type of humour being used as sexual humour or memorised jokes may not display genetic quality as ably as spontaneous wit (Bale, Morrison, & Caryl, 2006). This argument has been further bolstered by evidence which suggested that males prefer females to be humour appreciators rather than humour producers (Bressler, Martin, & Balshine, 2006). ...
... Fig. 3. Comparison of short-term and long-term preferences across modalities ⁄⁄ p < .001, ⁄ p < .05. the effectiveness of chat-up lines ( Bale et al., 2006;Cooper, O'Donnell, Caryl, Morrison, & Bale, 2007) and flirting (Frisby, Dillow, Gaughan, & Nordlund, 2011), which are similar to humour use in both behaviour and intention if humour is viewed from the Interest Indicator perspective. Revealing that perceived flirtatiousness and funniness are strongly related and that flirtatiousness appears to be moderating the relationship between funniness and short-term attractiveness gives insight into why humour may be less attractive for long-term relationships. ...
Article
There is evidence to suggest that humour is an important part of mate choice and that humour may serve as an indicator of genetic quality. The current study investigated how rated funniness from a video clip was related to an individual’s attractiveness as a short-term or long-term partner. We additionally tested for the presence of an attractiveness halo effect on humour ratings by comparing ratings of funniness from video clips, audio-only presentations, and photographs. We found that funniness was most strongly correlated with attractiveness for short-term relationships, especially in videos of males. We also found that attractiveness was related to funniness ratings differently across video, audio-only clips, and photographs. Relative to their rated funniness in the audio-only condition, with no appearance cues, attractive individuals were rated as funnier in video clips than less attractive individuals. An additional study demonstrated that ratings of flirtatiousness and funniness were strongly correlated. Perceived similarity between producing humour and flirting may explain why humour is more preferable in a short-term partner as flirting may be seen to signal proceptivity. The effects of attractiveness on humour judgement may also be explained by an association with flirtation as flirting may be most enjoyable when directed by attractive individuals.
... In a recent study (Gao et al., 2017a,b), we have also found that women rate men who used metaphorical compliments to praise them as more attractive than ones using literal expressions. The perceived courtship motive was also found to vary with the topic or linguistic figurativeness of men's compliments (Bale et al., 2006;Hall et al., 2008;Hendon, 2012;Gao et al., 2017b). ...
Article
Full-text available
In humans, the neuropeptide oxytocin promotes both attraction toward and bonds with romantic partners, although no studies have investigated whether this extends to the perceived attractiveness of flirtatious language. In a within-subject, randomized double-blind placebo-controlled behavior and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) paradigm ( https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT03144115 ), 75 women rated the attractiveness of either a male face alone or paired with a verbal compliment which varied in terms of topic (women or landscapes) and figurativeness (novel or conventional metaphors or literal expressions). Subjects were tested in fertile and luteal phases of their cycle and on both occasions received either 24 IU intranasal oxytocin or placebo. Results showed that, whereas under placebo women in the fertile phase rated the facial attractiveness of men producing novel metaphorical compliments higher than in their luteal phase, following oxytocin treatment they did not. Correspondingly, under oxytocin the faces of individuals producing novel metaphorical compliments evoked greater responses in brain regions involved in processing language (middle frontal gyrus) and cognitive and emotional conflict (posterior middle cingulate and dorsal anterior cingulate) but reduced functional connectivity between the dorsal anterior cingulate and right orbitofrontal and medial frontal gyri. Thus, sex hormones and oxytocin may have opposite effects in regulating mate selection in women during their fertile phase. Novel metaphorical compliments convey a greater sexual than bonding intention and thus while sex hormones at mid-cycle may promote attraction to individuals communicating sexual rather than bonding intent, oxytocin may bias attraction away from such individuals through increasing cognitive and emotional conflict responses toward them.
... Paying compliments to others represents a ubiquitous flirting strategy to both start and maintain a romantic relationship. Compliments can transmit sexual interest in a socially acceptable form of speech, without taking any "socially imposed risks" such as face threat (Holmes, 1986;Doohan and Manusov, 2004;Rees-Miller, 2011;Gersick and Kurzban, 2014), while simultaneously increasing the probability of a positive affective response from the receiver (Bale et al., 2006;Cooper et al., 2007;Brown et al., 2014). The topic of compliments can be sex-or context-dependent and able to indicate sexual interest during interpersonal interactions (Doohan and Manusov, 2004;Rees-Miller, 2011;Brown et al., 2014). ...
Article
Full-text available
Language may have evolved as a signal of mental fitness. However, it remains unclear what language form and topic men use to covertly signal mate quality. In this study 69 men created compliments to impress unfamiliar women they chose to either date or work with and provided hand scans to compute 2D4D ratio as a proxy for prenatal testosterone exposure and masculinity indicator. Compliments were coded in terms of form (literal vs. metaphorical) and topic (women's appearance vs. non-appearance), with metaphorical ones being subsequently rated by 114 women for psycholinguistic features, indices of intelligence and willingness to have a romantic relationship with the author. Results showed that in a dating context, men produced more metaphorical form compliments targeting appearance compared to the working context and they were associated with men's art creativity and negatively with 2D4D ratio (i.e., positively with masculinity). Women preferred establishing a romantic relationship with a higher proportion of the men producing metaphorical compliments in a dating than a working context. Furthermore, in the dating but not the working context, women perceived men producing such compliments as being more intelligent, and importantly this correlated with the men's actual verbal intelligence. Overall, findings suggest that men may use metaphorical language compliments targeting women's appearance in a dating context to signal covertly their mate quality.
... Because women pay more attention to the impact of verbal communication on interpersonal relationships, they are also more sensitive to the perception of compliments and actively respond to them (Doohan and Manusov, 2004). Furthermore, the perception of compliments could be influenced by subtle differences in a cross-sex context, with compliments being commonly used by men to start conversations with women (Bale et al., 2006). Thus, creating a scenario where men pay compliments to women in an experimental setting conforms more closely to a real social communicative situation in which women (rather than men) are the most likely to be praised in this way (Doohan and Manusov, 2004). ...
