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Spoken organizational lecture cues and student notetaking as facilitators of student learning

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Spoken organizational lecture cues and student notetaking as facilitators of student learning

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Abstract

Previous research has shown that providing written organizational lecture cues boosts notetaking and that boosting notetaking raises achievement. Lecture learning literature, however, is silent on whether spoken organizational lecture cues boost notetaking and achievement. To find out, participants listened to a lecture that contained or did not contain spoken organizational lecture cues. Participants either recorded lecture notes or refrained from notetaking while listening to the cued or uncued lecture. Results showed that spoken organizational lecture cues boosted the number of noted organizational points and details by 39 and 35%, respectively. Results also confirmed that lecture cues and notetaking work to raise achievement. Notetaking resulted in about 13% higher test achievement than not taking notes. Cueing raised test achievement 15–45% versus noncueing. Educators are encouraged to use spoken organizational cues while presenting lectures.

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... The third line of such research focuses on the effect of teaching or raising the learners' conscious awareness of the forms and functions of discourse organizers on their different English skills (e.g., Alipour and Jalilifar 2007;Allami and Serajfard 2012;Chaudron and Richards 1986;Dabaghi et al. 2010;Dunkel and Davis 1994;Eslami and Eslami-Rasekh 2007;Flowerdew and Tauroza 1995;Hashemi et al. 2012;Hassanein 2016;Olsen and Huckin 1990;Titsworth and Kiewra 2004;Zhang 2012). Though out of date for the most part, these are the only studies that could be found on the topic. ...
... Examples of importance markers can be found among Jung's organization markers. In another study, Titsworth and Kiewra (2004) investigated the effect of spoken organizational lecture cues and found that such cues significantly affect students' note-taking and recall of both organizational points and lecture details. Elsewhere, Jung (2006) examined the effect of contextualization markers such as 'there are four stages of', 'let's go back a minute', 'to sum up so far', 'let me repeat it', 'for example', 'goes along with that', 'that's called', 'what is culture shock?', 'first', 'and', 'or', 'well', and 'now' and found them advantageous to nonnative English speakers' comprehension of main ideas and supporting ideas in L2 academic lectures. ...
... In other words, the concept of discourse organizers used by Biber and his colleagues is different from the kind of discourse organizers that are used by both Crawford Camiciottoli (2007) and this study for the purpose of importance marking (e.g., remember, my point is, what is important about … is). The same is true for Lin's (2010) 'pragmatic force modifiers', Ädel's (2006, 2010, 2012), Hyland's (2004Hyland's ( , 2010 'metadiscourse markers', Chaudron and Richards' (1986) 'macroand micromarkers', Dunkel and Davis (1994) 'rhetorical signaling cues', Flowerdew and Tauroza's (1995) 'discourse markers', Jung's (2003) 'organization markers' and (2006) 'contextualization markers', and Titsworth and Kiewra's (2004) 'organizational lecture cues'. As in this study discourse organizers only include markers of importance in lectures, this makes the case for a completely different study. ...
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Previous research shows that discourse organizers facilitate the students’ comprehension of lectures. Importance markers are considered a crucial part of discourse organization. It is not clear, however, whether understanding of importance markers boosts the students’ understanding of lectures. Besides, it is not clear whether using corpora and concordancers in the classroom aids their comprehension. To this end, a total of 206 English as a Foreign Language (EFL) university students (108 males and 98 females, aged from 18 to 23), studying medicine, humanities, engineering, and basic sciences at three major universities in Iran, whose command of English was pretested on a piloted test of Preliminary English Test (PET), were selected for participation in the study. They were then equally divided into a control and experimental group. Learners in the control group attended 15 one-hour general English training sessions (five weeks, three sessions a week) without specific focus on identifying organizational features of lectures, while students in the experimental group attended 15 one-hour sessions (five weeks, three sessions a week) of instruction on importance marking in English academic lectures, using the British Academic Spoken English corpus (BASE) with a concordancer, namely Sketch Engine. Presentation and practice tasks which were developed based on authentic concordance lines which were derived from the BASE corpus were used for the experimental group. Analysis of the scores of participants on a comprehension test of important points of English academic lectures showed that concordancer-based instruction of importance markers enhances EFL learners’ identification and comprehension of important points in English academic lectures.
... Finally, integration involves matching the information in the short term memory with those in the long term memory. The SOI model is further emphasized by Titsworth and Kiewra (2004) who point out that "meaningful learning is a process of structure building dependent upon selecting, organizing, and integrating" (p. 448). ...
... The impact of different types of discourse organizers on comprehension of academic and university lectures has been the subject of a number of previous studies (Allison & Tauroza, 1995;Chaudron & Richards, 1986;Dunkel & Davies, 1994;Flowerdew & Tauroza, 1995;Jung, 2003, Kashiha & Chan, 2013: Olsen & Huckin, 1990Perez & Macia, 2002;and Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004). In an investigation on the effect of metadiscourse markers on comprehension of university lectures, Perez and Macia (2002) asked 37 ESL students from the field of engineer-ing to take part in their research. ...
... In a similar study, to measure ESL students' retention of lecture contents through what Titsworth and Kiewra (2004) call "organizational cues", 60 undergraduate students listened to two different types of lectures on human communication, one with cues and one without cues. The lecture transcripts were also available for them with the cued version, including expressions that signal organizational cues in the lecture. ...
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The present study attempts to propose a taxonomy for the discourse functions of importance markers in English academic lectures and examine their effects on ESL learners’ comprehension of important points in lectures. To this end, a corpus of 160 lecture transcripts from the BASE corpus was analyzed to identify and classify the main functions of words and expressions that mark importance in them. It was found that importance is indicated by the following lecture-specific devices and attributes: 1) student involvements, 2) topic announcers, 3) exam-related markers, 4) discourse clarifiers, 5) hedging markers, and 6) message promoters. A total of 62 Malaysian ESL students (38 females and 24 males) participated in this study and were divided into an experimental group and a control group, both of them of the same size. Through 12 forty-minute sessions of explicit instruction, the participants in the experimental group were instructed the discourse functions of importance markers in university lectures, whereas those in the control group did not receive such instruction. The result of the posttest of comprehension of important points indicated that familiarity with how importance is marked in lectures can boost ESL students’ understanding of main topics. The findings suggest that both novice lecturers and ESL/EFL students may profit from instruction as to how importance is indicated by native speaker lecturers through several lecture-specific discourse functions.
... There are a broad variety of common methods that are used to improve student retention from lectures, both video and traditional formats, including spoken organizational cues (Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004) and visual ancillary cues (Hirsch, 1987). Brecht (2012, p. 245) found that lecture videos that had "strong effectiveness in video lectures. ...
... For example, the lecturer can write important ideas on the blackboard (Locke, 1977), present it visually (Baker & Lombardi, 1985), or simply emphasize it through the manner of speaking (Maddox & Hoole, 1975;Scerbo, Warm, Dember, & Grasha, 1997). Titsworth & Kiewra (2004) found that spoken cues increased student academic performance. Each of these methods has been shown to bring about an improvement in students' achievement. ...
... The students in the "summaries only" group scored an average of nearly one point higher than their counterparts in the control and the "summaries with a guest lecturer" group on the combined 10 points of the two 5-point quizzes given in weeks 6 and 15, respectively. A number of studies in the literature suggest that the use of lecturer-generated summaries, whether spoken or visual, increases learner retention of course content (Hirsch, 1987;Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004). The improved quiz scores of the "summaries only" group as compared to those of the control seem to support this notion. ...
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p class="3">Lecture videos have become an increasingly prevalent and important source of learning content. Lecturer-generated summaries may be used during a video lecture to improve student recall. Furthermore, the integration of a guest lecturer into the classroom may be a beneficial educational practice drawing the learner’s attention to specific content or providing a change of pace. The current study measures the effects of lecturer-generated summaries and the inclusion of a guest lecturer on students’ ability to recall online video lecture contents. Seven sections of a flipped scientific writing course were divided into three groups. The control group videos featured a lecturer speaking with PowerPoint slides in the background. The Summaries Only group viewed the same videos as those of the control, with the addition of lecturer-generated summaries spliced into the middles and ends of the videos, respectively, and these summaries were delivered by the same lecturers of the original video. The Summaries with a Guest Lecturer group viewed the same videos as the control, but with the addition of lecturer-generated summaries respectively spliced into the middles and ends of the videos, and these summaries were instead delivered by a guest lecturer. Student recall was measured through two online multiple-choice quizzes. The results of the study show that the Summaries Only group significantly outperformed the other two groups, while no significant difference was found between the performances of the control and the Summaries with a Guest Lecturer group. The results suggest that lecturer-generated summaries help to improve student recall of online video lecture contents. However, the introduction of a guest lecturer shown in a different setting may cause learners to lose concentration, nullifying the benefit of the summaries.</p
... The cuing effect refers to any effect caused by a method "used to increase the salience of some feature of a stimulus" (Scerbo, Warm, Dember, & Grasha, 1992, p. 315). Titsworth and Kiewra (2004) divided the types of cuing techniques into four categories as determined by the interaction between two criteria, the forms (written vs. spoken) and functions (selection vs. organization) of lecture cues. For example, lecturers may use a spoken selection cue such as, "This is very important." ...
... Alternatively, they may use a written selection cue by putting additional information on the blackboard, or they may use a written organization cue such as partial notes with intentionally absent information. Since cuing techniques are one of the main lecturing methods that lecturers depend on, some researchers have also emphasized the use of partial notes or slides because they act as a cuing role to encourage students' note-taking (Scerbo, et al., 1992;Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004). ...
... For example, partial slides are assumed to promote students' note-taking by making them curious about intentionally omitted keywords in such slides and letting them fill in those blanks. Therefore, the encoding effect may relate to the cuing effect (mentioned in 2.1) since Scerbo et al. (1992) and Titsworth and Kiewra (2004), who regarded partial slides as having the cuing effect, also argued that partial slides as lecture cues would encourage students to take notes. However, since there are only a few studies on this topic, there is a lack of experimental attempts to make a research design that links the IP slides that lecturers make and the notes that students take. ...
