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Abstract

There is an ongoing discussion about the definition of mindfulness including the question whether mindfulness is a one-dimensional or multidimensional construct. Research on the Freiburg mindfulness inventory (FMI) has also reflected this debate. We have investigated the psychometric properties of the FMI-14-item in an online convenience sample of n = 244 individuals (150 female; mean age 28.7 (SD = 8.76)) with (n = 75) and without (n = 169) regular meditative training). A simplified version of the beck depression inventory (BDI-V) and the trait subscale of the state-trait-anxiety-inventory (STAI-T) were used for determining criterion validity. A one-dimensional (α = .83) and an alternative two-dimensional solution (αF1 = .77; αF2 = .69) of the FMI-14 were tested with a confirmatory factor analysis and yielded suboptimal fit indices. An exploratory analysis resulted in a reduced 8-item version of the two-dimensional solution with better fit indices, but low internal consistency (αF1 = .71; αF2 = .64). The factors could be identified as “Presence” (F1) and “Acceptance” (F2). Further investigation revealed that the substantial negative relationship between mindfulness and anxiety and depression is completely due to the “Acceptance” factor of mindfulness. This suggests that there may be heuristic value in the two-factorial solution, although for practical purposes it seems sufficient to assess mindfulness as one-dimensional construct.

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... Este constructo viene tomando importancia en el ámbito de las ciencias de la salud, tanto en la medicina como en la psicología (Kabat-Zinn, 2013;Kohls, Sauer, & Walach, 2009). Respecto a los efectos de la práctica del mindfulness para aliviar sufrimientos físicos en pacientes de diversas enfermedades, fue pionero el programa del Centro Médico de la Universidad de Massachusetts iniciado hace años por Kabat-Zinn, (2013). ...
... Este resultado indica que ambos modelos pueden considerarse válidos desde un punto de vista estadístico. Para una adecuada interpretación de este resultado debe considerarse que existen estudios en los que también se ha identificado al mindfulness como un constructo esencialmente conformado por uno o dos factores (Brown & Ryan, 2004;Kohls et al., 2009;Sauer, Walach, Offenbächer, Lynch, & Kohls, 2011;Sauer, Walach, Schmidt, Hinterberger, Horan, & Kohls, 2011;Trousselard et al., 2010). En particular, cabe mencionar el hecho de que los resultados del presente estudio son congruentes con otros realizados en población mexicana en los cuales también se encontró evidencia a favor tanto de una estructura unifactorial del mindfulness (López-Maya et al., 2015) como de una bifactorial (Santisteban, 2017). ...
... Con relación al tercer objetivo, relativo al análisis de confiabilidad, se obtuvo un coeficiente alfa de Cronbach alto para el factor de Aceptación (.89) y bajo para el de Presencia (.59). Tal cuestión podría atribuirse a que este último factor quedó compuesto por apenas tres reactivos, lo cual contrasta con otras investigaciones en las que el factor Presencia es conformado hasta por seis reactivos (Kohls et al., 2009;Trousselard et al., 2010). Por consiguiente, es aconsejable que en futuros estudios que se realicen con el FMI-14 en adolescentes mexicanos se contemple la posibilidad de diseñar algunos reactivos que pudieran añadirse a la escala de Presencia, realizando los procedimientos psicométricos adecuados para ello, a fin de favorecer una mayor consistencia interna del instrumento para este factor. ...
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El presente estudio se planteó como objetivo analizar las propiedades psicométricas del Inventario de Friburgo sobre Atención Plena (Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory, FMI-14) en una muestra de adolescentes mexicanos. Participaron 655 alumnos de bachillerato de dos planteles educativos del occidente de México con un rango de edad de 15 a 19 años. Para analizar los datos se llevó a cabo un análisis factorial exploratorio y uno confirmatorio, hallándose un ajuste satisfactorio tanto para un modelo bifactorial como para uno unifactorial, con adecuadas propiedades de validez y confiabilidad. Los resultados muestran que el instrumento posee características adecuadas de validez y confiabilidad para ambos modelos (unifactorial y bifactorial), aunque se sugiere mejorar la confiabilidad de la escala de Presencia para futuros estudios.
... This distinction of the two components seems to be important, as studies have found that the two components do not exert the same impact on well-being and ill-being 55 . The 14-item Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) 56 , which is used in the present study, was created as a measure of a unidimensional concept of mindfulness, but it was later suggested it can be divided into two factors of mindfulness, Presence and Acceptance 9 . These two factors are in line with the model and descriptions proposed by Bishop et al. 54 . ...
... These two factors are in line with the model and descriptions proposed by Bishop et al. 54 . Presence, conceptually similar to Regulation of Attention described above, refers to the ability to be fully aware of internal and external experiences of the present moment, while Acceptance, conceptually corresponding to the aforementioned component named Orientation to Experience, refers to a non-judging, curious and open mindset towards these experiences 9,11,54 . Studies using this particular inventory found that Acceptance is the component that seems to influence depression and anxiety, whereas Presence exerts an impact indirectly by supporting the development of an accepting attitude 9 . ...
... Presence, conceptually similar to Regulation of Attention described above, refers to the ability to be fully aware of internal and external experiences of the present moment, while Acceptance, conceptually corresponding to the aforementioned component named Orientation to Experience, refers to a non-judging, curious and open mindset towards these experiences 9,11,54 . Studies using this particular inventory found that Acceptance is the component that seems to influence depression and anxiety, whereas Presence exerts an impact indirectly by supporting the development of an accepting attitude 9 . Keeping the aforementioned definitions in mind, below we will present the theoretical and empirical association of mindfulness with dreams. ...
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A theoretical and empirical association between lucid dreaming and mindfulness, as well as lucid dreaming and nightmares has previously been observed; however, the relationship between nightmares and mindfulness has received surprisingly little attention. Here, we present the findings of two studies exploring the relation of nightmare frequency and distress with two components of mindfulness, termed presence and acceptance, as well as lucid dreaming. Study 1 (N = 338) consisted of a low percentage of frequent lucid dreamers whereas Study 2 (N = 187) consisted primarily of frequent lucid dreamers that used lucid dream induction training techniques and meditation. Across studies, nightmare-related variables showed a more robust association with mindful acceptance as opposed to mindful presence. Moreover, individuals with high levels of meditation expertise and practice of lucid dreaming induction techniques reported lower nightmare frequency. Finally, in Study 2, which consisted of frequent lucid dreamers, a positive correlation between lucid dreaming frequency and mindfulness was apparent. The present findings support the notion that wakeful mindfulness is associated with the quality of dreams and extend previous research by suggesting a disentangled role of the two facets of mindfulness in dream variation. This association remains open for experimental manipulation, the result of which could have clinical implications.
... We measured all the items using a well-established and reliable scale from previous studies. The mindfulness construct measure was adapted from Kohls et al. (2009). Previous studies have developed a variety of scales to measure mindfulness, such as the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Scale (KIMS; Baer et al., 2004), the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS; Brown & Ryan, 2003), the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI; Kohls et al., 2009), the Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS; Lau et al., 2006) and several others. ...
... The mindfulness construct measure was adapted from Kohls et al. (2009). Previous studies have developed a variety of scales to measure mindfulness, such as the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Scale (KIMS; Baer et al., 2004), the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS; Brown & Ryan, 2003), the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI; Kohls et al., 2009), the Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS; Lau et al., 2006) and several others. Previous reviews have compared the differences between the scales (Sauer et al., 2013). ...
... After reviewing this information, we selected an 8-item short version of the FMI to measure mindfulness for the following three reasons. First, Kohls et al. (2009) define mindfulness as "the mental ability to focus on the direct and immediate perception of the present moment with a state of non- judgmental awareness, voluntarily suspending evaluative cognitive feedback" (p. 224), which is consistent with the definition of mindfulness as an attribute that mindfulness is an ability people have or can be developed by training (Brown et al., 2007). ...
Article
Cyberloafing is a prevalent phenomenon in organisations that may cause serious problems. In previous studies, cyberloafing has been studied as planned and intentional behaviour. Interestingly, we have observed that cyberloafing frequently happens when employees use smartphones to assist with work tasks, but they may not necessarily intend to engage in this activity. We distinguish between active and passive cyberloafing and focus on studying the latter. Based on dual-systems theory, we introduce the construct of mindfulness in the exploration of the antecedences and internal mechanism of passive cyberloafing. We conducted a research survey with employees who use smartphones to assist with work tasks and collected 474 valid questionnaires to examine our research model. The results showed that dual systems are associated with cyberloafing by influencing mind-wandering, and mindfulness significantly decreased mind-wandering when using a smartphone. This study analyses cyberloafing from an innovative neuroscience perspective and contributes to the literature by proposing a new classification of cyberloafing behaviour, reveals the internal mechanism of how dual systems impact an individual’s behaviour, and introduces mindfulness as an antecedent factor of dual systems.
... While the FFMQ is a suitable instrument for assessing differential contributions of the five aspects of mindfulness and comprises 39 items, the FFMQ-short form has between 15 and 24 items (Bohlmeijer et al., 2011;Gu et al., 2016;Meng et al., 2020). The FMI-short form measures the core components of mindfulness: presence and acceptance (Kohls et al., 2009). The presence factor of the FMI-short form and MAAS both measure an individual's level of attention and awareness in the present moment. ...
... As measured by the FMI-short form, mindfulness is negatively correlated with anxiety and depressive symptoms (Chen & Zhou, 2014;Kohls et al., 2009). Kohls et al. (2009) noted that the substantial negative relationship between mindfulness and anxiety and depressive symptoms may be due to the acceptance factor of mindfulness, not the presence factor. ...
... As measured by the FMI-short form, mindfulness is negatively correlated with anxiety and depressive symptoms (Chen & Zhou, 2014;Kohls et al., 2009). Kohls et al. (2009) noted that the substantial negative relationship between mindfulness and anxiety and depressive symptoms may be due to the acceptance factor of mindfulness, not the presence factor. However, individuals with high mindfulness, as measured by the FMI-short form, have a high level of well-being, quality of life, and self-efficacy (Bruggeman-Everts et al., 2017;Trousselard et al., 2010). ...
Article
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Objectives The 14-item Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory-short form assesses mindfulness, and enhanced mindfulness is beneficial for reducing anxiety and depressive symptoms. This study aims to develop a Japanese version of the measure (J-FMI) and examine its reliability and validity in a clinical population. Methods Patients (N = 340) with mainly depression and/or anxiety completed the J-FMI and a set of questionnaires to measure the five facets of trait mindfulness, anxiety, and depressive symptoms after attending a 2.5-h mindfulness training program. Results The exploratory factor analysis revealed that the J-FMI had two factors, with five items in the presence factor and nine in the acceptance factor. Internal consistency and reliability were high for the overall scale (α = .90, ω = .92), J-FMI presence (α = .80, ω = .80), and acceptance (α = .89, ω = .90) factors. In the correlation analyses, each J-FMI factor was significantly correlated with the five facets of trait mindfulness (r = .11 to .65) and anxiety and depressive symptoms (r = − .22 to − .61). There were no significant correlations between J-FMI presence and anxiety and depressive symptoms after acceptance was controlled (r = − .04 to − .05) in the partial correlation analyses. Conversely, significant correlations were noted between J-FMI acceptance and anxiety and depressive symptoms after presence was controlled (r = − .27 to − .53). Conclusions These findings demonstrate the J-FMI’s high internal consistency, reliability, and factorial validity and support its criterion, convergent, and discriminant validity in a clinical sample, thus confirming its high reliability and validity.
... The FMI-14 (Kohls et al., 2009;Walach et al., 2006) is a questionnaire elaborated on the basis of Buddhist psychology assumptions and validated within the classic test theory and the Rasch analysis context (Sauer et al., 2013(Sauer et al., , 2011. This inventory assesses trait mindfulness upon two factors: 'presence' and 'acceptance'. ...