Article
Metaphor is widely used in our daily lives to express strong emotions, comprehend abstract concepts and display aesthetic qualities. Women prefer metaphorical language when men pay them compliments in romantic situations; however, in this context, it remains unclear which factors are likely to contribute to the aesthetic attractiveness of metaphor. In the current study, 90 female undergraduates were recruited to rate 477 compliments in terms of language variables (i.e., appropriateness, figurativeness, familiarity, and imageability) and emotional perception (i.e., attractiveness, valence, romance, and arousal) on a 7-point Likert scale. The compliments were generated by 74 men who were required to use language to impress women in a previous independent experiment. A hierarchical regression model was built to explore the potential factors of the aesthetic attractiveness of metaphors. The results showed that a metaphor's attractiveness was positively correlated with figurativeness, imageability, romance and arousal but negatively associated with familiarity, which suggests that metaphors are more attractive when they incorporate high figurativeness, imageability, romance and arousal and low familiarity. Overall, this study indicates that a metaphor's aesthetic attractiveness may be determined by the social context, a communicator's motivation and specific linguistic aspects.
... Another important determinant of the expectations for a social interaction is the opening line used to initiate the interaction. Bale, Morrison, and Caryl (2006) suggested that opening lines are important because they can serve as a form of display, providing information about the qualities that an initiator possesses. Because social interactions are influenced *Faculty mentor ...
... Men who are able to signal those characteristics during initial contact with a potential mate tend to be more successful. Bale, Morrison, and Caryl (2005) found that chat-up lines that demonstrate generosity and dominance were more likely to appeal to women. Thus, these men's success in talking to women shows that they know what characteristics women are interested in and they are aware that they possess these characteristics. ...
Article
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Mating intelligence is a fairly new construct with only limited empirical examination. Yet, previous research has found important implications for the construct's role in mating behavior. The present study sought to expand the existing body of research on mating intelligence by investigating its relationship with self-esteem, self-perceived attractiveness, and mate selection. A sample of 195 participants (83 males and 112 females) completed a survey that incorporated measures of mating intelligence, self-esteem, and self-perceived attractiveness. Additionally, participants were asked to choose between an attractive and unattractive mate to take out on a date. Significant positive relationships between mating intelligence, self-esteem, and self-perceived attractiveness were found for both sexes. For males, mating intelligence predicted self-esteem over and above self-perceived attractiveness. Both males and females with higher mating intelligence were more likely to select the attractive mate to date. Self-perceived attractiveness predicted self-esteem for both sexes, but the relationship was stronger for males.
... This makes it possible for speakers to reveal their intelligence in brief social displays. One example is the courting male's ''chat-up line'' (Bale et al., 2006), but in a range of cultures around the world there are specialized verbal art forms that are used competitively. ...
Data
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... These traits, according to evolutionary theory, are likely to benefit women. 13 Subjects thought that jokes, empty compliments, and sexual references would not increase the men's chances of success, nor were the authors able to think of any theoretical reasons why they should (Bale et al., 2006; also see Kleinke et al., 1986). Bickerton (2006) has questioned my conflation of linguistic content and linguistic action in previous work, but how could our ancestors have achieved an advantage over their competitors without doing something with words? ...
... At the molecular level, many verbal and nonverbal strategies involved with courtship have been found. Verbal strategies, such as pick-up lines (Bale, Morrison, & Caryl, 2006;Cooper et al., 2007;Cunningham, 1989;Hall, Cody, Jackson, & Flesh, 2008;Kleinke, Meeker, Staneski, 1986), and nonverbal behaviors have been identified (Abbey, 1982(Abbey, , 1987Abbey & Melby, 1986;Grammer et al., 2000;Koeppel, Montagne-Miller, O'Hair, & Cody, 1993;Moore, 1985Moore, , 2002. General self-presentational strategies for communicating attraction (C. ...
Article
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Relationship initiation research supports the existence of 5 styles of communicating romantic interest in others: traditional, physical, sincere, playful, and polite. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses on a large adult sample (N = 5,020) supported the existence of the styles. Styles predictably corresponded with self-monitoring and a 5-factor personality model. Women scored higher on all styles, except the playful style. Predictive validity was demonstrated by correlating styles to courtship initiation behaviors and past relationship experiences. The physical, sincere, and playful styles correlated with more dating success. The physical and sincere styles correlated with rapid relational escalation of important relationships with more emotional connection and greater physical chemistry.
... From women's perspective, it is less clear why such strategies would be appealing. Past research on the efficacy and interpretation of courtship behaviors have generally found that direct and especially sexual approach strategies are disagreeable, off-putting, and may be threatening to women (Bale et al. 2006;Cooper et al. 2007;Kleinke et al. 1986). However, women are not entirely unresponsive to assertive and direct strategies. ...
Article
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The popularity of speed-seduction techniques, such as those described in The Game (Strauss 2005) and advocated in the cable program The Pickup Artist (Malloy 2007), suggests some women respond positively to men’s assertive mating strategies. Drawing from these sources, assertive strategies were operationalized as involving attempts to isolate women, to compete with other men, and to tease or insult women. The present investigation examined whether hostile and benevolent sexism and sociosexuality, the degree to which individuals require closeness and commitment prior to engaging in sex, were associated with the reported use of assertive strategies by men and the reported positive reception to those strategies by women. It was predicted men and women who were more sexist and had an unrestricted sociosexuality would report using more and being more receptive to assertive strategies. Study 1 (N = 363) surveyed a Midwestern undergraduate college student sample, and regression results indicated that sociosexuality was associated with assertive strategy preference and use, but sexism only predicted a positive reception of assertive strategies by women. Study 2 (N = 850) replicated these results by surveying a larger, national U.S. volunteer sample via the internet. In addition to confirming the results of Study 1, regression results from Study 2 indicated that hostile sexism was predictive of reported assertive strategy use by men, suggesting that outside of the college culture, sexism is more predictive of assertive strategy use. Implications for courtship processes and the dating culture are discussed.