Article
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This paper addresses the effects of access to slide copies during lectures using PowerPoint® for undergraduate students on their learning outcomes depending on the quantity of notes they take and immediate vs. delayed testing. Seventy-one students repeatedly participated in the following six lecture conditions: accessibility to slides (full, partial, and no slide copy) × memory term (immediate and delayed test). Thus, the present study adopted a 3 × 2 within-subjects design with two note-taking covariates (the quantity of words and markers in notes). A mixed-effects model and counterbalancing method were applied to control idiosyncrasies and order effects caused by repeated measurement. The results revealed that accessibility to slide copies and students' note-taking predicted their learning outcomes. The effects of no slide copy were significant in both short- and long-term memory conditions as compared to those of access to full and partial copies. Access to full and partial slide copies did not have significantly different results. However, according to the interaction results between accessibility and memory term, the long-term encoding effect was assumed for the partial slide copy condition. Regarding note-taking variables, students’ performance was considerably impacted by the number of markers but none of the number of words. The findings suggest educational implications for the way slides are prepared and provided and the way students take notes during slide-based lectures from a perspective of writing-to-learn. PDF file can be downloaded for free till June 13, 2018 by clicking the following 'Share Link' https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1WxaK1HucdE8Am
... Note-taking is positively correlated with achievement 34,35 and is beneficial because it increases attention during lectures and facilitates encoding of lecture ideas into long-term memory. 36 Provided notes enhance student learning as long as students add their own personal notes. ...
... 36 These lecture cues prime two of the learning principles of multimedia learning, selection and organization. 35 Selection cues signal important ideas; organizational cues signal the lecture's organizational structure. 35 An example of a visual cue is the instructor's use of the PowerPoint pen or stylus when recording the vodcast in order to add important content or to summarize information. ...
... 35 Selection cues signal important ideas; organizational cues signal the lecture's organizational structure. 35 An example of a visual cue is the instructor's use of the PowerPoint pen or stylus when recording the vodcast in order to add important content or to summarize information. Strategically placed question marks that replace critical details in slides are another type of visual cue. ...
Article
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Video podcasts (vodcasts) are gaining popularity in medical education, but they can be a passive learning modality if students do not actively engage with the content. Of the two categories of vodcast software, screen-capture (mp4 output) and Flash™ (HTML5/Flash output), screen-capture has greater potential to result in passive learning because students cannot physically interact with the content. However, screen-capture offers several advantages for the producer (often faculty) and the consumer (students). As such, this type of software is popular with medical school faculty. To encourage active learning, ten tips are presented with specific strategies that faculty can use with screen-capture type vodcasts. Many of the tips also apply to Flash-type vodcasts. By incorporating these strategies, faculty with limited technical abilities can create engaging vodcasts that stimulate active learning.
... Studies in the literature showed that students used insufficient note-taking and ineffective studying strategies (Karpicke et al., 2009;Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004). According to Neef et al. (2006), students often take missing notes, have difficulty in distinguishing relevant and irrelevant information, use inadequate learning strategies or use no strategies at all. ...
... Literature provides various studies conducted with normally developing individuals on note-taking skills (Bachhel & Thaman 2014;Butler, et al., 2001;Call, 2000;Campbell & Mayer, 2009;Chiu, et al., 2013;Gier & Kreiner, 2009;Haynes et al., 2013;Igo et al., 2008;McKinney & Luber, 2009;Stringfellow & Miller, 2005;Suritsky & Hughes, 1991;Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004). However, there is limited number of studies carried out with students with learning disabilities (Baharev, 2016;Boyle, 2010a;Boyle, 2010b;Boyle, 2012;Boyle & Forchelli, 2014;Boyle & Rivera, 2012;Stephen et al., 2015). ...
... This helps the lesson to be understood and remembered better (Baharev, 2016;Boyle, 2010a). Research advocates that having the grades at a workable level later will lead to better learning; thus, test performance will be higher (Boyle & Rivera, 2012;Titsworth, 2004). ...
Article
The main purpose of this research is to examine the effectiveness of the CUES+CC strategy in improving the note-taking performance of students with learning disabilities. Within the scope of this purpose, the effect of the CUES+CC strategy on students' note-taking and exam performances and maintenance of the performance was investigated. Moreover, the students' level of generalizing of their note-taking performance to Turkish lesson was also examined. Three students who were diagnosed with learning disabilities in the study. 'Multiple Probe Design Across Subjects,' one of the single subject designs, was used in this study. The students' note-taking percentages and exam performance were used to score the data. The findings revealed that the CUES+CC strategy is effective on note-taking and exam performance of students with disabilities and upon learning the strategy, the students displayed the same improved performance on note-taking after one, three, and five weeks, and they extended this performance to a different course as well. The findings of the research were discussed within the framework of the relevant literature and theoretical opinions, and suggestions were made to researchers working in the field for future research.
... Eine Vielzahl von Untersuchungen stimmt darin überein, dass die Vollständigkeit von angefertigten Notizen ein zentrales Merkmal für den Nutzen der Notizen und die resultierenden Lernerfolge ist: Je mehr relevante Informationen notiert werden, desto besser (Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004). Die Vollständigkeit von Notizen im Rahmen von Lernprozessen mit instruktionalen Vorlagen wird über einen Vergleich von dargebotenen und niedergeschriebenen Informationen bestimmt. ...
... Nicht notierte Informationen werden mit einer hohen Wahrscheinlichkeit bei einem eventuellen nachträglichen Studium der Notizen nicht thematisiert und demnach später nicht erinnert, was sich negativ sowohl auf die unmittelbare Behaltensleistung als auch auf Transferleistungen auswirken kann (Einstein et al., 1985;Kiewra & Benton, 1988;Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004). ...
... Eine weitere Möglichkeit stellen explizite verbale Verweise (cues) dar, die während einer Lektion auf die Struktur der dargebotenen Informationen Bezug nehmen oder wichtige Information besonders kennzeichnen (z. B. Scerbo et al., 1992;Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004). ...
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel stellen wir ein theoretisches Instrument basierend auf dem Interactive-Constructive-Active–Passive-Framework vor, das zur Analyse des Kommunikationsverhaltens von Dyaden, einem Paar von Lernenden, in kollaborativen Lernsituationen geeignet ist. Es zeigt sich, dass dieses Instrument zur Analyse von Videoaufzeichnungen von Dyaden, die mit verschiedenen Lernumgebungen beschreibende Statistik lernen, geeignet ist und eine Abhängigkeit zwischen dem so erfassten Kommunikationsverhalten der Dyaden und dem potentiellen Lernerfolg bestehen kann.
... when comparing the exam scores of students who take and review notes with those who do not. Practically speaking, students can score nearly one and one-half letter grades higher on exams when they take notes (Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004). The types of notes students take are also important. ...
... The challenge of these tasks can be compounded in situations with difficult subject matter, large enrollment classes that offer little opportunities for interaction, or student learning preferences for non-auditory presentation of materials (Boyle, 2012). In fact, numerous studies show that students are not very good note takers, generally recording less than 40% of the details contained in a lecture (Boyle, 2011;Kiewra, 1985;Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004) ...
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Recent developments and advancement in mobile phone usage has resulted in a dramatic evolution of the mobile industry. The use of mobile phones has increased so significantly that it has become one of the most dominant influences on society in current times. The study seeks to determine how often students use their phones in the classroom, examine mobile phone technologies available for learning, and find the effects of mobile phone usage on the students’ academic performance. A sample size of three hundred and six was chosen for this study. On the students’ use of mobile phone in the classroom, 93.5% have ever used a mobile phone during classes’ hours with 91.8% using mobile phones in class to enhance their understanding of topics understudy. Also, 80.5% being distracted by the phone during classes and this was in the form of visiting social media site (31.1%), text messages (27.6%) and receiving calls (25.6%)
... when comparing the exam scores of students who take and review notes with those who do not. Practically speaking, students can score nearly one and one-half letter grades higher on exams when they take notes (Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004). The types of notes students take are also important. ...
... The challenge of these tasks can be compounded in situations with difficult subject matter, large enrollment classes that offer little opportunities for interaction, or student learning preferences for non-auditory presentation of materials (Boyle, 2012). In fact, numerous studies show that students are not very good note takers, generally recording less than 40% of the details contained in a lecture (Boyle, 2011;Kiewra, 1985;Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004) ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract: Recent developments and advancement in mobile phone usage has resulted in a dramatic evolution of the mobile industry. The use of mobile phones has increased so significantly that it has become one of the most dominant influences on society in current times. The study seeks to determine how often students use their phones in the classroom, examine mobile phone technologies available for learning, and find the effects of mobile phone usage on the students’ academic performance. A sample size of three hundred and six was chosen for this study. On the students’ use of mobile phone in the classroom, 93.5% have ever used a mobile phone during classes’ hours with 91.8% using mobile phones in class to enhance their understanding of topics understudy. Also, 80.5% being distracted by the phone during classes and this was in the form of visiting social media site (31.1%), text messages (27.6%) and receiving calls (25.6%)
... Another way to structure a lecture is by providing students with organizational cues during the lecture. Half of the participants (total n = 60) in the study by Titsworth and Kiewra (2004) were presented a structured audio lecture, with clear organizational keywords (e.g. "we will describe four theories, for each theory we will describe five aspects"). ...
... Di Vesta and Gray (1973) could only speculate on the reason for their surprising findings. We however deem their explanation plausible, especially when comparing it to the results found by Titsworth and Kiewra (2004) and Olive and Barbier (2017). In the latter two studies, the content to be studied and remembered was the same in the structured and unstructured conditions; the only difference in the material was the structuring either through organizational keywords or bullets. ...
Article
Students frequently engage in note-taking to improve the amount of information they remember from lectures. One beneficial effect of note-taking is known as the encoding effect, which refers to deeper processing of information as a consequence of taking notes. This review consists of two parts. In the first part, four lines of research on the encoding effect are summarized: 1) manipulation of the lecture material, 2) manipulation of the method of note-taking, 3) the importance of individual differences, and 4) the testing procedure used in the empirical studies. This review highlights the fragmented nature of the current literature. In the second part of this review five forms of cognitive load that are induced by note-taking are distinguished. Cognitive load theory is used to integrate the divergent results in the literature. Based on the review, it is concluded that cognitive load theory provides a useful framework for future theory development and experimental work.
