Article

A Meta-Analysis of the Relationships Between Person–Organization Fit and Work Attitudes

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Abstract

This article presents a meta-analytic review of 21 studies on relations of person–organization fit with job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and intent to turnover. Four specific moderators were investigated: the type of fit measure, method of calculating fit, dimensions of fit, and use of an established measure of person–organization fit. Mean effect sizes for the outcome variables ranged from −.18 for intent to turnover to .28 for organizational commitment. Subjective fit measures, the use of correlations to calculate fit, value congruence as the fit dimension, and the use of an established measure of person–organization fit increased effect sizes. Recommendations for future research on person–organization fit are suggested.

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... Studies that examine the relationship between person-organization fit and organizational commitment generally indicate that in organizations with person-organization fit affects affective commitment, which is one of the dimensions of organizational commitment, positively. Also, the relationship between person-organization fit and organizational commitment also researched with variables such as job satisfaction, intention to cease of employment (Piasentin and Chapman, 2007, Mitchell, 2006, Ambrose et al., 2008, Verquer et al., 2003, leader behaviours (Ji, 2006), employee turnover ratio (Hampton-Farmer, 2007). Some of the studies on these variables are summarized below. ...
... In the study of Boxx et al. (1991), it was seen that a high level of person-organization fit increases organizational commitment. Verquer et al. (2003) combined various research results on the relationships between person-organization fit and job satisfaction, organizational commitment and intention to cease of employment, and performed meta-analysis to estimate the magnitude of its impact on the population. As a result of these studies, they stated that organizational commitment is more significant than job satisfaction and intention to cease of employment in the calculation of the mediation effect of fit types (Çetinkaya, 2016). ...
... anizational Commitment, Person -Organization Fit Dedeoğlu et. al.( 2016) Organizational Commitment, Person -Organization Fit-Job Satisfaction Li ( 2006) Organizational Commitment, Person -Organization Fit-Leader Behaviours Özçelik ( 2011) Person -Organization Fit-N/A/C Commitment Piasentin and Chatman ( 2007);Mitchell( 2006);Ambrose et. al ( 2008);Verquer et. al ( 2003) Organizational Commitment, Person -Organization Fit-Job Satisfaction-Intetion To Chease Of Employment Silverthorne ( 2004) Organizational Commitment, Person -Organization Fit-Job Satisfaction-Lower Employee Turnover Rate Ulutaş ( 2010) Organizational Commitment, Person -Organization Fit Yıluvar ( 2016 Organizational Commitment, Person - ...
... Second, studies have confirmed that a fit between the employees' needs and the supplies offered by the organization is related to more favourable outcomes than a misfit between needs and supplies (Cao & Hamori, 2020). That is, employees, show higher levels of employee outcomes such as engagement at work when they perceive a fit between the supplies provided by the organization and their own needs (e.g., Edwards et al., 2006;Travaglianti et al., 2016;Verquer et al., 2003;Vogel et al., 2020). In addition, studies focussing on specific work characteristics such as the N-S fit of autonomy (as part of job design practices) have shown a positive impact on proactive work behaviour (Yu & Davis, 2016). ...
... More specifically, where the N-S fit is high for both present and absent practices, existing practices are seen as both necessary and sufficient. In this case, employees who feel that their needs to work effectively are fully met by the HR practices supplied by the organization, and herewith do not miss out on any HR practices, are especially likely to reciprocate with favourable attitudes and behaviours towards the organization (Verquer et al., 2003). ...
... In other words, engagement is higher when the HR practices in a firm are clearly both necessary and sufficient. These results align with previous findings showing a relationship between N-S fit of general work characteristics and employee engagement (Travaglianti et al., 2016;Verquer et al., 2003). In addition, engagement decreases more sharply as both NSFE-P and NSFE-A become lower (a significant negative curvilinear relationship), meaning that engagement drops significantly when employees' needs are met poorly, and HR resources provided by the firm are neither wholly necessary nor sufficient. ...
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Practitioner notes What is currently known about the subject? Employees as key recipients of HR practices are seen as an important source of information regarding the contribution of HR practices to employee outcomes. There is evidence for the positive relationship between HRM and perceived performance from an (HR) management perspective. However, evidence on how employees perceive the effectiveness of present and absent HR practices for their work performance is currently lacking in SHRM literature. What this paper adds? By adopting a needs–supplies fit perspective on employee perceptions of HR practices, results show that employee engagement is higher when employees perceive supplied practices as needed and indicate that they do not need those that are not supplied. Proactive work behaviour increases when employees perceive supplied practices as helping them work effectively but also when employees indicate they miss practices they would have needed to perform better. Proactive work behaviour and engagement are higher when employees experience present practices as effective while missing essential practices than when the present practices are ineffective and absent practices are perceived as irrelevant. Implications for practitioners Organisations and employees should consider the extent to which employees perceive existing and missing HR practices as needed to help them work effectively. Rather than aiming for a large number of available HR practices, HR professionals should strive for making the best possible use of HR practices by considering whether practices that are currently offered lack added value for employees, as well as by considering adding practices where this would enable employees to function better.
... In addition, the alignment of people's values in organizations is known to produce positive outcomes for employees and their employers (Meglino and Ravlin, 1998). Examples of such positive outcomes include increased job satisfaction (Chen et al., 2016;Edwards and Cable, 2009;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005), higher levels of commitment (Verquer et al., 2003), enhanced performance (Hoffman and Woehr, 2006;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005) and reduced staff turnover (Boon and Biron, 2016). Although much less studied, the misalignment of values is associated with organizational cynicism (Naus et al., 2007), psychological distance from work (Edwards and Cable, 2009), lower work performance (Deng et al., 2016) and depressive states (Lamiani et al., 2018). ...
... This approach is adopted following the person vs situation debate of the early 1970s (Bowers, 1973;Mischel, 1973), which demonstrated that while person and situation variables contribute independently to behavior, this is far outweighed by their interaction (Bowers, 1973). Although values interact with many aspects of the organizational situation, it is their interaction with other people's values and those of teams, organizations and other groupings that have been shown to be the most powerful value-related predictors of workplace behavior (Bermiss and McDonald, 2018;Edwards and Cable, 2009;Hoffman and Woehr, 2006;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;Verquer et al., 2003;Vleugels et al., 2019;Vogel et al., 2016). Accordingly, this paper focuses on the impact of value congruence and incongruence on outcomes. ...
... The congruence of the two people's values regarding their similar or antagonistic political values on the matters of the day, their comparable or dissimilar cultural backgrounds, or the similarities or differences in the way they approach work. There is much research demonstrating that fit or misfit in any one of these domains influences outcomes (Bermiss and McDonald, 2018;Friedman et al., 2010;Verquer et al., 2003). Our contention is that a richer picture of work behavior can be gained by integrating the various domains of values: P1. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to integrate research conducted on work values, political values and cultural values to develop a new heuristic model of values that can be applied to workplace outcomes. Design/methodology/approach This is a conceptual paper that draws upon the work values, political values and cultural values literatures and the “similarity leads to attraction” and “dissimilarity leads to repulsion” hypotheses to advocate an integrative conceptual model spanning these constructs. Findings Integrating the three types of values with the underlying hypotheses of “similarity leads to attraction” and “dissimilarity leads to repulsion”, an internally consistent two-factor model of values is developed. This heuristic model argues that one set of factors causes value congruence and its associated outcomes and a different set of factors causes value incongruence and its associated outcomes. By conceptualizing value congruence and value incongruence as a two-factor theory, the idea is advanced that people do not assess value similarity and value dissimilarity unidimensionally, but these are two separate dimensions supported by different theoretical hypotheses and processes. Originality/value Previous conceptual work on values has isolated different types of values and considered them separately. A contribution is made by integrating the three main streams of values research. The paper is the first to advocate a two-factor theory to values and the first to incorporate the “similarity leads to attraction” and “dissimilarity leads to repulsion” hypotheses. The model repositions the focus for future research on value congruence and incongruence.
... 8 İnsanlar ile kurumlar arasındaki uyum olarak tanımlanan kişi örgüt uyumu, kişinin belirli bir iş, meslek veya gruptan ziyade tüm organizasyona uymasına odaklanmaktadır. 8,9,12,13 Kişi iş uyumu ise kişinin yetenekleri ile işin talepleri ya da kişinin istekleri ile işin özellikleri arasındaki uyum olarak tanımlanmaktadır. 12 İşe alım ve seçme sırasında hem kişi örgüt uyumu hem de kişi iş uyumu önemli olmakla birlikte, aranması gereken özellikler arasındadır. ...
... 15 Kişi örgüt uyumu çalışmalarında sıklıkla iş tutumları (iş doyumu, kurumsal bağlılık) ve işten ayrılma niyeti incelenmektedir. 8,13 Literatürde kişi örgüt uyumunun iş doyumu, işten ayrılma niyeti, kurumsal bağlılık gibi çıktılarla ilişkili olduğu bulunmuştur. 12,13 Hemşire örnekleminde yapılan çalışmalarda bireysel ve kurumsal değerler arasındaki uyumsuzluğun tükenmişlik, iş gücü devir hızı ve kaza eğilimi ile ilişkili olduğu, hasta bakım kalitesi ve iş doyumunu tahmin etmede önemli olduğu saptanmıştır. ...
... 8,13 Literatürde kişi örgüt uyumunun iş doyumu, işten ayrılma niyeti, kurumsal bağlılık gibi çıktılarla ilişkili olduğu bulunmuştur. 12,13 Hemşire örnekleminde yapılan çalışmalarda bireysel ve kurumsal değerler arasındaki uyumsuzluğun tükenmişlik, iş gücü devir hızı ve kaza eğilimi ile ilişkili olduğu, hasta bakım kalitesi ve iş doyumunu tahmin etmede önemli olduğu saptanmıştır. 16,17 Benzer şekilde, kişi iş uyumu ile iş doyumu, işe katılım ve devam, kuruma bağlılık, düşük iş stresi, motivasyon, iş refahı gibi çıktılar arasında olumlu; işe devamsızlık, devir hızı ve nefret gibi çıktılar arasında ise olumsuz ilişki olduğu bildirilmiştir. ...