... For example, in a study of 37 cultures around the world, Buss (1989) and his collaborators found qualities such as having an exciting personality, intelligence, adaptability, and creativity as among the top ten most desirable traits for both men and women. Bale, Morrison, and Caryl (2006) has further shown that " pick up " lines that demonstrate qualities such as helpfulness, generosity, cosmopolitanism and wealth are significantly more attractive than straightforward propositions for sexual activity. In sum, as the Community maintains, these qualities are often best-presented with the right " pick up " line, interesting story or personal anecdote, game, magic, or various other types of personality-conveying material (Markovik, 2007; Strauss, 2009). ...
Article
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In the New York Times bestselling book The Game: Penetrating the Secret Society of Pickup Artists (2006), the world was granted its first exclusive introduction to the steadily growing dating coach and pick-up artist community. Many of its most prominent authorities claim to use insights and information gleaned both through first-hand experience as well as empirical research in evolutionary psychology. One of the industry's most well-respected authorities, the illusionist Erik von Markovik, promotes a three-phase model of human courtship: Attraction, building mutual Comfort and Trust, and Seduction. The following review argues that many of these claims are in fact grounded in solid empirical findings from social, physiological and evolutionary psychology. Two texts which represent much of this literature are critiqued and their implications discussed.
... These kinds of verbal actions are difficult if not impossible to test (Adams 2002;Tomblin et al. 1996), and lacking firm connections to academic success, teachers may see little reason why they should care if adolescents do poorly in these areas (Reed and Spicer 2003). However, as I have argued elsewhere, such performance-oriented applications of language would have been likely targets for selection (Locke and Bogin 2006) much as they figure into intra-sexual competition and mate selection today (Bale et al. 2006;Cunningham 1989;Lundy et al. 1998). ...
Article
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To fully understand human language, an evolved trait that develops in the young without formal instruction, it must be possible to observe language that has not been influenced by instruction. But in modern societies, much of the language that is used, and most of the language that is measured, is confounded by literacy and academic training. This diverts empirical attention from natural habits of speech, causing theorists to miss critical features of linguistic practice. To dramatize this point, I examine data from a special population––the canal boat children of early twentieth century England––whose language developed without academic influence, but was evaluated using instruments designed primarily for academic use. These data, taken together with related research, suggest that formal instruction can convert language from a purely biological trait that was selected, to a talent that was instructed, while altering the users of language themselves. I then review research indicating that formal instruction can also mask or distort inter-sexual differences in the social applications of language, a significant handicap to evolutionary theorizing. I conclude that if biological theories of language are to succeed, they must explain the spontaneous speaking practices of naturally behaving individuals.
... These traits, according to evolutionary theory, are likely to benefit women. 14 Subjects thought that jokes, empty compliments, and sexual references would not increase the men's chances of success, nor were the authors able to think of any theoretical reasons why they should (Bale et al. 2006; also see Kleinke et al. 1986). Bickerton (2006) has questioned my conflation of linguistic content and linguistic action in previous work, but how could our ancestors have achieved an advantage over their competitors without doing something with words? ...
Article
Full-text available
Since language is a biological trait, it is necessary to investigate its evolution, development, and functions, along with the mechanisms that have been set aside, and are now recruited, for its acquisition and use. It is argued here that progress toward each of these goals can be facilitated by new programs of research, carried out within a new theoretical framework—one that could be called “evolutionary developmental linguistics” (EDL)—respecting current developments in biology, anthropology, psychology, and cognitive neuroscience. EDL is concerned with the evolution of developmental properties, processes, and stages (evo → devo) that independently, or in concert with other environmental changes, facilitated the emergence of language in the species (devo → evo). I describe recent work carried out within this framework, and suggest future lines of research. The faculty of language stands to benefit from a synthesis of evolution and development, as does the field of linguistics.
... This makes it possible for speakers to reveal their intelligence in brief social displays. One example is the courting male's ''chat-up line'' (Bale et al., 2006), but in a range of cultures around the world there are specialized verbal art forms that are used competitively. ...
Article
The handicap principle has been applied to a number of different traits in the last three decades, but it is difficult to characterize its record, or even its perceived relevance, when it comes to an important human attribute-spoken language. In some cases, assumptions regarding the energetic cost of speech, and the veracity of linguistically encoded messages, have failed to recognize critical aspects of human development, cognition, and social ecology. In other cases, the fact that speech contains honest (physiological) information, and tends to be used honestly with family and friends, has been overlooked. Speech and language are functionally related but they involve different resources. Individuals can increase the attractiveness of their speech, and of more stylized vocal and verbal performances, without enhancing linguistic structure or content; and they can modify their use of language without significant changes in the physical form of speech. That its production costs are normally low enables speech to be produced extravagantly in bids for status and mating relationships, and in evolution, may have allowed its content--linguistic knowledge and structure--to become complex.
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Introduction Two research questions were tested: 1) are anxiety and fear distinct constructs?; and 2) can they be separately evoked through emotion induction? Fear and anxiety vignettes were created and tested using five different methods in two studies. Study 1 methods Participants read either an anxiety or fear vignette (randomly assigned), completed the Discrete Emotions Questionnaire (DEQ), and sorted vignettes into either fear or anxiety categories. Study 1 results Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) supported a two-factor structure (fear and anxiety as distinct). Paired t-tests found higher anxiety scores than fear scores following anxiety vignettes. Seven of the eight vignettes were correctly sorted into the corresponding emotion (over 80%). Study 2 methods Participants read both an anxiety and fear vignette (randomized) and completed the DEQ and r-RSTQ. Study 2 results CFA supported two-factor solution. Within-subjects comparisons showed both fear and anxiety scores as higher following the fear vignette than the anxiety vignette. Measures of Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory subsystems, the Fight-Flight-Freeze System (fear), and the Behavioral Inhibition System (anxiety), predicted the corresponding emotion controlling for the other subsystem. Discussion Results supported fear and anxiety as discrete constructs. Fear vignettes generated greater fear than anxiety vignettes and anxiety vignettes generated greater anxiety than fear vignettes.