... B. "Kommen wir noch einmal auf das eigentlich Interessierende zurück!") auf das Mitschreiben aus (vgl. etwa Allison & Tauroza, 1995;Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004), und schreiben Studierende eher das mit, was sprachlich relevant gesetzt wird? Wie gehen Studierende in den Mitschriften mit ihren Sprachen um (vgl. ...
... Moll, 2003). Einige Arbeiten (zum Englischen) wiederum analysieren den Einfluss bestimmter Diskursmarker auf Verstehensprozesse (Chaudron & Richards, 1986;Jung, 2006;Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004). ...
Book
An deutschen Hochschulen ist die Zahl internationaler Studierender in den letzten Jahren stetig gewachsen. Gleichzeitig brechen diese Studierenden sehr häufig ihr Studium ab (zuletzt knapp 50% der Bildungsausländer:innen im BA-Studium). Bislang waren die Gründe für diese Situation fast vollständig unerforscht. Der vorliegende Band fasst die Ergebnisse des Längsschnittprojekts „Sprache und Studienerfolg bei Bildungsausländer:innen“ (SpraStu) zusammen, das sprachliche Aspekte des Studiums dieser Gruppe fokussierte. SpraStu zeigt, dass Deutschkompetenzen für den Studienerfolg von Bildungsausländer:innen eine zentrale Rolle spielen. Ergebnisse verweisen ferner auf Schieflagen beim sprachlichen Hochschulzugang und weisen heterogene Sprachkompetenzen zu Studienbeginn nach. Im Detail beleuchtet der Band zudem das im Projekt untersuchte Mitschreiben, das Schreiben von Klausuren sowie das sprachbezogene metakognitive Strategiewissen und stellt dazu frei nutzbare Ressourcen vor (Korpora, Fragebögen).
... Using metadiscourse markers to enhance the comprehension of university lectures has also been the target of a few investigations (Flowerdew and Tauroza 1995;Perez and Macia 2002;Jung 2003;Titsworth and Kiewra 2004). In line with this, Perez and Macia (2002) found metadiscourse to be effective in boosting the comprehension of university lectures in engineering. ...
... It was found that students in the experimental group outperformed those in the control group in the post-test which was in the form of identifying the important information of a lecture. In other similar endeavours, the impact of using organisational cues on the retention and recall of important topics of a lecture was explored by Titsworth and Kiewra (2004), and Flowerdew and Tauroza (1995) examined the effect of discourse structuring indicators on boosting the lecture comprehension of 63 students in electronic engineering. The finding of the latter study showed that those students, who were explicitly taught the functions of discourse structuring markers, did better in written summary tasks and short answer questions relating to their lessons. ...
Article
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The present study attempts to investigate the use of stance metadiscourse expressions found in two modes of academic speech, namely monologic seminars and dialogic discussions. Following Hyland's classification of stance metadiscourse, the two datasets were analysed and compared in terms of frequency and functions of stance markers used. The findings showed that speakers in discussion sections made more frequent use of stance markers because of the existence of an interaction for which speakers explicitly attempted to stamp their discoursal self and express their voice. As for the discourse functions, hedges were found to be more frequent in seminars than in discussions, while self-mentions were more prevalent in discussions than in seminars. The results also suggested that the function of a few linguistic features was specific to only one of the spoken modes; for example, the attitude verb 'agree' and the paralinguistic feature of 'pauses' were typical of discussion sections. The findings of this study can be discussed in terms of familiarising novice and English non-native speakers with the metadiscursive features of seminar presentations and discussion sections, that is, to see how interlocutors in these two oral modes take a stance and project themselves into their arguments. Introduction Recent years have witnessed a growing amount of interest in studies on English for academic purposes (EAP). This is because English plays an important role in academic settings, especially in the university context where students find several written and spoken academic skills challenging. English as a second language (ESL) and English as a foreign language (EFL) students whose native language is different from that of the medium of instruction at university often show difficulty in dealing with these academic skills when it comes to comprehending lessons and producing complex lexico-grammatical sentences in English. It is believed that EAP practitioners can help such students overcome these problems through a focused approach to teaching (Hyland 2006; Charles 2013). The approach entails enhancing the understanding of the norms and conventions of the main classroom discourses, such as lectures, group discussions and seminars, as well as familiarising the students with the types of linguistic features that are embedded in these discourses. To this end, several EAP investigations have explored the use of a wide range of linguistic features in various spoken and written genres, such as academic lectures, textbooks, essays, conversations and the most widely practiced academic genre, research articles (. Metadiscourse is the means by which a speaker or writer organises a discourse, involves audiences in arguments and evaluates propositional content. As Hyland (2010) notes, the notion of metadiscourse has shifted the scholar's old vision of communication from simple information delivery to taking into account the interlocutor's judgment and attitude toward what they say. Several scholars have looked at the notion of metadiscourse from their perspective. To Hyland (2004: 133), metadiscourse markers are 'self-reflective linguistic expressions referring to the evolving text, to the writer, and to the imagined readers of that text'. In most of his works on written academic discourse, he views metadiscourse as a way that writers show their commitment to the discourse/
... Their unrefined questioning skills were ironic in the face of their appointment brief to train students to become effective communicators. Clear teaching helps students to take down more detailed class notes, improve on performance during assessments (Titsworth and Kiewra 2004) and attain deeper learning (Chesebro and McCroskey 2001). ...
... However, An improvement of students' learning during lectures might be driven by creating assignments or asking them to design matrix or flow charts. [2] MCQs is one of the well-known common methods for measuring knowledge, comprehension and might be extended to measure applications and analysis. [3] Alongside their high reliability, validity, and ease of scoring featrues. ...
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The aim of this study is to expose and distinguish the perception of medical students regarding Multiple Choice Questions (MCQs) based discussion at the end of the physiology lectures in musculoskeletal block as a fit method for revision and motivation. A cross sectional KAP Study (Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice) was conducted in College of Medicine among 124 medical students in Musculoskeletal block through two semesters at college of Medicine, Al Maarefa Colleges for Science and Technology Riyadh – Saudi Arabia. Four MCQs were shared and discussed with students in the last eight minutes at the end of physiology lectures, a structured questionnaire deigned as primary tool of data collection was distributed then among the students at the end of the block. About (72%) of the students believed that MCQs based discussion at the end of lectures of Musculoskeletal block was an excellent method and (98%) considered it as an effective tool for revision. About (77%) agreed with the role of such method as motivational tool. MCQs based discussions at the end of lectures clearly plays a role in revision and motivation.
... In college, we typically expect and assume that students have already mastered, or are at least experienced with, taking notes in class. However, other studies have generally found that students are typically bad at taking notes and miss up to 40% of important information (Kiewra, 1985;Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004). In this case, it very well could be that the effect I was looking for, ability to take notes and how this might be influenced by technology, was not well developed in the control group or even in the experimental group. ...
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Failure can be central to faculty research; however, failure produces a vehicle for learning. Through an interdisciplinary faculty community, the authors supported each other in facing, learning from, and overcoming “failed” aspects of research projects. This article reports obstacles encountered in conducting Scholarship of Teaching and Learning research and the role of a faculty learning community in overcoming these challenges. Research pitfalls included lack of student participants, non-significant findings, expectations for understanding related course content, technology issues, use of deception, determining the research question, and managing bias. Ultimately, the faculty learning community engendered a foundation for successful research projects by shared inquiry into these research “failures.”
... 175 Titsworth and Kiewra briefly discussed the importance of uniformity in lecture style in learning and retention from a student perspective. 24 Indeed, numerous studies have shown that maintaining a consistent approach to presenting information enables the students to subconsciously retain particularly relevant and important points. 25 Once the basic information and data interpretation sections have been discussed, students are presented with at least two case studies, showcasing the relevance of the particular analytical technique to the programme of study. ...
Article
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Analytical chemistry has often been a difficult subject to teach in a classroom or lecture-based context. Numerous strategies for overcoming the inherently practical-based difficulties have been suggested, each with differing pedagogical theories. Here, we present a combined approach to tackling the problem of teaching analytical chemistry, with particular emphasis on inherently practice-based cohorts such as pharmacists. A composite visual, interactive, didactic, and practical approach is presented, in which students are able to fully engage with the teaching/training materials within numerous contexts. From unit evaluations, student–staff liaison committee feedback, and an analysis of marks issued from virtual learning environment quizzes, the enthusiasm of the students for such an approach is found to correlate with their understanding of the topic. The broad outline of the course is included as an example. *This document is the unedited Author’s version of a Submitted Work that was subsequently accepted for publication in The Journal of Chemical Education, copyright © American Chemical Society after peer review. To access the final edited and published work see http://pubs.acs.org/articlesonrequest/AOR-EruDKRI2wvPNHuIb5WJS.
... In the study by Folker, Ritter, and Sichelschmidt (2005), picture referencing through color-grouping seemed ineffective as a signaling cue, whereas in the experiment by Seufert and Brünken (2006), connecting lines as a phenotype of picture referencing resulted in a high effect size. An even higher range of effect sizes can be seen within organizational highlighting cues; while advanced organizers in a study by Titsworth and Kiewra (2004) resulted in high effect sizes, signaling words used in a study by Rickards, Fajen, Sullivan, and Gillespie (1997) showed no enhancing effects. Regarding color, Fowler and Barker (1974) showed medium to high effect sizes with colored underlining. ...
Article
Share Link: https://authors.elsevier.com/a/1W7ZA,dlbROvvb The signaling effect states that learners profit from cues that highlight the organization of specific relevant information within materials. This meta-analysis includes 103 studies and N = 12,201 participants. 139 retention and 70 transfer performance measures were used to determine separate mean effect sizes. Cognitive load, motivation/affect, learning time, and eye-tracking data were included as dependent variables to explain possible effect mechanisms. Additionally, nine possible moderators (e.g., type of signaling) were identified. The retention (g+ = 0.53, 95% CI [0.42, 0.64]) and transfer (g+ = 0.33, 95% CI [0.22, 0.43]) sizes support the positive effect of signaling on motivation/affect, learning time, and learning-relevant fixations. Cognitive load was significantly reduced. In contrast to the expertise reversal effect hypothesis, prior knowledge was not identified as a moderator of the signaling effect. The results were interpreted using media learning theories. Recommendations for future studies are included herein.