... Thus, the enhanced attitude of being present in our sample may have led to a greater detection of asynchronies at an implicit level. These results add to previous work emphasizing the distinction of the presence and the acceptance components of the construct of mindfulness as a trait (Kohls et al., 2009;Linares Gutiérrez et al., 2019;Sauer et al., 2013). Some of these studies (Kohls et al., 2009;Sauer et al., 2013) suggest that an increased experience of presence may be considered a precondition for the cultivation of acceptance. ...
... These results add to previous work emphasizing the distinction of the presence and the acceptance components of the construct of mindfulness as a trait (Kohls et al., 2009;Linares Gutiérrez et al., 2019;Sauer et al., 2013). Some of these studies (Kohls et al., 2009;Sauer et al., 2013) suggest that an increased experience of presence may be considered a precondition for the cultivation of acceptance. ...
Thesis
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The experience of the present moment and the bodily self are modulated in altered states of consciousness such as during meditation. Over the last years, research has focused on reporting meditation-related changes on the explicit experience of duration. However, the effects of meditation on the implicit temporal structure of conscious perception pertaining to the present moment experience have not been explored so far. The major aim of this work was to investigate how states of mindfulness meditation change the temporal span of the present moment experience. A further purpose was to explore the effects of heart rate variability (HRV) and breathing rate in order to clarify the role of mind-body interactions on the present moment experience. Finally, individual differences (e.g. mindfulness, time perspective, daydreaming) and emotional states (e.g. arousal, emotional valence, perceived body and space) which may influence the experience of the present moment, were investigated. To this end, the present moment was operationalized using three psychophysical tasks (i.e., the metronome task, the Necker cube, and the sequencing task) for testing two different levels of temporal integration (i.e. functional level and subjective present) across modalities (i.e. visual and auditory). We performed a longitudinal study including two measurement time points (i.e. pre and post interventions) within each of the three study sessions. Participants having meditation experience were recruited and assigned to two matched groups (with n = 47 individuals) corresponding to the two experimental conditions (i.e., interventions). The interventions were either a 10-minute meditation session (meditation) or a 10-minute session of listening to a recorded story (story). Participants’ performance in the psychophysical tasks, conducted on three consecutive days, was compared before and after the interventions. The heart rate and breathing activity were recorded during the intervention and compared to a resting-state condition in order to examine whether physiological changes during meditation would affect a) the temporal integration intervals of metronome beats, b) the dwell times in the Necker cube task, and c) the implicit and explicit detection of asynchronies in the sequencing task. Using mediation analyses, we found that in participants who meditated, meditation-induced states and autonomic physiological changes led to an expanded temporal integration in the metronome task concerning the subjective present in the auditory modality. Furthermore, different components of self-attributed mindfulness (i.e. presence and acceptance) were associated with greater accuracy (i.e., as measured with the explicit sequence-threshold) and ix enhanced implicit time processing (i.e., as measured with the Simon effect) at the functional level. Such effects were not seen for the visual ambiguous figure of the Necker cube (another measure to capture the experienced duration of the present moment) and the detection of sequences of visual stimuli in the millisecond range (capturing the functional moment). The results of the metronome task suggest that mindfulness-meditation states and mindfulness as a trait modulate certain temporal integration mechanisms compatible with the experience of the present moment. These temporal changes seem to be intimately related to autonomic activity providing further understanding of the role of mind-body interactions on the present moment. Additional work will be needed to illuminate the mechanisms underlying the experience of the present moment. The study of meditative states, describable as changes in the present moment experience, remains a promising approach.
... The FMI-14 has been shown to be useful in distinguishing between participants with and without meditation experience (Sauer et al., 2011(Sauer et al., , 2015Walach et al., 2006). The scale was initially developed as a unidimensional scale; however, research also supports a twofactor solution of Presence and Acceptance (e.g., Kohls et al., 2009; Pr esence FMI items 1, 2, 3, 5, 7, 10; Acceptance FMI items 4, 6,8,9,11,12,14). Presence is generally thought to reflect the awareness of stimuli in the subjective now, and Acceptance, a non-judgmental stance towards all kinds of experience. ...
... The FMI utilises a 4-point rating scale ("rarely", "occasionally", "fairly often" and "almost always"). The FMI has been validated not only with classical psychometric analyses such as exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (Kohls et al., 2009), but also with item response theory (Sauer et al., 2011) and machine learning algorithms (Sauer et al., 2015). The latter method involved using predictive algorithms to scrutinize the degree to which FMI items were able to predict whether the participants were practising mindfulness on a regular basis or not. ...
... Broad similarities were observed across the groups' networks, as evident in the strong correlation between the path weights of the practitioners' and non-practitioners' networks (co-efficient of similarity r s = 0.51), and moderate to strong correlation of strength centrality (r s = 0.36). The EGA revealed two communities of items in the practitioner sample which closely resembled two-factor solutions recovered in previous factor analytic research (each community differing only in one item from the factor structures retrieved byKohls et al., 2009). Three communities of items were recovered in the non-practitioners' network. ...
Article
Mindfulness research implicitly conceives of mindfulness as an identifiable real ‘thing’ that exists beyond what is directly observed. Recently, a new methodology has been developed which allows mindfulness to be modelled as a complex system or network at the level of self‐report. In these models, items become a network's nodes, and the statistical relations between them, edges. Interpreted causally, nodes are thought to increasingly influence each other via their edges, such that they become increasingly correlated. This study hypothesises that at a cross‐sectional level, this may result in differences in overall network connectivity (density) between practitioners and non‐practitioners. Mindfulness networks were estimated for practitioners and non‐practitioners using the Friedberg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI). A total of 371 regular mindfulness practitioners and 283 non‐practitioners (including 59 irregular practitioners) were recruited online from Amazon Mechanical Turk. Comparisons of practitioners’ and non‐practitioners’ networks indicated that network density did not significantly differ, whereas evidence was found in support of a significant difference in network structure. An exploratory analysis revealed substantive group differences in how items (practices) were connected. In particular, the practice of Acceptance appeared more central to the practitioners’ network relative to the non‐practitioners' network, indicating Acceptance may be particularly useful for engagement in mindfulness practices. The study supports investigating mindfulness as a complex network at the level of self‐report, with implications for how the development of mindfulness is conceptualised. The lack of difference in network density indicates that research is needed to examine network dynamics in the context of regular mindfulness practice.
... Participants reported that interventions helped them to better manage and accept difficult emotions. Research has shown that people who are able to accept negative emotions, experience better psychological health compared with people who struggle to accept negative emotions, judging them as 'bad' or 'unacceptable' (Baer et al., 2004;Cardaciotto et al., 2008;Kohls et al., 2009). The interventions included elements of Mindfulness, Acceptance and Commitment therapy (ACT) and Positive Psychology 2.0, which present psychological distress as a universal aspect of human experience and encourage individuals to live with acceptance (Nordin and Rorsman, 2012) thereby altering the individual's relationship to their psychological and contextual experiences (Hayes et al., 2006;Kangas and McDonald, 2011). ...
... The interventions included elements of Mindfulness, Acceptance and Commitment therapy (ACT) and Positive Psychology 2.0, which present psychological distress as a universal aspect of human experience and encourage individuals to live with acceptance (Nordin and Rorsman, 2012) thereby altering the individual's relationship to their psychological and contextual experiences (Hayes et al., 2006;Kangas and McDonald, 2011). Mindfulnessbased approaches have been shown to facilitate acceptance of negative emotion and better psychological health (Cardaciotto et al., 2008;Kohls et al., 2009). Mindfulness was a core feature of all of the interventions, including 'Bike-ability' and 'Surf-ability' during which this technique was taught alongside associated activities. ...
Article
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Individuals with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) suffer chronic impairment across cognitive, physical and psycho-social domains, and the experience of anxiety, isolation and apathy has been amplified by the COVID-19 pandemic. A qualitative evaluation was conducted of 14 individuals with ABI who had participated in series of COVID adapted group-based intervention(s) that had been designed to improve wellbeing. Eight themes were identified: Facilitating Safety, Fostering Positive Emotion, Managing and Accepting Difficult Emotions, Promoting Meaning, Finding Purpose and Accomplishment, Facilitating Social Ties, (Re)Connecting to Nature, and Barriers to Efficacy. Findings are discussed with respects to recent theoretical developments in positive psychology and wellbeing science and support the use of online and outdoor interventions to enhance wellbeing in individuals living with ABI during the COVID-19 pandemic. This paper makes a unique contribution to second wave positive psychology (PP2.0) through the application of recent advances in wellbeing science to an ABI population during the COVID-19 pandemic. In doing so, this paper lays the foundation for new interventions that not only reduce impairment and distress, but also create opportunities for meaning and enhanced wellbeing in people living with chronic conditions and those individuals living with ABI in particular.
... We chose to validate the short form called FMI-14, since it contains all aspects of the original long version but independently from a Buddhist or meditation context [6]; therefore, it can be used by individuals with no or little knowledge in meditation techniques [6]. Two main factors were identi ed in the FMI short version namely presence and acceptance [13,14]. FMI-14 has been validated among different communities and presented good psychometric qualities [2,15], therefore its applicable to all populations. ...
... virtually indicates that these items measure the same component. Results concerning the number of factors to retain for the FMI remains controversial; while some studies are in favor of one factor [2,32,33], others are in favor of two factors [13,34]. Item 13 (e.g. ...
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Background Mindfulness presents a self-regulation tool allowing the individual to recognize and accept mental experiences. We chose to validate the short form of FMI called FMI-14, since it contains all aspects of the original long version and it can be used among various general population. Interests in including mindfulness techniques in medical and psychological fields has been increasing recently. Accordingly, it is important to validate FMI-14-Ar to help professionals living in the Arabic speaking countries. Thus, the main objective of this study was to validate the Arabic version of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI-Ar) among a sample of Lebanese university students. Methods This study is a cross-sectional one carried out between July and September 2021 and enrolling 363 Lebanese university students recruited through convenience sampling through several Lebanese universities. The questionnaire included socio-demographic characteristics and the following scales: Lebanese Anxiety Scale (LAS-10) to assess anxiety, Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to assess depression and Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) to assess mindfulness. To estimate categorical confirmatory factor analysis of the FMI scale the Mplus was used and SPSS software version 23 was used for data analysis. Results Participants mean age was 22.65 ± 3.48 years, and the majority 61.7% were females. The fit indices of the confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) of the one-factor model of the FMI came out as follows: χ²/df= 218.33/77=2.83, RMSEA= 0.071 [0.060-0.082], CFI=0.92 and TLI= 0.90. The Cronbach’s alpha value for the total scale was excellent (0.92). Additionally, the FMI score was negatively associated with anxiety (r=-0.48; p<0.001) and depression (r=-0.51; p=0.001). Conclusion All hypotheses (factor, convergent, and divergent validity) related to the FMI-Ar were verified in our study. Therefore, professionals can now benefit from the FMI-Ar, a suitable scale to measure mindfulness among Lebanese university students.
... Using cognitive methods to solve problems, professionals can help families with children with disabilities cope with stress, depression, incompatibility and loneliness, especially when these feelings weaken the parents' ability to help and care for the child (Birrer, Griesemer, & Cataletto, 2002). Research has shown that high levels of mindfulness and metacognitive beliefs lead to increased positive emotions and decreased depression (Davidson et al., 2003;Kohls, Sauer, & Walach, 2009;Smith, 2004). Metacognitive skills are also associated with depression. ...
... The first hypothesis of the study is that "there is a relationship between the components of mindfulness and depression in adolescents." The results of this study are consistent with the results of the research of Esmaeilzadeh Akhoundi and Mohammadalizadeh Namini (2017), de Bruin, Topper, Muskens, Bögels, and Kamphuis (2012), and Kohls et al. (2009), that the components of mindfulness are associated with depression. These studies have shown that people with low levels of mindfulness score higher on depression. ...