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Online dating is more popular than ever, and Tinder has established a new platform for online daters to communicate. The current study examined how dating profiles and pick-up lines influenced young heterosexual adults' dating intention on Tinder. The study recruited a total of 237 young heterosexual adults to participate in a 2 (profile gender) x 2 (message humor) x 2 (message compliment) online experiment. In the experiment, participants viewed a Tinder profile of their opposite sex and one of the four manipulated pick-up lines. The results showed that perceived attractiveness and perceived positive attributes (e.g., kindness, intelligence) of the person in the dating profile were significant predictors of both long-term and short-term dating intentions in the overall sample. Among men, the dating profile's perceived attractiveness was the sole predictor of long-term and short-term dating intentions. The dating profile's perceived positive attributes were a significant predictor of both long-term and short-term dating intentions among women. More importantly, message humor and message compliment had significant interaction effects on both long-term and short-term dating intentions among women. We discuss the contributions and implications to research on online dating research, evolutionary social psychology, and hyperpersonal perspective.
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This study examines the role of occupational status in the racialization of Indian physicians in Southern California. Since the liberalization of U.S. immigration policy in 1965, the number of first and second-generation Indian doctors in the U.S. has grown to nearly seven percent of the nation's physician workforce; however, Indians constitute less than one percent of the total U.S. population. Overrepresented in one of America's most prestigious professions, Indians are more visible in U.S. medicine than in the U.S. at large. Previous scholarship in immigration research, Asian American Studies, and the sociology of occupations has paid little attention to these professional non-white immigrants and their racial experience in the U.S. Asian American Studies in particular has focused primarily on the racial-ethnic identity formation of economically disadvantaged non-white groups, under the assumption that professional Asian Americans' class status and occupations in the sciences effectively shield them from racist harm and preclude their engagement in racial politics. This research shows that Indian doctors' high occupational status and class privilege provide them only partial, situational protection from racism. They have what I call occupational citizenship --access to most of the same rights and privileges as whites only when perceived as being both professionally successful and economically beneficial to the U.S. They are clearly marked as occupational citizens during clinical interactions with patients, when they are in the white coat. But outside of this context, they are subject to racist treatment from colleagues, staff, health care institutions, and the general public. The particular forms of racism these doctors face, as well as how they interpret this racism, have as much to do with their gender, immigrant generation, and perception of others' race and class, as with their own professional class status. These findings are based on fifty-two interviews with first and second generation Indian doctors in Southern California as well as participant observation at the monthly meetings of two regional Indian medical associations. I also observed seven Indian doctors at work, noting their interactions with patients, staff, and colleagues. Southern California represents an ideal case for understanding the racial formation of Indian physicians in the U.S. because of its large but dispersed population of established Indian physicians, and its overall diversity of race, ethnicity, and class.
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Objective To determine, for people seeking a date online, what activities and behaviours have an effect on the chances of converting electronic communication into a face-to-face meeting. Methods Literature in psychology, sociology, and computer, behavioural and neurocognitive sciences that informed effective online dating was captured through electronic searching of Psychinfo, Medline and Embase in November 2013. Study selection and meta-narrative synthesis were carried out in duplicate. Results There were 3938 initial citations and 86 studies were synthesised. Initial interest was best captured through: a desirable screen name starting with a letter in the top half of the alphabet; an attractive still picture; and a fluent headline message. For those attracted to browse into the profile, a description of personal traits increased likeability when it: showed who the dater was and what they were looking for in a 70:30 ratio; stayed close to reality; and employed simple language with humour added. Invitations were most successful in obtaining a response from the potential date when they: were short personalised messages addressing a trait in their profile; rhymed with their screen name or headline message; and extended genuine compliments. Online communication was most effective in leading to an in-person meeting if there were: a genuine interest; a rapid turnaround; reciprocity in self-disclosure; mimicry of body movements on the webcam; avoidance of criticism; humour; uncertainty about whether there was likeability; and an early move from electronic chat to a date. Conclusions Attraction and persuasion research provides an evidence-based approach to online dating.
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This integrative review presents a novel hypothesis as a basis for integrating two evolutionary viewpoints on the origins of human cognition and communication, the sexual selection of human mental capacities, and the social brain hypothesis. This new account suggests that mind-reading social skills increased reproductive success and consequently became targets for sexual selection. The hypothesis proposes that human communication has three purposes: displaying mind-reading abilities, aligning and maintaining representational parity between individuals to enable displays, and the exchange of propositional information. Intelligence, creativity, language, and humor are mental fitness indicators that signal an individual’s quality to potential mates, rivals, and allies. Five features central to the proposed display mechanism unify these indicators, the relational combination of concepts, large conceptual knowledge networks, processing speed, contextualization, and receiver knowledge. Sufficient between-mind alignment of conceptual networks allows displays based upon within-mind conceptual mappings. Creative displays communicate previously unnoticed relational connections and novel conceptual combinations demonstrating an ability to read a receiver’s mind. Displays are costly signals of mate quality with costs incurred in the developmental production of the neural apparatus required to engage in complex displays and opportunity costs incurred through time spent acquiring cultural knowledge. Displays that are fast, novel, spontaneous, contextual, topical, and relevant are hard-to-fake for lower quality individuals. Successful displays result in elevated social status and increased mating options. The review addresses literatures on costly signaling, sexual selection, mental fitness indicators, and the social brain hypothesis; drawing implications for nonverbal and verbal communication.