Article
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Amaç: Bu çalışma, farklı kuşaklardaki hemşirelerin örgüt ve iş uyumlarının incelenmesi amacıyla yapıldı. Gereç ve Yöntemler: Araştırma kesitsel tiptedir. Araştırmanın örneklemini İzmir Çiğli Bölge Eğitim Hastanesinde çalışan ve çalışmaya katılmayı kabul eden 293 hemşire oluşturdu. Araştırmanın verileri, Hemşire Bilgi Formu, Kişi Örgüt Uyumu Ölçeği ve Kişi İş Uyumu Ölçeği ile toplandı. Verilerin analizinde; sayı yüzde ve Mann-Whitney U testi yapıldı. Bulgular: Hemşirelerin yaş ortalaması 39,01±7,08, %92,5'i kadın, %66,6'sının X kuşağı, %71,7'si evli, %62,5'i lisans mezunu, %54,3'ü çalışma koşullarını 'orta' olarak değerlendirmiş, kurum ve meslek memnuniyeti ortalaması sırasıyla 5,80±2,30, 6,60±2,26 olarak bulundu. Hemşirelerin kişi örgüt uyumu puan ortalaması 3,30±0,96 ve kişi iş uyumu puan ortalaması 3,96±0,88 olarak saptandı. X kuşağı hemşirelerinin hem örgüt hem de iş uyumu puan ortalamalarının daha yüksek olduğu saptandı. X ve Y kuşağı hemşirelerinin örgüt ve iş uyumları arasında anlamlı fark olmadığı bulundu (p>0,05). Sonuç: Hemşirelerin kuşak özelliklerinin örgüt ve iş uyumları üzerinde etkili olmadığı bulundu. Y kuşağındaki hemşirelerin, hem örgüt hem de iş uyumu puan ortalamalarının X kuşağındaki hemşirelere göre daha düşük olduğu belirlendi. Yönetici hemşirelerin, kuşak farklılıklarına göre hemşirelerin örgüt ve iş uyumlarını belirli aralıklarla değerlendirmesi, konuya ilişkin yeni araştırmalar planlanması ve araştırmaların sonuçlarına göre örgüt ve iş uyumunu artırıcı uygulamalar geliştirmeleri önerilebilir.
... P-O fit is defined as the match between the preferences or needs of individuals and organizational systems and structures, reflecting the N-S conceptualization (Kristof, 1996). High P-O fit also helps employees engage in innovative behavior (Verquer et al., 2003;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;Lee and Wu, 2011;Afsar et al., 2015). Moreover, from the perspective of D-A fit, studies have shown that teams are more effective when members have heterogeneous knowledge, skills, and abilities (e.g., Haythorn, 1968;Shaw, 1981). ...
... Correlation or regression analyses are most commonly used to examine the relations between P-E fit and its potential outcomes through direct or indirect measures (Verquer et al., 2003;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005). Polynomial regression with response surface analysis was carried out to test the hypotheses in this study. ...
Article
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The projected growth and rapid technological development in maritime transportation will create demand for a newly skilled and motivated workforce in the port sector. Thus, it is important for ports to attract, recruit and retain talented employees to promote innovation and enhance competitive advantages. This manuscript focuses on the welfare and talent of port staff from the perspective of person-environment (P-E) fit. Using polynomial regression with response surface analysis, this study explores the effect of P-E fit on job satisfaction, work engagement and innovation performance, and bootstrapping is applied to confirm the mediating roles of job satisfaction and work engagement in the relationship between P-E fit and innovation performance. Results show that (1) need-supply (N-S) fit and demands-abilities (D-A) fit improved port employees' job satisfaction, work engagement and innovation performance, and the impacts on work engagement and innovation performance show an inverted "U" and "U" shape, respectively; (2) D-A fit is more important when job satisfaction plays a mediating role; and (3) N-S fit makes a greater contribution when work engagement mediates the effect of P-E fit on the innovation performance. These findings contribute to P-E fit research as well as to human resource management practices in ports.
... Previous research has suggested positive effects of PO fit on employees' relationships with the organization, including organizational commitment and satisfaction [26,72] as well as trust in top management [25]. A value-congruent organization could enhance employees' favorable attitudes toward the organization [73]. ...
... This study contributes to internal communication literature by adding PO fit as an effective mediator. Although PO fit has been widely used as a mechanism to explain the relationships between employees' perceptions and their attitudinal and behavioral performances in the management literature [26,72], little is known about its role in internal CSR engagement. By examining the mediating effects of PO fit, we are able to explain the underlying psychological mechanism driving employees' CSR engagement and relationship with the employer. ...
Article
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Drawing on motivating language theory (MLT), this paper aims to demonstrate the effects of strategic leader speech in the context of internal corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication. Specifically, the study (1) examines how leader motivating language strategies used in CSR communication influence employees’ CSR engagement and employee–organization relationships (EORs) and (2) identifies the mediator explaining the underlying psychological mechanism of the effects. Structural equation modeling was performed on a sample of 406 participants who are full-time and part-time employees in the U.S. The results showed that leader motivating language was positively associated with employees’ CSR engagement and EOR quality. Such relationships were significantly mediated by person–organization (PO) fit. This study advances CSR research and practice by explicating the impact of leaders’ oral communication in constructing employees’ CSR experiences and relationships with the employer.
... 1980'lerin sonunda ve 1990'ların başında kişi örgüt uyumunun çeşitli boyutları tanımlanmıştır. Hedef uyumu, değer uyumu, ihtiyaç yapı uyumu ve kişilik iklim uyumu boyutları üzerine yoğunlaşılmıştır [5]. Kişi örgüt uyumu bireylerin ve örgütlerin değerleri ve normları arasındaki uyum [6], bireylerin hedeflerinin örgüt liderleri ve çalışanların hedefleriyle benzerliği [7;8] olarak ifade edilmektedir. ...
... Çoğu kuram, bir kişinin örgüte uygun olması gerektiğini varsayarken, Argyris örgütü kişiye uydurmayı savunmaktadır. Örgütü, bireylere daha fazla algılanan kontrol ve karar vermeye izin verecek şekilde yeniden yapılandırmanın tutarsızlığı azalttığını ve yararlı çıktılarla sonuçlanması gerektiğini varsaymaktadır [5]. ...
... In addition, since both empowering leaders and proactive individuals recognize the importance of self-development, employees can obtain a higher degree of fit with their leaders and organizations. Extant studies have indicated that P-O fit can reduce role ambiguity and conflict (Verquer et al., 2003), which can result in a better perception of self-control toward their jobs and behaviors. Accordingly, the positive relationship between leaders' empowerment and their followers' autonomy needs is predicted to be higher for followers who are more proactive. ...
Article
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Although scholars have recognized the important role of leader empowering behavior in promoting employee knowledge sharing, investigations on the potential underlying mechanism are still limited. To enrich studies revealing the possible underlying paths, drawing on self-determination theory, this paper proposes a moderated mediation model. We propose that employee self-determination plays a mediating role and employee proactivity moderates the mediating effect. We test our hypotheses based on data collected from 230 employees across a three-wave study. The empirical results demonstrate that leader empowering behavior promotes employee knowledge sharing by enhancing employee self-determination. Employees’ proactive personality moderates the indirect effect such that the indirect effect is stronger when employees have high levels of proactive personality. This paper thus contributes to the related literature and reveals practical implications.
... This course furthers by creating a homogenous environment where well-fitting employees will decide on staying while ill-fitting employees would choose to leave (Schneider, Goldstiein, & Smith, 1995). Meta-analytic reviews have shown a positive effect of P-O fit on job satisfaction, OCB, commitment, and performance and a negative association of P-O fit with TI and actual turnover (e.g., Kristof-Brown, Zimmerman, & Johnson, 2005;Verquer, Beehr, & Wagner, 2003). A positive impact of P-O fit on employee job outcomes has been evidenced empirically in the hospitality industry (Afsar & Badir, 2016;Chen, Sparrow, & Cooper, 2016;Choi et al., 2017). ...
Article
The primary goal of this study is to develop and test a comprehensive model concerning the association between employee-fit and turnover intention (TI) in the hospitality industry. A multi-wave survey was conducted in the metropolitan cities of Pakistan to collect data from 362 frontline hotel industry employees. The findings reveal that person-organization (P–O) fit and person-job (P-J) fit are negatively associated with employee TI in the hospitality industry, while employee engagement plays the underlying mediating role in these relationships. In addition, the psychological contract violation (PCV) has been found as a boundary condition to our proposed linear relationships such that the indirect effects of P–O fit and P-J fit on employee TI are weaker for the employees having high PCV. Theoretical and practical implications for the hospitality industry as well as limitations and future research directions have been discussed.
... Several theories assert that employees will be more motivated, satisfied, and committed when their values align with those of their employer and their role (Berings et al., 2004;Cohen, 2010;Dierdorff & Morgeson, 2013). Indeed, metaanalytic evidence broadly supports the claim that "person-organization fit", which is often operationalized through the congruence between personal and organization values, predicts reduced turnover intentions and commitment (Verquer et al., 2003). Alignment between individual and organizational values has been shown to enhance role fulfilment, minimize costs associated with turnover, increase role satisfaction, and organizational commitment (Meglino et al., 1989;Podsakoff et al., 2003;Riketta, 2005). ...
Article
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Some scholars suggest that organizations could improve their hiring decisions by measuring the personal values of job applicants, arguing that values provide insights into applicants’ cultural fit, retention prospects, and performance outcomes. However, others have expressed concerns about response distortion and faking. The current study provides the first large-scale investigation of the effect of the job applicant context on the psychometric structure and scale means of a self-reported values measure. Participants comprised 7,884 job applicants (41% male; age M = 43.32, SD = 10.76) and a country-, age-, and gender-matched comparison sample of 1,806 non-applicants (41% male; age M = 44.72, SD = 10.97), along with a small repeated-measures, cross-context sample. Respondents completed the 57-item Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ) measuring Schwartz’ universal personal values. Compared to matched non-applicants, applicants reported valuing power and self-direction considerably less, and conformity and universalism considerably more. Applicants also reported valuing security, tradition, and benevolence more than non-applicants, and reported valuing stimulation, hedonism, and achievement less than non-applicants. Despite applicants appearing to embellish the degree to which their values aligned with being responsible and considerate workers, invariance testing suggested that the underlying structure of values assessment is largely preserved in job applicant contexts.
... İşten ayrılmayla ilgili çoğu kuramsal modelde bir veya birden fazla işten ayrılma bilişiiş bırakma niyeti, ayrılma eğilimi gibi-gerçek işten ayrılmanın doğrudan öncülü kabul edilmektedir. Birçok çalışmaya göre (Kristof-Brown, Zimmerman ve Johnson, 2005;Verquer Beehr ve Wagner, 2003), gerçek ayrılmanın en önemli yordayıcısı ayrılma niyetidir. Jung, Namkung ve Yoon (2010) işten ayrılma niyetinin çalışanın meslek değiştirme eğilimini yordayan bir unsur olduğuna dikkat çekmiştir. ...
... Several theories assert that employees will be more motivated, satisfied, and committed when their values align with those of their employer and their role (Berings et al., 2004;Cohen, 2010;Dierdorff & Morgeson, 2013). Indeed, meta-analytic evidence broadly supports the claim that "person-organization fit", which is often operationalized through the congruence between personal and organization values, predicts reduced turnover intentions and commitment (Verquer et al., 2003). Alignment between individual and organizational values has been shown to enhance role fulfilment, minimize costs associated with turnover, increase role satisfaction, and organizational commitment (Meglino et al., 1989;Podsakoff et al., 2003;Riketta, 2005). ...