... Furthermore, students' use of note-taking also appears to be influenced by external factors, such as teachers' instruction. For instance, Titsworth (2001Titsworth ( , 2004 and Titsworth and Kiewra (2004) found that inserting organizational cues and providing explicit statements that a theory or sub-theme of the theory was about to be discussed in a lecture can lead to an increase in the quality and quantity of information in notes as well as better test performance. Moreover, it was reported that inserting pauses in a lecture allows students time to consult with their peers or instructors (Ruhl, 1996), and preparing copies of PowerPoint slides for students (e.g., Marsh and Sink, 2010;Williams et al., 2012) can enhance their learning. ...
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Lecture note-taking has been proven beneficial for learning at different educational levels. Previous studies have largely focused on the relationship between the outcomes of note-taking on a blank paper (e.g., measurements of the quantity and/or quality of notes taken) and student learning performance. However, there is no consensus as to what makes good notes. It is difficult to judge whether lecture note-taking is effective based only on the measurements of the notes. Past explorations have not adequately considered the cognitive activities that accompany such a process. Thus, using the interview method, the present study aimed to identify how lecture note-taking is used as a cognitive activity, and what factors influence it. To increase the possible range of note-taking approaches that could be observed, data from different cultural environments in Japan and China were sampled. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 20 high school students from both countries (10 in each) to explore the cognitive activities in which students engage when taking lecture notes in mathematics class. Based on learning strategy models and studies, as well as using a thematic analysis, a new hierarchical framework of lecture note-taking, comprising shallow and deep lecture note-taking, was proposed. Deep lecture note-taking uses cognitive, metacognitive, and resource management functions. Furthermore, a comparison of students from the two countries revealed that their beliefs and teachers’ instructions were potential factors influencing their lecture note-taking. Utilizing interview as the research method allowed us to obtain new insights into the cognitive activities that accompany lecture note-taking, such as the metacognitive function, which has rarely been explored in previous research. Future work is expected to commence on new measures based on this theoretical framework that gauges the cognitive activity of lecture note-taking. This study also calls for the exploration of effective note-taking instruction that considers the cognitive activity of note-taking.
... ." Titsworth and Kiewra (30) found that spoken organizational cues delivered during an audiotaped lecture resulted in better note-taking and improved academic performance. The effect was significant for both specific details and for the organizational context in which these details were presented. ...
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Poor academic performance from extensive social media usage appears to be due to students' inability to multitask between distractions and academic work. However, the degree to which visually distracted students can acquire lecture information presented aurally is unknown. This study examined the ability of students visually distracted by social media to acquire information presented during a voice-over PowerPoint lecture, and to compare performance on examination questions derived from information presented aurally vs. that presented visually. Students (n = 20) listened to a 42-min cardiovascular pathophysiology lecture containing embedded cartoons while taking notes. The experimental group (n = 10) was visually, but not aurally, distracted by social media during times when cartoon information was presented, ~40% of total lecture time. Overall performance among distracted students on a follow-up, open-note quiz was 30% poorer than that for controls (P < 0.001). When the modality of presentation (visual vs. aural) was compared, performance decreased on examination questions from information presented visually. However, performance on questions from information presented aurally was similar to that of controls. Our findings suggest the ability to acquire information during lecture may vary, depending on the degree of competition between the modalities of the distraction and the lecture presentation. Within the context of current literature, our findings also suggest that timing of the distraction relative to delivery of material examined affects performance more than total distraction time. Therefore, when delivering lectures, instructors should incorporate organizational cues and active learning strategies that assist students in maintaining focus and acquiring relevant information.
... Although there were no significant differences between groups on quality of notes, it was the best predictor of recall, which confirms other findings with typically functioning college students (Peverly et al., 2007(Peverly et al., , 2013(Peverly et al., , 2014aReddington, Peverly, & Block, 2015). These findings are also consistent with research on the relationship between note-taking and test performance, regardless of test type (Kiewra & Benton, 1988;Kiewra et al., 1991;Norton & Hartley, 1986;Peverly et al., 2007;Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004;Williams & Eggert, 2002a). The strength of the relationship between notes and written recall may simply be due to the opportunity students have to access and write down the macrostructure of the lecture they encoded during note-taking and review. ...
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The primary purpose of this investigation was to determine if there were differences in note-taking and test-taking in students with and without ADHD, and if there were, to examine the cognitive variables that might explain them. Participants included 22 postsecondary students with self-reported ADHD and 50 postsecondary student controls. Students took notes on a lecture, reviewed them, and took a written recall test. The independent variables were disability status, sustained attention, handwriting speed, verbal working memory, and listening comprehension. The dependent variables were quality of notes and written recall. Students with ADHD obtained lower scores on written recall and handwriting speed compared to controls, but did not differ on quality of notes, sustained attention, verbal working memory, or listening comprehension. Sustained attention and listening comprehension predicted quality of notes, and disability status, quality of notes, and listening comprehension predicted written recall.
... For these reasons, there is considerable interest in finding ways to improve relational learning and reasoning in students (Alexander, 2016). Indeed, various studies have found suggestive evidence that emphasizing the relationships between or among concepts can aid student learning (Alexander et al., 1997;Bellocchi & Ritchie, 2011;Braasch & Goldman, 2010;Goswami & Mead, 1992;Jairam & Kiewra, 2010;Mayer, 1996;McDaniel et al., 2013;Scruggs et al., 1994;Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004;Trey & Khan, 2008;Zheng et al., 2008). ...
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Many concepts are defined by their relationships to one another. However, instructors might teach these concepts individually, neglecting their interconnections. For instance, students learning about statistical power might learn how to define alpha and beta, but not how they are related. We report two experiments that examine whether there is a benefit to training subjects on relations among concepts. In Experiment 1, all subjects studied material on statistical hypothesis testing, half were subsequently quizzed on relationships among these concepts, and the other half were quizzed on their individual definitions; quizzing was used to highlight the information that was being trained in each condition (i.e., relations or definitions). Experiment 2 also included a mixed training condition that quizzed both relations and definitions, and a control condition that only included study. Subjects were then tested on both types of questions and on three conceptually related question types. In Experiment 1, subjects trained on relations performed numerically better on relational test questions than subjects trained on definitions (nonsignificant trend), whereas definitional test questions showed the reverse pattern; no performance differences were found between the groups on the other question types. In Experiment 2, relational training benefitted performance on relational test questions and on some question types that were not quizzed, whereas definitional training only benefited performance on test questions on the trained definitions. In contrast, mixed training did not aid learning above and beyond studying. Relational training thus seems to facilitate transfer of learning, whereas definitional training seems to produce training specificity effects.
... Organizational cues alert students to the lesson's structure, and they raise both note taking and achievement. In a study investigating organizational lesson cues (Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004), students listened to one of two forms of a lesson: cued or uncued. Both forms were well organized and identical, with one exception: The cued lesson signaled the lesson's organization by emphasizing the four lesson topics (the names of four communication theories) and the five lesson categories common to each topic (e.g., definition, example, application). ...
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Students are incomplete note takers who routinely record just one third of a lesson's important information in their notes. This is unfortunate, because the number of lesson points recorded in notes is positively correlated with student achievement. Moreover, both the activity of recording notes and the subsequent review of notes are advantageous. The authors offer instructors a menu of research-based advice for bolstering student note taking: provide complete notes, provide partial notes, provide note-taking cues, represent the lesson, provide pauses and revision opportunities, control laptop usage, control "cyber slacking," use PowerPoint slides effectively, and teach note-taking skills. They also suggest ways to help students transform their notes during the note-review process and SOAR (select, organize, associate, and regulate) to success.
... Use of instructional intervention that include effective note-taking skills is focused on reducing verbatim copying and creating quality notes (Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004;Van Meter, Yokoi & Pressley, 1994). Taking notes is a natural learning strategy used by good readers. ...
Article
Note-taking, considered to be a combination of cognitive abilities, requires more than just writing. This is because note-taking is a conscious process that initiates reader into the process of comprehending and writing and requires, the note-taker to encode, organize clearly, to synthesize and to recall of the information. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of note-taking skills instructional intervention supported by self-monitoring skill instruction on the reading comprehension of three primary school 4th grade students who read at frustration-level at their grade placement. The students' initial reading comprehension level was evaluated by the use the “Informal Analysis Inventory”. A multiple baseline across-participants-design was used in the study. Reading comprehension questions (both recall and deep understanding) pertaining to expository passages were used to evaluated the participants’ reading comprehension in all the probe sessions. Social validity data were collected from the participants on the instructional intervention. Results showed that the instructional intervention contributed to all the participants’ reading comprehension skills and note-taking performance. Each of the participant achieved at the instructional-level comprehension (Comprehension levels> 70%) after the self-monitoring skills instruction. The social validity results confirmed that the students found that they had a better understanding of what they read taking more accurate and concise notes by paraphrasing the content instead of the use of verbatim copying.
... TLP were based on how many individual lecture points were present in their notes. A similar criterion has been used in past note-taking studies that examined TLP and TWC in students' notes (Boyle, 2010b;Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004). A lecture point (LP) was defined as an idea or a block of information from the lecture, with a short clause or phrase accepted as the minimum to be counted as a lecture point. ...
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For high school students with disabilities, one major component of learning in inclusive content area classes, such as English/language arts (ELA), involves listening to verbal information and recording notes. Learning how to record verbal information in notes is a critical skill for students to succeed in these classes. Therefore, this study randomized 54 students with and without disabilities into experimental and control groups and asked them to record notes in inclusive ELA classes. Students in the experimental group, who were taught the smartpen intervention, scored significantly higher on notes and an achievement measure than control group students. The limitations of the research, implications for future research, and recommendations for teachers are discussed.
... The note-taking process requires students to write fast enough to keep up with the pace of the lecture, pay attention, decide what is important to record, and make sense of their notes after class (Suritsky, 1992). Studies indicate that the review of notes following a lecture results in better recall of lecture material (Howe, 1970) and that better note-taking contributes to higher test scores (Fisher and Harris, 1973;Rickards and Friedman, 1978;Kiewra and Fletcher, 1984;Bretzing et al., 1987;Kiewra et al., 1991;O'Donnell and Dansereau, 1993;Peverly et al., 2003Peverly et al., , 2007Titsworth and Kiewra, 2004). Furthermore, note-taking quality predicts academic performance among students (Kobayashi, 2006;Peverly et al., 2007;Peverly and Sumowski, 2012). ...