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Male chat-up lines and other opening gambits can be viewed, from an evolutionary perspective, as sexual displays. We extended an analysis of vignettes by Bale et al. (2006), using a larger sample to examine the inter-item relationships, and the effects of personality (EPQ-r and the Dating Partner Preference test) and sex of the judge on ratings for different groups of items. Principal components analysis identified four groups of items –good mate, compliment, sex (preferred by males), and humour (preferred by females). For female judges, extraversion and psychoticism influenced the ratings for the humour and good mate factors, respectively, while the ratings for the compliment and sex factors were influenced by one ‘Dating Partner Preference’ factor. We discuss the idea that chat-up lines may function both to attract females and to select the types of female who respond.
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To determine whether or not love acts have changed since Buss first examined them in (1988) and to determine which love acts are perceived as most effective, three studies were implemented. Studies 1 and 2 presented questionnaires to college undergraduates. Study 3 used an internet based questionnaire and included college undergraduates and individuals from other environments. Study 1 (n =81) sought to ascertain the actions that men and women engage in to indicate love to a partner. Men and women’s love acts were expected to differ. Study 2 (n = 80) sought to ascertain which love acts are considered the most prototypical love acts. The most prominent love acts were expected to be rated as the most prototypical love acts. Study 3 (n = 137) sought to determine which actions are rated as the most effective love acts. The most prototypical love acts from Study 2 were expected to be rated as most effective by both sexes. The results were consistent with the hypotheses. These findings are discussed in terms of prior research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved)
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Guided by Relational Framing and Parental Investment Theories, this investigation examined experimentally induced flirtatious interactions. United States undergraduates (N = 252) from the Mid-Atlantic region viewed a flirtatious interaction and rated a confederate on physical and social attraction, affiliation, dominance, and conversational effectiveness. Generally, it was hypothesized that different flirting motivations would lead to different evaluations of the flirters, and perceptions of flirters would vary based on gender. Results revealed that men were evaluated as more dominant and affiliative than women when flirting, but dominance in men was not perceived as attractive or conversationally effective. In addition, men’s attraction to women increased significantly when women flirted for sexual motives, and women’s attraction to men decreased significantly when men flirted for fun. Overall, the results provide mixed support for both theories. KeywordsFlirting–Parental Investment Theory–Relational Framing Theory–Attraction–Conversational effectiveness
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The Personality-enabled Architecture for Cognition (PAC) is a new modeling architecture designed to create Intelligent Virtual Agents (IVAs) with personality traits and cultural characteristics. PAC integrates theory and empirical data from personality psychology, social psychology, cognitive science, and neuroscience to build a model of personality that is based on fundamental underlying human motivational systems. Unlike existing models that attempt to build affective and personality factors as customizations or additions to an underlying formally rational symbolic architecture, in PAC personality directly arises from fundamental motivational systems integral to the agent.
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The mating mind' revives and extends Darwin's suggestion that sexual selection through mate choice was important in human mental evolution - especially the more 'self-expressive' aspects of human behavior, such as art, morality, language, and creativity. Their 'survival value' has proven elusive, but their adaptive design features suggest they evolved through mutual mate choice, in both sexes, to advertise intelligence, creativity, moral character, and heritable fitness. The supporting evidence includes human mate preferences, courtship behavior, behavior genetics, psychometrics, and life history patterns. The theory makes many testable predictions, and sheds new light on human cognition, motivation, communication, sexuality, and culture.
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Contemporary mate preferences can provide important clues to human reproductive history. Little is known about which characteristics people value in potential mates. Five predictions were made about sex differences in human mate preferences based on evolutionary conceptions of parental investment, sexual selection, human reproductive capacity, and sexual asymmetries regarding certainty of paternity versus maternity. The predictions centered on how each sex valued earning capacity, ambition— industriousness, youth, physical attractiveness, and chastity. Predictions were tested in data from 37 samples drawn from 33 countries located on six continents and five islands (total N = 10,047). For 27 countries, demographic data on actual age at marriage provided a validity check on questionnaire data. Females were found to value cues to resource acquisition in potential mates more highly than males. Characteristics signaling reproductive capacity were valued more by males than by females. These sex differences may reflect different evolutionary selection pressures on human males and females; they provide powerful cross-cultural evidence of current sex differences in reproductive strategies. Discussion focuses on proximate mechanisms underlying mate preferences, consequences for human intrasexual competition, and the limitations of this study.
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Just as body symmetry reveals developmental stability at the morphological level, general intelligence may reveal developmental stability at the level of brain development and cognitive functioning. These two forms of developmental stability may overlap by tapping into a “general fitness factor.” If so, then intellectual tests with higher g-loadings should show higher correlations with a composite measure of body symmetry. We tested this prediction in 78 young males by measuring their left–right symmetry at 10 body points, and by administering five cognitive tests with diverse g-loadings. As predicted, we found a significant (z=3.64, p<0.003) relationship between each test's rank order g-loading and its body symmetry association. We also found a substantial correlation (r=0.39, p<0.01) between body symmetry and our most highly g-loaded test (Ravens Advanced Progressive Matrices). General intelligence is apparently a valid indicator of general developmental stability and heritable fitness, which may partly explain its social and sexual attractiveness.
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Darwin's theory of sexual selection suggests that individuals compete with members of their own sex for reproductively relevant resources held by members of the opposite sex. Four empirical studies were conducted to identify tactics of intrasexual mate competition and to test four evolution-based hypotheses. A preliminary study yielded a taxonomy of tactics. Study 1 used close-friend observers to report performance frequencies of 23 tactics to test the hypotheses. Study 2 replicated Study 1's results by using a different data source and subject population. Study 3 provided an independent test of the hypotheses in assessing the perceived effectiveness of each tactic for male and female actors. Although the basic hypotheses were supported across all three studies, there were several predictive failures and unanticipated findings. Discussion centers on the heuristic as well as predictive role of evolutionary theory, and on implications for other arenas of intrasexual competition.