Preprint
Some scholars suggest that organizations could improve their hiring decisions by measuring the personal values of job applicants, arguing that values provide insights into applicants’ cultural fit, retention prospects, and performance outcomes. However, others have expressed concerns about response distortion and faking. The current study provides the first large-scale investigation of the effect of the job applicant context on the psychometric structure and scale means of a self-reported values measure. Participants comprised 7,884 job applicants (41% male; age M = 43.32, SD = 10.76) and a country-, age-, and gender-matched comparison sample of 1,806 non-applicants (41% male; age M = 44.72, SD = 10.97), along with a small repeated-measures, cross-context sample. Respondents completed the 57-item Portrait Values Questionnaire (PVQ) measuring Schwartz’ universal personal values. Compared to matched non-applicants, applicants reported valuing power and self-direction considerably less, and conformity and universalism considerably more. Applicants also reported valuing security, tradition, and benevolence more than non-applicants, and reported valuing stimulation, hedonism, and achievement less than non-applicants. Despite applicants appearing to embellish the degree to which their values aligned with being responsible and considerate workers, invariance testing suggested that the under- lying structure of values assessment is largely preserved in job applicant contexts.
... Specifically, this paper aims to compare two common selection interview modes-Face-to-Face (FTF) and videoconference interviews (i.e., Skype)-and their sequence, to evaluate their impact on personality trait assessments. Evaluations of a candidate's personality to assess organizational fit have been well documented in a considerable research stream in HRM (Rothstein & Goffin, 2006;Verquer et al., 2003). In order to investigate this topic, we undertook a field study involving real selection interviews across seven employment offers. ...
Article
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Adoption of new technology to support selection interviews may distort the validity of source data in HR analytics, with implications for Artificial Intelligence (AI) algorithms used to assess candidates' personality traits. Using a field experiment with real selection interviews, we compare two common selection interview modes—Face-to-Face and videoconference, to evaluate their impact on personality trait assessments. Our findings indicate that candidates scored more highly on agreeableness, openness, extroversion, and conscientiousness, but lower on neuroticism, during a Face-to-Face interview compared with videoconference. There was also greater variation in personality ratings when interview sequence commenced with videoconference followed by Face-to-Face, compared with the reverse order. Our results suggest that Face-to-Face followed by videoconference provide a less distorted assessment of personality traits than videoconference followed by Face-to-Face. This study also contributes to practical and academic debates centred on human and AI selection practices and the use of data analytics in HR processes.
... Wyniki metaanaliz nad dopasowaniem człowiek -środowisko pracy pokazują, że pracownicy spostrzegający siebie jako bardziej dopasowanych do środowiska pracy, są m.in. bardziej zaangażowani w pracę, bardziej produktywni i rzadziej rezygnują z obecnego miejsca pracy (Arthur, Bell, Villado i Doverspike, 2006;Hoffman i Woehr, 2006;Kristof-Brown, Zimmerman i Johnson, 2005;Verquer, Beehr i Wagner, 2003). ...
Book
The monograph addresses four important issues related to people management and concerning the functioning of an employee in an organisation. The authors analyse, among others, the problem of psychophysiological costs incurred by employees performing work that does not match their temperament and activity style, which translates into the style of performing tasks at work; their own research concerning problems with meaningfulness at work; and they propose remedial measures supporting meaningfulness at work that can be applied by organisations and employees themselves. The monograph also presents issues related to building teams that are efficiently led and cooperate to achieve their goals; threats to the accuracy of numerical evaluations and tips on how to interpret those evaluations to which an employee is subjected during an audit. The book is addressed to managers and professionals involved in human resource management, as well as to students and PhD students of management with a specialisation in human resource management, management psychology and management sociology.
... Similarly, many studies reveal that person-organization fit has a positive, significant, and strong effect on job sat-isfaction (Cable and Judge, 1996;Liu, Liu, and Hu, 2010). As a result of meta-analysis on the consequences of person-organization fit, Verquer et al. (2003) (r=0.25), Kristof-Brown et al. (2005) (r=0.44) ...
Article
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The purpose of this study is to determine the mediating role of person-organization fit on the effect of organizational alignment on job satisfaction of academic and administrative personnel, based on the theory of person-organization fit. For this purpose, the research is carried out on 141 personnel working at a state university. SPSS Process Macro is used to test the research hypotheses. According to the findings obtained from the research data, organizational alignment has a significant effect on increasing the degree of person-organization fit in organizations. Organizational alignment and person organization fit have positive and significant effects on job satisfaction. Finally, the person-organization fit has a mediating role in the effect of organizational alignment on the job satisfaction of academic and administrative personnel. Bu çalışmanın amacı kişi-örgüt uyumu kuramından hareketle, örgütsel uyumlanmanın personelin iş tatmini üzerindeki etkisinde kişi-örgüt uyu-munun aracı rolünü tespit etmektir. Bu amaç doğrultusunda araştırma bir devlet üniversitesinde çalışan 141 personel üzerinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Araştırma hipotezlerini test etmek için SPSS Process Macro uygulaması kullanılmıştır. Araştırma verilerinden elde edilen bulgulara göre örgütsel uyumlanmanın örgütlerde kişi-örgüt uyumunun derecesini artırmada önemli düzeyde etkiye sahip bir örgütsel değişken olduğu ortaya konmuştur. Örgütsel uyumlanmanın ve kişi örgüt-uyumunun iş tatmini üzerinde pozitif yönlü anlamlı etkilere sahip olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Son olarak örgütsel uyumlanmanın akademik ve idari personelin iş tatmini üzerindeki etkisinde kişi-örgüt uyumunu aracı role sahip olduğu belir-lenmiştir..
... Person-group fit has a moderate effect on organizational commitment and intention to quit. Verquer et al. (2003) showed the effect of person-organization fit on organizational commitment and intention to quit by means of meta-analysis utilizing 21 person-organization fit research. Saks and Asforth (1997) investigated the relationship between value congruence and affective commitment and then reported significant positive relationship. ...
Article
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The importance of "human" has become more apparent in today's increasingly competitive environment. In the light of developing technology, increasing of technology-based organizations gets managers to pay attention to intellectual capital that is indispensable element. Retaining qualified employees and get them to commit to organization are remarkable factors for human resource management. The antecedent of organizational commitment in this type of organizations gains importance as one of the topics for academicians and professionals. The employees' fit with organizations and their groups can be antecedents of organizational commitment. The effects of fit the employees' values with organization values/group values and perception of job execution similarity (relational demography) on the organizational commitment are investigated in this study. 293-employee sampling is selected in technology-based organizations for this research. According to findings, dimensions of human-result oriented-stability and development-reward in terms of person-organization values fit, dimension of result oriented in terms of person-group value fit, and job execution similarity with supervisor have significant effects on organizational commitment. Contrary to expectations, person-group value fit explain the variance in the organizational commitment, negatively. This result highlights complementarity regarding values in a group besides supplementary fit.
... Organisational value congruence (OVC) is widely known as the fit between individual and organisational value systems (Schmidt and Posner, 1986;Chatman, 1989;Kristof, 1996;Meglino & Ravlin, 1998;Ostroff et al., 2005;Edwards & Cable, 2009), and has been broadly discussed as a decisive factor underlying both individual and organisational behaviour. Accordingly, a good fit between individual and organisational values has been recognised as a key determinant of positive organisational outcomes such as job satisfaction, perceived organisational identity, strong employment relationships (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;Meglino & Ravlin, 1998;Posner, 2010;Verquer et al., 2003), increased employee commitment (Sparrow and Wu, 1998;Finegan, 2000), and competitive advantages (Sparrow and Wu, 1998;Bosch & Prooijen, 1992). On the contrary, negative outcomes like employee dissatisfaction (Meglino & Ravlin, 1998), conflicts (Chandrakumara, 2011), and lack of employee willingness to perform (Newman and Nollen, 1996) have been observed as consequences of poor OVC. ...
Article
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Given the diverse conceptualisations used in the measurement of organisational value congruence (OVC), the purpose of this paper is to propose an integrated typology of measurement criteria — as a methodological and measurement guideline — that can be employed in operationalising the measurement of OVC. Based on a review of over forty empirical articles, this typology proposes a path forward to operationalise the measurement of OVC by selecting from the proposed criteria and alternative dimensions to match the specific aims of researchers more comprehensively. The typology thus proposed identifies six key criteria and 12 dimensions therein. It further presents how different combinations of alternative dimensions in measuring OVC are used and can be used to best suit different objectives of researchers. As a concept matrix, this typology would specifically be useful for future researchers to identify how best to measure OVC to match their specific study objectives and facilitate rational comparison of OVC studies, permitting sensible knowledge sharing. Further, this typology can be extended to locate the best possible combinations for operationalising the measurement of OVC for future research.
... Similarly, studies in the literature suggest that there will be higher levels of individual organizational fit, as long as the values of the individual are in line with the values of the organization. It is also stated that individuals who display value preferences similar to the organization's value orientations show more positive working attitudes (Chatman, 1991;Piasentin and Chapman, 2006;HoVman and Woehr, 2006;Verquer et al., 2003). ...
Article
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The purpose of this research is to determine the organizational fit and organizational myopia levels of employees, to examine whether there is a significant relationship between these levels, to examine how organizational fit affects organizational myopia if there is a significant relationship, and to determine whether organizational myopia differs significantly from demographic factors. In line with this purpose, data has been obtained from medium-sized business employees operating in the private sector by applying a survey method. These data has been analyzed with reliability analysis, factor analysis, normality analysis, correlation, regression, Independent Sample T Test and One-Way ANOVA Test. As a result of the analysis; a positive and highly significant relationship has been found between organizational fit and organizational myopia, and the factor that increased organizational myopia most has been found to be person-organization fit. It has been determined that organizational myopia does not show a significant difference according to demographic factors. JEL Classifications: M1, M12, M19
... 1) Örgüt ve bireyin benzer ortak özellikler paylaşmaları, 2) Etkileşimde ya örgütün, bireyin ihtiyaç ve beklentilerine cevap verebilmesi ya da bireyin, örgütün ihtiyaç ve beklentilerine cevap verebilmesi, ya da 3) bu iki hususun varlığının ayna anda söz konusu olmasıdır (Finegan, 2000;Kristof, 1996;Kristof-Brown, 2000;Vianen, 2000;Verquer, Beehr, & Wagner, 2003). ...
Conference Paper
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1. sınıfa 60-84 aylık başlayan öğrencilerin LGS puanlarının kıyaslanması.