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The ability to take notes while listening to a lecture is important and complicated. The main goal of the current study was to examine note-taking skills among students with Hebrew as a first language (L1) and students with Arabic as a first language and Hebrew as a second language (L2). Literacy, language, cognitive, and note-taking skills were assessed among 63 undergraduate students (28 L1). L1 students were found to produce notes of higher quality than L2 students. Moreover, there were significant differences between the groups on measures of vocabulary, word reading fluency, and handwriting speed. The results also revealed that first language was the most important variable in predicting note quality, followed by word reading fluency. Educational implications and directions for further research are discussed in light of the findings.
... It stands to reason that recognising instances of relevance marking can be especially helpful to the growing numbers of non-native speakers of English attending lectures in English, since it allows them to focus their comprehension and note-taking efforts on the main content. Moreover, even native speaker students are reported to have significant difficulties in identifying key lecture points (see Titsworth and Kiewra 2004 for an overview of studies). Nevertheless, until the research reported here little was known about how lecturers signalled (lesser) relevance lexicogrammatically. ...
Presentation
In this talk, I show how lecturers verbally mark comparatively (un)important points in a large corpus of lectures (British Academic Spoken English corpus). This kind of discourse organization is thought to be beneficial to students’ note-taking, comprehension and recall. We’ll see that lecturers use a wide variety of lexicogrammatical importance markers. Examples include ‘the point is’, ‘remember’, ‘I want to stress’, ‘anyway’, ‘I don’t know’ and ‘etcetera’. Some of the key findings I’ll be highlighting are that (1) students often need an understanding of the lecture genre and the cotext of the markers to be able to identify these discourse markers; that (2) studying only transcripts of spoken discourse without considering prosodic and multimodal features affects the validity of results; and that (3) to create English for Academic Purposes teaching materials we need to examine authentic lecture texts rather than rely on our intuitions.
... Rickards, Fajen, Sullivan and Gillespie (1997) used the sign words used in the study, did not show the effect of enhancing reading comprehension. In the study conducted by Titsworth and Kiewra (2004), advanced organizers resulted in high effect size. Folker, Ritter and Sichelschmidt (2005) in the study, the illustration made by color grouping, ineffective marking seems to be a sign. ...
... These concept maps allow students to create and illustrate networks of relationships between various concepts and ideas (Samarawickrema & O'Reilly, 2003). In addition to using written guides, lecturers can provide verbal cues that emphasize noteworthy ideas (Maddox & Hoole, 1975;Scerbo, Warm, Dem-ber, & Grasha, 1992) and communicate organizational structure (Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004). For instance, numbered lists of main ideas, advance organizers, and spoken emphasis all serve to highlight important ideas and organizational structure. ...
Article
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Taking notes is a popular activity for students attending instructional lectures and has been linked to achievement. Research on note-taking has shown that the contents and usefulness of student notes depends on several factors, including the pace of the lecture and the presence of organizational and selection cues. However, this research has focused on note-taking from live lectures, often in a laboratory setting. The study presented here explored note-taking from video lectures by students who were genuinely invested in doing well in an online course. Of particular interest were participation patterns, whether the placement and completeness of content within a video was correlated with its inclusion in student notes, and whether the regularity and quality of note-taking was correlated with exam performance in a problem-solving course. Results showed that student participation was consistent over time, that leading worked examples within a video were salient, but that example completeness was not a factor in inclusion, and that note-taking participation and quality was not positively correlated with exam performance. This observational study sets the stage for future experimental research to adapt what we know about traditional note-taking and its relationship to achievement to online educational environments .
... Researchers should continue to investigate these factors with various lesson materials, organizers, and testing materials and conditions. One specific avenue of investigation stemming from the present study involves means to boost note taking on partial organizers, perhaps by signaling when notes should be recorded (Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004) or by allowing students to copy and paste their notes in matrix cells (Igo & Kiewra, 2007). ...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to determine how graphic organizer completeness (complete, partial, or no organizer) and note-taking medium (longhand or computer) affect note-taking quantity and quality and affect computer-based learning. College students were presented with a computer-based PowerPoint lesson accompanied by complete, partial, or no graphic organizers. Throughout the lesson, students recorded notes using either longhand or computer mediums. Students were tested immediately following the lesson and again two days later following a review period during which graphic organizers and notes were studied. Finally, students completed a survey. Results revealed that organizer completeness affected achievement. Those given complete organizers generally achieved more than those with partial or no organizers across fact-, relationship-, concept-, and skill-based test items. Note-taking medium did not affect achievement differentially, but there were important note-taking findings. Longhand note takers recorded more lesson ideas in notes and had fewer verbatim strings in notes (reflective of more generative processing) compared to computer note takers. Moreover, longhand note takers reported more positive attitudes about their note-taking medium than did computer note takers. Results suggested that complete organizers aid germane load more than partial organizers and that longhand note taking results in deeper processing than does computer note taking. Therefore, instructors should provide complete organizers to promote student learning and should encourage students to take longhand notes when they learn in a computer-based learning environment.
... The findings in this study once again confirm the effect of rhetorical schema in teaching and learning listening in an academic setting. They are in line with those findings by Alalili (2009), Eileen (2008, Jia (2010), Othman and Vanathas (2005), Strangman and Hall (2010), and Titsworth and Kiewra (2004). These researchers found out in their research studies with a similar experimental design that when applied in teaching and learning listening, rhetorical schema brought about a positive effect as the EG scored higher than the CG in the test after the treatment. ...
Article
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Listening is a basic language skill which involves the interaction of diverse factors affecting learners' listening comprehension. Learners often encounter various difficulties in listening to an oral text with a little knowledge of the reasons why it occurs. Moreover, teachers mainly pay more attention to it as a product rather than as a process. Also, the factors about listening strategies have been under-researched although they play a significant role in guiding learners through what to listen to and how to listen to it effectively. This study sought to investigate the effects of rhetorical schema including note-taking and four listening strategies, and the extent to which students change as regards strategy use and listening achievement in academic settings. Forty second-year EFL students from the two listening classes, one treated as the experimental group (EG) and the other as the control group (CG), at the Faculty of Foreign Languages of the Ho Chi Minh City University of Technology and Education (HCM UTE) were invited to participate in the study. Data were collected in the form of a questionnaire administered to EG and listening tests of IELTS part 4 taken by both groups. The findings indicate that EG students are more open to use the strategies introduced, so rhetorical schema positively enhance their listening comprehension. Notably, the scores of the rank high-distinction-appeared for the first time albeit its small percentage in EG. Students also express significant changes in their attitudes towards rhetorical strategies in terms of their awareness of its importance, frequent use, and confidence in listening to lectures in the future.
... The relatively small number of target words written in notes suggests that students would benefit from learning effective notetaking strategies, which can help listeners to predict information actively and attend to key words selectively (James et al., 1988;Kırkgöz, 2010). For example, teachers could insert brief pauses before the target words, provide sufficient word exposures, and use oral organizational cues in teacher talk to draw learners' attention to useful words and encourage them to record notes efficiently (Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004). The findings of the present study also indicate that translating target words is a useful way to draw students' attention to important vocabulary and increase the chances that the words will be written in notes. ...
Article
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There has been little research investigating the effects of notetaking on foreign language (FL) learning, and no studies have examined how it affects vocabulary learning. The present study investigated the vocabulary written in notes of 86 students after they had listened to a teacher in an English as a foreign language (EFL) class. The results showed that 51.2% of participants took notes, and 32.6% wrote information about target words in notes. However, there were only 95 instances of information written about the 28 target words. The results revealed that the odds of vocabulary learning were 15 and 10 times higher in the immediate and delayed posttests for target words that were written in notes. The analysis also indicated that the use of first language (L1) translation in teacher speech increased the chances that target words were written in notes, and that writing words in notes was the most effective predictor of learning.
... Both digital slides and lecture captures also provided students with a way to ameliorate the demands of multi-tasking by reducing the need to take notes in a lecture, with students either annotating lecture notes during the lecture, or using slides and/or lecture captures to generate formal notes after the lecture. While there is evidence that note-taking while listening to a lecture is beneficial (Kiewra, 1985;Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004), other research indicates that for complex material listening to the lecture may be better than taking notes (Kirby et al., 1999). However, research has also found that students who were given partial notes for lectures had higher achievement scores than students who had received complete notes (Annis, 1981;Russell et al., 1983). ...
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While it is increasingly common for live lectures to be recorded and made available online, there has been little exploration of how lecture capture usage fits within the wider context of digital resources available to students. Here the authors report on in-depth semi-structured interviews with first-year students taking both flipped and non-flipped classes in mathematics and physics at the University of Edinburgh. Through thematic analysis two conceptual themes emerged: (a) Supporting learning in live lectures and (b) Self-customisation of learning. Students saw lecture capture as just one of a number of digital resources available to them, and their choice of resource depended on resource affordances, the way in which information was presented in lectures and their beliefs about learning. Digital resources seemed to support learning in lectures through reducing the multi-tasking involved in note-taking and by providing a safety net for missed notes. Implications for teaching practice are discussed.
... & Advance organizers and note taking (Kiewra et al. 1997). & Organizational lesson cues and note taking (Titsworth and Kiewra 2004). & Copy-and-paste note taking (Igo et al. 2008). ...
... It stands to reason that recognising instances of relevance marking can be especially helpful to the growing numbers of non-native speakers of English attending lectures in English, since it allows them to focus their comprehension and note-taking efforts on the main content. Moreover, even native speaker students are reported to have significant difficulties in identifying key lecture points (see Titsworth and Kiewra 2004 for an overview of studies). Nevertheless, until the research reported here little was known about how lecturers signalled (lesser) relevance lexicogrammatically. ...
... There has been an abundance of studies that highlight the positive effects of note-taking on learning (Bonner & Holliday, 2006;Kiewra, 2002;Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004), and these studies advise the necessity of training students to take notes more skilfully during the actual delivery of the lecture. These skills feed into each other and one supports the other in terms of comprehension. ...