Article
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The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between components of mindfulness and metacognitive abilities with depression in adolescents. This research was descriptive and correlational. The statistical population of this study was all adolescents referring to counseling centers in District 4 of Tehran, from which 50 people with depression were selected by convenience sampling. Research instruments included Beck Depression Inventory, Bauer et al.'s Components of Mindfulness Questionnaire, and the Wells Metacognitive Beliefs Questionnaire. Stepwise regression was used to analyze the data. Findings showed that components of mind-awareness and metacognitive abilities have a significant relationship with depression (P <0.01). The results also showed that the components of mindfulness predict 0.46, cognitive self-awareness 0.21 and metacognitive abilities predict 0.31 of depression.
... Initial evidence suggests, however, that state mindfulness can be conceptualized as multidimensional construct (Blanke & Brose, 2017) in which different mindfulness facets play differential roles for atti-tudes and behaviors and also have differential predictors (Suelmann et al., 2018). Shedding further light onto the differential roles of awareness and acceptance for individuals' attitudinal and behavioral outcomes at work and at home is helpful for disentangling the processes through which mindfulness impacts individuals' well-being and behavior (Kohls, Sauer, & Walach, 2009;Liang et al., 2018). This is not only important for a better theoretical understanding but also enables more attuned interventions that can target specific aspects of mindfulness and, in turn, particular outcomes. ...
... Those studies that did investigate both dimensions simultaneously have shown that the dimensions differ in their relations to important outcomes. For example, although Kohls et al. (2009) found that mindful acceptance is more important for buffering distress than awareness, Liang et al. (2018) found that awareness, not acceptance, plays the key role for regulating one's aggression in reaction to hostile emotions. ...
Article
Although previous research on mindfulness predominantly focused on benefits of mindfulness, this study investigates quantitative and emotional demands as contextual antecedents of mindful awareness and acceptance both in the work and home domains. In addition, we examine goal attainment and satisfaction in the work and home domains as consequences of mindful awareness and acceptance. Results of a diary study across 5 workdays with 2 daily measurement occasions among 233 employees revealed that both in the work and home domains, quantitative demands were positively associated with awareness, but not with acceptance, whereas emotional demands were positively associated with acceptance, but not with awareness. Awareness and acceptance were both associated with increased goal attainment and satisfaction in both life domains. We did not find strong evidence for cross-domain relations between demands and mindfulness on the one hand and between mindfulness and goal attainment and satisfaction on the other hand. In sum, this study contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of mindfulness by shedding light on contextualized forms of mindfulness and considering both the awareness and acceptance facets of mindfulness and their contextual predictors and consequences. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).
... 35 Later, Walach et al. 35 designed the short form (14 items) of this inventory, which is more suitable for the general population and for groups that are not very familiar with the Buddhist root of mindfulness and it can be used in different cultures. Kohls et al. 37 showed that the short form measured the two factors of presence and acceptance. The items are based on a 4-point Likert scale (rarely=1 to almost always=4). ...
Article
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Objective: The sudden outbreak of COVID-19 has caused major health problems, including anxiety in cancer patients worldwide. Spiritual health and mindfulness are considered as factors affecting anxiety. This study addressed the relationship between COVID-19 anxiety, spiritual health and mindfulness in patients with cancer. Methods: One hundred and eighty-four cancer patients participated in this cross-sectional study. The data were collected with convenience sampling method from two oncology centers from 15 June to 15 July 2020 in the southeast Iran. Patients completed the Demographic and Clinical Characteristics Form, Corona Disease Anxiety Scale (CDAS), The Freiburg Mindfulness inventory-Short Form (FMI-SF) and Spiritual Health Scale. Results: According to the psychological symptom subscale (CDAS), 61.4% of the participants had moderate to severe anxiety. According to the physical symptom subscale, 38% of the participants had moderate to severe anxiety. No significant association was found between corona disease anxiety and mindfulness/spiritual health (p>0.05). Conclusion: The results of this study showed high levels of mental and physical anxiety and worries about COVID-19 disease in cancer patients, which led to challenges in their lives. It is necessary to review and implement effective interventions in future studies to prevent anxiety and its consequences in cancer patients.
... The short form of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI-14) was used to assess mindfulness and measure convergent validity in the present study. This scale consists of 14 items and each item is rated on a four-point Likert scale (from 1 = strongly disagree to 4 = to strongly agree) [39,40]. According to Ghasemi Jobaneh et al., the short form of the Freiburg mindfulness inventory is a valid instrument and has acceptable psychometric properties to measure the levels of mindfulness in the Iranian population [41]. ...
Article
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The present study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties of a Persian version of the Psychological Flexibility Epilepsy Questionnaire (P-PFEQ). Transcultural adaptation and validation of the Persian version of the PFEQ were performed using translation and back-translation with pilot testing (on 17 patients) and expert evaluation. Participants in the current study involved 100 patients with an EEG-verified epilepsy diagnosis and an average age of 30.96 years (SD ± 6.46) (63% were female). Data collection included a sociodemographic questionnaire, epilepsy-specific questionnaire, the Depression-Anxiety-stress scale (DASS-21), the Insomnia Severity Index (ISI), the 31-item Quality-of-Life questionnaire in Epilepsy (QOLIE-31), the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire (AAQ), the Committed Action Questionnaire (CAQ), and the short form of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI). Descriptive and inferential analyses were conducted by SPSS software V.26. The P-PFEQ demonstrated semantic, conceptual , and content validity in equivalence with the Swedish version. Based on Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), five items were eliminated and unidimensional scale of PFEQ with 12 items, explaining 50.38% of the total variance, was accepted. The scale showed good reliability through internal consistency (Cronbach's a of 0.9) and temporal stability on retest (n = 85, Intraclass correlation = 0.92). Convergent and divergent validity findings were acceptable for the P-PFEQ. The findings show that the P-PFEQ is a reliable and valid scale for assessing psychological flexibility in the Iranian patients with epilepsy. Also, it can be confidently recommended as a useful instrument in clinical practice.
... The short form of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI;Walach et al., 2006) is a 14-item version of the original 30-item scale (Walach et al., 2006), assessing mindfulness as a onedimensional construct (Buchheld & Walach, 2002;Kohls, Sauer & Walach, 2009). While each item describes a state of mindfulness, participants are asked to rate the frequency of this state in a particular time-frame on a 4-point scale, ranging from "Rarely" (1) to "Almost always" (4) (Walach et al., 2006). ...
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Objectives: Mindfulness has become a main topic in Positive Psychology, as well as other disciplines, due to its effect on numerous positive outcomes, such as wellbeing and stress reduction. Many different mindfulness-based interventions have emerged in the last decades, however, to this point there is limited literature available for brief mindfulness-based practices that can be easily integrated into people's daily life. To address this gap in research, this study is going to examine the Mindfulness Bell, which offers individuals an opportunity to focus on the present through an audible notification at random moments during the day. Methodology: The study made use of an existing smartphone application, instructing participants to bring their attention to the sound of the bell, their breath, and their current activity at six random times each day. A two-week repeated-measures design was applied to measure effects of the Mindfulness Bell on participants' (N = 21) levels of mindfulness, both subjective and psychological wellbeing, and stress. Results: A statistically significant correlation was found between the Mindfulness Bell intervention and levels of mindfulness, subjective wellbeing and psychological wellbeing. No significant correlation was found for stress. Discussion: As a mediator of positive wellbeing outcomes, mindfulness is related to environmental mastery, purpose in life, and self-acceptance. Research shows that the length of the study and the level of mindfulness experience affected the success of the intervention. Conclusion: This paper reveals insight on the importance of engaging with the mindfulness concept and outlines what scholars need to consider when creating mindfulness-based interventions.
... The exact nature of acceptance is not yes understood. Shedding further light on the differential roles of presence and acceptance would contribute to disentangling the processes through which mindfulness impacts pregnancy mental effects on women [65]. Thus, the acceptance dimension of the MD could actually act as an emotional buffer that allows reaction without overinterpreting the stressful situation induced by the pregnancy, the anticipation of delivery or the delivery itself. ...
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(1) Background: the prevalence of postnatal depression (PND) reaches up to 20%. PND could be based on the interaction between a psychological vulnerability and chronic stress that pregnancy would activate. Vulnerability factors reflect a psychological profile mirroring mindfulness-trait (MT). A high level of MT is associated with an efficient regulation of both physiological and psychological stress, especially negative moods. Interestingly, mindfulness level can be improved by program based on mindfulness meditation. We hypothesize that MT is a protective factor for PND. We also postulate that negative moods increase during the pregnancy for women who develop a PND after delivery (2) Methods: we conducted a multicentric prospective longitudinal study including 85 women during their first trimester of their pregnancy and 72 from the childbirth to the baby’s first birthday”. At the inclusion, presence and acceptance of MT and various variables of personality and of psychological functioning were assessed. Mood evolution was monitored each month during the pregnancy and a delivery trauma risk was evaluated after delivery. PND detection was carried out at 48 h, 2, 6 and 12 months after the delivery with the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale with a screening cut-off >11. (3) Results: high-acceptance MT is a protective factor for PND (OR: 0.79). Women without PND displayed less negative mood during pregnancy (p < 0.05 for Anxiety, Confusion and Anger). (4) Conclusions: these results suggest the value of deploying programs to enhance the level of mindfulness, especially in its acceptance dimension, before, during and after pregnancy, to reduce the risk of PND.
... The FMI [33,34] assesses awareness and nonjudgment of present moment experiences. The 14-item short form with the two subscales "presence" and "acceptance" was employed in this study, which is a consistent and reliable short version of the scale. ...
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Introduction: Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) have several potential stressors including the symptoms of the disease itself, the stigmatization due to their appearance, and emotional and psychological strain. Psychological factors and stress can trigger and exacerbate the symptoms of skin diseases and there is evidence that stress has a relevant clinical effect on the function of skin cells in vivo. Our objective was to evaluate in a pilot study the feasibility, acceptance, and effectiveness of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) programme in AD patients in a clinical setting. Methods: 10 patients took part in an 8-week MBSR programme, which included, e.g., mindful and conscious awareness of the body and bodywork, and seated meditation. We assessed sociodemographics and disease related variables with standardized measures at predefined time points including Score of Atopic Dermatitis, Patient Oriented Eczema Measure, Dermatology Life Quality Index, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI), and others. Participants also gave qualitative feedback regarding the effects of the intervention. Results: The mean age was 53.10 years (SD = 15.04), seven patients were female, and disease duration was 36.6 years (SD = 25.5). Calculating pre-post effect sizes (Cohen’s d), the FMI indicated significant improvement in the ‘”presence” and ‘”acceptance” subscales. There was also tendency for less stress. This was confirmed by the qualitative statements of the participants. Conclusions: The MBSR programme is feasible and acceptable for AD patients. Considering the long disease history and the severity of disease burden, the effects of this intervention seem promising as an adjunct to conventional treatments for patients with AD.
... The FMI is a short form (14 item) self-report questionnaire that has been developed for people with no background knowledge of mindfulness (40,41). It is considered to be a consistent and reliable scale for evaluating mindfulness, and is divided into two subfactors (42). "Acceptance" is the ability to embrace unwanted thoughts and "Presence" reflects a willingness to be present, characterized by a non-judgmental attitude to events that occur in the environment. ...