... Personjob fit refers to the subjective experience of how well an employee feels suited to his or her job (Lauver & Kristof-Brown, 2001). Research has demonstrated that the match between a person and the various facets of the work environment enhances employees' identification with the organization and facilitates positive work-related attitudes and behaviors (for reviews, see Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;Verquer et al., 2003). Person-job fit has been defined in a number of alternative ways (see e.g., Kristof-Brown et al., 2005), but in this study we focus on employees' subjective evaluations of the compatibility between their own skills and the job requirements (Lauver & Kristof-Brown, 2001). ...
Article
There are currently two main theoretical perspectives that explain how employees engage in job crafting, namely Wrzesniewski and Dutton's (2001) original theory and the Job Demands-Resources model framework by Tims et al. (2012). The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare these two perspectives on job crafting and operationalizations based thereon using a person-centered methodology. We also examined whether the use of different job crafting strategy combinations manifests in differences in work engagement and person-job fit. Study participants were Finnish managers (n = 419) who completed both the Job Crafting Questionnaire (Slemp & Vella-Brodrick, 2013) and the Job Crafting Scale (Tims, Bakker, & Derks, 2012). Latent Profile Analysis yielded four job crafting profiles: 1) Average crafters (47%), 2) Avoidance-oriented crafters (30%), 3) Approach-oriented crafters (19%) and 4) Self-oriented task crafters (4%). Approach-oriented crafters were significantly more engaged and fitted better to their job than those in the other profiles. Furthermore, those in the Average crafters profile were more engaged and had higher person-job fit than Avoidance-oriented crafters or Self-oriented task crafters. Overall, our findings provide new implications for the theoretical categorization of job crafting and knowledge on how the use of different combinations of job crafting strategies is related to work engagement and person-job fit.
... To be sure, turnover could provide some benefits. Eliminating turnover is not always possible and traditional wisdom argues that some turnover is good for the public sector when it improves person-organization fit (Lee 2018;Meier and Hicklin 2008;Moynihan and Pandey 2007;Verquer, Beehr, and Wagner 2003). In particular, if turnover simply reflects poor match quality or a lack of values congruence, then turnover early in workers' careers may reflect an efficient system for screening out ineffective or less motivated public servants. ...
Article
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Government agencies around the world struggle to retain frontline workers, as high job demands and low job resources contribute to persistently high rates of employee burnout. Although four decades of research have documented the predictors and potential costs of frontline worker burnout, we have limited causal evidence on strategies that reduce it. In this article, we report on a multi-city field experiment (n=536) aimed at increasing perceived social support and affirming belonging among 911 dispatchers. We find that a six-week intervention that prompts dispatchers to share advice anonymously and asynchronously with their peers in other cities reduces burnout by 8 points (0.4 SD) and cuts resignations by more than half (3.4 percentage points) four months after the intervention ended. We provide supporting evidence that the intervention operates by increasing perceived social support and belonging in an online laboratory experiment (n=497). These findings suggest that low-cost belonging affirmation techniques can reduce frontline worker burnout and help agencies retain workers, saving a mid-sized city at least $400,000 in personnel costs.
... Çalışanların sahip olduğu değerleri, örgütün yöneticisi tarafından tanımlanan örgütsel değerlere uyduğunda, kişiler arası etkileşim, bilgi işleme ve iletişim kolaylaşacak bu da artan tatmin ve performans gibi olumlu iş sonuçlarına yol açacaktır (Ostroff et al., 2005: 593). Kristof-Brown et al. (2005) ve Verquer et al. (2003), yüksek kişi-örgüt uyumunun, çalışanların organizasyon için yararlı davranışlar sergilemelerine yardımcı olduğunu ileri sürmektedir (Akt. Afsar & Badir, 2017: 98). ...
... According to de Mol et al. (2018), job fit affects both cognitive and affective components of entrepreneurial passion for various reasons. First, it has been shown that job-person fit has a positive relationship with job satisfaction (Verquer et al., 2003) so that entrepreneurs who perceive that their entrepreneurial job matches their ideal job are more likely to enjoy and like their jobs (i.e., the affective component of passion). They do the job because their job gives them the feeling of delight and satisfaction when they are engaged with it. ...
Article
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Studies regarding rural entrepreneurs in developing countries and, specifically, their well-being have not been sufficiently developed in the literature. The present study was an attempt to fill this gap and to examine important antecedents and outcomes associated with entrepreneurial well-being among a sample of 102 Iranian rural entrepreneurs. This research established a theoretical research model that highlighted the relationships among job fit, entrepreneurial passion, well-being, and persistence. The results of structural equation modeling supported the hypothesized model. In particular, the results indicated that higher job fit was associated with higher levels of entrepreneurial well-being through an entrepreneurial passion mechanism. Moreover, the results supported the hypothesized serial mediating effect. In other words, a high level of job fit enhances entrepreneurial persistence through a high level of entrepreneurial passion and well-being. This study provides significant input to policymakers and practitioners in their efforts to promote the antecedents and outcomes of well-being among rural entrepreneurs.
... adé quation complé mentaire). En retour, cette adé quation perçue par le salarié pourrait gé né rer des comportements positifs à l'é gard de l'organisation (Kristof-Brown et al., 2005 ;Verquer et al., 2003). En effet, Cable et DeRue (2002) ont dé montré que, lorsqu'il partage les objectifs et les inté rêts de l'entreprise, un salarié contribue davantage aux missions de celle-ci et ce, au-delà de ses attributions formelles. ...
Article
Résumé Cette étude avait pour objectif d’explorer les effets des pratiques organisationnelles vertueuses sur les comportements citoyens envers l’organisation et l’intention des salariés d’y rester ainsi que de tester le rôle médiateur de l’adéquation personne-organisation dans ces relations. Au total, 290 salariés de différents secteurs d’activité ont répondu au questionnaire. Les résultats ont révélé, d’une part, que ces pratiques avaient des effets positifs sur les comportements citoyens et l’intention de rester dans l’organisation et, d’autre part, que l’adéquation personne-organisation médiait, de manière respective, partiellement et totalement ces relations. Les résultats de cette étude, consacrée au construit novateur des pratiques organisationnelles vertueuses et à leurs relations avec des attitudes et comportements professionnels, suggèrent diverses pistes de recherche et d’actions qui sont discutées.
... Kişi örgüt uyumu ile iş tatmini arasında pozitif yönde bir ilişki olduğu da bilinmektedir (Bağcı, 2018;Netemeyer vd., 1997, Vilela vd., 2008. Kişi örgüt uyumu ile bireysel sonuçlar içeren iş bağlılığı, iş performansı, iş tatmini gibi değişkenler üzerindeki etkisine de literatürde oldukça sık yer verilse de (Verquer, Beehr ve Wagner, 2003), değişkenler arasındaki aracılık ve düzenleyicilik rolüne ilişkin pek fazla araştırma yapılmadığı görülmektedir (Gregory ve Albritton, 2009). Bu araştırmada bağımlı ve bağımsız değişken arasındaki ilişkide kişi örgüt uyumunun düzenleyici etkisinin belirlenmesi istenilmiştir. ...
... The applicant's personality traits are automatically derived from social media usage. This fit substantially influences job performance, job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and employee turnover (Verquer et al., 2003). The fit can be broken down into sub-fits, i.e. person-organization, persongroup, and person-job, which together cover the entire notion of the candidate-organization environment fit. ...
Conference Paper
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Every company searches, implements, and invests in new, more effective, and more efficient ways to recruit new personnel. They use all the methods available, like conducting consecutive interviews, using different kinds of testing environments and programs, searching thoroughly the candidates' practical and theoretical knowledge, testing hard, soft, and digital skills etc. All these ways are costly for companies because they should make absolutely right decisions about human resources selection to maximize the efficiency of selection procedure. This paper explores the ways that a company should make such decisions, by using machine learning methods. To do this, in first place, structural equation modeling, following by the Bayesian Network are used. To cross validate the results and paths of the previous methods, the decision trees method is used, which is a machine learning algorithm that analyzes the data concerning human resources selection and produces a graphic tree about key point decisions that should be made, depending on some specific values and bounds of different kinds of metrics, which actually help the company decrease its expenses and increase its performance. The main target of this work is to identify as best possible, the factors that affect job satisfaction of the personnel. Factors, like the likelihood of successful training with the minimal cost and in the shortest time period, and the possible work performance development, are important areas in this research. It is considered that this work will have a strong impact on how candidate testing and selection should be done. To the best of our knowledge, there has not been, so far, a work to relate machine learning with human resources selection.
... Person-organization (P-O) fit theory can help explain these responses(Kristof, 1996). P-O fit theory posits that compatibility between an employee and an organization is a result of either or both meeting the other party's needs and sharing similar values and that this greater compatibility results in more positive employee attitudes(Verquer et al., 2003).Employees of no faith may consider any organizational attention to religion to be overreaching in nature and hold negative attitudes about the consideration of religion in work contexts at all; their value of not mixing faith and work would not be shared and they would view faith-related policies as not meeting their needs, resulting in lower perceptions of P-O fit and worse employee attitudes. Conversely, these employees may see value in such policies or practices to the extent that they feel included in discussions of faith identity, or they may consider faith diversity management practices to be a positive indicator of an organization's approach to other forms of diversity that may be more relevant to their identities. ...
Article
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Organizational policies and practices related to workforce diversity and inclusion have implications for employees of all backgrounds. With the changing composition of faith identities in the workforce, organizations must change to meet the needs of employees of all faith identities, including employees who do not identify with a faith tradition. Across two studies, we use Miller and Ewest’s (2015) Faith and Work Organizational Framework to explore how different organizational approaches to faith diversity management impact the job outcomes of employees of differing faith identities. Results indicate that “faith‐friendly” organizations, characterized by a proactively inclusive approach, yield the highest employee satisfaction and perceptions of supervisor and organizational support and lowest intentions to turn over for employees of all and no faith identities. This was supported when examined with both a cross‐sectional survey and using experimental manipulation. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
... Silverthorne, 2004;Ambrose et al., 2008). P-O fit has an adverse relationship with turnover intention(Hoffman & Woehr, 2006;Verquer et al., 2003). Thus, P-O fit contributes to a robust relationship between employees and their organizations, making it more difficult for employees to quit even if more excellent alternative opportunities are available (Jin et al., 2018). ...
Article
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Job embeddedness and person-organization fit are two constructs that reflect employees’ attachment toward their organizations. While job embeddedness enhances employees’ affection, person-organization fit involves the value convergence with the organization. Therefore, the two constructs facilitate continuance in employment. The study attempted to identify the relationship between job embeddedness, person-organization fit, and human capital among the Saudi workforce. Data for the study were collected from 190 full-time employees employed in various organizations in Saudi Arabia. Convenient sampling was used to collect data. The respondents belong to different demographic categories. The data were analyzed using SPSS and structural equation modeling (SEM) techniques. Three hypotheses were formulated for the study to denote the relationships between the variables. For all the hypotheses formulated in the study, t-values (0.71, 0.88, and 0.84) showed a five percent level of significance. The research results thus indicated a significant positive relationship between job embeddedness, person-organization fit, and human capital. The relationship between the constructs and demographic variables was also examined. The findings are significant as the identified constructs help dealing with turnover intention, which is a bane for any organization. Therefore, the results could be used to identify retention strategies. AcknowledgmentsThis publication was supported by the Deanship of Scientific Research at Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Alkharj, Saudi Arabia, under the Specialized Research Grant program with Grant No- 2020/02/17318.