Article
Bir üniversite dersinde veya seminerde İngilizce not alma (NA), gerektirdiği özel akademik ve bilişsel becerilerden dolayı göz korkutucu bir iştir. Öğrencilerden, konuşmacı tarafından sunulan bilgileri anlamaları, aktarıldığı tarzı belirlemeleri, konuşmanın gerekli ve gereksiz kısımlarını ayırt etmeleri, konuşulan dili kişisel olarak ayırt edilebilir kodlara ve bilgi yığınlarına dönüştürmeleri ve önemli noktaları kaçırmadan konuşma hızında yazmaları beklenir. Not almayı, yükseköğretimdeki öğrenciler tarafından yaygın kullanılan bir kişisel çalışma aracı olarak ele alan bu çalışma, Türkiye'de bir devlet üniversitesinin İngiliz Dili ve Edebiyatı programında okutulan üniversite düzeyindeki derslerde dillerarası geçiş ve not alma arasındaki ilişkiyi anlamaya çalışmaktadır. Veriler; öğrenci notları, öğrenci ve öğretim üyesi görüşmeleri ve derslerde yapılan gözlemler yoluyla bahar döneminde toplanmıştır. Araştırma, öncelikle üniversite öğrencilerinin içerik temelli derslerde nasıl not aldıklarını araştırmayı amaçlamaktadır. Öğrencilerin ders notlarında dillerarası geçişi nasıl kullandığına özel önem verilecektir. Örnekler, öğrencilerin ikinci dilde verilen bir dersi dinlediğinde, birinci ve ikinci dil kombinasyonunda notlarını aldığını ortaya koymaktadır. Sonuçlar, dillerarası geçişin sadece öğrenciler tarafından etkileşimlerinde sözlü olarak kullanılan bir araç olmadığını, aynı zamanda not almak için potansiyel bir araç olduğunu göstermektedir. Az araştırılmış bir uygulamaya odaklanan ve ona yönelik tutumları ortaya koyan bu çalışma, öğrenci notlarında dillerarası geçiş uygulamalarının işlevlerini ortaya koymaktadır. Bu nedenle, bu konudaki araştırmanın kapsamının, yazılı uygulamalara ve bunların akademik sınıflardaki tamamlayıcı kullanımlarına genişletilebileceğini önermektedir.
... A ubiquitous form of content delivery in higher education is the classroom lecture, whereby a professor talks, sometimes with visual aids such as PowerPoint presentations, and the students take notes. Students taking notes in classroom lectures is strongly correlated to student success (Williams & Eggert 2002;Titsworth & Kiewra 2004). Unfortunately, note taking is a high-cognitive load task, requiring students to move content from their sensory memory to their working memory, and ultimately to their long-term memory. ...
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Guided notes were introduced decades ago, but there is still debate over their efficacy in improving student outcomes. The purpose of this study is to examine peer-reviewed research on guided notes for adult learners in general populations since 2009, understanding the effects of guided notes on student learning, the knowledge and content areas supported by guided notes, and the impact of modality. Results of the 22 included studies indicate that students perceive guided notes in a positive light, and guided notes improve results in certain knowledge domains especially with complex content. However, modality does not influence the efficacy of guided notes. Implications for practice in teaching and learning and recommendations for research were provided.
... Likely for these reasons, many handbooks on effective teaching encourage instructors to prepare lectures that are highly organized (Brown & Atkins, 1990;Brown & Race, 2002;Davis, 1993;Ekeler, 1994;Hogan, 1999;Lowman, 1995;Morton, 2009). Indeed, when the content of a lecture is made more organized-for example, by including clarifying statements and transitions between concepts-students perceive the lecture as clear and they also perform better on tests of their knowledge over that lecture (Titsworth, 2001; see also Titsworth & Kiewra, 2004). ...
Article
Students’ judgments of their own learning are often misled by intuitive yet false ideas about how people learn. In educational settings, learning experiences that minimize effort and increase the appearance of fluency, engagement, and enthusiasm often inflate students’ estimates of their own learning, but do not always enhance their actual learning. We review the research on these “illusions of learning,” how they can mislead students’ evaluations of the effectiveness of their instructors, and how students’ evaluations of teaching effectiveness can be biased by factors unrelated to teaching. We argue that the heavy reliance on student evaluations of teaching in decisions about faculty hiring and promotion might encourage teaching practices that boost students’ subjective ratings of teaching effectiveness, but do not enhance—and may even undermine—students’ learning and their development of metacognitive skills.
Chapter
Students are distracted by mobile technology in the classroom when learning from lectures and outside the classroom when studying. Students are susceptible to distractions because they are not fully engaged in learning. In the classroom, they record notes mindlessly that capture just one-third of important lesson ideas. When they study outside the classroom, they study information in a piecemeal fashion and employ mindless repetition strategies. These weak and unengaging learning strategies open the door for digital distractions. One potential means to engage students in meaningful learning and to offset digital distractions is an integrated strategy system called SOAR, which stands for select, organize, associate, and regulate. This chapter describes SOAR and how instructors can maximize SOAR's components to curb digital distractions by improving student note taking in the classroom and study behaviors outside the classroom. The chapter concludes by specifying how instructors can teach students to SOAR on their own.
Article
Zusammenfassung Während die Zahl ausländischer Studierender in Deutschland stetig zunimmt, beklagt diese Gruppe gleichzeitig hohe Abbruchzahlen. Die Gründe dafür sind kaum erforscht; allerdings werden häufig mangelnde Sprachkenntnisse mit verantwortlich gemacht. Das Projekt „Sprache und Studienerfolg bei Bildungsausländer/-innen“ (SpraStu) untersucht Sprache als Einflussfaktor auf den Studienerfolg von ca. 500 Bildungsausländern multimethodisch im Längsschnitt. Zusätzlich werden Aspekte der Selbstregulierung und anderer potenzieller Bedingungsfaktoren analysiert.
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An essential question about the human learning system is how humans constantly acquire information in an extremely diverse way, successfully store it and constantly retrieve it for ongoing tasks and current needs. While previous artificial intelligence studies have made significant progress in understanding human learning through visual perception, the important role of nonvisual information in building knowledge systems has not been incorporated. In this paper, we propose a theoretical framework. It aims at providing an insight into how nonvisual cues (referred as “discreet cues”) could be incorporated into current neural network architectures. These cues include multisensory information, context, state of mind, and previous experience. When combined with visual cues, they function in different capacities depending on the ongoing task, and are accordingly categorized as passive cues, active cues, and selectively active cues. We propose a hypothetical, theoretical framework that could help take a new step towards accomplishing lifelong human-inspired learning, and assimilation systems that achieve meaningful and powerful computational intelligence.KeywordsComputational intelligenceLifelong learningPerceptionCognitionMemoryPattern recognitionArtificial intelligence
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The Cambridge Handbook of Cognition and Education - edited by John Dunlosky February 2019
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Cambridge Core - Cognition - The Cambridge Handbook of Cognition and Education - edited by John Dunlosky
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Students in health science programs must implement effective learning strategies to address the fast pace and high volume of complex curricula. The intense demands of health science learning environments present barriers for students with specific learning disabilities (SLD) and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Accommodations can mitigate learning barriers for students with learning and attention disabilities, but additional supports should be put in place to assist students in developing effective learning strategies. Learning specialists can work with students with disabilities to offer compensatory learning techniques and strategies for leveraging strengths and mitigating deficits. In this chapter, foundational learning principles and the process of learning will be highlighted. Barriers to learning faced by students with learning and attention disabilities in health science programs will be identified and strategies will be presented to help address these barriers. Methods for advising students with disabilities are also discussed.
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zet: Bu çalışma, Türkçe eğitimi bölümü öğrencilerinin dinledikleri metinleri anlama ve hatırla-maları üzerinde zihin haritalama not alma tekniği ile klasik not alma teknikleri arasında bir farkın olup olmadığını belirlemek amacıyla yapılmıştır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda, araştırmanın çalışma grubunu Ata-türk Üniversitesi Kâzım Karabekir Eğitim Fakültesi Türkçe Öğretmenliği Bölümünde öğrenim gören 3/A sınıfından 38 ve 3/B sınıfından 39 olmak üzere toplam 77 öğrenci oluşturmaktadır. Araştırmada ön test-son test ölçümlerine dayalı kontrol gruplu deneysel desen kullanılmıştır. 4 haf-talık bir süreci içeren araştırmada, deney grubuna zihin haritalama not alma tekniği, kontrol grubuna ise klasik not alma teknikleri ile ilgili strateji eğitimi verilmiştir. Uygulamadan 4 hafta sonra ise kalıcılık testi yapılmıştır. Çalışma sonunda elde edilen veriler SPSS 16.0 paket programında değerlendirilmiş ve aşağıdaki sonuçlara ulaşılmıştır: Türkçe eğitimi bölümünde öğrenim gören öğrencilerin dinledikleri metni zihin haritalama tekniği ve klasik not alma tekniğiyle not almaları dinleme-anlama başarılarını önemli ölçüde artırmıştır. Ancak bu artış zihin haritalama tekniğinin kullanıldığı grupta daha belirgin olmuştur. Dinlenen metnin kalıcılığında zihin haritalama tekniğini kullanan grup klasik not alma tekniklerini kullanan gruba göre çok daha başarılı olmuştur. Zihin haritalama tekniğiyle ilgili strateji eğitiminin verildiği deney grubunda öğrencilerin derse kar-şı ilgilerinin arttığı, derslerin daha zevkli ve eğlenceli hâle geldiği gözlenmiştir. Anahtar Kelimeler: Türkçe eğitimi, dinleme becerisi, not alma teknikleri, zihin haritalama tekniği. Abstract: The present study aimed to determine if there is a difference between mind mapping note taking technique and classical note taking techniques on comprehension and retention the texts which the department of Turkish education students listened to. In this line, the study group of the research was composed of 77 students in total who studied in the Ataturk University Faculty of Education the Department of Turkish Teaching, 38 of whom were from class 3/A and 39 of whom were from class 3/B. In this study, experimental design with "pre-post test and control group" is used. In the present study which lasted four weeks, the experiment group received strategic training in mind mapping note taking technique; the control group received strategic training in classical note taking techniques. After 4 weeks following the application, permanence test was performed. The data obtained following the study were evaluated in SPSS 16.0 package program and the following results were attained: The students studying in the department of Turkish education took notes using mind mapping technique and classical note taking techniques and this increased their listening-comprehension success. However, this increase was more distinctive in the group that took notes using mind mapping technique. The group using mind mapping technique was more successful than the group using classical note taking techniques in retention the text they listened to. In the experiment group that received strategic training in mind mapping technique, it was observed that the students became much more interested in the course and the course became more entertaining.