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Background: Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric illness with high prevalence in civil and military environments. The clinical course regardless of management is chronic for number of patients, especially for veterans. The persistence of symptoms interacts with the body and person representations and may impact the rehabilitation process. Sport is known to help psychiatric patient, as PTSD, for improving body connection and physiological emotional regulation. However, the impact of sport on self-representations has not yet been studied. First, this study aims to explore the person and body representations in patients suffering from chronic PTSD in a specific population of veterans according to the PTSD clinical severity. Second, it aims to explore how a nine-days military sports program, including socio-professional rehabilitation, changes the person and body representations. Methods: A qualitative exploratory study used inductive words of "body" and of "person" for studying self-representation of veterans with chronic PTSD before the rehabilitation sports program. At the same time, PTSD severity and mind-body connection were assessed using the post-traumatic checklist (PCL-5) and the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI), respectively. Parasympathetic activity at rest was recorded. A part of the veterans participated in post-program session recording the same semantic, psychological and physiological variables. Results: Although the veterans exhibited more negative than positive words, no difference was observed on the number of verbal representations according to the PTSD severity. At the post-program, changes were observed in terms of categories of body and person words: some negative categories of words disappeared, and some positive categories of words appeared. This was associated with a decrease in PTSD severity, an increase in mind-body connection but also with a decrease in the level of parasympathetic activation. Conclusions: This study highlighted a negative representation of the Self for veterans with chronic PTSD. The specific program including regular sport practice improved the self-representations related to both person and body. This was associated with less PTSD suffering.
... The short form of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI;Walach et al., 2006) is a 14-item version of the original 30-item scale (Walach et al., 2006), assessing mindfulness as a onedimensional construct (Buchheld & Walach, 2002;Kohls, Sauer & Walach, 2009). While each item describes a state of mindfulness, participants are asked to rate the frequency of this state in a particular time-frame on a 4-point scale, ranging from "Rarely" (1) to "Almost always" (4) (Walach et al., 2006). ...
Article
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Objectives: Mindfulness has become a main topic in Positive Psychology, as well as other disciplines, due to its effect on numerous positive outcomes, such as wellbeing and stress reduction. Many different mindfulness-based interventions have emerged in the last decades, however, to this point there is limited literature available for brief mindfulness-based practices that can be easily integrated into people's daily life. To address this gap in research, this study is going to examine the Mindfulness Bell, which offers individuals an opportunity to focus on the present through an audible notification at random moments during the day. Methodology: The study made use of an existing smartphone application, instructing participants to bring their attention to the sound of the bell, their breath, and their current activity at six random times each day. A two-week repeated-measures design was applied to measure effects of the Mindfulness Bell on participants' (N = 21) levels of mindfulness, both subjective and psychological wellbeing, and stress. Results: A statistically significant correlation was found between the Mindfulness Bell intervention and levels of mindfulness, subjective wellbeing and psychological wellbeing. No significant correlation was found for stress. Discussion: As a mediator of positive wellbeing outcomes, mindfulness is related to environmental mastery, purpose in life, and self-acceptance. Research shows that the length of the study and the level of mindfulness experience affected the success of the intervention. Conclusion: This paper reveals insight on the importance of engaging with the mindfulness concept and outlines what scholars need to consider when creating mindfulness-based interventions.
... Some participants reported that these insights helped them to better manage difficult emotions and experiences beyond the parameters of the Surfability intervention, indicating that they were able to generalise experiences in surfing to other aspects of their lives. Acceptance of one's mental experience has been linked to better adjustment and functioning in individuals with chronic conditions [71][72][73] and improved psychological health within the general population [74]. This may be because individuals who are better able to accept difficult thoughts and emotions experience reduced negative emotions in response to stressors [74]; facilitating opportunities for improved psychological wellbeing, including meaning and purpose, the theme we turn our attention to next. ...
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Nature has long demonstrated the capacity to facilitate wellbeing. Interventions involving the natural environment such as surf therapy, are increasingly being used to facilitate aspects of wellbeing in clinical populations. However, explorations of how nature-based interventions such as surf therapy may be used to promote wellbeing in the context of neu-rorehabilitation are missing from the peer-reviewed literature. Here we characterize the experience of a five-week surfing intervention involving fifteen adults living with the psycho-social and cognitive sequelae of acquired brain injury. Insights were analysed using reflexive thematic analysis, which highlighted the importance of seven overarching themes, including: 1) Connection to Nature, 2) Facilitating Trust and Safety, 3) Managing and Accepting Difficult Emotions, 4) Facilitating Positive Emotion, Meaning and Purpose, 5) Building Community through Social Connection, and 6) Positive Change. Barriers and opportunities (theme 7) were also identified as components on which clinical services may be improved. We present a theoretical model for the benefits of surf therapy in people living with acquired brain injury (ABI) based on these themes and reflections on findings from the wider literature. Findings emphasise the importance of leveraging community partnerships to augment the holistic model of neurorehabilitation and potential implications for service redesign are discussed , focusing on recent developments in wellbeing science.
... Later, Walach et al. (2006) developed a short form of FMI (14 items), which was more suitable for use in the general population. Kohls et al. (2009)showed that the short form measured the two factors of Presence and Acceptance. ...
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Introduction: An individual's level of mindfulness can predict his/her level of general health, anxiety, and anger. If we have a valuable tool for measuring mindfulness, we can predict such factors more concisely. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare a narrowband and a broadband mindfulness scale in predicting the level of general health, anxiety, and anger in a general population. Materials and methods: This was a cross-sectional study on an Iranian general population (all citizens living in Kerman) from September 22, 2020 to April 14, 2021. The convenience sampling method was used. Data were collated via electronic and paper forms of the Relaxation/Meditation/Mindfulness Tracker t-Persian version (RMMt-P), the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory- Short-Form-Persian version (FMI-P), the General Health Questionnaire, the trait anxiety section of the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the trait anger section of the State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory-2. Results: The FMI-P predicted 0.05% of GHQ variance while the first and third levels of RMMt-P predicted 0.145%. The FMI-P predicted 0.19% of anxiety variance, while the first and third levels of RMMt-P predicted 0.195%. The FMI-P predicted 0.0% of anger variance, while the first, second, and third levels of RMMt-P predicted 0.08%. RMMt-P Level 1 was a better predictor of general health, anger, and anxiety. Conclusion: The current study found that the RMMt-P was a better predictor of general health and anger than the FMI-P. These findings suggest that the type of questionnaire used in the study of mindfulness is important, but more research is needed to determine the extent of these relationships.
... As Van Dam et al. (2017) pointed out, mindfulness encompasses numerous processes, and different scales assessing these processes tend to operationalize mindfulness with somewhat differing emphasis on components of mindfulness. For example, the non-judgmental acceptance aspect of mindfulness is assessed explicitly by the Freiberg Mindfulness Inventory (Kohls et al., 2009;Walach et al., 2006) and the Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ; Baer et al., 2006), but less so by the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS; Brown & Ryan, 2003;MacKillop & Anderson, 2007). On the other hand, on the basis of interviews with Buddhist experts, Feng et al. (2018) found that the MAAS operationalized mindfulness in ways congruent with Buddhist conceptualizations emphasizing aspects such as attentional flexibility. ...
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Objectives This meta-analytic study examined average effect sizes across studies for the association between dispositional mindfulness and gratitude, dispositional mindfulness and emotional intelligence, and emotional intelligence and gratitude. The study also tested a model positing emotional intelligence as a path linking mindfulness and gratitude.Methods Two-stage structural equation modeling provided information regarding the association between mindfulness and gratitude across eight samples, the association between mindfulness and emotional intelligence across twenty-six samples, the association between emotional intelligence and gratitude across seven samples, and the mediating role of emotional intelligence in the association between mindfulness and gratitude. Samples were heterogeneous with varying populations.ResultsAcross samples with a total of 3130 participants, greater mindfulness was significantly associated with more gratitude; r = .22, 95% CI [.16, .28], p < .001. In samples including 6369 participants, greater mindfulness was significantly associated with higher emotional intelligence; r = .40, 95% CI [.33, .47], p < .001. Among samples including 3998 participants, higher emotional intelligence was significantly associated with more gratitude; r = .31, 95% CI [.23, .39], p < .001. Emotional intelligence was a significant mediator of the association between mindfulness and gratitude. The indirect and direct effects were .11, 95% CI [.07, .16] and .11, 95% CI [.03, .19], ps < .05, respectively, with no significant difference between indirect and direct effects, χ2(df = 1) = 0.004, p = .95.Conclusions The findings add to evidence supporting the beneficial nature of mindfulness. Mindfulness may be a foundation for a cascading development of positive characteristics that result in flourishing.
... We observed a strong reliability estimate for scores on the FMI-14 (α = .90). While dispositional mindfulness may best be conceptualized multidimensionally, past research has shown the validity of total scores on the FMI-14, suggesting it may be more practical to measure mindfulness as a one-dimensional construct (Kohls et al., 2009). In terms of testretest reliability for the present study, correlations of scores on the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) ranged from r = .67 ...
Article
The COVID-19 pandemic has not only accounted for a substantial number of deaths in the United States but also deleterious mental health outcomes. We integrated multiple lines of previous research to better understand psychological strengths and difficulties in the face of the pandemic by testing a moderated mediation model that posited that rumination mediates the relationship between COVID-related stress and depression, and mindfulness moderates the relationship between COVID-related stress and rumination. The participants were 196 young adults (79.6% female, 53.1% persons of color), who ranged in age between 18 and 33 years (M = 21.21; SD = 3.62). The participants completed measures of COVID-19 stress, rumination, mindfulness, and depressive symptoms at four time points spanning 1 month. Cross-sectional moderated mediation analysis of the data showed that COVID-related stress predicted rumination, which in turn, predicted depressive symptoms. In addition, mindfulness buffered the relationship between COVID-related stress and rumination. Later, we ran exploratory analyses to examine the robustness of the main models at each wave, linear mixed-effects models to investigate change over time, and conducted a cross-lagged model to test for directional effects. Notably, the longitudinal findings suggested that COVID-related stress and rumination tended to decrease over time and mindfulness remained temporally stable. Additionally, increases in rumination predicted increases in depression. Some longitudinal findings did not consistently congrue with cross-sectional results. Overall, the findings highlight the diverse ways in which individuals cope with stress and the promise of mindfulness as a protective factor against the negative effects of pandemic-related stressors. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
... In order to assess the nomological validity of the scale, correlations with other mindfulness scales and measures of positive and negative well-being were computed. The 14-item version of the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI; Kohls et al., 2009), the 6-item version of the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS; Black et al., 2012), the WHO Well-Being Index (WHO-5; WHO, 1998), the Personal Wellbeing Index (PWI; International Wellbeing Group, 2006), and the Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS-21; Lovibond & Lovibond, 1995) were also administered to the sample. As predicted, the full AMPS correlated positively with the FMI (r ¼ 0.52, p < 0.01), the MAAS (r ¼ 0.29, p < 0.01), the WHO-5 (r ¼ 0.48, p < 0.01), and the PWI (r ¼ 0.45, p < 0.01) and negatively with the DASS-21 (r ¼ À0.48, p < 0.01). ...
... While the concept of mindfulness has its original roots in Buddhism spirituality (Kohls et al. 2009) and meditation in practice (Hayes and Shenk 2004), a multitude of evidence suggests that "some nonmeditative methods can be considered mindfulness techniques" (McAvoy et al. 2013, p.157) where "any method that increases attention to the present moment and an attitude of acceptance is a mindfulness method" (Hayes and Shenk 2004, p. 250). IS research, therefore, contend that ...
Conference Paper
Today, agile approach is arguably the most-widely-used project management method in software development industry. The dynamic nature of agile methods however is putting an overwhelming pressure on agile team members which in turn might negatively influence their overall agile wellbeing. Drawing on IT mindfulness as a theoretical foundation, this research-in-progress develops a conceptual model to examine the potential impact of agile mindfulness, in conjunction with agile identity, on the agile wellbeing of individuals in information system development projects. The findings of this research, upon completion, will contribute to IS literature by providing an evidence-based theoretical understanding of the relationship between agile mindfulness, agile identity, and agile wellbeing. The findings could also help agile teams to understand what improves agile wellbeing of team members, and in turn help them maintain, promote, and enhance it.
... 1. Mindfulness: Mindfulness was measured by using a reduced version of "Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory" developed by Kohls, et al., (2009). This scale has eight items under two factors namely acceptance and presence. ...