... Drawing from EDT, scholars (Brown et al., 2014;Kristof-Brown et al., 2005;Verquer, Beehr, & Wagner, 2003) posit that individuals would be more satisfied when expectations are more closely aligned with job experiences their work, thus reducing their turnover intention. On the other hand, when individuals feel that continuing on the job will not alleviate unmet expectations, it may lead to adverse outcomes such as increased turnover intention (Armstrong et al., 2015) and stress (Brown, Venkatesh, & Goyal, 2012;Edwards & Rothbard, 1999). ...
Article
Technology is central to the work-life of professionals in the information technology (IT) domain. However, inadequate attention has been paid to technology as an antecedent of IT professionals' work outcomes, such as turnover intention and work exhaustion. In the present work, we conducted a mixed-method study. In Study 1, we used an inductive qualitative approach to explore features of technology from the career perspective of IT professionals. We explain how perception about the features of technology influences IT professionals' work outcomes. Based on semi-structured interviews of 35 IT professionals, we found three features (long-term consequence, perceived challenge, and technology-related uncertainty) on which IT professionals assess and evaluate a given technology. Subsequently, in Study 2, we used the Expectation Disconfirmation Theory (EDT) as the framework to develop a model to measure the perceived misfit between 'expected' and 'experienced' features of technology and test its impact on IT professionals' turnover intention and work exhaustion. The study provides valuable insights for the management of IT professionals.
... In turn, if occupational stress is prolonged and gradually becomes chronic, it may lead to burnout (Maslach et al., 2001;Schaufeli et al., 2002;Salmela-Aro et al., 2011). There also is evidence that a lack of social or administrative support or a lack of coherence between the teacher and the working environment may be the kinds of stressors that pose a risk of burnout (Verquer et al., 2003;Cable and Edwards, 2004;Pillay et al., 2005;Kokkinos, 2007;Sharplin et al., 2011). Recently, there have been many other challenges in schools even before the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic, such as financial cuts, a refugee crisis and an ambitious inclusive approach in Finnish schools: there can be students from a range of socio-economic and ethnic backgrounds as well as special needs students in the same class (Lonka, 2018). ...
Article
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Current educational reforms concerning curricula and digitalization challenge educators to meet new demands for learning and schooling. What is common for current educational reforms is that they tend to emphasize competencies that are not related to the traditional subject-matters and reflect a stance which presents learning as a naturally reflective and collaborative act. It is often assumed that teachers are automatically ready to implement ideas of this kind in practice. In this study, we propose that teachers’ theories about knowledge, knowing and learning, particularly their epistemic theories, may be related to how teachers approach these reforms which challenge their previous ways of working and how they perceive their wellbeing at work. To examine these matters, we explored the dynamic interrelations between teachers’ epistemic theories, conformity with the novel curricular and digital reforms (ideas behind the new curriculum and digitalization program), perceptions of the school leadership, work engagement and burnout. Participants (Study 1 n = 228; Study 2 n = 200) were Finnish class teachers and subject-matter teachers. Both data sets were collected before the COVID-19 pandemic. For data analysis, we plotted correlation network figures. Results showed that if teachers’ epistemic theory was in harmony with the curricular or digital reforms, there is a positive association with work engagement and negative association with burnout. In sum, results of this provided a hint of the phenomenon suggesting that teachers’ epistemic theories may be a factor which buffers teachers to meet the current epistemic and developmental challenges of teachers’ profession, and furthermore, serve as grounds for a positive association for teachers to feel adequate and satisfied in their work.
... Individuals can also develop a fit perception after engaging with and learning about the work environment. This perceived fit can influence organizational commitment, job satisfaction, and turnover intentions (Boon et al., 2011;Greguras and Diefendorff, 2009;Lyons and O'Brien, 2006;Oh et al., 2014;Silverthorne, 2004;Tak, 2011;Ton and Hansen, 2001;Verquer et al., 2003;Wheeler, 2007). In the entrepreneurship context, there can be anticipatory person-entrepreneurship fit (i.e., the anticipated match between one's personal needs and what entrepreneurship can offer) and perceived person-entrepreneurship fit (i.e., the fit perception that individuals develop after gaining direct experience with entrepreneurship or engagement in entrepreneurial activities or indirect experience through education). ...
Article
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Entrepreneurial effort has been found to be an important predictor of entrepreneurial passion. The more effort one devotes to entrepreneurial activities, the more passionate one becomes. Our work, however, extends prior research by offering contrasting empirical evidence. Drawing on fit theory and the person-entrepreneurship fit perspective, we propose that for novice individuals, who do not feel a strong fit with entrepreneurship, engaging in entrepreneurial effort would increase the perception of misfit, thereby reducing their entrepreneurial passion. Results from two experimental studies confirm our hypotheses. Our research contributes to the entrepreneurial passion and the person-entrepreneurship fit literatures.
... Additionally, Individual innovativeness is likely to occur in a work context characterized (Nisula & Kianto, 2016) that not only leaders but also organizational identification has an impact on innovative behaviour. The use of person-organization fit theories can be linked to management style (Verquer et al., 2003). Although the research found a positive effects of leadership on employee innovative behaviors, not all studies investigating this relationship are as encouraging (Agars et al., 2012;Moss & Ritossa, 2007). ...
Article
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The purpose of this paper is to investigate the mediating role of person-organization fit in the effect of perceived organizational identification and leader-member exchange on the innovative behaviors of the nurses. Using a five-phase survey, data were collected from 408 nurses from working in a university hospital in the province of Eskisehir (Turkey). Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between of variables. The mediating effects is further examined by using three-statelier archival regression analysis proposed by Baron and Kenny. Person-organization fit partial mediates the positive relationship between perceived organizational identification and innovative behavior, and person-organization fit fully mediates the positive relationship between leader-member exchange and innovative behavior.
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In the study, it was aimed to examine the mediating role of workplace happiness in the effect of person-organization fit on job satisfaction. In this context, a literature review on the concepts of happiness, workplace happiness, person-organization fit and job satisfaction was added to the research. The sample of the research consists of 468 white collar employees from 18 enterprises operating in the textile industry in Denizli Organized Industrial Zone. The data procured by using simple sampling method were obtained by making questionnaire to the employees. The survey consists of 20 items about person-organization fit (four items), job satisfaction (five items), workplace happiness (five items), and determining the demographic characteristics of the respondents (6 items). SPSS 22 and AMOS 21 softwares were used in the data analysis of the research. Structural Equation Model was use. It was found out that employees with high person-organization fit experienced higher levels of workplace happiness and job satisfaction. In addition, workplace happiness had a mediating role between the person-organization fit and job satisfaction.
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Following significant intelligence failures, the United States intelligence community adopted Intelligence Community Directive 203 (ICD203) to promote analytic rigor. We developed two psychometric scales to examine how strongly intelligence professionals (N=108) endorsed the analytic standards comprising ICD203 and how strongly they believed their organizations complied with these standards. All ICD203 facets were highly endorsed and clustered into three principal components, and perceived organizational compliance was high. Facets reflecting intelligence aims were endorsed more strongly than those reflecting means. ICD203 endorsement was positively related to conscientious and actively open-minded thinking, whereas perceived organizational compliance was positively correlated with conscientiousness, job satisfaction, and affective and normative commitment.
Article
While scholars have attended to the performance implications of employee embeddedness in social networks within the workplace, less research accounts for the interface of employee and organizational values in enabling employees to leverage these networks. Network perspectives on employee performance acknowledge that certain informal network positions create resources that are beneficial for performance while simultaneously creating demands that may diminish or erode these benefits. Leveraging a Job Demands‐Resources (JD‐R) perspective, we suggest that person–organization (PO) fit—the perceived congruence between individual and organizational values—will play a crucial role in shaping the performance effects of demands and resources inherently generated by workplace relationships. Results suggest that PO fit moderates relationships between network positions and individual job performance. Specifically, we find that having many friendships or being heavily sought out for advice enhances performance for those with higher levels of PO fit. Supplemental analyses highlight that incoming friendships or advice ties that are cross‐functional are still beneficial for those among the highest in PO fit, but also that these same network positions can be detrimental for employees who are among the lowest in PO fit. These results contribute to a more nuanced understanding of the demands and resources generated by informal networks and how the translation of these features into performance is contingent upon the extent to which an employee identifies with organizational values.
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Many empirical studies on the effect of public service motivation (PSM) on job performance have been carried out using self-report performance, but little has been made of two dimensions of performance, called task and contextual performance, for measurement job performance. The current article, therefore, examines the relationship of PSM with job performance, combining task and contextual performance, through the mediating role of job satisfaction and person – organization fit (P-O fit). The data analysis is based on a questionnaire survey of public servants under the People’s Committee of Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam. It was found that PSM has a directly positive impact on job performance. In addition, using the mediation effect of job satisfaction and person-organization fit in the relationship of PSM with job performance provides more robust evidence of this relationship.
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Employee engagement is a constant theme in the business world. When employees are successful, so are the companies they work for. The purpose of this article is to bring to the forefront some information that can influence higher organisational engagement and help managers approach open methods of employee relations to get employees dedicated to collaborative work and results. In business, motivation is closely linked to organisational commitment. The higher the level of engagement, the more things like productivity or efficiency can occur, giving the employer more advantages over the competition.
Article
In the present study, we integrate Person-Organization (P-O) fit and Job Demands-Resources theories to argue that P-O fit (i.e., value congruence between person and organization) is a key resource that facilitates the accumulation and activation of situational job resources. We hypothesize that P-O fit strengthens the well-established positive relationship between job autonomy and job performance. Measures of objective P-O fit were obtained for 43 Norwegian naval cadets before embarking on a training mission onboard a sailing ship. During the mission, we measured daily self-reported autonomy as well as peer-rated task and contextual performance for 30 consecutive days. As predicted, the results of multilevel modeling analyses showed that the relationship between daily autonomy and (a) next- (but not same-) day task performance, and (b) next- (and same-) day contextual performance is stronger positive for individuals high (vs. low) in P-O fit. Moreover, effects of the daily autonomy – P-O fit interaction were noticeable on performance several days after. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
Article
Рассматриваются результаты изучения ожиданий руководителей российских компаний в отношении ценностей их потенциальных сотрудников. Ценности рассмотрены в контексте найма персонала как один из значимых критериев при оценке степени соответствия сотрудника организации (Person-Organization Fit). Исследование носило поисковый характер и было построено на основе экспертного опроса 174 руководителей ведущих российских компаний, входящих в реестр РСПП со штатом сотрудников от 10 до 2450 человек. Из них 130 мужчин (возраст 31–56 лет, опыт руководящей деятельности от 7 до 29 лет), и 44 женщины (возраст 35–47 лет, опыт руководящей деятельности от 3 до 17 лет). Исследовательский вопрос: «Существуют ли устойчивые структуры ценностных предпочтений у руководителей российских организаций?».