Article
This study examined effective means of preparatory learning for upcoming classroom instructions. In a summer seminar on history, 76 junior high school students were assigned to three experimental groups: the answering pre-questions group, the rating confidence group, and the answering and rating confidence group. The results showed that answering pre-questions enabled students to integrate information in classroom lessons, while the rating confidence directed students’ attention to information in classroom lessons related to pre-questions. This study also revealed that, especially for students with low meaningful learning belief, rating confidence is effective. Suggestions for educational practices and future studies are discussed.
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This study explored Vietnamese university EFL teachers' perceptions of the importance of listening skill and their reported and classroom practice in listening instruction. The exploration of the teachers' teaching practice was centered among three aspects including listening subject matter contents, listening lesson design, and the activities they employed for listening lessons. Six lecturers who taught listening skill to English-majored undergraduates at a university in Vietnam participated in the study. Data were collected via semi-structured interviews and classroom observations. Findings from the study showed that the teachers had an intense awareness of listening skill as a crucial input source for language learning whereas the position of listening as a macro-language skill seemed to be downplayed. In both reported and classroom practices, vocabulary, topical knowledge, and listening strategies were found to occupy a central position as teaching content. In designing lessons, the teachers appeared to align more with the "comprehension" or "product-oriented" approach which further bears a resemblance to the presentation, practice, and production (PPP) model with some updated features. The teachers were also found to share a common group of instructional activities in each of the three lesson stages. These findings provide important bases for future endeavors to further improve the effectiveness in teaching and learning the listening skill at the tertiary level.
Article
While the traditional lecture remains a key feature in the teaching of mathematically intensive disciplines at a tertiary level, what students do outside class, the resources they use, and how they use them are critical factors in their success. This study reports on a survey of students studying a range of engineering subjects, giving their views on the effectiveness of resources that they use outside the classroom. Resource types examined included textbooks, lecturer course notes, in-class developed notes, and other online material, including multimedia. While lecturer-generated material was generally seen as more effective than formal textbooks and social media, external screencasts were rated as most effective where material appropriate to their class was available. It is suggested that student use of screencast resources has the potential to facilitate improved learning outcomes, and with accompanying changes in assessment focus, may enable more substantive pedagogical changes.
Chapter
Notizenmachen stellt eine wichtige Lernstrategie beim Lernen mit YouTube-Videos, kommentierten Präsentationen oder Screencasts dar. Während aus einer fachübergreifenden psychologischen Perspektive eine Vielzahl an Kenntnissen über Notationsprodukte (Notizen) und deren Wirkung auf Lernprozesse vorliegt, ist über – insbesondere fachspezifische – Notationsprozesse wenig bekannt. Nach der Einführung des Notationsverhaltens zur strukturierten Beschreibung solcher Prozesse wird die Theorie des documentational approach dargestellt und auf den Kontext des Notizenmachens übertragen. Anhand der detaillierten Analyse einer Fallstudie zweier Lehramts-Studentinnen, die sich mit einem Lernvideo zentrale Begriffe der beschreibenden Statistik aneignen, werden typische Instrumentierungs- und Instrumentalisierungsprozesse sowie Nutzungsmuster und operationale Invarianten herausgearbeitet. In den Ergebnissen wird deutlich, wie verschiedene Ressourcen (Lernvideo, Partner/in, Notationsmöglichkeiten, u. a.) bei den verschiedenen Kernaktivitäten des Notizenmachens genutzt werden und welche Rolle mathematische Charakteristika für die inhaltlichen und performativen Aspekte des Notationsverhaltens spielen.
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Lesen und Schreiben sind Werkzeuge des Lernens, werden als solche aber immer noch zu wenig für das Fachlernen im Unterricht eingesetzt. Das gilt nicht nur für den Muttersprachenunterricht, sondern auch für andere Fächer bzw. Fachgruppen mit jeweils spezifischen Anforderungen an das Lesen und Schreiben. Dieser Band widmet sich dem Potenzial der Schriftsprache für den Fachunterricht, indem er zentrale, empirisch überprüfte Prinzipien des Umgangs mit Texten im Kontext des Fachlernens darstellt und sie systematisch und praxisnah aufbereitet.
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Three experiments compared the learning potential of text versus outline and matrix displays. In Experiments 1 and 2, college students read or heard a passage about fish and then studied the text, an outline, or a matrix. In Experiment 3, students heard a passage about wildcats, and then studied text, outline, or matrix displays. In all experiments, the text, outline, and matrix formats were informationally equivalent. However, the two-dimensional matrix appeared more computationally efficient than the linear organized text or outline because it (a) positioned related information about fish or wildcats in closer proximity so that local relations within a single category (such as ``size'') were learned, and (b) organized information spatially so that global relations across categories (such as size and diet) were learned. The learning potential of text, outline, and matrix displays was also examined in combination with variations in thematic organization, amount of study time, and time of testing. The most important and consistent findings were that (a) outline and matrix displays produced greater relational learning than the text, and (b) matrix displays produced greater relational learning than outlines.
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Students tend to emphasize important information more than less important information in their notes and recall for a lecture. It was investigated whether this strategy changes when the lecture is repeated. In Exp 1, students viewed a lecture 1, 2, or 3 times and, without being allowed to review their notes, took a recall test. In Exp 2, students took cumulative notes on a lecture that was presented 1, 2, or 3 times, and, following a review of their notes, took a recall test. In both experiments, the most important information was heavily represented in students' notes and did not increase greatly with additional presentations; less important information was not well represented in students' notes after 1 presentation but increased greatly on subsequent presentations. These results support the hypothesis that students actively assess and, if necessary, shift their learning strategy each time a lecture is repeated. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Most research on graphic organizers (i.e., figural organizations of text information) has failed to simulate actual classroom learning. Typically, studies have used short, poorly organized text, single graphic organizers, and immediate tests measuring only factual knowledge. Also, there is no convincing evidence that graphic organizers are better than outlines. Two experiments were conducted that represented attempts to address these problems in answering the question, "What types of text information do graphic organizers and outlines help college students learn?" Results revealed that when given enough time, students studying graphic organizers learned more hierarchical and coordinate relations, and as a result, they were more successful in applying that knowledge and in writing integrated essays than students studying outlines or text alone. These findings are discussed in terms of efficient indexing through visual argument. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Previous research investigating the encoding, encoding-plus-storage, and extermal-storage functions of note taking has failed to equate processing opportunities among the groups. The present studies did so by having the encoding group take notes on two occasions without review, the encoding-plus-storage group take notes one time and review notes the next, and the external-storage group twice review a set of borrowed notes. Three forms of note taking were used: conventional, and note taking on skeletal and matrix frameworks. In both Experiment 1, involving lecture learning, and Experiment 2, involving text learning, an advantage was found for the encoding-plus-storage function on tests involving factual-recall and recognition performance but not on tests measuring higher-order performance. With respect to note-taking forms, no advantage existed for any form when information was acquired from lecture. When text material was used there was some advantage for conventional notes and a clear advantage for not taking notes at all, but instead twice reading the material. These findings were explained relative to observed note-taking behaviors, the opportunity for review, and the processing demands proposed by the combination of reading and note taking, particularly when notes must be classified into an existing framework.
Article
The study of student notetaking behaviors has produced useful insights into how students learn from lectures. This article presents five preliminary conclusions about notetaking practices based on findings from the notetaking literature. Each conclusion is followed by a discussion of the implications for classroom instruction. Finally, the author proposes links between various lecturer and student behaviors and the external events of instruction described by Gagne and Briggs (1979).
Article
The lecture process was studied systematically with the following objectives: to reexamine the effects of time upon note-taking and immediate retention, to compare the relative effectiveness of spoken and written cues, and to investigate cuing schedules. Students were asked to view one of a series of videotaped lectures in which certain statements were highlighted by either spoken or written cues. The contents of students' notes and assessments of immediate recall and recognition provided the dependent measures. Students recorded increasingly less information in their notes over the course of the lecture, but retention of material from different portions of the lecture was essentially the same. Written-cued statements were recorded more frequently and retained better than statements preceded by spoken cues. Finally, the different schedules of cuing were shown to have subtle effects upon note-taking and recall.
Article
Contrary to much published opinion, little evidence was found of decrement in the performance of students in a University lecture. Decrement was measured by the percentage of “ideal” notes recorded by students in the course of an expository lecture. Nevertheless the students’ notes although taken under the best of conditions, were so imperfect as to provide further condemnatory evidence against the descriptive lecture.
Article
We examined the effects of cooperative and individual review of lecture material on subsequent free-recall performance. College students listened to a prerecorded lecture in one of four experimental conditions: (a) individual notetakers who reviewed their notes individually after the lecture; (b) dyads who took notes during the lecture with the expectation of cooperatively reviewing the material after the lecture; (c) dyads in which one partner listened to the lecture without taking notes and subsequently summarized the information to a partner who took notes during the lecture; and (d) dyads whose members took notes individually without expecting to review cooperatively but who did in fact review cooperatively after the lecture. Students who expected to review individually but did so cooperatively out-performed students who reviewed alone. Dyad partners who did not take notes but cooperatively reviewed performed as well as partners who took notes and individuals who took notes and reviewed individually. The results suggest that cooperative review can be an effective element of the lecture method of instruction.
Article
This study examined the relationship between lecture notetaking behaviors and academic ability and the relationship among lecture notetaking behaviors, information-processing ability, and more global measures of ability (i.e., GPA and ACT scores). Previous research had not investigated working-memory ability and specific notetaking behaviors. Four types of information were gathered from the 32 undergraduate students participating in this experiment: (a) score on a test of information-processing ability, (b) analyses of notes taken during a designated lecture, (c) score on a test pertaining to that lecture, and (d) score on a course exam covering several other lectures. In addition, GPA and ACT scores were drawn from each student's records. Results confirmed that amount of notetaking is related to academic achievement and established that ability to hold and manipulate prepositional knowledge in working memory is related to the number of words, complex propositions, and main ideas recorded in notes. In fact, stepwise multiple regression analyses indicated that this information-processing ability was a more significant predictor of complex propositions and words recorded in notes than were global measures of ability such as GPA or ACT scores. This research is of practical importance because pedagogical activities may reduce cognitive strain associated with notetaking and because information-processing ability is, in part, controllable.