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Creating and maintaining a healthy organization is a major challenge of organizational leaders in the current volatile and competitive business environment. One of the critical aspects of a healthy organization is employees’ mental wellbeing. Aspects like workplace spirituality and mindfulness are now highly popular among organizations. However, studies linking these variables with employees’ wellbeing is an area that has not received adequate research attention. The pivotal objective of this study is to explore the combined effect of mindfulness and workplace spirituality on employees’ mental wellbeing. A cross-sectional research design was adopted for the study, and data were collected from 333 full-time employees working in diverse industries. Results reveal significant relationship between the three variables. It was also found that both workplace spirituality and mindfulness were significant predictors of mental wellbeing. The present study, enriches the literature by contributing towards an understanding of the causative factors of employees’ mental wellbeing and how it can be improved in the organizations.
... Individual mindfulness as a personal trait is evaluated by using the abridged version of the "Freiburger Fragebogen zur Achtsamkeit" (FFA-14 questionnaire) [52,53]. The internal consistency is good (Cronbach's α = .86). ...
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Background Mental disorders are common during the peripartum period and may have far-reaching consequences for both mother and child. Unfortunately, most antenatal care systems do not provide any structured screening for maternal mental health. As a consequence, mental illnesses are often overlooked and not treated adequately. If correctly diagnosed, cognitive behavioral therapy is currently the treatment of choice for mental illnesses. In addition, mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) seem to represent a promising treatment option for anxiety and depression during the peripartum period. Considering the internet’s increasing omnipresence, MBIs can also be offered electronically via a (tablet) computer or smartphone (electronically based MBI = eMBI). Objective The current study aims to examine the clinical effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of an eMBI (the mindmom application) developed by an interdisciplinary team of gynecologists, psychologists, and midwives, teaching pregnant women how to deal with stress, pregnancy-related anxiety, and depressive symptoms. The study sample consists of pregnant women in their third trimester who screened positive for emotional distress. The mindmom study is a bicentric prospective randomized controlled trial (RCT), which is currently conducted at the University women’s hospitals of Heidelberg and Tübingen, Germany. Methods Within the scope of the routine prenatal care, pregnant women attending routine pregnancy care in Baden-Wuerttemberg, Germany, are invited to participate in a screening for mental distress based on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Women with an EPDS screening result > 9 will be referred to one of the mindmom coordinating study centers and are offered counseling either face-to-face or via videotelephony. After an initial psychological counseling, women are invited to participate in an eMBI in their last pregnancy trimester. The study will enroll N = 280 study participants (N = 140 per group), who are randomized 1:1 into the intervention (IG) or control group (treatment as usual = TAU). All participants are requested to complete a total of 7 digital assessments (5 visits pre- and 2 follow-up visits postpartum), involving self-report questionnaires, sociodemographic and medical data, physiological measures, and morning cortisol profiles. The primary outcome will be depressive and anxiety symptoms, measured by the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale, the State Trait Anxiety Questionnaire, and the Pregnancy-Related Anxiety Questionnaire. Secondary outcomes include mindfulness, satisfaction with birth, quality of life, fetal attachment, bonding, mode of delivery, and cost-effectiveness. Discussion This is the first German RCT to examine the (cost-)effectiveness of an eMBI on maternal mental health during pregnancy. If successful, the mindmom app represents a low-threshold and cost-effective help for psychologically distressed women during pregnancy, thereby reducing the negative impact on perinatal health outcome. Trial registration Deutsches Register Klinischer Studien, German Clinical Trials Register DRKS00017210. Registered on 13 January 2020. Retrospectively registered.
... Items are rated on a 4-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (rarely) to 4 (almost always), with higher total scores reflecting higher trait mindfulness. The FMI has found to be reliable in non-clinical populations (α = 0.83; Kohls et al. 2009), and captures mindfulness distinct from other potentially similar constructs such as self-awareness and dissociation (Walach et al. 2006). In Study 1, internal consistency was acceptable (α = 0.80). ...
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Background Mindfulness-based meditation practice (MBP) can be assessed in terms of time spent (quantity) or skill acquisition (quality), but these components have rarely been delineated in adherence measures. Individuals may also engage in MBP through everyday life (informal practice) and dedicate specific time for MBP (formal practice). Method The Mindfulness Adherence Questionnaire, a scale designed to assess quantity and quality of formal and informal MBP was evaluated. Study 1 used a cross-sectional design to examine internal reliability and construct validity ( N = 282). Study 2 examined test–retest reliability and sensitivity ( N = 55) during a 4-week mindfulness intervention. Results A nested-factor model showed adequate fit: MAQ items loaded on both the general factor ( Practice ) and specific factors ( Formal and Informal ). Discriminant validity analyses revealed the MAQ captured MBP adherence distinct from trait mindfulness. Quality of both formal and informal mindfulness practice was more strongly associated with higher levels of trait mindfulness than quantity . Changes in MAQ Quantity scores were observed over time. Conclusions The MAQ is reliable and has a meaningful scale structure, may usefully distinguish both quality versus quantity and formal versus informal MBP, and is sensitive to variations in MBP and does not solely measure trait mindfulness.
... Total scores are calculated by summing all items and range from 14 to 56, with higher scores indicating higher levels of mindfulness. The FMI-14 demonstrated adequate internal consistency and construct validity in healthy and clinical samples [36,37] and significant inverse relationships with pain-related variables in individuals with chronic pain [38]. ...
Article
Objective The Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction program is effective at improving chronic pain outcomes, but the time demand hinders participation. This preliminary study evaluated the feasibility, acceptability, and potential effects of providing an abbreviated mindfulness program for patients with chronic pain. Design A single-arm, mixed-methods, pre–post intervention study. Setting An outpatient rehabilitation clinic at an academic medical center. Subjects Participants were N = 23 adults with chronic pain who were new to mindfulness practice. Methods Mindfulness-based Stress Reduction was adapted to shorten the program to four weekly 90-minute sessions and to focus content on pain management. Three cohorts of six to nine participants completed baseline and post-treatment measures of 1) patient-reported outcomes, including pain intensity, pain interference, physical functioning, depressive/anxiety symptoms, positive affect and well-being, and sleep disturbance; 2) pain medication dosages; 3) psychosocial variables including pain acceptance, pain catastrophizing, and perceived stress; 4) dispositional mindfulness, as well as postintervention structured interviews about their experiences. Results Acceptable rates of retention and attendance and high ratings of satisfaction indicated that the intervention was feasible and acceptable. In interviews, participants found the program acceptable and beneficial and provided suggestions to improve it. From pre- to post-treatment, significant improvements were reported in all measures except physical functioning and anxiety. Conclusions In adults with chronic pain, a four-week mindfulness program is feasible and acceptable, addresses the barrier of a lengthy program, and may improve quality of life and psychological functioning. An appropriately powered randomized controlled trial with a comparison group is needed to assess the intervention’s effectiveness.
... (Bountress et al., 2019). The ratio CMIN/DF should be lower than 2 for a good fit (Kohls, Sauer & Walach, 2009), and RMSEA < .06 (Psychogiou, Russell & Owens, 2020). ...
Article
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The current study is an exploratory study designed to examine the traits that are considered essential or important for research students, from the perspective of student advisors. The study addresses the broad question of whether and how academic faculty members select research students when seeking to maximize their own research outputs and achieving their own research goals. We employ a mixedmethods design, which incorporates content analysis based on Natural Language Processing techniques, and Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) to assess our model’s goodness of fit. Prominent traits that faculty members used to assess research candidates are investigated and discussed.
... The variable was measured using the eight-items "Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory" developed by Kohls et al. (2009). It is deemed as a second-order construct measured by two dimensions: acceptance and presence. ...
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Organizational resilience is vital to the survival and thriving of enterprises, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Although there has been an increasing interest in organizational resilience, the effects from the entrepreneur perspective receive scant attention. Based on upper echelons theory (UET) and personality psychology, we propose a model in which entrepreneurial mindfulness and entrepreneurial resilience could influence organizational resilience of SMEs. We empirically analyzed a sample of 180 entrepreneurs managing small- and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in China during the COVID-19 pandemic, using SmartPLS software. The research findings indicated that entrepreneurial mindfulness is positively associated with organizational resilience and such relationship is partially mediated by entrepreneurial resilience. These findings convey important theoretical implications in this field of research as well as practical implications for SMEs in China or other countries with similar nature.
... Freiberg Mindfulness Inventoryshort form (FMI-14): FMI-14 is a 14-item version of Freiberg Mindfulness Inventory to assess the mindfulness domain of the subject without any background knowledge of mindfulness [23]. Each self-descriptive statement evaluated using a four-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (rarely) to 4 (almost always). ...
Article
Objectives Substance use disorder is a pattern of recurrent use of illicit substances that leads to severe psychosocial imbalance and recurrent relapse. The study was to evaluate the efficacy of a yoga-based intervention as an add-on in enhancing psychological wellbeing, compared with physical exercise among substance abusers. Methods In this randomized controlled study, 96 male participants with substance use disorder from a residential rehabilitation treatment center, Kathmandu, Nepal, were randomly allocated into two groups namely the yoga group (n=48, mean age ± SD=25.18 ± 6.43) and the physical exercise group (n=48, mean age ± SD=25.02 ± 5.02). The participants in the yoga group attended the 90 min yoga sessions for 12 weeks (six days per week) whereas the physical exercise group attended exercise sessions for the same duration. Above mentioned interventions were in addition to standard rehabilitation treatment. The study measured the Self-Control, Anxiety, Depression, Sleep parameters, and Mindfulness at the baseline and after 12 weeks of intervention. Results A significant enhancement in self-control was observed in both the yoga (p<0.033, d =0.33) and the exercise group (p<0.038, d =0.32). Yoga group showed significant improvement in mindfulness score (p<0.017, d =0.37), whereas exercise group did not show any significant changes in mindfulness (p<0.169, d =0.21). The depression and anxiety scores reduced significantly in both yoga (p<0.044, d =0.31; p<0.025, d =0.35 resp.) and exercise (p<0.032, d =0.34. p<0.039, d =0.32. resp.) group. Furthermore, significant reduction was seen in sleep disturbance after yoga (p<0.001, d =0.52) and exercise (p<0.001, d =0.78) intervention. The sleep – somnolence score reduced significantly only in yoga group ( p <0.020 , d = 0.36). The magnitude of improvement was higher in the yoga group than physical exercise group on self-control, mindfulness, depression, anxiety and some sleep parameters, however the between group differences could not reach to the level of significance. Conclusions The 12 week yoga intervention did not appear to be significantly more effective than the 12 week physical exercise program on psychological wellbeing in male participants with substance use disorder. However, greater improvement in psychological wellbeing was observed within the yoga group. In future, a multi-centric study with robust design, larger sample size and longer follow-up is required to conform the present results and to find out the difference between the impacts of yoga and physical exercise on psychological wellbeing in substance abusers.
Article
Mindfulness can be understood as a state, trait, or practice. For this reason, there are many uncertainties that result mainly from the lack of precision regarding the mindfulness model. Similar ambiguities exist in the field of research tools to measure mindfulness. As many researchers prove, these tools measure slightly different psychological constructs. For this reason, researchers attempt to distinguish two different aspects of mindfulness, the trait and state, and on this basis develop more accurate research tools. This article is a review of existing measures of mindfulness, taking into account Polish adaptations, showing their specificity.