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This article proposes a contextual-evolutionary theory of human mating strategies. Both men and women are hypothesized to have evolved distinct psychological mechanisms that underlie short-term and long-term strategies. Men and women confront different adaptive problems in short-term as opposed to long-term mating contexts. Consequently, different mate preferences become activated from their strategic repertoires. Nine key hypotheses and 22 predictions from Sexual Strategies Theory are outlined and tested empirically. Adaptive problems sensitive to context include sexual accessibility, fertility assessment, commitment seeking and avoidance, immediate and enduring resource procurement, paternity certainty, assessment of mate value, and parental investment. Discussion summarizes 6 additional sources of behavioral data, outlines adaptive problems common to both sexes, and suggests additional contexts likely to cause shifts in mating strategy.
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Little is known about the genetic nature of human psychometric intelligence (IQ), but it is widely assumed that IQ's heritability is at loci for intelligence per se. We present evidence consistent with a hypothesis that interindividual IQ differences are partly due to heritable vulnerabilities to environmental sources of developmental stress, an indirect genetic mechanism for the heritability of IQ. Using fluctuating asymmetry (FA) of the body (the asymmetry resulting from errors in the development of normally symmetrical bilateral traits under stressful conditions), we estimated the relative developmental instability of 112 undergraduates and administered to them Cattell's culture fair intelligence test (CFIT). A subsequent replication on 128 students was performed. In both samples, FA correlated negatively and significantly with CFIT scores. We propose two non-mutually exclusive physiological explanations for this correlation. First, external body FA may correlate negatively with the developmental integrity of the brain. Second, individual energy budget allocations and/or low metabolic efficiency in high-FA individuals may lower IQ scores. We review the data on IQ in light of our findings and conclude that improving developmental quality may increase average IQ in future generations.
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Evidence suggests that female sexual preferences change across the menstrual cycle. Women's extra-pair copulations tend to occur in their most fertile period, whereas their intra-pair copulations tend to be more evenly spread out across the cycle. This pattern is consistent with women preferentially seeking men who evidence phenotypic markers of genetic benefits just before and during ovulation. This study examined whether women's olfactory preferences for men's scent would tend to favour the scent of more symmetrical men, most notably during the women's fertile period. College women sniffed and rated the attractiveness of the scent of 41 T-shirts worn over a period of two nights by different men. Results indicated that normally cycling (non-pill using) women near the peak fertility of their cycle tended to prefer the scent of shirts worn by symmetrical men. Normally ovulating women at low fertility within their cycle, and women using a contraceptive pill, showed no significant preference for either symmetrical or asymmetrical men's scent. A separate analysis revealed that, within the set of normally cycling women, individual women's preference for symmetry correlated with their probability of conception, given the actuarial value associated with the day of the cycle they reported at the time they smelled the shirts. Potential sexual selection processes and proximate mechanisms accounting for these findings are discussed.
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To determine the mediating effects of developmental instability on individual differences in response to caffeine. Individual variation of drug effects might reflect broad genomic factors as well as the direct effects of specific alleles. The current study tested the hypothesis that individual differences in developmental instability, in part determined by genomic characteristics, would predict individual variation in the magnitude of caffeine-induced verbal memory deficits. Minor physical anomalies and fluctuating asymmetry were used as measures of developmental instability. One hundred participants were (1) administered one version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test; (2) given a dose of caffeine determined by body weight (3 mg/kg); (3) assessed for minor physical anomalies and fluctuating asymmetry; and (4) given an alternate randomized version of the Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. Consistent with predictions, a composite measure of developmental instability predicted the magnitude of caffeine-induced memory decrements. These results may have important implications for the genetic underpinnings of individual differences in drug effects.
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Little is known about the neurodevelopmental nature of human cognitive abilities. This investigation presents evidence consistent with a hypothesis that interindividual and within-sex cognitive variations are associated with vulnerabilities to environmental sources of developmental stress. A large sample of healthy heterosexual and homosexual men and women (N=240) completed a series of visuospatial and verbal tests. A composite fluctuating asymmetry (FA) measure was computed from the lengths of the finger digits. In heterosexual men, higher FA scores were associated with poorer line orientation judgment; and in homosexual men, with poorer verbal fluency and perceptual speed. No associations were found in heterosexual or homosexual women. These results suggest that developmental instability is linked to neurocognitive integrity in men, but not in women.
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Heterosexual personal advertisements from two geographically separated, local, weekly newspapers were content-analyzed. Three significant patterns of findings emerged which shed light on gender differences in self-presentational style. First, women were found to be relatively more likely to offer instrumental or `male-valued' traits in their ads and to seek expressive or `female-valued' ones, while men showed the reverse pattern. This paradoxical finding was interpreted to reflect the influence of implicit notions of attraction and role expectations. Second, women were relatively more likely to offer weight and to seek height, while men were relatively more likely to offer height and to seek weight. This pattern was interpreted to reflect the influence of the `male-taller-norm' in mate selection as well as a societal bias toward thinness in women. Finally, as in previous studies of this sort, women were found to be relatively more likely to offer physical attractiveness and to seek professional status, while men were relatively more likely to offer professional status and to seek attractiveness. This pattern was interpreted to be consistent with traditional sex-role expectations wherein appearance is stressed for women and status for men. Overall, the findings show that advertisers exhibit an understanding of implicit theories of attraction: men and women tend to offer precisely those attributes which are sought by the opposite sex.