Article
Students are socialized into a subculture of education through many means, but many students encounter only the lecture method, especially in the general education curriculum. The lecture approach is commonly associated with multiple choice testing, and some students may go through college without taking, or learning to take, other kinds of tests. Many colleges adhere to the lecture/take notes/take tests model. For some students, there are competency based classes that adhere to skill based models. Rather than earning a grade through multiple choice tests, the student is forced to perform. This is especially evident for education students who must student teach. Evaluations are based on the subjective evaluation of the instructor. Some students are not able to make the transition to the performance based approach. However, in the future, teachers will increasingly be faced with the demand to provide instruction and knowledge to students in an increasingly computerized, sophisticated, electronic fashion. Students must be socialized anew to accept feedback and evaluations that are of more than multiple choice nature. (SLD)
Article
This volume presents indicators of important developments and trends in American education in 2003. Recurrent themes underscored by the indicators include participation and persistence in education, student performance and other outcomes, the environment for learning, and societal support for education. In addition, this volume contains a special analysis of children's reading achievement and classroom experiences in kindergarten and first grade, with a focus on the school, classroom, and home factors associated with the likelihood of children becoming good readers. Each section in the volume begins with a summary that presents the key point in the indicators to follow. All indicators contain a discussion, a single graph or table on the main indicator page, and one or more supplemental tables. All use the most recent national data available from the National Center for Education Statistics or other sources serving the purpose of the indicators. The volume's many topics are divided into six sections: (1) "Participation in Education"; (2) "Learner Outcomes"; (3) "Student Effort and Educational Progress"; (4) "Context of Elementary and Secondary Education"; (5) "Context of Postsecondary Education"; and (6) "Societal Support for Learning." Appended are supplemental tables, supplemental notes, standard error tables, and a glossary. (WFA)
Article
College students viewed a 19-min videotaped lecture and were not allowed to take notes. One week later, these students were provided with one of three different forms of study notes for review: a complete text, a linear outline, or a matrix. Students in a control group were given no notes and reviewed mentally. After review, all students completed three different performance tests. Results from all three tests indicated that reviewing any of the three forms of provided notes significantly raised performance beyond that of the no-notes control group. This finding confirmed the importance of the external storage function of note taking for various forms of provided notes. In addition, the outline and matrix notes generally produced higher recall performance than did the text notes, but only the matrix notes produced higher transfer performance than did the text notes. These differences were explained in relation to the forming of internal connections in memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Studied the relationship of note taking and review to retention of information presented by lecture. Performance of 172 undergraduates was measured immediately and/or 1 wk following the lecture by free recall and verbatim and paraphrase completion tests. Taking and reviewing notes yielded maximum retention and recall efficiency, while listening-only without review resulted in poorest performance. The benefit of note taking appeared to be derived from having an opportunity to subsequently review notes, and not from the act of note taking itself. Encoding differences as a function of note taking were minimal, while the external storage function assumed primary importance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The course notes of 8 undergraduates were quantitatively analyzed for 4 wks to determine the relationship between notetaking over an extended period and actual course performance. The number of recorded points in lecture notes was significantly related to performance on test items that specifically pertained to lecture content and to test items measuring overall course performance. The probability of recalling noted information was more than twice the probability of recalling non-noted information. Ss' notetaking was also consistent over an extended period. (6 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated quantitative and qualitative aspects of note taking in relation to ability variables and academic achievement. Data were acquired by scoring the notes of 55 undergraduates who attended a 50-min lecture. Assessments were made on the total number of words and ideas contained in notes and on the relative subordination of each recorded idea based on a scale of 1 to 4. Achievement variables included scores on a test specific to the 50-min lecture and scores on a course examination. Ability variables were American College Test English usage scores, current grade point averages (GPAs), and performance on a test of information processing. Analyses indicated that note taking was related to academic achievement, particularly those ideas representing middle levels of subordination. Information-processing ability was related to note taking behaviors. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This experiment investigated 3 newly classified note-taking functions: encoding (take notes/no review), encoding plus storage (take notes/review notes) and external storage (absent self from lecture/review borrowed notes), relative to 3 note-taking techniques (conventional, linear, matrix). Results pertaining to note-taking functions indicated that encoding plus storage was superior to encoding and to external storage for recall performance and superior to encoding for synthesis performance. External storage was also superior to encoding for synthesis performance. Results pertaining to note-taking techniques indicated that matrix notes produced greater recall than conventional notes. Results were explained by variables relating to repetition, generative processing, the completeness of notes, and the potential of note-taking techniques to facilitate internal connections. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This article examines learning strategies that promote meaningful learning from expository text as evidenced by problem-solving transfer. The teaching of learning strategies involves decisions concerning what to teach, how to teach, where to teach, and when to teach. The teaching of learning strategies also depends on the teacher's conception of learners as response strengtheners, information processors, or sense makers. Three cognitive processes involved in meaningful learning are selecting relevant information from what is presented, organizing selected information into a coherent representation, and integrating presented information with existing knowledge. Finally, exemplary programs for teaching of learning strategies are presented. The most effective method for teaching students how to make sense out of expository text is for students to participate in selecting, organizing, and integrating information within the context of authentic academic tasks.
Article
Notetaking is a universal activity in college lecture courses, but little research has been done to examine students'' perceptions of this study strategy as it relates to their overall study routine. In the current study, students in a large lecture course in introductory macroeconomics were asked to complete the Notetaking Perceptions Survey (NPS), an instrument that assesses students'' perceptions of the worth or value of notetaking, their perceived level of notetaking activity, and their degree of confidence about their own notetaking skill. Additionally, students'' learning style, as assessed by the Learning Style Inventory (Smith and Kolb, 1986), gender, high school rank, and year of high school graduation were included as predictor variables within a multiple regression analysis to predict scores on the there notetaking perception factors. Notetaking perceptions were predicted by one of the learning style dimensions and by gender. The relationships of final course grades with the three notetaking factors from the NPS and the other learner characteristics were also determined. Grades were predicted by one of the notetaking perception factors and by high school rank.
Article
There is general consensus among American college students and professors alike that taking notes on lecture information assists in the process of learning and retaining the information; however, it is uncertain whether this perception of the value of notetaking is a universal one. Do students from other cultures also perceive notetaking to be a valuable strategy to adopt while they are listening to lectures (1) in their native language, (2) in a language other than their native language (e.g., English)? Previous research suggests that cultural differences exist between the perceptions of American and British students regarding the value and practice of notetaking, and it was the purpose of this study to determine whether differences of opinion exist between American students and their international peers concerning the usefulness and methods of notetaking. One-hundred-sixty-four American and international students enrolled at a research university in the East responded to a questionnaire assessing their attitudes toward the usefulness of taking notes during English-lecture presentations. Results revealed that significant differences exist in the perceptions of the American and international students regarding: (1) their estimations of the adequacy/inadequacy of their notetaking skills, (2) the sense of time pressure experienced during listening and notetaking, and (3) the amount of notes taken during lecture presentations. However, many similarities of opinions also surfaced in the data. Implications of the findings for lecturer presentations and notetaking study skills programs are suggested.
Article
Levels of processing were manipulated as a function of acquisition task and type of recognition test in three experiments. Experiment 1 showed that semantic acquisition was superior to rhyme acquisition given a standard recognition test, whereas rhyme acquisition was superior to semantic acquisition given a rhyming recognition test. The former finding supports, while the latter finding contradicts, the levels of processing claim that depth of processing leads to stronger memory traces. Experiment 2 replicated these findings using both immediate and delayed recognition tests. Experiment 3 indicated that these effects were not dependent upon the number of times a rhyme sound was presented during acquisition. Results are interpreted in terms of an alternate framework involving transfer appropriate processing.
Article
College students viewed a videotaped lecture with or without taking notes. Average performance between the two groups did not differ on an immediate test. The encoding effect of note taking was therefore unsupported. Two days later, note takers reviewed their notes while listeners reviewed the instructor's notes in preparation for the delayed exam. Subjects who reviewed the instructor's notes achieved significantly more, on factual items, than did subjects who reviewed their own relatively brief and unorganized notes. Thus, listening to a lecture and subsequently reviewing the instructor's notes prior to a delayed exam leads to relatively higher achievement than does the traditional method of taking and reviewing personal lecture notes.
Article
Two experiments investigated how different not-taking formats influenced student note taking. Experiment 1 investigated how different note-taking formats in combination with review activities affect recall and relational learning. During a 19-min lecture, participants either took notes in their conventional manner, on an outline framework, or on a matrix framework. Following the lecture, approximately half of the participants in each note-taking group prepared for performance tests by using their notes to write a comparative essay about the lecture topics. The others reviewed notes in their standard manner. Results indicated that essay writing was less effective than standard review practices for relational learning and that note-taking on an outline increased test performance beyond other note formats. Performance differences might have resulted from quantitative differences in note-taking favoring outline note-takers. Experiment 2 reexamined whether various note-taking formats influence student note-taking. Students recorded lecture notes on various outline or matrix frameworks or without aid in their conventional manner. It was reconfirmed that a "flexible" outline framework, whose ordering of subtopics correspond to their order of lecture presentation, produces more note taking than a "collapsed" matrix framework presenting fewer subtopics to guide note taking.
Article
The investigation is concerned with individual items instead of lists. "Forgetting over intervals measured in seconds was found. The course of retention after a single presentation was related to a statistical model. Forgetting was found to progress at differential rates dependent on the amount of controlled rehearsal of the stimulus. A portion of the improvement in recall with repetitions was assigned to serial learning within the item, but a second kind of learning was also found." (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).
The effects of recall mode and recall interval expectancies on notetaking and recall
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Taking notes from lectures Handbook of college reading and study strategy research
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Educational psychology: A cognitive view StudentsÕ lecture notes and their relation to test performance
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Educational psychology: A cognitive view
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The condition of education
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Supplementing floundering text with adjunct displays
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