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Zusammenfassung Hintergrund Positive Effekte von achtsamkeitsbasierten Programmen im Kontext Schule wurden bereits vielfältig belegt. Das in dieser Studie evaluierte Konzept Achtsamkeit in der Schule (AISCHU) richtet sich an Lehrkräfte und SchülerInnen und soll deren Stresswahrnehmung und Selbstregulationsfähigkeit schulen. Im Fokus dieser explorativen Studie steht erstmals der präventive Nutzen der AISCHU-Weiterbildung für Lehrkräfte und deren psychische Gesundheit. Methodik Etablierte Messinstrumente bezüglich Stresserleben (PSQ), Burn-out-Gefährdung („Tedium measure“ (TM)), Wohlbefinden (WHO-5) und Achtsamkeit (FFA, MAAS) wurden im Prä-Post-Vergleich eingesetzt. Die Daten beziehen sich auf 36 Lehrkräfte unterschiedlicher Schulformen. Ergebnisse Es ergaben sich hinsichtlich aller untersuchten Messgrößen signifikante Verbesserungen mit z. T. großen Effektstärken. Schlussfolgerung In dieser explorativen Pilotstudie zu AISCHU für Lehrkräfte konnten erstmals vielversprechende Hinweise auf die Wirksamkeit im Sinne von Stressreduzierung, Burn-out-Risikominimierung sowie Verbesserung der Lebensqualität bei belasteten LehrerInnen beobachtet werden.
Article
Purpose Mental wellbeing brings in multiple benefits to employees and their organizations like better decision-making capacity, greater productivity, resilience and so on. The purpose of this paper is to examine the relationship of a few antecedents of mental wellbeing like workplace spirituality, mindfulness and self-compassion, using structural equation modeling (SEM). Design/methodology/approach Using the convenience sampling method, data were collected from 333 employees of various organizations in India and SEM was performed using the R Program to test the hypotheses. Findings Results suggest that mindfulness and self-compassion influenced the mental wellbeing of employees. It was also observed that workplace spirituality has a significant influence on both mindfulness and self-compassion. Originality/value An in-depth review of the literature revealed that no previous studies had examined the complex relationship between workplace spirituality, mindfulness, self-compassion and the mental wellbeing of employees. This research suggests that workplace spirituality, mindfulness and self-compassion are important factors that influence employees' mental wellbeing, and it empirically tests this in a developing country context. The present study enriches the literature studies on mental wellbeing, mindfulness, self-compassion and workplace spirituality by integrating “mindfulness to meaning theory”, “socio-emotional selectivity theory”, and “broaden and build theory”.
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These case studies examined the effects of mindful sport performance enhancement (MSPE) programs on competitive swimming performance, flow experience, and emotional regulation. Sixteen national competitive adolescent swimmers were randomly allocated into MSPE ( n = 9) and relaxation training ( n = 7) groups for 8 weeks. In the second phase of the intervention, the 16 participants were evenly split into an MSPE group for swimming and a control group for 5 weeks. The participants completed measures of trait and state flow, and mindfulness pre- and postintervention. The data analysis revealed that mindfulness had significant effects on both action–awareness merging and clear goals subscales. Further analysis revealed that the MSPE for swimming group significantly improved in terms of presence relative to the control group. In conclusion, general and sport-specific mindfulness interventions can psychologically benefit adolescent competitive swimmers.
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Purpose This study tested a model of the effect of maladaptive schemas on addiction severity and the mediating role of psychological flexibility between the two. Methods The descriptive and methodological study was conducted with 661 opioid users. Data were collected using the questionnaire, including sociodemographic Characteristics, Addiction Profile Index, Young Schema Questionnaire 3 Short Form, Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory, Acceptance and Action Questionnaire–II and Cognitive Fusion Questionnaire. Data were analyzed using descriptive and correlational analysis and structural equation model. Results The mean age was 27.43±7.04 years. Of participants, 52.3% had a secondary school degree, 76.7% had no children, 90.8% were men, 69.3% single, 71.9% unemployed, and 71.4% lived with their parents. Relationship between schemas and addiction severity was 0.36 (p<0.05), which was reduced to 0.10 by psychological flexibility (p<0.05). Psychological flexibility affects addiction severity directly, but maladaptive schemas affect addiction severity through psychological flexibility. Conclusions Maladaptive schemas and psychological flexibility are constructs that need to be addressed in substance use treatment.
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Conference Paper
Amaç: Bu çalışma bilinçli farkındalık ve sporcu tükenmişliği arasındaki ilişkiyi ve farkındalığa dayalı müdahalelerin sporcu tükenmişliği üzerindeki etkilerini bildiren çalışmaları belirlemeyi, değerlendirmeyi ve sentezlemeyi amaçlamaktadır. Yöntem: 22 Şubat 2022'e kadar PubMed ve Google Scholar ile sınırlı olmak üzere şu anahtar kelimeler kullanılarak kapsamlı bir literatür taraması yapıldı: tükenmişlik, bilinçli farkındalık, sporda tükenmişlik. Bulgular: Spora katılım her ne kadar rahatlatıcı bir aktivite gibi görülüyor olsa da, sporcular uzun atletik gelişim döneminde yoğun antrenman ve ağır akademik yük gibi sayısız zorlukla karşı karşıya kalabilmektedir. Bu zorlukların üstesinden gelememek, sporcuların sporcu tükenmişliği olarak bilinen uyumsuz bir psikolojik sendrom yaşamasına neden olabilir. Sporcu tükenmişliği, çok boyutlu bir yapı olarak kavramsallaştırılmıştır: Duygusal/fiziksel tükenme (örn, psikososyal ve fiziksel yorgunluk duyguları), azaltılmış başarı duygusu (örn, yetersizlik duyguları ve spor performansını küçümseme eğilimi) gibi birden fazla faktörün etkileşiminden oluşmaktadır. Bilinçli farkındalık (Mindfulness), kişinin dikkatinin içinde bulunduğu ana yoğunlaştırması ve yargılama olmadan bu anın içinde yaşananları olduğu gibi kabul etmesini içermektedir. Bilinçli farkındalık, geçmişte yaşanmış olan veya gelecekte olması istenen tecrübe ve duyguların etkisi altında kalmadan o andaki tecrübeleri yaşama ve kabullenme durumudur. Geçmişe kafa yormak veya gelecek hakkında endişelenmek yerine şimdiki ana dikkat etmek, bireylerin duygusal tepkiselliğini azaltmasını ve bilişsel değerlendirmeyi geliştirmesini sağlar. Genel psikolojide bilinçli farkındalık ve çeşitli psikolojik sonuçlar arasındaki bağlantıya ilişkin artan ampirik kanıtlar ve olumlu bulgulardan esinlenen sporda bilinçli farkındalık araştırmaları son on yılda artan bir ilgi görmüştür. Örneğin, bir dizi çalışma, bilinçli farkındalığın atletik performans üzerinde faydalı etkisini ortaya koymuştur. Son zamanlarda, dikkat, sporcu tükenmişliğini yönetmek ve önlemek için umut verici bir strateji olarak önerilmiştir. Bu temelde, farkındalığın stres ve tükenmişlik semptomlarını hafifletme üzerindeki olumlu etkisini gösterdiği birçok çalışmanın sonucuyla kanıtlanmıştır. Müdahale ve nitel araştırma sonuçları, genel olarak bilinçli farkındalık temelli müdahalelerin sporda tükenmişlik düzeylerini azaltmada ve başarı hissini arttırmada etkili olabileceğini öne sürmektedir. Bu olumlu bulgular için olası bir açıklama; bilinçli farkındalığın, sporcuların şu andaki deneyimlerine karşı açık ve yargılayıcı olmayan bir yönelime sahip olmalarına yardımcı olabileceğidir. Bu nedenle, yüksek düzeyde bilinçliliğe sahip olan sporcuların, eleştirel öz değerlendirme veya tekrarlayan düşünce süreçlerinden kaynaklanan duygusal sıkıntı ve azalan tatminden daha az etkilenme olasılıklarının daha düşük olabildiği belirtilmiştir. Tartışma: Sporcu tükenmişliğini önlemek ve azaltmak sporcunun performansı için oldukça önemli bir bileşendir. Sporcu tükenmişliğine kronik stres, mükemmeliyetçi kaygılar ve sporcunun kendi belirlediği motivasyonun azalması gibi faktörler neden olabileceğinden, farkındalık temelli stratejiler sporcu tükenmişliğinin önlenmesinde ve tedavisinde etkili olabilmektedir. Sporcuların farkındalık eğilimi düzeyleri ve sporcu tükenmişlikleri arasındaki olumsuz ilişkiyi destekleyen kanıtlar mevcuttur. Bununla birlikte, az sayıda müdahale ve nitel çalışma göz önüne alındığında, alanyazında bilinçli farkındalık içeren müdahalelerin tükenmişliği önlemede etkili bir yaklaşım olup olmadığı konusunda hala eksikler mevcuttur.
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This article aims to determine the intervening strength of financial mindfulness between financial literacy and behavioural biases in women entrepreneurs. The literature has an enduring discussion regarding the profoundly unique financial behaviour of women. Financial literacy and behavioural biases constitute a recurrent research topic, yet how this nexus exists in the premise of women’s entrepreneurship is not well known. Building on this gap, we examined the impact of financial literacy on women entrepreneurs’ behavioural biases by focusing on financial mindfulness as a potential moderator. A random sample of 346 women entrepreneurs operating in Pakistan was analysed using structural equation modelling through AMOS 21. The results revealed a significant direct impact of financial literacy on reducing anchoring and herding bias; however, financial literacy was found to be unrelated to mental accounting bias. The moderation analysis further revealed interesting indirect impacts, such that financial literacy strongly reduced mental accounting and herding bias for financially mindful women. Nonetheless, financial mindfulness does not negatively catalyse the relationship between financial literacy and anchoring bias. By encompassing the concepts of financial literacy, mindfulness and behavioural biases, we offer a unique theoretical strand with practical implications for women entrepreneurs. We suggest new avenues for the longstanding dilemma related to the factors instigating suboptimal financial decision-making in women entrepreneurs in developing markets.
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Both lucid dreaming and mindfulness appear to involve metacognition and awareness, or “awareness of awareness” in which one is aware and consciously attends to present experiences. Despite evidence for the continuity hypothesis of dreaming (which posits dream content is connected and related to the concerns and thoughts in waking life), little research has explored a relationship between lucid dreaming and waking mindfulness. The present study explores the relationship among mindfulness experience, meditation practice history, and lucid dreaming. Undergraduate students and meditators completed questionnaires assessing trait mindfulness, lucid dreaming frequency, and meditation practices. Surprisingly, lucid dreaming was not associated with meditation practice frequency or narrow-spectrum mindfulness experiences like present-centered awareness and nonjudgmental acceptance. Lucid dreaming frequency was predicted only by dream recall and mindfulness-related experiences of Transcendence. Possible personality implications are discussed.