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ABSTRACT Individual differences are explicitly connected to social interaction in Darwin's notion of sexual selection Traits that increase the probability of successful reproduction will tend to increase in frequency This process operates partly through differential choice, by one sex, of certain traits in the other According to the parental investment model, females frequently have more stringent criteria for the traits they will accept in a mate because they have a relatively larger investment in each offspring Because human mating arrangements often involve a substantial commitment of resources by the male, it is necessary to invoke a distinction between the selectivity involved during casual mating opportunities and the selectivity exercised when choosing a long-term partner Ninety-three undergraduate men and women rated their minimum criteria on 24 partner characteristics at four levels of commitment In line with an unqualified parental investment model, females were more selective overall, particularly on status-linked variables In line with a qualified parental investment model, males' trait preferences depended upon the anticipated investment in the relationship Males had lower requirements for a sexual partner than did females, but were nearly as selective as females when considenng requirements for a long-term partner
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On the evidence of experimental studies, female preferences for even static images of male faces represent a complex set of decision-making processes, and the differing techniques employed by different researchers often generate conflicting results.The findings reported by Perrett et al. (1998) indicate that women do not have clear preferences for masculinized (high testosterone) face shapes as predicted by indicator models of sexual selection, and some other studies of male faces (e.g., Grammer and Thornhill, 1994).Stereotypical personality judgments attributed to static faces appear to influence attractiveness judgments. Masculinized faces (indicating high levels of androgens) are considered to possess fewer desirable personality traits than feminized faces. These attributions may have some validity, and a reasonable (although, as yet unsupported) biological model linking androgen levels, behavior, and facial shape fits in with the observed preference pattern and, apparently, the fossil record: an overall preference for relatively low-testosterone men may be a somewhat unexpected adaptation.Biological facial characteristics that are considered putative indicators of good genes are not, however, ignored. They appear to be appraised in the light of stereotypical personality judgments and in the context of personal life-history factors (such as the type of relationship sought and possibly the relationship status of the woman). Furthermore, preferences are mediated and interact with cyclic hormonal changes linked to the likelihood of conception following sex. Relative masculinity in faces seems to be preferred at times when conception is most likely, paralleling other researchers' work in the olfactory modality.These preferences have been found in two cultures (United Kingdom and Japan), with student-aged and older women, and with multiple stimulus sets. Cyclic preferences for male face shapes are consistent with other reported cyclic preferences for male odor. If preference data are reliably linked to actual sexual behavior (a question that should be addressed by future research), a model linking likelihood of parental investment and facial masculinity preferred by females is suggested: when parental investment is sought (i.e., for a long-term relationship) facial shapes associated with relatively lower testosterone levels are preferred. Such faces may reliably indicate prosocial personality characteristics. When, however, likelihood of parental investment is low (in short-term relationships or possibly extra-pair copulations when the likelihood of conception is high) relatively more masculine faces are preferred, in a fashion more consistent with “good genes” hypotheses.
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Fifty-one previously unacquainted opposite-sex dyads were surreptitiously videotaped while participating in an initial six-min interaction. Participants subsequently described their feelings about the interaction and their partner. Observers later viewed the interactions and evaluated their quality. We examined the ability of participants' physical attractiveness and scores on dimensions of the “big five” model of personality to predict the quality of their interactions. Women's physical attractiveness—but not their personality scores—predicted their own, their partner's, and observers' evaluations of interaction quality, with more attractive women experiencing better quality interactions than less attractive women. Conversely, men's personality scores—extraversion, in particular—predicted their own and observers' ratings of the quality of their interactions, with more extraverted men experiencing better quality interactions than less extraverted men. Men's physical attractiveness was unrelated to any measure of interaction quality. Similarity in dyad members' attractiveness was also unrelated to evaluations of their interactions. The data are interpreted within evolutionary accounts of sex differences in attractiveness preferences.
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Lonely hearts personal advertisements (LHPA) became popular during the 1980s and now appear in nearly every major newspaper. They appear to reflect common male and female reproductive themes. Our analyses of 49 advertisements written by males and 49 advertisements written by females indicate that males offer resources to females and ask for youth and attractiveness, and that females offer youth and attractiveness and ask for resources. When subjects judge these advertisements on a 5-point scale, advertisements are easily grouped into three levels of attractiveness. The attributes of preferred advertisements are defined by those things offered not those things sought. Words or phrases extracted from these advertisements are readily categorized by subjects along a 5-point dimension of desirability. Males and females generally agree on the degree of preference for these 105 words or phrases (r = 0.94), yet differ in degree of preference on 39. Words or phrases preferred by females focus on commitment (e.g., “loving,” “monogamous,” “unattached”). Those preferred by males focus on sexual qualities (e.g., “good figure,” “sexy,” “young”). Individuals of both sexes who indicate a high level of self-confidence prefer words or phrases indicating adventuresome and outgoing qualities. Lack of self-confidence is related to preference for inward-directed qualities. When advertisements are artificially constructed from these words or short phrases, the rating of the advertisements corresponds to the desirability of the individual words. A factor analysis of the words reveals three major factors: (1) words that males prefer; (2) words that females prefer; (3) words that neither males nor females prefer. More highly rated words appear in Factors 1 and 2 than in Factor 3. A survey of 91 lonely hearts advertisement writers demonstrate the same sex differences in what individuals seek and what they offer. Males seek attractivity and offer resources; females seek resources and offer attractivity. After the numerous responses are categorized, only about eight categories for solicitations and eight categories of offers are evident. Interests in resources and attractivity prevail and show sexual dimorphism. Interests in the six remaining categories are nearly identical for the two sexes. Males receive fewer responses to their advertisements than do females. Lengthy advertisements do better for males and shorter ones do better for females. LHPA appear to reflect sexual differences in reproductive concerns. They offer an obvious entry into the motivational systems underlying sexual interactions.
Article
In this work, we provide evidence based on direct observation of behavior in encounters of opposite-sexed strangers, that women initiate and "control" the outcome. In the first minute of these videotaped 10-min interactions, neither female "solicitation" behavior nor "negative" behavior is strongly related to professed interest in the man, while female "affirmative" behavior at this stage modulates male verbal output in later stages (4-10 min). Although the rate of female courtship-like behavior is significantly higher in the first minute, it is only in the fourth to tenth minute that the rate of female courtship-like behavior is correlated with professed female interest. We hypothesize that this serves as a strategic dynamic reflecting sexual asymmetry in parental investment and the potential cost of male deception to women. Ambiguous protean behavioral strategies veil individuals' intentions and make their future actions unpredictable. These behavioral strategies may result in men's overestimation of female sexual interest.