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The personality congruence of supervisors and subordinates and its influence on work outcomes is a relatively new topic in social and behavioral sciences. Most well-known personality theory is Big Five that includes openness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, extraversion and agreeableness traits. LMX theory focuses on the mutual relationship between a supervisor and a subordinate. There is a gap in the literature regarding the mediating role of LMX perceptions of subordinates on the relationship between personality congruence of supervisors and subordinates and affective commitment (AC). The purpose of this cross-sectional design was first to explore the direct relationship between supervisors and subordinates personality congruence and AC of subordinates. The second purpose of this study was to explore the role of LMX as a mediator between the personality congruence of supervisors and subordinates and AC of the subordinates. A cluster sampling method was used to gather 400 supervisorsubordinate dyads from 3 technopolises in Ankara, who completed self-reported questionnaires. A technopolis is a technology science park. Polynomial regression analysis was conducted to measure the congruence level of dyads’ personality traits and structural equation modeling was used to analyze the mediating effect of LMX. Results revealed that, LMX has no mediating effect on personality congruence and AC. The results also revealed that there is a significant relation between the agreeableness congruence of supervisors and subordinates, and AC. This information can be used by organizations by pairing up agreeable dyad members to increase affective commitment. The findings of this study may create positive social change by promoting optimum functioning organizations that have committed employees which would affect the society and economy in a positive way.
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Whether a person “matches” with his work environment is a critical factor for his work attitude and performance. When individual characteristics are similar to the organizational traits, and when the individual needs can be made by the organizations, positive work attitudes and better performance can be expected. Our research team conducted a large-scale survey on our civil servants. After analyzing a total of 3,441 valid responses, we found that “complementary fit” and “supplementary fit” both had significant positive impacts on job sat- isfaction. A higher level of job-skill fitness, work-life balance, organizational supports, and organization identification may lead to a higher level of job sat- isfaction. Managerial and policy implications are discussed based on the afore- mentioned findings.
Chapter
Personalauswahl und Personalentwicklung spielen angesichts des demografischen Wandels, des steigenden Konkurrenzdrucks im Kampf um Nachwuchskräfte sowie des wachsenden Aufgabenspektrums eine zentrale Rolle für alle Polizeiorganisationen. Mit der Rekrutierung erfolgt der Einstieg in eine berufliche Laufbahn bei der Polizei und liefert so die personale Grundlage für Polizeistudium, Polizeitraining und späteren Polizeiberuf. Typischerweise werden Polizeibewerber*innen ausgewählt, denen ein Potenzial zu geschrieben wird, in der Zukunft polizeiliche Einsatzrealitäten erfolgreich bewältigen zu können. Im Rahmen der Personalentwicklung kommt dem Polizeistudium und -training sowie der polizeilichen Fortbildung die Aufgabe zu, das Potenzial der ausgewählten Bewerber*innen zu entwickeln, sodass eine manifeste Handlungskompetenz ausgeformt wird. Als Kompass für Personalauswahl und Personalentwicklung kann dabei der Person-Environment-Fit-Ansatz (In diesem Beitrag wird der englische Ausdruck als Fachterminus verwendet.) angesehen werden. Der Grundgedanke ist, die Passung zwischen den personalen Voraussetzungen der Kandidat*innen (Eigenschaften, Fähigkeiten, Fertigkeiten, Wissen und andere Charakteristika) und den Merkmalen der (zukünftigen) beruflichen Arbeitsumwelt zu maximieren. Sodann verspricht eine hohe Passung nicht nur berufliche Leistung, sondern auch Berufszufriedenheit und Wohlbefinden – mit anderen Worten leistungsstarke, zufriedene und gesunde Organisationsmitglieder. Im vorliegenden Beitrag werden der Person-Environment-Fit-Ansatz, empirische Studien und Implikationen für das Polizeitraining dargestellt.
Article
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis perilaku kerja inovatif, spiritualitas di tempat kerja dan kesesuaian orang-organisasi (P-O fit). Penelitian ini berusaha untuk menguji model teoritis yang menghubungkan spiritualitas tempat kerja, dukungan organisasi yang dirasakan (POS) dan perilaku kerja inovatif melalui P-O fit. Penelitian ini juga berusaha untuk meneliti efek mediasi P-O fit pada hubungan spiritualitas di tempat kerja dan dukungan organisasi yang dirasakan dengan perilaku kerja inovatif (IWB). Jenis Penelitian ini adalah kuantitatif dengan pendekatan explanatory. Data yang digunakan adalah data primer dengan menggunakan sampel karyawan dari lima hotel di Jombang dan dianalisis menggunakan SEM-PLS dengan bantuan software SmartPLS 3.0. Hasil penelitian menujunjukkan bahwa spiritualitas di tempat kerja dan dukungan organisasi yang dirasakan, secara positif mempengaruhi P-O fit. Spiritualitas di tempat kerja, P-O fit dan dukungan organisasi yang dirasakan secara positif mempengaruhi perilaku kerja yang inovatif. P-O fit bertindak sebagai mediator parsial antara spiritualitas tempat kerja dan IWB, serta antara dukungan organisasi yang dirasakan dan IWB.
Article
Purpose Person-environment (PE) fit theory suggests that value congruence (fit) leads to the job pursuits intention (Cable and Judge, 1996) which is also influenced by cultural norms (Ma and Allen, 2009). Due to stringent job market condition along with its people, as a part of collectivistic culture, having poor self-concept consistency, value congruence may unfold different phenomenon in Indian context. Therefore, the present study intends to explore the existing fit theory on different cultural norms and different job market condition with entry-level job pursuits as participants. Design/methodology/approach The fit was measured both objectively and subjectively in a mixed method research design. Top 100 institutes ranked in NIRF (National Institutional Ranking Framework) (under Management category) were approached for data collection and 41 institutes agreed to participate. Data were collected in four phases from 2,714 entry-level job pursuits and domain experts based on web-based job advertisements. Krippendorff's alpha was calculated for measuring objective fit, and the subjective fit was measured through quadratic structural equation modeling with response surface analysis. Findings Findings revealed lack of value congruence objectively; and no influencing role of subjective fit in job pursuits intention. This indicated that neither Indian employers nor entry-level job pursuits were concerned about value congruence. The post-hoc analysis suggested that poor self-concept consistency as a cultural norm led to such atypical findings. Originality/value The present study suggests that fit may lead to different phenomena of entry-level job pursuits intention with different contextual and cultural norms.
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Beyond the striking differences in the value priorities of groups is a surprisingly widespread consensus regarding the hierarchical order of values. Average value hierarchies of representative and near representative samples from 13 nations exhibit a similar pattern that replicates with school teachers in 56 nations and college students in 54 nations. Benevolence, self-direction, and universalism values are consistently most important; power, tradition, and stimulation values are least important; and security, conformity, achievement, and hedonism are in between. Value hierarchies of 83% of samples correlate at least .80 with this pan-cultural hierarchy. To explain the pan-cultural hierarchy, the authors discuss its adaptive functions in meeting the requirements of successful societal functioning. The authors demonstrate, with data from Singapore and the United States, that correctly interpreting the value hierarchies of groups requires comparison with the pan-cultural normative baseline.
Book
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Meta-analysis is arguably the most important methodological innovation in the social and behavioral sciences in the last 25 years. Developed to offer researchers an informative account of which methods are most useful in integrating research findings across studies, this book will enable the reader to apply, as well as understand, meta-analytic methods. Rather than taking an encyclopedic approach, the authors have focused on carefully developing those techniques that are most applicable to social science research, and have given a general conceptual description of more complex and rarely-used techniques. Fully revised and updated, Methods of Meta-Analysis, Second Edition is the most comprehensive text on meta-analysis available today. New to the Second Edition: * An evaluation of fixed versus random effects models for meta-analysis* New methods for correcting for indirect range restriction in meta-analysis* New developments in corrections for measurement error* A discussion of a new Windows-based program package for applying the meta-analysis methods presented in the book* A presentation of the theories of data underlying different approaches to meta-analysis
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The purported advantage of a strong corporate culture presumes that positive outcomes result when peoples' values are congruent with those of others. This was tested by using a design that controlled for artifacts in prior studies. Participants, 191 production workers, their supervisors ( N = 17), and 13 managers at a large industrial products plant, completed questionnaires containing measures of job satisfaction, organizational commitment, and work values. Responses were later matched with the attendance and performance records of the production workers in the sample. Results showed that workers were more satisfied and committed when their values were congruent with the values of their supervisor. Value congruence between workers and their supervisors was not significantly correlated with workers' tenure; however, its effect on organizational commitment was more pronounced for longer tenured employees. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Extends R. V. Dawis and L. H. Lofquist's (1984) Theory of Work Adjustment (TWA). It was hypothesized (1) that person-organization fit (POF) positively predicts tenure, (2) that POF positively predicts satisfaction, and (3) that POF exerts a main effect on indicators of career success (e.g., salary level, job level). 873 graduates from 2 large industrial relations programs were surveyed regarding career success, factors shown to affect career success, organizational environment, and preferences for different organizational environments. Results support the hypothesized influences of POF on both tenure and satisfaction. Consistent with the TWA, salary and job level may be indirectly affected by POF. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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The measurement of person–environment (PE) fit and the relationship of fit and job satisfaction are described, illustrated, and evaluated from the perspective of theory of work adjustment by R. V. Dawis et al. Using 19 statistical indices across 6 occupational groups, Study 1 examined the issues of commensurate measurement and representations of the correspondence and satisfaction relationship. Study 2 evaluated the relationship of 4 correspondence indices and job satisfaction with 225 adult vocational counseling clients in 98 occupations 1 yr after initial contact. Overall, results show that the best statistical indices for assessing correspondence seem to be measures of profile shape. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
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Assigned 164 bank teller applicants (mean age 22 yrs) who were offered jobs to 1 of 3 experimental groups to investigate the effectiveness of presenting realistic job previews. Ss in Group 1 received a job preview from an incumbent teller; Ss in Group 2 received a job preview brochure; Ss in Group 3 served as controls. Substantially fewer Ss in Group 1 left the job 2–3 mo later than did Ss in the other groups. There were no significant differences in job outcome between Ss in Groups 2 and 3. There was also no support for self-selection and commitment to choice as mediating processes. (32 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study investigated a person–climate fit model in order to explain the effect of organizational politics on work attitudes. A unique index of compatibility was developed based on the congruence between preferences for political influence processes and those processes perceived to be prevalent in the employment context. A survey of 138 non academic employees of a large public university, representing a variety of jobs, demonstrated that political influence compatibility was clearly related to a wide range of work attitudes (e.g. satisfaction with co-workers, trust in management, evaluation of self). Directions for future research investigating PIC and potential applications of political influence compatibility in human resource management are discussed. © 1997 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This longitudinal field study was designed to examine the relationships between job information sources, self-esteem, and perceptions of person-job (P-J) and person-organization (P-O) fit, as well as the relationships between perceptions of fit and work outcomes (job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational identification, intentions to quit, stress symptoms, and turnover). The results indicate that the number of formal job information sources and self-esteem were positively related to perceptions of P-J fit, and formal job information sources were positively related to perceptions of P-O fit. Perceptions of P-J fit were positively related to job satisfaction, organizational commitment, organizational identification, and negatively related to stress symptoms and intentions to quit. Perceptions of P-O fit were negatively related to intentions to quit and turnover. In addition, perceptions of fit mediated the relationships between job information sources and self-esteem with job satisfaction, intentions to quit, and turnover. These results highlight the job applicant's perspective of fit, and demonstrate the importance of both P-J and P-O fit perceptions.