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Amaç: Flash Emdr Tekniği, travmatik veya diğer rahatsız edici anılarla ilişkili psikopatolojik düzeyi azaltmak için yakın zamanda geliştirilmiş bir terapötik müdahaledir. Birçok geleneksel travma terapisi müdahalesinin aksine, Flash Emdr Tekniği, danışanın travmatik hafızayla bilinçli olarak meşgul olmasını gerektirmeyen minimal düzeyde müdahaleci bir yöntemdir. Bu, danışanın travmatik anıları sıkıntı hissetmeden işlemesine izin verir. Diğer bir deyişle travmatik anının yeniden işlemleyerek sonlandırmanın hızlı ve nispeten rahatsız edici olmayan bir yolu olarak kullanılmaktadır. Psikolojik iyi oluş, bireyin hayattaki anlamlı amaçları sürdürmesini, potansiyeline ilişkin farkındalığını ve çevresi ile geliştirdiği anlamlı ilişkilerini yönetme olarak tanımlanmaktadır. Ancak bireyin yaşadığı travmatik yaşantılar onun hayatla olan anlamlı ilişkilerini ve yaşam fonksiyonlarını sekteye uğratacağı düşünülmektedir. Dolayısıyla bu çalışmada amaç; travmatik anılarda acısız iyileşme (travmaya maruz bırakmadan) sağlayan Flash Emdr Tekniğinin psikolojik iyi oluşu artırmada uygulanabilirliğinin ortaya konulmasıdır. Yöntem: Araştırmanın örneklemini belirlemek için Bingöl İlinde resmi bir okulda eğitimini lise 1. Sınıfta devam eden bir öğrenciye psikolojik iyi oluş ölçeği, travmatik yas ölçeği ve Çocuk ve Gençlerde Travma Sonrası Stres Tepkileri Ölçeği uygulanmıştır. Katılımcı 7 yıl önce gaz yüklü bir tankerin patlaması sonucu annesini, babasını ve abisini kaybetmiş ve kendisinin de yüzü ve ellerinde 1. Dereceden yanıklardan ötürü 6 ay yoğun bakımda kalmıştır. Katılımcı son 6 ay içinde yoğun uyku problemi, kâbus görme, patlama anına ilişkin görüntüler, kaybettiklerini özleme, sosyal içe çekilme (özellikle yüz ve ellerdeki yanıklardan ötürü içine kapanma) ve hayattan zevk almadığını ifade etmiştir. Uygulanan ölçeklerin değerlendirilmesi sonucunda Psikolojik iyi oluş ölçeği puanı 27 (bu ölçekte alınabilecek en düşük puan 8), Çocuk ve Gençlerde Travma Sonrası Stres Tepkileri Ölçeği puanı 31 (orta düzeyde TSSB belirtileri) ve travmatik yas ölçeği puanı 25 (bu ölçeğin kesim puanı 24) olarak tespit edilmiştir. Bulgular: Katılımcıya seanstan iki gün önce ve seanstan iki sonra uygulanan ölçeklerde; Psikolojik iyi oluş puanı 27’den 35’e yükseldi, Çocuk ve Gençlerde Travma Sonrası Stres Tepkileri Ölçeği puanı 31’den 23’e düştü, Travmatik Yas puanı 25’ten 11’e düştü, SUD puanı ise 9’dan 1’e düştü. Bir seans Flash Emdr Tekniği uygulaması yapıldıktan sonra TSSB ve Travmatik yasın ön test ve son test puanları arasında düşüş olduğu, psikolojik iyi oluş puanlarında ise yükselme olduğu görülmektedir. Tartışma ve Sonuç: Araştırmanın sonuçlarına göre, Flash Emdr Tekniğinin psikolojik iyi oluşu artırmada, Travmatik yas ve Çocuk ve Gençlerde Travma Sonrası Stres Tepkilerini azaltmada etkili olduğu görülmektedir. Dolayısıyla psikoterapi sürecinde hem danışanın travmaya maruz bırakmadan acısız bir şekilde iyileşmesi sağlanacağı söylenebilir. Yanı sıra Flash Emdr Tekniğinin bir seansının en fazla 20 dakika sürmesi hem zaman yönünden hem de psikolojik iyi oluşu artırmada etkili olması açısından, tekniğin psikoterapilerde kullanılması önerilebilir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Psikolojik İyi Oluş, Flash Emdr Tekniği, Travmatik Yas
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The purpose of this study is to examine the impact of Consciousness personality on women entrepreneurs’ behavioral biases by focusing on financial literacy which is taken as a mediator while the mindfulness as a potential moderator. A random sample of 210 female entrepreneurs working in Pakistan was collected through stratified sampling technique and data are analyzed by using Structural Equation Modeling through SMART-PLS. The results divulged a significant mediating impact of financial literacy in reducing mental accounting bias among consciousness personality possessing women entrepreneurs; however, financial literacy was found related to the risk aversion bias through mindfulness. The moderation analysis further revealed interesting indirect impacts, such that financial literacy strongly reduced mental accounting and risk aversion bias for women who were more conscious of proper financial mindfulness. Nonetheless, financial mindfulness did not catalyze financial literacy and herding bias relationship. By encompassing the concepts of financial literacy, mindfulness, and behavioral biases in consciousness personality’s women entrepreneurs, we offered a comprehensive theoretical framework with practical implications for women entrepreneurs in Pakistan. Thus, we suggest new avenues for the longstanding dilemma related to the factors instigating suboptimal financial decision-making in women entrepreneurs in developing markets.
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Araştırma karakter güçlerinin çizgi filmlerle nasıl ve ne kadar yansıtıldığını ortaya koymayı amaçlamıştır.
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This study aimed to investigate the mindfulness level in terms of gender and academic achievement and its relationship to moral anxiety among adolescents. The study was conducted on a sample consisted of (390) adolescents’ students in Al-Salt city, Jordan. Two scales were used in the study, the mindfulness scale, and the moral anxiety scale. The study found that female adolescents have higher mindfulness levels compared to male adolescents who recorded a medium level and that the adolescents with higher academic achievement have higher mindfulness levels compared with those who have lower academic achievement. Furthermore, results exhibited a negative statistically significant correlation between mindfulness and moral anxiety as the mindfulness constituents (non-judging of experience, acting with awareness, and non-reactivity to inner experience) contribute to moral anxiety reduction among adolescents.
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Introduction: Mindfulness Meditation is a complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) modality growing in popularity. Currently, mindfulness is under-studied regarding efficacy; however, it offers a potentially accessible way to contribute to symptom management in chronic pain conditions. The purpose of this integrative review was to examine the literature for the use of mindfulness as symptom management strategy for persons diagnosed with the chronic pain condition, fibromyalgia. Methods: Six scientific databases were searched, using various keywords. Inclusion criteria were: (a) fibromyalgia, (b) English language, (c) experimental research designs; (d) adults age ≥ 18 years, and (e) mindfulness. Results: Seven studies were reviewed. Most interventions were completed over several months in the form of multiple group sessions lasting several hours each. Evaluations of effectiveness varied by study, but variables most commonly demonstrating improvement from mindfulness were anxiety, depression, sleep-related symptoms, coping and perceived stress. Mechanisms by which these outcomes may have been mediated included increases in self-compassion and psychological flexibility. Discussion: There is insufficient evidence to recommend mindfulness as an effective way to manage all fibromyalgia symptoms; however, promise lies in its usefulness addressing mood- and sleep-related symptoms. We suggest that further, more rigorous, research is warranted.
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Mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) is a structured group program that employs mindfulness meditation to alleviate suffering associated with physical, psychosomatic and psychiatric disorders. The program, nonreligious and nonesoteric, is based upon a systematic procedure to develop enhanced awareness of moment-to-moment experience of perceptible mental processes. The approach assumes that greater awareness will provide more veridical perception, reduce negative affect and improve vitality and coping. In the last two decades, a number of research reports appeared that seem to support many of these claims. We performed a comprehensive review and meta-analysis of published and unpublished studies of health-related studies related to MBSR. Sixty-four empirical studies were found, but only 20 reports met criteria of acceptable quality or relevance to be included in the meta-analysis. Reports were excluded due to (1) insufficient information about interventions, (2) poor quantitative health evaluation, (3) inadequate statistical analysis, (4) mindfulness not being the central component of intervention, or (5) the setting of intervention or sample composition deviating too widely from the health-related MBSR program. Acceptable studies covered a wide spectrum of clinical populations (e.g., pain, cancer, heart disease, depression, and anxiety), as well as stressed nonclinical groups. Both controlled and observational investigations were included. Standardized measures of physical and mental well-being constituted the dependent variables of the analysis. Overall, both controlled and uncontrolled studies showed similar effect sizes of approximately 0.5 (P<.0001) with homogeneity of distribution. Although derived from a relatively small number of studies, these results suggest that MBSR may help a broad range of individuals to cope with their clinical and nonclinical problems.
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A self-report inventory for the assessment of mindfulness skills was developed, and its psychometric characteristics and relationships with other constructs were examined. Participants included three samples of undergraduate students and a sample of outpatients with borderline personality disorder Based on discussions of mindfulness in the current literature, four mindfulness skills were specified: observing, describing, acting with awareness, and accepting without judgment. Scales designed to measure each skill were developed and evaluated. Results showed good internal consistency and test-retest reliability and a clear factor structure. Most expected relationships with other constructs were significant. Findings suggest that mindfulness skills are differentially related to aspects of personality and mental health, including neuroticism, psychological symptoms, emotional intelligence, alexithymia, experiential avoidance, dissociation, and absorption.
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A growing body of research suggests that mindfulness-based therapies may be effective in treating a variety of disorders including stress, chronic pain, depression and anxiety. However, there are few valid and reliable measures of mindfulness. Furthermore, mindfulness is often thought to be related to spirituality, given its roots in Buddhist tradition, but empirical studies on this relationship are difficult to find. The present study: (1) tested the reliability and validity of a new mindfulness measure, the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI), (2) explored the relationship between mindfulness and spirituality, and (3) investigated the relationship between mindfulness and/or spirituality and alcohol and tobacco use in an undergraduate college population (N=196). Results support the reliability of the FMI and suggest that spirituality and mindfulness may be separate constructs. In addition, smoking and frequent binge-drinking were negatively correlated with spirituality scores; as spirituality scores increased the use of alcohol and tobacco decreased. Thus, spirituality may be related to decreased substance use. In contrast, a positive relationship between mindfulness and smoking/frequent binge-drinking behavior was uncovered, and warrants further investigation.
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The authors examine the facet structure of mindfulness using five recently developed mindfulness questionnaires. Two large samples of undergraduate students completed mindfulness questionnaires and measures of other constructs. Psychometric properties of the mindfulness questionnaires were examined, including internal consistency and convergent and discriminant relationships with other variables. Factor analyses of the combined pool of items from the mindfulness questionnaires suggested that collectively they contain five clear, interpretable facets of mindfulness. Hierarchical confirmatory factor analyses suggested that at least four of the identified factors are components of an overall mindfulness construct and that the factor structure of mindfulness may vary with meditation experience. Mindfulness facets were shown to be differentially correlated in expected ways with several other constructs and to have incremental validity in the prediction of psychological symptoms. Findings suggest that conceptualizing mindfulness as a multifaceted construct is helpful in understanding its components and its relationships with other variables.
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Mindfulness Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is an 8-week course developed for patients with relapsing depression that integrates mindfulness meditation practices and cognitive theory. Previous studies have demonstrated that non-depressed participants with a history of relapsing depression are protected from relapse by participating in the course. This exploratory study examined the acceptability and effectiveness of MBCT for patients in primary care with active symptoms of depression and anxiety 13 patients with recurrent depression or recurrent depression and anxiety were recruited to take part in the study. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted three months after completing the MBCT programme. A framework approach was used to analyse the data. Beck depression inventories (BDI-II) and Beck anxiety inventories (BAI) provided quantitative data and were administered before and three months after the intervention. The qualitative data indicated that mindfulness training was both acceptable and beneficial to the majority of patients. For many of the participants, being in a group was an important normalising and validating experience. However most of the group believed the course was too short and thought that some form of follow up was essential. More than half the patients continued to apply mindfulness techniques three months after the course had ended. A minority of patients continued to experience significant levels of psychological distress, particularly anxiety. Statistically significant reductions in mean depression and anxiety scores were observed; the mean pre-course depression score was 35.7 and post-course score was 17.8 (p = 0.001). A similar reduction was noted for anxiety with a mean pre-course anxiety score of 32.0 and mean post course score of 20.5 (p = 0.039). Overall 8/11 (72%) patients showed improvements in BDI and 7/11 (63%) patients showed improvements in BAI. In general the results of the qualitative analysis agreed well with the quantitative changes in depression and anxiety reported. The results of this exploratory mixed methods study suggest that mindfulness based cognitive therapy may have a role to play in treating active depression and anxiety in primary care.
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This chapter focuses on the use of mindfulness strategies in the treatment of borderline personality disorder (BPD), the rationale for their use with clients with BPD, difference among them and other mindfulness-based treatments, and possible mechanisms of efficacy. Dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) is a comprehensive psychosocial treatment that was first developed for suicidal individuals diagnosed with BPD. A number of randomized controlled trials have documented the efficacy of DBT for BPD. The primary dialectic that faces the DBT therapist is between complete acceptance of the client as he or she is in the current moment and an unwavering dedication to behavioral change and building a life worth living. The change procedures consist of systematic and repeated behavioral analyses of dysfunctional response chains, training in behavioral skills, contingency management in order to weaken or suppress disordered responses and to strengthen skillful responses, and cognitive restructuring. While the data on the overall efficacy of DBT are promising, the degree to which mindfulness is an important mechanism remains an important area of empirical inquiry. However, it is believed that the extant data on the usefulness of mindfulness with other problems, combined with clinical experience, makes a strong case for mindfulness as a crucial element in the successful treatment of BPD.