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The virtual characters are starting to be widely used in user interfaces in order to improve the human–computer communication. However, the design of avatar animation is still largely restricted to specialized users, revealing a current lack of intuitive and easy-to-use editing tools. In this paper, we propose to develop a graphic editor based on mark-up language. After analyzing the main existing mark-up languages, we decided to follow the specifications of the virtual human mark-up language (VHML). In this paper, we present the development of the graphic editor based on this mark-up language and its interpreter for generating the real-time avatar animation.
Article
To investigate the choices that people make in dating partners, we analyzed data provided by HurryDate, a commercial dating service aimed at adult singles living in major metropolitan areas. Here, we report data from 10,526 participants in HurryDate sessions, in which roughly 25 men and 25 women interacted with each other for three minutes and subsequently indicated which of the people they met they would be interested in having contact with in the future. We had general survey information collected by HurryDate for all the participants and additional survey information for 2,650 participants. Our main findings are that (1) HurryDate interactions are driven primarily by generally agreed-upon mate values and less by niche-based or assortative patterns, (2) the agreed-upon mate values for both men and women derive almost exclusively from physically observable attributes like attractiveness, BMI, height, and age and are not substantially related to harder-to-observe attributes such as education, religion, sociosexuality, having children, or desiring future children, and (3) small positive assortative trends arise in the areas of race and height. Our results provide rare behavioral evidence regarding people's preferences in dating partners. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2007 APA, all rights reserved) (journal abstract)
Article
Evolutionary-related hypotheses about gender differences in mate selection preferences were derived from Triver's parental investment model, which contends that women are more likely than men to seek a mate who possesses nonphysical characteristics that maximize the survival or reproductive prospects of their offspring, and were examined in a meta-analysis of mate selection research (questionnaire studies, analyses of personal advertisements). As predicted, women accorded more weight than men to socioeconomic status, ambitiousness, character, and intelligence, and the largest gender differences were observed for cues to resource acquisition (status, ambitiousness). Also as predicted, gender differences were not found in preferences for characteristics unrelated to progeny survival (sense of humor, "personality"). Where valid comparisons could be made, the findings were generally invariant across generations, cultures, and research paradigms.
Article
Individual differences in willingness to engage in uncommitted sexual relations were investigated in 6 studies. In Study 1, a 5-item Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI) was developed. Studies 2, 3, and 4 provided convergent validity evidence for the SOI, revealing that persons who have an unrestricted sociosexual orientation tend to (a) engage in sex at an earlier point in their relationships, (b) engage in sex with more than 1 partner at a time, and (c) be involved in relationships characterized by less investment, commitment, love, and dependency. Study 5 provided discriminant validity for the SOI, revealing that it does not covary appreciably with a good marker of sex drive. Study 6 demonstrated that the SOI correlates negligibly with measures of sexual satisfaction, anxiety, and guilt. The possible stability of, origins of, and motivational bases underlying individual differences in sociosexuality are discussed.
Article
Repeated measures designs involving nonorthogonal variables are being used with increasing frequency in cognitive psychology. Researchers usually analyze the data from such designs inappropriately, probably because the designs are not discussed in standard textbooks on regression. Two commonly used approaches to analyzing repeated measures designs are considered in this article. It is argued that both approaches use inappropriate error terms for testing the effects of independent variables. A more appropriate analysis is presented, and two alternative computational procedures for the analysis are illustrated.
Article
In this work, we provide evidence based on direct observation of behavior in encounters of opposite-sexed strangers, that women initiate and "control" the outcome. In the first minute of these videotaped 10-min interactions, neither female "solicitation" behavior nor "negative" behavior is strongly related to professed interest in the man, while female "affirmative" behavior at this stage modulates male verbal output in later stages (4-10 min). Although the rate of female courtship-like behavior is significantly higher in the first minute, it is only in the fourth to tenth minute that the rate of female courtship-like behavior is correlated with professed female interest. We hypothesize that this serves as a strategic dynamic reflecting sexual asymmetry in parental investment and the potential cost of male deception to women. Ambiguous protean behavioral strategies veil individuals' intentions and make their future actions unpredictable. These behavioral strategies may result in men's overestimation of female sexual interest.
Article
Women prefer both the scent of symmetrical men and masculine male faces more during the fertile (late follicular and ovulatory) phases of their menstrual cycles than during their infertile (e.g., luteal) phases. Men's behavioral displays in social settings may convey signals that affect women's attraction to men even more strongly. This study examined shifts in women's preferences for these behavioral displays. A sample of 237 normally ovulating women viewed 36 or 40 videotaped men who were competing for a potential lunch date and then rated each man's attractiveness as a short-term and a long-term mate. As predicted, women's preference for men who displayed social presence and direct intrasexual competitiveness increased on high-fertility days relative to low-fertility days, but only in a short-term, not a long-term, mating context. These findings add to the growing literature indicating that women's mate preferences systematically vary across the reproductive cycle.
Asymmetry, developmental stability, and evolution Male facial attractiveness: Perceived personality and shifting female preferences for male traits across the menstrual cycle. Advances in the Study of Behaviour
  • A P Møller
  • J P Swaddle
Møller, A. P., & Swaddle, J. P. (1997). Asymmetry, developmental stability, and evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Penton-Voak, I. S., & Perrett, D. I. (2001). Male facial attractiveness: Perceived personality and shifting female preferences for male traits across the menstrual cycle. Advances in the Study of Behaviour, 30, 219–259.
IÕm not really good enough to perform... unless, that is, you would like me to Human evolutionary psychology When boy meets girl: Attractiveness and the five-factor model in opposite-sex interactions
  • L Barrett
  • R Dunbar
  • J Lycett
W: Oh really... do you play then? M: Just a little, for myself. IÕm not really good enough to perform... unless, that is, you would like me to... References Barrett, L., Dunbar, R., & Lycett, J. (2002). Human evolutionary psychology. Basingstoke: Palgrave. Berry, D. S., & Miller, K. M. (2001). When boy meets girl: Attractiveness and the five-factor model in opposite-sex interactions. Journal of Research in Personality, 35, 62–77.