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Work values were examined as an antecedent of recruiters' judgments of applicant fit with the organization. Data were collected on the work values of recruiters, their organizations, and job applicants in actual job interviews conducted through the placement center of a large university. Following the interviews, recruiters evaluated applicants' general employability and organization-specific fit. Approximately 4 months following the interviews, data on whether the applicants were invited for a second interview were also obtained. Work value congruence between the applicant and the recruiter was found to be related to judgments of general employability and organization-specific fit. Congruence between the applicant and the organization (as perceived by the recruiter) was not related to judgments of employability and organization-specific fit. Recruiter ratings of employability were related to the decision to invite the applicant for a second interview. Work value congruence was not related to second interview decisions. It is concluded that if work values and judgments of applicant fit influence the personnel selection process, they are more likely to do so at later stages when job offer decisions are made. Work values and judgments of applicant fit seem to have minimal impact on decisions to retain the applicant for additional consideration in early stages of the selection process.
Article
The literature on subjective well-being (SWB), including happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect, is reviewed in three areas: measurement, causal factors, and theory. Psychometric data on single-item and multi-item subjective well-being scales are presented, and the measures are compared. Measuring various components of subjective well-being is discussed. In terms of causal influences, research findings on the demographic correlates of SWB are evaluated, as well as the findings on other influences such as health, social contact, activity, and personality. A number of theoretical approaches to happiness are presented and discussed: telic theories, associationistic models, activity theories, judgment approaches, and top-down versus bottom-up conceptions.
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The concept of organizational culture has received increasing attention in recent years both from academics and practitioners. This article presents the author's view of how culture should be defined and analyzed if it is to be of use in the field of organizational psychology. Other concepts are reviewed, a brief history is provided, and case materials are presented to illustrate how to analyze culture and how to think about culture change.
Article
The present study examines the impact of organizational values and value congruency on satisfaction, commitment, and cohesion within a not-for-profit setting. Information for the study was collected from 387 highway and transportation department executives. The findings indicate that organizational values affect satisfaction, commitment, and cohesion. Moreover, value congruence (i.e., a fit between professed organizational values and the values deemed appropriate by employees) also impacts these behavioral variables. If organizations lack the values studies and/or value congruence is low, the study results indicate that action should be taken to change the organization's value orientation.
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It is reasonable to expect that a phenomenon as pervasive as organizational culture affects organizational performance. "Strong" culture models, however, oversimplify the relationship. If scholars are to accurately analyze culture-performance links, they must combine more appropriate measures of culture's impact with careful attention to intrinsically cultural performance-related organizational processes.
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The history of the person-situation controversy is reviewed. Although this controversy is not new, and most psychologists now see themselves as interactionists, they disagree about the kinds of person, situation, and interaction process units that should be emphasized. Two models, a social intelligence model and a goals model, for analyzing person-situation interaction and the question of person-environment congruence are considered.
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Interactional psychology emphasizes continuous, multidirectional interaction between person and situation characteristics. This perspective suggests that organizational behavior researchers should focus more attention on person factors that might be expected to mediate the effects of situation factors, and vice versa. It also encourages a less restricted interpretation of an interaction, which can mean non-additivity, differential validity, overlapping main effects, reciprocal influence, and cognitive sense making of experience.
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A comparison of the perceptions about organizational fit of white female, African-American, and Hispanic managers to those of white male managers revealed that African-American managers reported achieving significantly poorer organizational fit compared to other subgroups. However, race and sex explained a relatively small amount of the variance in perceived fit. Poor organizational fit was associated with job dissatisfaction, intentions to leave, and greater levels of stress. The results suggest that more research is needed to explicate the differences in organizational experiences faced by female and minority managers (e.g., African-Americans and Hispanics) and those faced by white male managers.
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This study investigated the relationship between person-environment (P-E) congruence and organizational performance. Person factors were represented by personal orientations and environment factors by organizational climates. It was hypothesized that P-E congruence would be related to the effectiveness of organizations. Organizational effectiveness data were collected for 29 schools; personal orientations were assessed from 597 teachers and organizational climate from 581 teachers within these schools. Personal orientations and climates were aggregated to the organizational level, and P-E congruence was assessed. Results of correlational analyses between congruence and effectiveness generally supported the expected relationships.
Article
This study extended the research into the person-organization fit (values congruency) phenomenon by investigating the impact of demographic factors, such as age, gender, ethnic background, organizational level, management position, length of service, and functional area, on work attitudes. Data from over 1600 professionals and management personnel from a large multinational manufacturing firm revealed that person-organization values congruency was directly related to positive work attitudes and that demographic factors did not moderate this relationship.
Article
A comparison of the perceptions about organizational fit of white female, African-American, and Hispanic managers to those of white male managers revealed that African-American managers reported achieving significantly poorer organizational fit compared to other subgroups. However, race and sex explained a relatively small amount of the variance in perceived fit. Poor organizational fit was associated with job dissatisfaction, intentions to leave, and greater levels of stress. The results suggest that more research is needed to explicate the differences in organizational experiences faced by female and minority managers (e.g., African-Americans and Hispanics) and those faced by white male managers.
Article
Profile similarity indices (PSIs) have become widely used in studies of congruence (i.e., fit, matching, similarity, agreement) in organizational research. PSIs combine two sets of measures, or profiles, from corresponding entities (e.g., the person and organization, supervisor and subordinate, organization and environment) into a single score intended to represent their overall congruence. Unfortunately, PSIs are conceptually ambiguous, discard information essential to testing congruence hypotheses, conceal the source of the difference between entities, and impose a highly restrictive set of constraints on the coefficients relating the measures comprising the PSI to the outcome. This article shows how polynomial regression analysis may be used to avoid problems with PSIs while capturing the underlying relationships PSIs are intended to represent. Limitations and extensions to the procedure are discussed.
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The values of managers and employees in organizations are phenomena that have captured the interest of researchers, practitioners, social critics, and the public at large. Despite this attention, there continues to be a conspicuous lack of agreement on what values are and how they influence individuals. In this article we discuss how values have been defined and conceptualized. Focusing on values as desirable modes of behavior, we describe how they affect individuals in organizations and discuss some of the salient controversies that characterize contemporary research on values. Finally, we report on a comprehensive review of the most recent literature in this area.
Article
The influence of individuals’ congruence with an organization’s culture on their affective orientations toward the organization has been the focus of a growing body of research. The present study contributes to this research by examining this relationship (I) in the context of an organization undergoing significant cultural transformation, and (2) across four theoretically identified dimensions of culture. We found that, across all four culture dimensions, the discrepancy between individuals’ assessments of the current culture and their ideal culture explained significant variance in two organization-focused affective outcomes, organizational commitment and optimism about the organization’s future. In contrast, the congruence effects across the four culture dimensions were not uniformly significant for job satisfaction, job involvement, and job turnover intention. The implications of these findings for future individual-culture congruence theory and research are considered.
Article
Reviews the literature since 1967 on subjective well-being (SWB [including happiness, life satisfaction, and positive affect]) in 3 areas: measurement, causal factors, and theory. Most measures of SWB correlate moderately with each other and have adequate temporal reliability and internal consistency; the global concept of happiness is being replaced with more specific and well-defined concepts, and measuring instruments are being developed with theoretical advances; multi-item scales are promising but need adequate testing. SWB is probably determined by a large number of factors that can be conceptualized at several levels of analysis, and it may be unrealistic to hope that a few variables will be of overwhelming importance. Several psychological theories related to happiness have been proposed; they include telic, pleasure and pain, activity, top–down vs bottom–up, associanistic, and judgment theories. It is suggested that there is a great need to more closely connect theory and research. (7 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Person—environment (P—E) fit has long been a focus in organizational research. A climate-based measure of P—E Fit was developed for use in organizational and individual assessment. A series of studies with a Q-sort measure of climate and fit (the Organizational Fit Instrument—OFI) indicated ways in which P—E fit information can be used in organizational development. In addition, the psychometric properties of the OFI assessed in these studies suggested that, despite the ipsative nature of the measure, it may provide the organizational development practitioner or researcher with a sound and useful tool. Suggestions for future research are proposed.