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A reliability generalization study for Spielberger’s State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) was conducted. A total of 816 research articles utilizing the STAI between 1990 and 2000 were reviewed and classified as having (a) ignored reliability (73%), (b) mentioned reliability or reported reliability coefficients from another source (21%), or (c) computed reliability for the data at hand (6%). Articles in medically oriented journals were shorter and somewhat less likely to mention or compute reliability than nonmedically oriented articles, perhaps due to paradigm differences. Average reliability coefficients were acceptable for both internal consistency and test-retest, but variation was present among the estimates. State test-retest coefficients were lower than internal consistency coefficients. Score variability was predictive of internal consistency reliability for scores on both scales. Other predictors were the age of research participants, the form of the STAI, and the type of research design.
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Interventions based on training in mindfulness skills are becoming increasingly popular. Mindfulness involves intentionally bringing one's attention to the internal and external experiences occurring in the present moment, and is often taught through a variety of meditation exercises. This review summarizes conceptual approaches to mind-fulness and empirical research on the utility of mindfulness-based interventions. Meta-analytic techniques were incorporated to facilitate quantification of findings and comparison across studies. Although the current empirical literature includes many methodological flaws, findings suggest that mindfulness-based interventions may be helpful in the treatment of several disorders. Methodologically sound investigations are recommended in order to clarify the utility of these interventions.
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Bishop et al. (this issue) propose an operational definition of mindfulness developed by a recent consensus panel. The group provides a solid empirical framework from which to develop measures of mindfulness, and they propose an exciting research agenda. We describe measurement development work from our research group that provides initial support for the proposed consensus definition and that examines mindfulness in relation to emotion regulation variables. We extend the discussion by describing how mindfulness can enhance the stabilizing and destabilizing aspects of therapeutic change, and we illustrate this in the context of our treatment program for depression.
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As mindfulness research advances on a variety of fronts, it has become increasingly important to carefully define and measure the construct. In this commentary, we draw from our recent research experience on these topics in addressing four issues of primary concern to Bishop et al: The nature of mindfulness, the role of acceptance in the phenomenon, the relation between mindfulness and meditation, and the measurement of mindfulness in meditative and other contexts.
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There are scientific advantages to defining mindfulness in terms of the psychological processes involved. Doing so, however, necessarily uncouples mindfulness from any given technology, including meditation. Defining mindfulness in terms of the self-regulation of attention and a posture of acceptance seems progressive, but there are underlying philosophical attachments in the proposed definition that might limit its applicability if they are treated too rigidly. © American Psychological Association D12 2004; all rights reserved.
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This article summarizes expertise gleaned from the first years of Internet-based experimental research and presents recommendations on: (1) ideal circumstances for conducting a study on the Internet; (2) what precautions have to be undertaken in Web experimental design; (3) which techniques have proven useful in Web experimenting; (4) which frequent errors and misconceptions need to be avoided; and (5) what should be reported. Procedures and solutions for typical challenges in Web experimenting are discussed. Topics covered include randomization, recruitment of samples, generalizability, dropout, experimental control, identity checks, multiple submissions, configuration errors, control of motivational confounding, and pre-testing. Several techniques are explained, including “warm-up,” “high hurdle,” password methods, “multiple site entry,” randomization, and the use of incentives. The article concludes by proposing sixteen standards for Internet-based experimenting.
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Mindfulness, a concept originally derived from Buddhist psychology, is essential for some well-known clinical interventions. Therefore an instrument for measuring mindfulness is useful. We report here on two studies constructing and validating the Freiburg Mindfulness Inventory (FMI) including a short form. A preliminary questionnaire was constructed through expert interviews and extensive literature analysis and tested in 115 subjects attending mindfulness meditation retreats. This psychometrically sound 30-item scale with an internal consistency of Cronbach alpha = .93 was able to significantly demonstrate the increase in mindfulness after the retreat and to discriminate between experienced and novice meditators. In a second study we broadened the scope of the concept to 86 subjects without meditation experience, 117 subjects with clinical problems, and 54 participants from retreats. Reducing the scale to a short form with 14 items resulted in a semantically robust and psychometrically stable (alpha = .86) form. Correlation with other relevant constructs (self-awareness, dissociation, global severity index, meditation experience in years) was significant in the medium to low range of correlations and lends construct validity to the scale. Principal Component Analysis suggests one common factor. This short scale is sensitive to change and can be used also with subjects without previous meditation experience.
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Research studies focusing on the psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) with psychiatric and nonpsychiatric samples were reviewed for the years 1961 through June, 1986. A meta-analysis of the BDI's internal consistency estimates yielded a mean coefficient alpha of 0.86 for psychiatric patients and 0.81 for nonpsychiatric subjects. The concurrent validitus of the BDI with respect to clinical ratings and the Hamilton Psychiatric Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD) were also high. The mean correlations of the BDI samples with clinical ratings and the HRSD were 0. 72 and 0.73, respectively, for psychiatric patients. With nonpsychiatric subjects, the mean correlations of the BDI with clinical ratings and the HRSD were 0.60 and 0.74, respectively. Recent evidence indicates that the BDI discriminates subtypes of depression and differentiates depression from anxiety.
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Dokument nicht mehr zugänglich Achtsamkeit ist ein komplexes Prinzip, das auf unterschiedliche Weise gemessen werden kann. Das primäre Interesse dieser Arbeit bestand in einer Gegenüberstellung der momentan existierenden deutschsprachigen Fragebögen zur Erfassung von Achtsamkeit: Freiburger Fragebogen zur Achtsamkeit (FFA-Kurzform), deutsche Version der Mindful Attention and Awareness Scale (MAAS), deutsche Version des Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS). Neben einem Vergleich der Dimensionalität und konvergenten Validität wurden für jede Skala auch die Reliabilität, Trennschärfen und Itemschwierigkeiten bestimmt. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass den Messinstrumenten verschiedene Faktorenstrukturen zugrunde liegen und dass diese auf Unterschiede in der Konzeptualisierung und im Skalenkonstruktionsprozess zurückgeführt werden können. Während die MAAS eine eindimensionale Skala ist, mit welcher ein zentraler Aspekt der Achtsamkeit, die Aufmerksamkeit auf aktuelle Handlungen, gemessen werden kann, ermöglicht das KIMS die separate Erfassung von vier Achtsamkeitsaspekten (Beobachten, Beschreiben, Mit Aufmerksamkeit handeln, Akzeptieren ohne Bewertung). Da die faktoriellen Strukturen, Reliabilitäten und Validitätsbefunde beider Skalen eine hohe Übereinstimmung mit den Ergebnissen der Untersuchungen der Originalfragebögen aufweisen, kann von einer gelungenen Adaption derselbigen in den deutschen Sprachraum gesprochen werden. Bei der Überprüfung der Dimensionalität der FFA-Kurzform bestätigt sich zunächst der angenommene Generalfaktor mittels konfirmatorischer Faktorenanalyse. Allerdings beschreibt in der weiteren Analyse ein, aus empirischen Forschungsergebnissen und theoretischen Überlegungen hergeleitetes, Zwei-Faktoren-Modell die Datenlage signifikant besser. Die anschließende konvergente Validitätsuntersuchung verdeutlicht zudem, dass die zwei gebildeten Skalen Bewusstsein/Aufmerksamkeit gegenüber momentanen körperlichen und geistigen Prozessen sowie Akzeptanz und Offenheit gegenüber sich selbst und anderen tatsächlich unterschiedliche Komponenten messen. Zusammenfassend lässt sich festhalten, dass die Ergebnisse dieser Untersuchung darauf hinweisen, dass mit den deutschsprachigen Fragebögen eine reliable und valide Erfassung der Achtsamkeit möglich ist. Welches Messinstrument in einer bestimmten Untersuchung am besten geeignet ist um Achtsamkeit zu erfassen, hängt von unterschiedlichen Aspekten ab, die am Ende der Arbeit diskutiert werden.
Article
Mindfulness is an attribute of consciousness long believed to promote well-being. This research provides a theoretical and empirical examination of the role of mindfulness in psychological well-being. The development and psychometric properties of the dispositional Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) are described. Correlational, quasi-experimental, and laboratory studies then show that the MAAS measures a unique quality of consciousness that is related to a variety of well-being constructs, that differentiates mindfulness practitioners from others, and that is associated with enhanced self-awareness. An experience-sampling study shows that both dispositional and state mindfulness predict self-regulated behavior and positive emotional states. Finally, a clinical intervention study with cancer patients demonstrates that increases in mindfulness over time relate to declines in mood disturbance and stress.
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Unlabelled: The purpose of this article is to (1) provide a comprehensive over view and discussion of mindfulness meditation and its clinical applicability in oncology and (2) report and critically evaluate the existing and emerging research on mindfulness meditation as an intervention for cancer patients. Using relevant keywords, a comprehensive search of MEDLINE, PsycInfo, and Ovid was completed along with a review of published abstracts from the annual conferences sponsored by the Center for Mindfulness in Medicine, Health Care, and Society and the American Psychosocial Oncology Society. Each article and abstract was critiqued and systematically assessed for purpose statement or research questions, Study design: The search produced 9 research articles published in the past 5 years and 5 conference abstracts published in 2004. Most studies were conducted with breast and prostate cancer patients, and the mindfulness intervention was done in a clinic-based group setting. Consistent benefits--improved psychological functioning, reduction of stress symptoms, enhanced coping and well-being in cancer outpatients--were found. More research in this area is warranted: using randomized, controlled designs, rigorous methods, and different cancer diagnoses and treatment settings; expanding outcomes to include quality of life, physiological, health care use, and health-related outcomes; exploring mediating factors; and discerning dose effects and optimal frequency and length of home practice. Mindfulness meditation has clinically relevant implications to alleviate psychological and physical suffering of persons living with cancer. Use of this behavioral intervention for oncology patients is an area of burgeoning interest to clinicians and researchers.
Article
In this study, the authors both developed and validated a self-report mindfulness measure, the Toronto Mindfulness Scale (TMS). In Study 1, participants were individuals with and without meditation experience. Results showed good internal consistency and two factors, Curiosity and Decentering. Most of the expected relationships with other constructs were as expected. The TMS scores increased with increasing mindfulness meditation experience. In Study 2, criterion and incremental validity of the TMS were investigated on a group of individuals participating in 8-week mindfulness-based stress reduction programs. Results showed that TMS scores increased following treatment, and Decentering scores predicted improvements in clinical outcome. Thus, the TMS is a promising measure of the mindfulness state with good psychometric properties and predictive of treatment outcome.
Article
To review the impact of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) on symptoms of anxiety and depression in a range of clinical populations. Our review included any study that was published in a peer-reviewed journal, used a control group, and reported outcomes related to changes in depression and anxiety. We extracted the following key variables from each of the 15 studies identified: anxiety or depression outcomes after the MBSR program, measurement of compliance with MBSR instructions, type of control group included, type of clinical population studied, and length of follow-up. We also summarized modifications to the MBSR program. Measures of depression and anxiety were included as outcome variables for a broad range of medical and emotional disorders. Evidence for a beneficial effect of MBSR on depression and anxiety was equivocal. When active control groups were used, MBSR did not show an effect on depression and anxiety. Adherence to the MBSR program was infrequently assessed. Where it was assessed, the relation between practising mindfulness and changes in depression and anxiety was equivocal. MBSR does not have a reliable effect on depression and anxiety.
Mindfulness in dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for borderline personality disorder Mindfulness-based treatment approaches
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Mindfulness in dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) for Borderline Personality Disorder
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