Article
Performed a meta-analysis of 27 studies reporting a relation between interest congruence and job or academic satisfaction. The overall mean congruence-satisfaction correlation was not significant. An examination of type of congruence measure, gender, Holland type, and academic vs job setting showed no significant moderating effects. Surprisingly, a breakdown by quality of the measurements used in the study indicate that the methodologically weaker studies yielded the strongest satisfaction-congruence relations. Results reinforce the importance of considering occupational fit as more than the match between interests and the occupational environment. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Book
DEVELOPMENT AND NORMATIVE DATA ARE PRESENTED FOR THE MINNESOTA SATISFACTION QUESTIONNAIRE, A MEASURE OF JOB SATISFACTION. EXTENSIVE NORMATIVE DATA ARE INCLUDED FOR THE 21-SCALE LONG FORM, AND ADDITIONAL DATA ARE GIVEN FOR THE 3-SCALE SHORT FORM. RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY DATA AND SCORING INSTRUCTIONS FOR BOTH FORMS ARE INCLUDED. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Evidently includes an introduction and conclusions from the author's original 1955 article regarding the construction of an attitude measure. The article became the most frequently cited article published in Personnel Psychology in the 1950s. The original article provides an account of the development of a qualitative or projective attitude scale utilizing 2 series of faces constructed to represent feelings from extremely positive to extremely negative. The faces were quantified so that attitude scales in which they are used can be scored in the same manner as any other form of attitude measuring device. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 1956-01689-001.) The development of an employee attitude scale involving checking faces rather than words to indicate feeling tone is described. Comparison of 2 types of faces, circular and characterized, revealed that the latter has greater potential value. As the mouth becomes a poorer indicator of mood, the secondary facial clues become more important. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The concept of organizational culture has received increasing attention in recent years both from academics and practitioners. This article presents the author's view of how culture should be defined and analyzed if it is to be of use in the field of organizational psychology. Other concepts are reviewed, a brief history is provided, and case materials are presented to illustrate how to analyze culture and how to think about culture change. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
journal abstract: It was hypothesized that attraction toward another individual is a positive linear function of the proportion of his personality characteristics which are similar to those of S. In the 1st experiment, 151 Ss examined the responses of a stranger to the Repression-Sensitization (R-S) Scale. The stranger responded as S did on .20, .50, or .80 of the items. Analysis of variance indicated that attraction was affected by proportion of similar responses (p<.001) and by repression-sensitization (p<.01). In a 2nd experiment, employing 149 Ss, attitude similarity influenced attraction (p<.001), but repression-sensitization did not. In the 1st experiment, subject-stranger discrepancy in R-S Scale scores was found to influence attraction (p<.001); represser-sensitizer differences were thus artifactual. The relationship between personality similarity and attraction is entirely consistent with the findings of attitude-similarity studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
RESEARCH IS REVIEWED WHICH TREATS PERFORMANCE AND SATISFACTION AS A FUNCTION OF THE INTERACTION BETWEEN THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE INDIVIDUAL AND THOSE OF THE INTERPERSONAL AND NONINTERPERSONAL ENVIRONMENTS. RELEVANT THEORETICAL POSITIONS ARE CONSIDERED. ALTERNATIVE MODELS FOR THE ANALYSIS OF INTERACTIONS OR TRANSACTIONS BETWEEN INDIVIDUALS AND ENVIRONMENTS ARE DISCUSSED. THE CONCLUSION POINTS TO 3 QUESTIONS: SHOULD ONE CONSIDER THE PERCEIVED OR ACTUAL ENVIRONMENT? WHAT UNITS SHOULD BE USED AND SHOULD THESE BE THE SAME UNITS OF ANALYSIS FOR INDIVIDUALS AND ENVIRONMENTS? WHAT IS THE NATURE OF THE PROCESSES INVOLVED IN INDIVIDUAL ENVIRONMENT RELATIONSHIPS? (3 P. REF.) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A review of 30 meta-analyses that have been conducted in organizational behavior and human resource management using procedures described by J. E. Hunter et al (1982) suggests that there is confusion regarding the use and interpretation of confidence intervals and credibility intervals. This confusion can lead to conflicting conclusions about the relationships between variables. The most frequent mistake has been the attempt to address the accuracy of the estimate of the mean effect size using "confidence intervals" based on the corrected standard deviation instead of on the standard error of the mean r or d. The corrected standard deviation should be used to generate a "credibility interval" to assess the extent to which moderators might account for the unexplained variance in effect sizes. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Describes the Job Diagnostic Survey (JDS) which is intended to (a) diagnose existing jobs to determine whether (and how) they might be redesigned to improve employee motivation and productivity and (b) evaluate the effects of job changes on employees. The instrument is based on a specific theory of how job design affects work motivation, and provides measures of (a) objective job dimensions, (b) individual psychological states resulting from these dimensions, (c) affective reactions of employees to the job and work setting, and (d) individual growth need strength (interpreted as the readiness of individuals to respond to "enriched" jobs). Reliability and validity data are summarized for 658 employees on 62 different jobs in 7 organizations who responded to a revised version of the instrument. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A framework for understanding the etiology of organizational behavior is presented. The framework is based on theory and research from interactional psychology, vocational psychology, I/O psychology, and organizational theory. The framework proposes that organizations are functions of the kinds of people they contain and, further, that the people there are functions of an attraction-selection-attrition (ASA) cycle. The ASA cycle is proposed as an alternative model for understanding organizations and the causes of the structures, processes, and technology of organizations. First, the ASA framework is developed through a series of propositions. Then some implications of the model are outlined, including (1) the difficulty of bringing about change in organizations, (2) the utility of personality and interest measures for understanding organizational behavior, (3) the genesis of organizational climate and culture, (4) the importance of recruitment, and (5) the need for person-based theories of leadership and job attitudes. It is concluded that contemporary I/O psychology is overly dominated by situationist theories of the behavior of organizations and the people in them.
Article
This study examined the dispositional basis of job seekers' organizational culture preferences and how these preferences interact with recruiting organizations' cultures in their relation to organization attraction. Data were collected from 182 business, engineering, and industrial relations students who were seeking positions at the time of the study. Results obtained from multiple sources suggested that the Big Five personality traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness) generally were related to hypothesized dimensions of culture preferences. Results also suggested that both objective person-organization fit (congruence between applicant culture preferences and recruiting organization's reputed culture) and subjective fit (applicant's direct perception of fit) were related to organization attraction. Further, subjective fit mediated the relationship between objective fit and organization attraction.
Article
Empirical data indicate that global measures of job satisfaction are not equivalent to the sum of the facet satisfactions. The purposes of this study were to explore the usefulness of single-item global measures of job satisfaction for job satisfaction research and also to explore whether global assessments of job satisfaction include consideration of variables typically not measured by job satisfaction instruments. Subjects are 185 employees working within two research and development units of two multinational corporations. The short-form Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire was used to obtain the sum of the facet satisfactions. Two single-item global questions of overall satisfaction were also used. One required a yes-no response and the second, a 1–5 rating response. Information about perceived determinants of job satisfaction, overall satisfaction with the job, satisfaction with occupational choice, career progress, and overall satisfaction with non-job related events was obtained through semi-structured interviews. Results indicate that defining overall job satisfaction as the sum of the evaluations of the discrete elements of which the job is composed, may lead to neglect of major determinants of job satisfaction. The “whole” appears to be more complex than the sum of the presently measured parts. Results also suggest that the 1–5 global rating of overall job satisfaction may be a more inclusive measure of overall job satisfaction than summation of many facet responses.
Article
Several years ago a research project on work values was originated. The study strived to examine the relative importance of work value items and to analyze the structure of the domain for samples from various cultural environments. A facet definition of work values was suggested that provided guidelines for constructing the Work Values Questionnaire and the formulation of hypotheses regarding the structure of relationships among components of work values. Based on data collected from 2280 respondents in eight countries the hypotheses were tested by means of Guttman's Smallest Space Analysis. The results support the hypotheses. An empirical double-ordered conceptual system, a radex structure, was obtained in each of the samples reflecting the facets of the definition: modality of outcome — cognitive, affective and instrumental, and system - performance contingency — reward, resource. In terms of the issue of cultural differences the results indicate the presence of cultural differences in the rating of a limited number of specific values. These differences are only minor variations within a much broader pattern of structural similarity. The fact that essentially the same structure was obtained in eight independent samples lends substantial support to the definitional framework of work values suggested.
Article
Attitude surveys are widely used throughout industry today, as modern management has become aware of the value of sampling employee opinion both in connection with changes of policy or procedure and with current conditions within the organization. It has been found that more harmony can be achieved within an organization and serious labor trouble sometimes can be averted if employee opinion is determined and potential problems rectified before they become serious. Most attitude surveys utilize words as the vehicles by which attitudes are expressed. The items may require that the employee decide which of a series of phrases best expresses his feelings about a designated topic or, alternatively, whether or not a given sentence is indicative of his attitude. It is felt that a certain amount of distortion is an invariable result of this process which necessitates the translation of one man's feelings into another man's words. Error creeps in, both in the interpretation of the meaning of the items by the respondent, and in the selection of the item which most accurately indicates the true feelings of the respondent on the topic in question. This is particularly difficult for persons of low verbal facility to achieve with any accuracy. The present paper is an account of the development of a qualitative or projective attitude scale. Two series of faces have been constructed which run the gamut of feeling from extremely positive to extremely negative. These faces have been quantified so that attitude scales in which they are used can be scored in the same manner as can any other form of attitude measuring device. They have, however, the advantage of eliminating the necessity for translating feelings into words. The respondent is required only to check the face which “looks like he feels” rather than verbalizing his feelings. It is felt that the resulting measure provides a more accurate measurement of attitudes than is otherwise possible.
Article
Relationships between organization members’agreement on organizational goats and their attitudes and intentions regarding the organization were investigated in this study. A constituency approach was used to operationalize the organization into meaningful units as the basis for comparison between organizational members. Specifically, the congruence between hierarchical levels (supervisor-subordinate) and within a level (member-constituency) was examined. Both types of congruence were hypothesized to relate positively to job satisfaction and organizational commitment and negatively to intention to quit. The hypotheses were tested using data from 356 principals and 14,721 teachers, each rating the importance of goals for their school. The results confirmed the hypotheses regarding goal congruence among members of a constituency (teachers) and between hierarchical levels (principals and teachers), with member-constituency congruence having the greater impact on teachers’attitudes and intention to quit.
Article
This study tests the hypotheses that (1) congruence between internal need states and external environments drives the organizational-choice process and (2) those attracted to particular organizations are more homogeneous than the applicant pool in general. Subjects were evaluated on 14 needs using the Jackson Personality Research Form. They then viewed two video-taped segments of simulated campus interviews to gain information about two distinct types of organizational reward systems. The interview segments entered the discussion in progress to avoid any reference to a particular job that might introduce an occupational confound. Subjects received job offers from both organizations and were asked to indicate which of the two organizations they found more attractive by accepting one of the offers. Analysis of variance results indicated only weak support for the congruency hypothesis. Differences were observed in nAch between the groups of subjects attracted to each organization. No differences were found for any of the other need strength measures. This suggests that the subjects attracted to the different organizations were substantially similar. Hierarchial factor analysis of the PRF has suggested a six-factor structure that appears consistent with the second-order factors from other respectable personality measures. This suggests that the second-order solution may be a parsimonious mapping of the personality domain and may therefore be more relevant in testing these hypotheses. The analysis was repeated using these dimensions. The results suggest that work force homogeneity may be more complex than originally considered. Implications for the homogeneity hypothesis are discussed, and suggestions for further study of this concept are offered.
Article
This paper summarizes the results of a meta-analysis on findings of 41 different studies, yielding 77 correlation coefficients between measures of personality-environment congruence and well-being. Results show congruence-achievement and congruence-stability correlations of .06 and .15, respectively, with negligible residual variance. The mean congruence-satisfaction correlation was .21, and after two further breakdowns—by environmental reference and congruence measuring method—mean congruence-satisfaction correlations exceeding .35 were found, with almost all total nonrandom variance among findings of different congruence studies explained.